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(March 2012) ()

Ávila (UK: ,US: , Spanish: ()) is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is the capital and most populated municipality of the Province of Ávila.

Ávila
Ávila with its town walls
Flag
Coat of arms
Nickname(s):
Ávila de los Caballeros, Ávila del Rey, Ávila de los Leales (Ávila of the knights, Ávila of the king, Ávila of the loyal ones)
Motto(s):
Una ciudad para todos... (A town for everyone...)
Ávila
Show map of Spain
Ávila
Show map of Castile and León
Coordinates:40°39′N4°41′W /40.650°N 4.683°W /40.650; -4.683Coordinates: 40°39′N4°41′W /40.650°N 4.683°W /40.650; -4.683
CountrySpain
Autonomous communityCastile and León
ProvinceÁvila
Government
• MayorJesús Manuel Sánchez Cabrera (XAV)
Area
• Land231.9 km2 (89.5 sq mi)
Elevation
1,132 m (3,714 ft)
Population
(2018)
• Total57,657
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
05001 - 05006
Area code(s)34 (Spain) + 920 (Ávila)
Websitehttp://www.avila.es(in Spanish)
Official nameOld Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches
IncludesHermitage of San Segundo, Basilica of San Vicente, Church of San Andrés, Church of San Pedro, Church of San Nicolás, Church of Santa María de la Cabeza, Church of San Martín, Convent of La Encarnación, Convent of San José, Royal Monastery of Santo Tomás
CriteriaCultural: iii, iv
Reference348
Inscription1985 (9th Session)
Area36.4 ha

It lies on the right bank of the Adaja river. Located more than 1,130 m above sea level, the city is the highest provincial capital in Spain.

Distinctly known by its medieval walls, Ávila is sometimes called the Town of Stones and Saints, and it claims that it is one of the towns with the highest number of Romanesque and Gothic churches per capita in Spain. It has complete and prominent medieval town walls, built in the Romanesque style; writer José Martínez Ruiz, in his book El alma castellana ("The Castilian Soul"), described it as "perhaps the most 16th-century town in Spain". The town is also known as Ávila de los Caballeros, Ávila del Rey and Ávila de los Leales ("Ávila of the knights", "Ávila of the king", "Ávila of the loyal ones"), each of these epithets being present in the town standard.

Orson Welles once named Ávila as the place in which he would most desire to live, calling it a "strange, tragic place". Various scenes of his 1965 film Chimes at Midnight were filmed in the town.

Ávila was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. The site originally consisted of the walled city and four extra muros churches. The number of churches included in the site has since been increased.

Contents

Situated 1132 metres (3714 feet) above sea level on a rocky outcrop on the right bank of the Adaja river, a tributary of the Duero, Ávila is the highest provincial capital in Spain. It is built on the flat summit of a rocky hill, which rises abruptly in the midst of a veritable wilderness; a brown, arid, treeless table-land, strewn with immense grey boulders, and shut in by lofty mountains.

Ávila's position results in a temperate Mediterranean climate (Csb, according to the Köppen climate classification), with warm summers and chilly winters with snowfalls, bordering on a cold semi-arid climate (BSk). The hottest month, July, has an average temperature of 20.6 °C (69 °F), and the coldest month, January, has an average of 3.0 °C (37 °F). The average annual precipitation is 416 mm (16.38 in). Annual rainfall is low compared to surrounding areas, implying that it lies in a rain shadow. The Adaja is dry for several months of the year and the town has historically had water supply problems. Ávila has the coldest winter low temperatures of the Spanish provincial capital cities, thanks to its high altitude (1,132 metres (3,714 ft) above sea level).

Climate data for Ávila 1,130 metres (3,710 ft) (1983-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
19.8
(67.6)
22.6
(72.7)
26.6
(79.9)
30.6
(87.1)
35.6
(96.1)
37.6
(99.7)
37.4
(99.3)
36.0
(96.8)
29.2
(84.6)
22.4
(72.3)
19.4
(66.9)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
9.4
(48.9)
12.6
(54.7)
14.3
(57.7)
18.5
(65.3)
24.6
(76.3)
28.5
(83.3)
27.9
(82.2)
23.4
(74.1)
16.9
(62.4)
11.2
(52.2)
8.4
(47.1)
17.0
(62.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
4.3
(39.7)
6.7
(44.1)
8.5
(47.3)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
20.6
(69.1)
20.2
(68.4)
16.5
(61.7)
11.4
(52.5)
6.4
(43.5)
4.0
(39.2)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
0.8
(33.4)
2.7
(36.9)
6.4
(43.5)
10.2
(50.4)
12.6
(54.7)
12.4
(54.3)
9.6
(49.3)
5.9
(42.6)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.0
(41.0)
Record low °C (°F) −16.0
(3.2)
−12.0
(10.4)
−13.2
(8.2)
−8.6
(16.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.0
(33.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−14.0
(6.8)
−13.4
(7.9)
−16.0
(3.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
(1.3)
24
(0.9)
23
(0.9)
40
(1.6)
55
(2.2)
33
(1.3)
12
(0.5)
19
(0.7)
30
(1.2)
53
(2.1)
48
(1.9)
42
(1.7)
416
(16.4)
Average precipitation days 6 5 4 8 9 5 2 3 4 8 7 7 67
Average snowy days 5 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 20
Average relative humidity (%) 78 72 63 63 59 51 43 45 56 69 78 79 63
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133 154 212 223 253 312 353 322 244 182 131 117 2,636
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología

In pre-Roman times (the 5th century BC), Ávila was inhabited by the Vettones, who called it Obila (Ὀβίλα) ("High Mountain") and built one of their strongest fortresses here. There are Bronze Age stone statues of boars (known as verracio) nearby.

Archeological remains from the Roman era near the Gate of San Vicente

Ávila may have been the ancient town known as Abula, mentioned by Ptolemy in his Geographia (II 6, 60) as being located in the Iberian region of Bastetania. Abula is mentioned as one of the first towns in Hispania that was converted to Christianity by Secundus of Abula (San Segundo), however, Abula may alternatively have been the town of Abla.

After the conquest by ancient Rome, the town was called Abila or Abela. The plan of the town remains typically Roman; rectangular in shape, with its two main streets (cardo and decumanus) intersecting at a forum in the centre. Roman remains that are embedded in town walls at the eastern and southern entrances (now the Alcazar and Rastro Gates) appear to have been ashlar altar stones.

By tradition, in the 1st century, Secundus, having travelled via the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, brought the Gospel to Ávila, and was created its first bishop.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ávila became a stronghold of the Visigoths. Conquered by the Moors (Arabs) (who called it Ābila, آبلة), it was repeatedly attacked by the northern Iberian Christian kingdoms, becoming a virtually uninhabited no man's land. It was repopulated about 1088 following the definitive reconquest of the area by Raymond of Burgundy, son in law of Alfonso VI of León and Castile. He employed two foreigners, Casandro Romano and Florin de Pituenga, to construct a stone frontier town and creating the walls that still stand.

The city achieved a period of prosperity under the Catholic Monarchs in the early 16th century.

During the Revolt of the Comuneros, the city became the first meeting place of the Santa Junta [es] on 1 August 1520. The Junta of Ávila drafted the Proyecto de Ley Perpetua (a sort of proto-constitutional draft that never got to enter into force) in the Cathedral of Ávila in the Summer of 1520, envisaging that cities assembled every three years without the requirement for royal sanction or presence, determining taxation and acting as a check and balance on government activity.

View of the city, as drawn by Anton van den Wyngaerde in 1570

The city experienced a long decline since the 17th century, its population reducing to just 4,000 inhabitants.

The Alcázar Gate c. 1912

In the 19th century, there was some population growth with the construction of the railway line from Madrid to the French border at Irun and an important junction near the town.

In 1936, at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the town quickly became part of the area occupied by rebel troops. Growth continued slowly again under Franco, but Ávila has not had a major influence in Spanish society in recent history, apart from the nurturing of politicians such as Adolfo Suárez, the first democratically elected prime minister of Spain post-Franco, and José María Aznar, prime minister from 1996 to 2004, who represented Ávila in the Cortes but was not from the town.

The Walls of Ávila

The Walls of Ávila

The main landmark in the city is the imposing Walls of Ávila (11th–14th centuries), begun in 1090. The enclosed area is 31 hectares (77 acres) with a perimeter of 2,516 metres (2,752 yd), 88 blocks of semicircular towers, 2,500 merlons, curtain walls 3 m (9 ft 10 in) thick, with an average height of 12 m (39 ft), and 9 gates.

The walls represent the largest fully illuminated monument in the world. It is possible to walk upon the walls for roughly half their circumference. While some of the walls will never be walkable because of their integration into other structures, a large stretch has yet to be made safe for pedestrians.[citation needed]

Cathedral

Main article: Cathedral of Ávila
View of the Cathedral of Ávila

The construction of the iron-grey granite Gothic Cathedral of Ávila is said to have commenced in 1107 under Alvar Garcia de Estrella. Other historians believe the Cathedral to be the work of the master mason Fruchel in the 12th century, coinciding with the repopulation of the town led by Raymond of Burgundy. The eastern apse, which forms part of the town walls, is half church, half fortress, and it was here that the loyal citizens elevated Alonso VII as their king, hence Ávila del Rey. The transept was finished in 1350 by Bishop Sancho de Ávila. The earlier Romanesque parts are made of a striking red-and-white "blood" limestone, while the Gothic parts were built with pure white stone

  • Northern façade: Gothic style at left and added renaissance at right. Porch of the Apostles.
  • Western front: Burgundian style, with two towers forming a covered portal.
  • Interior: Latin cross with three naves, a crossing and ambulatory.
  • Capilla Mayor: Features a monumental altarpiece by Pedro Berruguete.
  • Chapel of San Segundo, the first bishop: Attached to a column of the cruise. Renaissance style.
  • Chapel of Santa Catalina: Made of alabaster.
  • Choir and Rood screen: Renaissance style, decorated with reliefs depicting scenes of saints, carved from limestone. The alabaster tomb of Alonso Tostado de Madrigal, bishop in 1499, shown in the act of writing is in the ambulatory: "so enlightened were his doctrines that they caused the blind to see".
  • Cloister: Access from the Romanesque cathedral by a door on the south aisle. Gothic style.

Basílica de San Vicente

Main article: San Vicente, Ávila
Basilica of San Vicente
  • Construction began in the 12th century and lasted until the 14th century. Its design is attributed to the French master Giral Fruchel, the author himself from the cathedral and pioneer of the Gothic style in Spain.
  • The overall structure is similar to the Latin basilicas. It has a Latin cross plan, three naves, dome, tribunes, three apses, atrium, two towers, and crypt.
  • All the façade and the environment where it is located are of great artistic value.
  • Interior: Latin cross room with three naves. The pillars are of a Greek cross with half columns on the heads.
  • Crypt: Consists of three chapels, for the three apses of the church are mainly romanesque and have the best capitals of the monument.

Highlight the tomb of Saint Peter of the Boat and, above all, the Cenotaph of the Holy Brothers Martyrs, the head of the temple, Saint Vincent of Ávila, and her sisters, along with the torture he suffered in the 4th century, Saint Sabina and Saint Cristeta, (Cenotafio de los santos Vicente, Sabina y Cristeta), one of the most important works of Romanesque sculpture in Spain.

Convento de San José

Convento de San José

The Convent of Saint Joseph is the first monastery of Discalced Carmelite nuns founded by Saint Teresa of Jesus. The convent was built in the year of 1562, although the most important architectural element, the church, was built in 1607. The Church was designed by the architect Francisco de Mora (1553–1610). It has been designated a national monument since 1968.

Iglesia de San Pedro

  • Start date: about 1100.
  • The church of Saint Peter is located outside the town walls in the Plaza de Mercado Grande at the door of the Alcazar. Presents analogous with that of San Vicente.
  • Latin cross floor and three naves of five sections. Apsidal chapels: mayor chapel, chapel of the south apse and chapel of the north apse.

Ermita de San Segundo

Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Sonsoles

A hermitage located to the west of Ávila, outside the town walls, on the right bank of the Adaja river. Highlights the sculpted capitals in which the sculptor is the footprint of the apse of San Andrés. Alabaster statue made by Juan de Juni. Popular belief has it that, on introducing a handkerchief into the tomb and asking for three wishes, the saint will grant one. His pilgrimage is celebrated on 2 May, Segundo being the patron saint of Ávila.

Palacio de Don Diego del Águila

This 16th-century palace is located inside the walls and attached to it as junt walk through the door of San Vicente, defended the access of Muslim troops.[clarification needed] Located on a busy street by different arms of the Águila family.[clarification needed]

Real Monasterio de Santo Tomás

Real Monasterio de Santo Tomás is a Dominican convent of the late 15th century. Despite being away from the historic centre, it is one of the most important monuments of the town.

Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Sonsoles

This sanctuary is located 6 km from the capital in a picturesque area, and has a restaurant, hostel, picnic areas, and playgrounds.

There is located the statue of the Virgin of Sonsoles, co-patroness of Ávila, and patroness of the fields in the province.

It is tradition in this town to make pilgrimage to the sanctuary, making a wish to the Virgin, and to get to the door barefoot until you enter the church.

Secular architecture

Notable examples of secular architecture are the Valderrábanos Palace (15th century), the Casa de los Deanes (16th century), the Torreón de los Guzmanes and the Verdugos Palace (15th–16th centuries).

Conference and Exhibition Centre Lienzo Norte

  • In mid-2007, work began on the convention centre. In April 2009, its construction was completed and it opened its doors.
  • The building, designed by architect Francisco José Mangado, is modern in style. It covers and area of 19,800 m2 (213,125 sq ft), including the area of the neighbouring gardens and parking.
  • There is a large symphony hall, large glass galleries, café, restaurant, conference room, catering services, storage, reception, store room, etc.
  • The symphony hall has a capacity of 2,000 and the secondary hall of 500. The two conference rooms have each 1,000 seats.
Los Cuatro (The Four) Postes, landmark spot in Ávila
  • Museum of Ávila
  • Museum of la Encarnación
  • Museum of Santa Teresa
  • Museum of the Cathedral
  • Museo of Santo Tomás
  • Museum of Oriental Art
  • Museum of Natural Sciences
  • Living Water
  • Hall of Torreón de los Guzmanes
  • Sala de la Diputación
  • Sala del Episcopio
  • Caprotti Museum (which houses the work of Italian painter Guido Caprotti (1887–1966), based in Ávila from 1916)
Main UCAV building

Ávila has two universities: the Catholic University of Ávila (UCAV) and the University of Mysticism, which became operational on September 2, 2008.[citation needed] There are three colleges of the University of Salamanca (USAL): the Polytechnic School of Ávila, the College of Education and Tourism in Ávila, and the School of Nursing.

  • Town Sport: swimming Pool, heated pool, tennis, paddle tennis, athletics, football, basketball, etc.
  • North Zone: heated pool, football, basketball and tennis.
  • Abulense Casino Club: pools, golf, tennis, paddle, cafeteria, restaurant, football, skating, basketball etc.
  • Naturávila: golf, swimming, horse riding, walking, basketball, paddle tennis, football.
  • San Antonio Sports Hall: in the north of the town is a large covered pavilion with basketball courts, tennis, soccer, squash, climbing.
  • Polideportivo Carlos Sastre, on the outskirts of the town. Its inauguration took place on January 30, 2009 with a friendly match between Óbila Club de Basket of LEB Plata and LEB Oro C.B. León. It has basketball courts, soccer, tennis, volleyball, etc.

The town is home to Óbila CB, a professional basketball team of Spain's LEB Plata. The team plays its home games at the Multiusos Carlos Sastre.

The local football team, Real Ávila CF, plays at the Adolfo Suárez Stadium, owned by the municipality.

The first public festival after the winter cold is the Holy week. The temperature is cold, especially at night, so one should not forget warm clothes.

Ávila holidays are October 15, Santa Teresa de Jesús, and May 2, San Segundo. The festivities take place around October 15 and the Summer Festival in mid-July.

Holy Week

Holy Week as celebrated in Ávila is considered of international tourist interest. It is one of the highest expressions of art and wealth as seen in numerous steps of Holy Week along the town walls. Processions have either or fifteen or twelve fraternities.

Fiestas de Santa Teresa

Fiestas de Santa Teresa (Procession, 2007)

The festivities of Santa Teresa last almost the entire month of October. The proclamation is done by the mayor in the Plaza Mayor, accompanied by some celebrity. After the proclamation was organized in the same place a musical performance with renowned singers.

The festival program includes several musical concerts, a fairground, bullfights, passacaglia, processions of the fan groups, chocolate with churros and liturgical acts naturally focus on the day of the patroness, on 15 October with multitudinous mass presided by Bishop, then celebrated a great procession, headed the image of Santa Teresa with the Virgin of La Caridad, and is accompanied by all the authorities of Ávila, civil and military, and several bands music. The procession takes place between the Cathedral of Ávila and Santa Teresa Church. Takes place the day before the "Procession Girl" from the Iglesian de Santa Teresa to the Cathedral.

Typical dishes of the town and region are "Judías del Barco", "Chuletón de Ávila", "Patatas revolconas" and "Yemas de Santa Teresa". Also worth mentioning is "Hornazo", "Bun stuffed with sausage, bacon, steak and eggs", "Mollejas de ternera" or the "Cochinillo", which can be found in the capital and in Arévalo.

Yemas de Santa Teresa

This sweet can always be found in the traditional pastry shop "La Flor de Castilla". In the other bakeries in the town it is produced under the name "Yemas de Ávila", or simply "Yemas", produced as its name indicates from egg yolk.

Chuletón de Ávila

This is a grilled T-bone steak, best cooked rare, which can be enjoyed in any hotel in the town. It is made from Avileña-Negra ibérica, an indigenous black cow known for its excellent meat, whose fame transcends the borders of the province and the country.

Ávila is twinned with:

A train at the Ávila railway station

The Ávila Railway Station serves the town. The closest airport is Adolfo Suárez in Madrid-Barajas. The city can be reached via the A-6 from Madrid. The city itself can be explored on foot.

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  5. http://www.avilaturismo.com/en/what-to-do/romanesque-avila
  6. "Orson Welles - Avila". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-05.
  7. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ávila". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 64.
  8. "Valores climatológicos normales - Ávila". Agencia Estatal de Meteorologica. Retrieved1 October 2012.
  9. "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Ávila". Aemet.es. Retrieved17 March 2015.
  10. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), Obila
  11. Avitiano (December 23, 2008). "Abulenses". Centro de estudios abulenses. RetrievedFebruary 20, 2009.
  12. Almarza, Armando Ríos (2007). Apuntes de Ávila. Ávila: Ayuntamiento de Ávila. ISBN 978-84-606-4259-6.
  13. Rudd, Charles (1905). The Cathedrals of Northern Spain. Boston: L.C. Page & Co. at Project Gutenberg
  14. Ford, Richard (1855). A handbook for travellers in Spain. Vol. 2. London: John Murray. p. 744.
  15. Santos Burgaleta, Manuel (2002). "Poderes urbanos y Comunidades de Castilla: la Junta de Salamanca a través de sus actas de sesiones (agosto de 1520-abril de 1521)"(PDF). Salamanca. Revista de Estudios: 368.[dead link]
  16. Fleming, Gillian B. (2018). "The Giants' War (1519–1520)". Juana I. p. 246. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-74347-9_11. ISBN 978-3-319-74346-2.
  17. "El sueño de una constitución comunera". Diario de Burgos. 23 July 2020.
  18. Qué ver en Ávila en un día
  19. Estudio Caprotti
  20. "La capital tendrá otra ciudad hermana". periodicocorreo.com.mx (in Spanish). Periódico Correo. 2014-10-20. Retrieved2020-06-10.
  21. "Why Rhodes". rhodes2021.eu. Rhodes. Retrieved2020-06-10.
  22. "Villes jumelles". villederueil.fr (in French). Rueil-Malmaison. Retrieved2020-06-10.
  23. "Useful info". discoverteramo.it. Discover Teramo. Retrieved2020-06-10.
  24. "Avila – Espagne". ville-villeneuve-sur-lot.fr (in French). Villeneuve-sur-Lot. Retrieved2020-06-10.
  • Parkinson Keyes, Frances (1957).The Land of Stones and Saints. Doubleday. (Lives of five famous people of the province of Avila, Spain, in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries: Isabel the Catholic, St Teresa of Ávila, St John of the Cross, María Vela and San Pedro Bautista)
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ávila.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ávila.

Avila Spain Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the Spanish town For other uses see Avila disambiguation This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Avila Spain news newspapers books scholar JSTOR March 2012 Learn how and when to remove this template message Avila UK ˈ ae v ɪ l e 2 US ˈ ɑː v 3 Spanish ˈabila listen is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and Leon It is the capital and most populated municipality of the Province of Avila AvilaMunicipalityAvila with its town wallsFlagCoat of armsNickname s Avila de los Caballeros Avila del Rey Avila de los Leales Avila of the knights Avila of the king Avila of the loyal ones Motto s Una ciudad para todos A town for everyone AvilaShow map of SpainAvilaShow map of Castile and LeonCoordinates 40 39 N 4 41 W 40 650 N 4 683 W 40 650 4 683 Coordinates 40 39 N 4 41 W 40 650 N 4 683 W 40 650 4 683CountrySpainAutonomous communityCastile and LeonProvinceAvilaGovernment MayorJesus Manuel Sanchez Cabrera XAV Area Land231 9 km2 89 5 sq mi Elevation1 132 m 3 714 ft Population 2018 1 Total57 657Time zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Postal code05001 05006Area code s 34 Spain 920 Avila Websitehttp www avila es in Spanish UNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameOld Town of Avila with its Extra Muros ChurchesIncludesHermitage of San Segundo Basilica of San Vicente Church of San Andres Church of San Pedro Church of San Nicolas Church of Santa Maria de la Cabeza Church of San Martin Convent of La Encarnacion Convent of San Jose Royal Monastery of Santo TomasCriteriaCultural iii ivReference348Inscription1985 9th Session Area36 4 ha It lies on the right bank of the Adaja river Located more than 1 130 m above sea level the city is the highest provincial capital in Spain 4 Distinctly known by its medieval walls Avila is sometimes called the Town of Stones and Saints and it claims that it is one of the towns with the highest number of Romanesque and Gothic churches per capita in Spain 5 It has complete and prominent medieval town walls built in the Romanesque style writer Jose Martinez Ruiz in his book El alma castellana The Castilian Soul described it as perhaps the most 16th century town in Spain The town is also known as Avila de los Caballeros Avila del Rey and Avila de los Leales Avila of the knights Avila of the king Avila of the loyal ones each of these epithets being present in the town standard Orson Welles once named Avila as the place in which he would most desire to live calling it a strange tragic place 6 Various scenes of his 1965 film Chimes at Midnight were filmed in the town Avila was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 The site originally consisted of the walled city and four extra muros churches The number of churches included in the site has since been increased Contents 1 Geography 2 Climate 3 History 4 Architecture 4 1 The Walls of Avila 4 2 Cathedral 4 3 Basilica de San Vicente 4 4 Convento de San Jose 4 5 Iglesia de San Pedro 4 6 Ermita de San Segundo 4 7 Palacio de Don Diego del Aguila 4 8 Real Monasterio de Santo Tomas 4 9 Santuario de Nuestra Senora de Sonsoles 4 10 Secular architecture 4 11 Conference and Exhibition Centre Lienzo Norte 5 Museums and sights 6 Universities 7 Sports venues 8 Sports teams 9 Popular celebrations 9 1 Holy Week 9 2 Fiestas de Santa Teresa 10 Cuisine 10 1 Yemas de Santa Teresa 10 2 Chuleton de Avila 11 Twin towns sister cities 12 Transport 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External linksGeography EditSituated 1132 metres 3714 feet above sea level on a rocky outcrop on the right bank of the Adaja river a tributary of the Duero Avila is the highest provincial capital in Spain It is built on the flat summit of a rocky hill which rises abruptly in the midst of a veritable wilderness a brown arid treeless table land strewn with immense grey boulders and shut in by lofty mountains 7 Climate EditAvila s position results in a temperate Mediterranean climate Csb according to the Koppen climate classification with warm summers and chilly winters with snowfalls bordering on a cold semi arid climate BSk The hottest month July has an average temperature of 20 6 C 69 F and the coldest month January has an average of 3 0 C 37 F The average annual precipitation is 416 mm 16 38 in 8 Annual rainfall is low compared to surrounding areas implying that it lies in a rain shadow The Adaja is dry for several months of the year and the town has historically had water supply problems Avila has the coldest winter low temperatures of the Spanish provincial capital cities thanks to its high altitude 1 132 metres 3 714 ft above sea level Climate data for Avila 1 130 metres 3 710 ft 1983 2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 19 6 67 3 19 8 67 6 22 6 72 7 26 6 79 9 30 6 87 1 35 6 96 1 37 6 99 7 37 4 99 3 36 0 96 8 29 2 84 6 22 4 72 3 19 4 66 9 37 6 99 7 Average high C F 7 6 45 7 9 4 48 9 12 6 54 7 14 3 57 7 18 5 65 3 24 6 76 3 28 5 83 3 27 9 82 2 23 4 74 1 16 9 62 4 11 2 52 2 8 4 47 1 17 0 62 6 Daily mean C F 3 0 37 4 4 3 39 7 6 7 44 1 8 5 47 3 12 5 54 5 17 4 63 3 20 6 69 1 20 2 68 4 16 5 61 7 11 4 52 5 6 4 43 5 4 0 39 2 11 0 51 8 Average low C F 1 6 29 1 0 8 30 6 0 8 33 4 2 7 36 9 6 4 43 5 10 2 50 4 12 6 54 7 12 4 54 3 9 6 49 3 5 9 42 6 1 7 35 1 0 4 31 3 5 0 41 0 Record low C F 16 0 3 2 12 0 10 4 13 2 8 2 8 6 16 5 4 6 23 7 1 0 30 2 1 0 33 8 1 4 34 5 3 0 26 6 5 4 22 3 14 0 6 8 13 4 7 9 16 0 3 2 Average precipitation mm inches 34 1 3 24 0 9 23 0 9 40 1 6 55 2 2 33 1 3 12 0 5 19 0 7 30 1 2 53 2 1 48 1 9 42 1 7 416 16 4 Average precipitation days 6 5 4 8 9 5 2 3 4 8 7 7 67Average snowy days 5 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 20Average relative humidity 78 72 63 63 59 51 43 45 56 69 78 79 63Mean monthly sunshine hours 133 154 212 223 253 312 353 322 244 182 131 117 2 636Source Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia 9 History EditIn pre Roman times the 5th century BC Avila was inhabited by the Vettones who called it Obila Ὀbila 10 High Mountain and built one of their strongest fortresses here There are Bronze Age stone statues of boars known as verracio nearby Archeological remains from the Roman era near the Gate of San Vicente Avila may have been the ancient town known as Abula mentioned by Ptolemy in his Geographia II 6 60 as being located in the Iberian region of Bastetania Abula is mentioned as one of the first towns in Hispania that was converted to Christianity by Secundus of Abula San Segundo however Abula may alternatively have been the town of Abla 11 After the conquest by ancient Rome the town was called Abila or Abela The plan of the town remains typically Roman rectangular in shape with its two main streets cardo and decumanus intersecting at a forum in the centre Roman remains that are embedded in town walls at the eastern and southern entrances now the Alcazar and Rastro Gates appear to have been ashlar altar stones 12 By tradition in the 1st century Secundus having travelled via the Roman province of Hispania Baetica brought the Gospel to Avila and was created its first bishop 13 After the fall of the Western Roman Empire Avila became a stronghold of the Visigoths Conquered by the Moors Arabs who called it Abila آبلة it was repeatedly attacked by the northern Iberian Christian kingdoms becoming a virtually uninhabited no man s land It was repopulated about 1088 following the definitive reconquest of the area by Raymond of Burgundy son in law of Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile He employed two foreigners Casandro Romano and Florin de Pituenga to construct a stone frontier town and creating the walls that still stand 14 The city achieved a period of prosperity under the Catholic Monarchs in the early 16th century During the Revolt of the Comuneros the city became the first meeting place of the Santa Junta es on 1 August 1520 15 The Junta of Avila drafted the Proyecto de Ley Perpetua a sort of proto constitutional draft that never got to enter into force in the Cathedral of Avila in the Summer of 1520 envisaging that cities assembled every three years without the requirement for royal sanction or presence determining taxation and acting as a check and balance on government activity 16 17 View of the city as drawn by Anton van den Wyngaerde in 1570 The city experienced a long decline since the 17th century its population reducing to just 4 000 inhabitants The Alcazar Gate c 1912 In the 19th century there was some population growth with the construction of the railway line from Madrid to the French border at Irun and an important junction near the town In 1936 at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War the town quickly became part of the area occupied by rebel troops Growth continued slowly again under Franco but Avila has not had a major influence in Spanish society in recent history apart from the nurturing of politicians such as Adolfo Suarez the first democratically elected prime minister of Spain post Franco and Jose Maria Aznar prime minister from 1996 to 2004 who represented Avila in the Cortes but was not from the town Architecture EditThe Walls of Avila Edit The Walls of Avila The main landmark in the city is the imposing Walls of Avila 11th 14th centuries begun in 1090 The enclosed area is 31 hectares 77 acres with a perimeter of 2 516 metres 2 752 yd 88 blocks of semicircular towers 2 500 merlons curtain walls 3 m 9 ft 10 in thick with an average height of 12 m 39 ft and 9 gates 18 The walls represent the largest fully illuminated monument in the world It is possible to walk upon the walls for roughly half their circumference While some of the walls will never be walkable because of their integration into other structures a large stretch has yet to be made safe for pedestrians citation needed Cathedral Edit Main article Cathedral of Avila View of the Cathedral of Avila The construction of the iron grey granite Gothic Cathedral of Avila is said to have commenced in 1107 under Alvar Garcia de Estrella Other historians believe the Cathedral to be the work of the master mason Fruchel in the 12th century coinciding with the repopulation of the town led by Raymond of Burgundy The eastern apse which forms part of the town walls is half church half fortress and it was here that the loyal citizens elevated Alonso VII as their king hence Avila del Rey The transept was finished in 1350 by Bishop Sancho de Avila The earlier Romanesque parts are made of a striking red and white blood limestone while the Gothic parts were built with pure white stone Northern facade Gothic style at left and added renaissance at right Porch of the Apostles Western front Burgundian style with two towers forming a covered portal Interior Latin cross with three naves a crossing and ambulatory Capilla Mayor Features a monumental altarpiece by Pedro Berruguete Chapel of San Segundo the first bishop Attached to a column of the cruise Renaissance style Chapel of Santa Catalina Made of alabaster Choir and Rood screen Renaissance style decorated with reliefs depicting scenes of saints carved from limestone The alabaster tomb of Alonso Tostado de Madrigal bishop in 1499 shown in the act of writing is in the ambulatory so enlightened were his doctrines that they caused the blind to see Cloister Access from the Romanesque cathedral by a door on the south aisle Gothic style Basilica de San Vicente Edit Main article San Vicente Avila Basilica of San Vicente Construction began in the 12th century and lasted until the 14th century Its design is attributed to the French master Giral Fruchel the author himself from the cathedral and pioneer of the Gothic style in Spain The overall structure is similar to the Latin basilicas It has a Latin cross plan three naves dome tribunes three apses atrium two towers and crypt All the facade and the environment where it is located are of great artistic value Interior Latin cross room with three naves The pillars are of a Greek cross with half columns on the heads Crypt Consists of three chapels for the three apses of the church are mainly romanesque and have the best capitals of the monument Highlight the tomb of Saint Peter of the Boat and above all the Cenotaph of the Holy Brothers Martyrs the head of the temple Saint Vincent of Avila and her sisters along with the torture he suffered in the 4th century Saint Sabina and Saint Cristeta Cenotafio de los santos Vicente Sabina y Cristeta one of the most important works of Romanesque sculpture in Spain Convento de San Jose Edit Main article Convento de San Jose Avila Convento de San Jose The Convent of Saint Joseph is the first monastery of Discalced Carmelite nuns founded by Saint Teresa of Jesus The convent was built in the year of 1562 although the most important architectural element the church was built in 1607 The Church was designed by the architect Francisco de Mora 1553 1610 It has been designated a national monument since 1968 Iglesia de San Pedro Edit Start date about 1100 The church of Saint Peter is located outside the town walls in the Plaza de Mercado Grande at the door of the Alcazar Presents analogous with that of San Vicente Latin cross floor and three naves of five sections Apsidal chapels mayor chapel chapel of the south apse and chapel of the north apse Ermita de San Segundo Edit Torreon de los Guzmanes es Santuario de Nuestra Senora de Sonsoles A hermitage located to the west of Avila outside the town walls on the right bank of the Adaja river Highlights the sculpted capitals in which the sculptor is the footprint of the apse of San Andres Alabaster statue made by Juan de Juni Popular belief has it that on introducing a handkerchief into the tomb and asking for three wishes the saint will grant one His pilgrimage is celebrated on 2 May Segundo being the patron saint of Avila Palacio de Don Diego del Aguila Edit This 16th century palace is located inside the walls and attached to it as junt walk through the door of San Vicente defended the access of Muslim troops clarification needed Located on a busy street by different arms of the Aguila family clarification needed Real Monasterio de Santo Tomas Edit Real Monasterio de Santo Tomas is a Dominican convent of the late 15th century Despite being away from the historic centre it is one of the most important monuments of the town Santuario de Nuestra Senora de Sonsoles Edit Convento de Santa Teresa This sanctuary is located 6 km from the capital in a picturesque area and has a restaurant hostel picnic areas and playgrounds There is located the statue of the Virgin of Sonsoles co patroness of Avila and patroness of the fields in the province It is tradition in this town to make pilgrimage to the sanctuary making a wish to the Virgin and to get to the door barefoot until you enter the church Secular architecture Edit Notable examples of secular architecture are the Valderrabanos Palace 15th century the Casa de los Deanes 16th century the Torreon de los Guzmanes and the Verdugos Palace 15th 16th centuries Conference and Exhibition Centre Lienzo Norte Edit In mid 2007 work began on the convention centre In April 2009 its construction was completed and it opened its doors The building designed by architect Francisco Jose Mangado is modern in style It covers and area of 19 800 m2 213 125 sq ft including the area of the neighbouring gardens and parking There is a large symphony hall large glass galleries cafe restaurant conference room catering services storage reception store room etc The symphony hall has a capacity of 2 000 and the secondary hall of 500 The two conference rooms have each 1 000 seats Museums and sights Edit Los Cuatro The Four Postes landmark spot in Avila Museum of Avila Museum of la Encarnacion Museum of Santa Teresa Museum of the Cathedral Museo of Santo Tomas Museum of Oriental Art Museum of Natural Sciences Living Water Hall of Torreon de los Guzmanes Sala de la Diputacion Sala del Episcopio Caprotti Museum which houses the work of Italian painter Guido Caprotti 1887 1966 based in Avila from 1916 19 Universities Edit Main UCAV building Avila has two universities the Catholic University of Avila UCAV and the University of Mysticism which became operational on September 2 2008 citation needed There are three colleges of the University of Salamanca USAL the Polytechnic School of Avila the College of Education and Tourism in Avila and the School of Nursing Sports venues EditTown Sport swimming Pool heated pool tennis paddle tennis athletics football basketball etc North Zone heated pool football basketball and tennis Abulense Casino Club pools golf tennis paddle cafeteria restaurant football skating basketball etc Naturavila golf swimming horse riding walking basketball paddle tennis football San Antonio Sports Hall in the north of the town is a large covered pavilion with basketball courts tennis soccer squash climbing Polideportivo Carlos Sastre on the outskirts of the town Its inauguration took place on January 30 2009 with a friendly match between obila Club de Basket of LEB Plata and LEB Oro C B Leon It has basketball courts soccer tennis volleyball etc Sports teams EditThe town is home to obila CB a professional basketball team of Spain s LEB Plata The team plays its home games at the Multiusos Carlos Sastre The local football team Real Avila CF plays at the Adolfo Suarez Stadium owned by the municipality Popular celebrations EditThe first public festival after the winter cold is the Holy week The temperature is cold especially at night so one should not forget warm clothes Avila holidays are October 15 Santa Teresa de Jesus and May 2 San Segundo The festivities take place around October 15 and the Summer Festival in mid July Holy Week Edit Holy Week as celebrated in Avila is considered of international tourist interest It is one of the highest expressions of art and wealth as seen in numerous steps of Holy Week along the town walls Processions have either or fifteen or twelve fraternities Fiestas de Santa Teresa Edit Fiestas de Santa Teresa Procession 2007 The festivities of Santa Teresa last almost the entire month of October The proclamation is done by the mayor in the Plaza Mayor accompanied by some celebrity After the proclamation was organized in the same place a musical performance with renowned singers The festival program includes several musical concerts a fairground bullfights passacaglia processions of the fan groups chocolate with churros and liturgical acts naturally focus on the day of the patroness on 15 October with multitudinous mass presided by Bishop then celebrated a great procession headed the image of Santa Teresa with the Virgin of La Caridad and is accompanied by all the authorities of Avila civil and military and several bands music The procession takes place between the Cathedral of Avila and Santa Teresa Church Takes place the day before the Procession Girl from the Iglesian de Santa Teresa to the Cathedral Cuisine Edit Chuleton de Avila es Yemas de Santa Teresa Typical dishes of the town and region are Judias del Barco Chuleton de Avila Patatas revolconas and Yemas de Santa Teresa Also worth mentioning is Hornazo Bun stuffed with sausage bacon steak and eggs Mollejas de ternera or the Cochinillo which can be found in the capital and in Arevalo Yemas de Santa Teresa Edit This sweet can always be found in the traditional pastry shop La Flor de Castilla In the other bakeries in the town it is produced under the name Yemas de Avila or simply Yemas produced as its name indicates from egg yolk Chuleton de Avila Edit This is a grilled T bone steak best cooked rare which can be enjoyed in any hotel in the town It is made from Avilena Negra iberica an indigenous black cow known for its excellent meat whose fame transcends the borders of the province and the country Twin towns sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Avila is twinned with Guanajuato Mexico 20 Rhodes Greece 21 Rueil Malmaison France 22 Teramo Italy 23 Villeneuve sur Lot France 24 Transport Edit A train at the Avila railway station The Avila Railway Station serves the town The closest airport is Adolfo Suarez in Madrid Barajas The city can be reached via the A 6 from Madrid The city itself can be explored on foot See also EditList of people from Avila Spain Kingdom of Castile Old CastileReferences Edit Municipal Register of Spain 2018 National Statistics Institute Teresa of Avila St Lexico UK English Dictionary Oxford University Press n d Retrieved 1 July 2019 Avila Collins English Dictionary HarperCollins Retrieved 1 July 2019 Castilla y Leon Centro Virtual Cervantes http www avilaturismo com en what to do romanesque avila Orson Welles Avila YouTube Archived from the original on 2021 12 05 One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Avila Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 3 11th ed Cambridge University Press p 64 Valores climatologicos normales Avila Agencia Estatal de Meteorologica Retrieved 1 October 2012 Valores Climatologicos Normales Avila Aemet es Retrieved 17 March 2015 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography 1854 Obila Avitiano December 23 2008 Abulenses Centro de estudios abulenses Retrieved February 20 2009 Almarza Armando Rios 2007 Apuntes de Avila Avila Ayuntamiento de Avila ISBN 978 84 606 4259 6 Rudd Charles 1905 The Cathedrals of Northern Spain Boston L C Page amp Co at Project Gutenberg Ford Richard 1855 A handbook for travellers in Spain Vol 2 London John Murray p 744 Santos Burgaleta Manuel 2002 Poderes urbanos y Comunidades de Castilla la Junta de Salamanca a traves de sus actas de sesiones agosto de 1520 abril de 1521 PDF Salamanca Revista de Estudios 368 dead link Fleming Gillian B 2018 The Giants War 1519 1520 Juana I p 246 doi 10 1007 978 3 319 74347 9 11 ISBN 978 3 319 74346 2 El sueno de una constitucion comunera Diario de Burgos 23 July 2020 Que ver en Avila en un dia Estudio Caprotti La capital tendra otra ciudad hermana periodicocorreo com mx in Spanish Periodico Correo 2014 10 20 Retrieved 2020 06 10 Why Rhodes rhodes2021 eu Rhodes Retrieved 2020 06 10 Villes jumelles villederueil fr in French Rueil Malmaison Retrieved 2020 06 10 Useful info discoverteramo it Discover Teramo Retrieved 2020 06 10 Avila Espagne ville villeneuve sur lot fr in French Villeneuve sur Lot Retrieved 2020 06 10 Further reading EditParkinson Keyes Frances 1957 The Land of Stones and Saints Doubleday Lives of five famous people of the province of Avila Spain in the 15th 16th and 17th centuries Isabel the Catholic St Teresa of Avila St John of the Cross Maria Vela and San Pedro Bautista External links EditWikivoyage has a travel guide for Avila Wikimedia Commons has media related to Avila Shahan Thomas Joseph 1907 Diocese of Avila Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 2 Avila s Town Hall Avila s Tourist Guide Convent of St Teresa Avila Avila in the official website for Tourism in Spain in English Photos of Avila Satellite picture by Google Maps Hazlitt Classical Gazetteer Abila Citizens association for the defence of heritage of Avila Photos of Avila Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Avila Spain amp oldid 1090663721, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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