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Åland Islands

Not to be confused with Öland or Aland (Vidhana Sabha constituency).
"Åland" redirects here. For the constituency, see Åland (constituency). For the former province, see Åland (former province of Finland). For other uses, see Aland (disambiguation).

The Åland Islands, or simply Åland (; Finnish: Ahvenanmaa: ; Swedish: (); Finland Swedish: ), is an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland. It is an autonomous and demilitarised region of Finland since 1920 by a decision of the League of Nations, and its only official language is Swedish. It is the smallest region of Finland, constituting 0.51% of its land area and 0.54% of its population. Mariehamn is the capital city of Åland.

Åland
Ahvenanmaa
Region of Åland
Ahvenanmaan maakunta(Finnish)
Landskapet Åland(Swedish)
Motto:
"Islands of Peace"[verification needed]
Anthem:"Ålänningens sång"(Swedish)
(English:"Song of the Ålander")
Location of Åland within Finland
Sovereign stateFinland
Autonomy granted7 May 1920
First Regional Assembly (Autonomy Day)9 June 1922
EU accession1 January 1995
Capital
and largest city
Mariehamn
60°07′N019°54′E /60.117°N 19.900°E /60.117; 19.900
Official languagesSwedish
Demonym(s)
  • Ålandic
  • Ålandish
  • Ålänning
  • Åländare
  • Ahvenanmaalainen
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary autonomous region
• Governor
Peter Lindbäck
Veronica Thörnroos
LegislatureLagting
Area
• Total
1,580 km2 (610 sq mi) (unranked)
Highest elevation
129.1 m (423.6 ft)
Population
• 2020 estimate
30,129 (223rd)
• Density
19.07/km2 (49.4/sq mi)
GDP(PPP)2007 estimate
• Total
$1.563 billion
• Per capita
$55,829
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
US$1,282,093,196
• Per capita
US$42,553
HDI (2017)0.900
very high
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+358 18
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD.ax
Websitewww.aland.ax

Åland comprises Fasta Åland on which 90% of the population resides and a further 6,500 skerries and islands to its east. Of Åland's thousands of islands, 60 are inhabited. Fasta Åland is separated from the coast of Roslagen in Sweden by 38 kilometres (24 mi) of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Åland's only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Märket, which it shares with Sweden. From Mariehamn, there is a ferry distance of about 160 kilometres (99 mi) to Turku, a coastal city of mainland Finland, and also to Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.

Åland's autonomous status means that those provincial powers normally exercised by representatives of the central Finnish government are largely exercised by its own government. The current demilitarised, neutral position of Åland dates back to the days of the Paris Peace Treaty after the Åland War in the 1850s. 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the autonomous status.

Contents

The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations in 1921 following the Åland Islands dispute. It was reaffirmed within the treaty admitting Finland to the European Union. By law, Åland is politically neutral and entirely demilitarised, and residents are exempt from conscription to the Finnish Defence Forces. The islands were granted extensive autonomy by the Parliament of Finland in the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920, which was later replaced by new legislation by the same name in 1951 and 1991. The constitution of Finland defines a "constitution of Åland" by referring to this act. Åland remains exclusively Swedish-speaking by this act. The people of Åland are also very negative about the use and presence of the Finnish language in Åland to any extent, possibly to emphasise their own Ålandic identity.

Although a referendum to join the European Union had been held in mainland Finland on 16 October 1994, Åland held a separate vote on 20 November as they were a separate customs jurisdiction. EU membership was approved by 73.64% of voters. In connection with Finland's admission to the European Union, a protocol was signed concerning the Åland Islands that stipulates, among other things, that provisions of the European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners (i.e., persons who do not enjoy "home region rights"—hembygdsrätt—in Åland) to acquire and hold real property or to provide certain services.

Åland's original name was in the Proto-Norse language *Ahvaland which means "land of water". Ahva is related to the Latin word for water, "aqua"[citation needed]. In Swedish, this first developed into Áland and eventually into Åland, literally "river land"—even though rivers are not a prominent feature of Åland's geography. The Finnish and Estonian names of the island, Ahvenanmaa and Ahvenamaa ("perch land"), are seen to preserve another form of the old name.

Another theory suggests that the Finnish Ahvenanmaa would be the original name of the archipelago, from which the Swedish Åland derives.

The official name, Landskapet Åland, means "the Region of Åland"; landskap is cognate to English "landscape".

Swedish Map of Åland from before 1667 with shipping lanes, harbours, churches and various boundaries marked
Historical affiliations

Swedish Empire 1157–1809
Russian Empire 1809–1917
Finland 1917–present

Members of the Neolithic Comb Ceramic culture started settling the islands some 7000 years ago, after the islands had begun to re-emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice-age. Two neolithic cultures met on Åland: the Comb Ceramic culture and the later Pit-Comb Ware culture which spread from the west.[citation needed]

Stone Age and Bronze Age people obtained food by hunting seals and birds, fishing, and gathering plants. They also started agriculture early on. In the Iron Age, contacts with Scandinavia increased.[citation needed] From the Iron Age, Åland has six hillforts. From the Viking age there are over 380 documented burial sites.

The coat of arms of Åland were originally granted to the similar-sounding island province of Öland in 1560, and display a golden red deer on a blue field. This is traditionally surmounted by a comital coronet of the elder Swedish style.

Along with Finland, the Åland Islands formed part of the territory ceded to Russia by Sweden under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in September 1809. As a result, they became part of the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1917). During negotiations, Sweden failed to secure a provision that the islands not be fortified. The issue was important not only for Sweden but also for the United Kingdom, which as a result of the Treaty of 1809 became concerned that a Russian military presence on the islands could threaten Britain's commercial interests in its trade passing through the Baltic.[citation needed]

The Åland Islands during the Crimean War. It was here that the Battle of Bomarsund was fought.

In 1832, Russia started to fortify the islands, with the great fortress of Bomarsund. In 1854, as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War against Russia, a combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress during the Åland War. The 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Åland archipelago.

During the Finnish Civil War, in 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and "White" and "Red" Finnish troops who came from Finland over the frozen sea. Within weeks, the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Åland at the request of the "White" (conservative) Senate of Finland.

Åland (blue) with historical and modern provinces of the rest of Finland (gray) juxtaposed.

After 1917, the residents of the islands worked towards having them ceded to Sweden. In 1919 96.4% of the voters on the islands signed a petition for secession from Finland and for integration with Sweden, with over 95% in favour. Swedish nationalist sentiments had strengthened particularly as a result of the anti-Swedish tendencies in Finland and as a result of Finnish nationalism fuelled by Finland's struggle to retain its autonomy and resistance against Russification. The conflict between the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority on the Finnish mainland, prominent in Finnish politics since the 1840s, contributed to the apprehension of the Åland population about a future within Finland.

Finland, however, declined to cede the islands and instead offered the islanders an autonomous status. Nevertheless, the residents did not approve the offer, and in 1921 the dispute over the islands went before the newly formed League of Nations. The latter decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the province, but that the Åland Islands should be made an autonomous territory. One of the important proponents of a diplomatic solution to the case was Nitobe Inazō, who was one of the Under-Secretaries General of the League and the director of the International Bureaux Section, in charge of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. The Åland convention of 20 October 1921, signed by Sweden, Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Denmark, Poland, Estonia, and Latvia, was the first international agreement achieved by the League. Thus, Finland was obliged to ensure the residents of the Åland Islands the right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. The convention of 1921 established the neutral status of Åland by international treaty, prohibiting the placing of military installations or forces on the islands. Åland's Regional Assembly convened for its first plenary session in Mariehamn on June 9, 1922; today, the day is celebrated as Self-Government Day of Åland.

The islanders’ disappointment about insufficient support from Sweden in the League of Nations, Swedish disrespect for Åland's demilitarised status in the 1930s, and some feelings of a shared destiny with Finland during and after the Second World War, changed their perception of their relationship with Finland from "a Swedish province in Finnish possession" to "an autonomous part of Finland".[failed verification]

Despite the condition of neutrality from the 1921 Convention, the islanders enjoyed safety at sea during the war of 1939–1945, as their merchant fleet sailed both for the Allied countries and for Nazi Germany. Consequently, Åland shipping was not generally attacked, as the various military forces rarely knew which cargo was being carried or to whom.

Finland marked the 150th anniversary of the demilitarisation of the Åland Islands by issuing a high-value commemorative coin, the €5 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Åland Islands commemorative coin, minted in 2006. The obverse depicts a pine tree, a typical feature of the Åland Islands. The reverse features a boat's stern and rudder, with a dove perched on the tiller, a symbol of 150 years of peace.

Main article: Politics of Åland
The Parliament of Åland with the flags of (anticlockwise, starting with EU) the European Union, Åland Islands, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Germany, Estonia, Russia, Lithuania, and Latvia.

The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy from Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarised status. The Government of Åland, or Landskapsregering, answers to the Parliament of Åland, or Lagting, in accordance with the principles of parliamentarism.

Åland has its own flag and has issued its own postage stamps since 1984. It runs its own police force, and is an associate member of the Nordic Council. The islands are demilitarised, and the population is exempt from conscription. Although Åland's autonomy preceded the creation of the regions of Finland, the autonomous government of Åland also has responsibility for the functions undertaken by Finland's regional councils. Åland Post provides postal services to the islands, and is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation. The islands are considered a separate "nation" for amateur radio purposes and have their own call sign prefix granted by Finland, OH0, OF0 and OG0 (last character is zero).

The Åland Islands are guaranteed representation in the Finnish parliament, to which they elect one representative. Åland also has a different system of political parties from the mainland.

Homeschooling, which has been effectively banned in Sweden since 2011, is allowed by the Finnish government. Due to the islands' proximity to Sweden and because the islands are Swedish-speaking, a number of Swedish homeschooling families have moved from the Swedish mainland to Åland, including Jonas Himmelstrand, the chairman of the Swedish association for homeschooling.

After a reform of the electoral law, the Åland Islands were to introduce internet voting in 2019 for expat voters in the parliamentary elections, considering opening the use of the same system for the next elections (2023) to all the voters. However, its use was cancelled at the last minute due to a lack of evidence of the trustability of the system.

Åland's parties include a separatist party called the Future of Åland (Swedish: Ålands Framtid), whose main program includes driving autonomous Åland into a completely independent state.

Åland and the EU

Åland held its own referendum on membership of the European Union on 20 November 1994. A majority of Ålanders voted in favour of membership, and it followed Finland into the Union in 1995. A special Åland protocol regulates Åland's position within the EU. It has some important exceptions, concerning the right of non-Ålanders to own real estate and the right of non-Ålandic companies to establish themselves in the region, and concerning EU tax legislation. The last item's derogation means that Åland is considered a third country for tax purposes, which has had the most important effect of allowing the profitable sale of tax-exempt goods on ferries to and from Sweden and Finland to continue. Membership of the EU is questioned by the Ålanders, who were left without any compensation for the transfer of power from self-government to both Finland and the EU that resulted from membership, which has contributed to a deterioration in relations between the authorities in Åland, Finland, and the EU.

An Åland licence plate

The State Department of Åland represents the Finnish central government and performs many administrative duties. It has a somewhat different function from the other Regional Administrative Agencies, owing to its autonomy. Before 2010, the state administration was handled by the Åland State Provincial Office.

Åland has its own postal administration but still uses the Finnish five-digit postal code system, using the number range 22000–22999, with the prefix AX. The lowest numbered postal code is for the capital Mariehamn, AX 22100, and the highest AX 22950 for Jurmo.

[1] The Åland Islands contain a total of 16 municipalities, more than 40% of people living in the Åland Islands live in Mariehamn, the capital of the islands.

Population as 31 March 2021.

Main article: Geography of Åland
Geographical features and municipalities of the Åland Islands
People hiking in the Åland Islands

The Åland Islands occupy a position of strategic importance, as they command one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm, as well as the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, in addition to being situated near the Gulf of Finland.

The Åland archipelago includes nearly three hundred habitable islands, of which about eighty are inhabited; the remainder are merely some 6,200 skerries and desolate rocks. The archipelago is connected to Åboland archipelago in the east (Finnish: Turunmaan saaristo, Swedish: Åbolands skärgård)—the archipelago adjacent to the southwest coast of Finland. Together they form the Archipelago Sea. To the West from Åland is the Sea of Åland and to the North is the Bothnian Sea.

The Degersand Beach in Eckerö.

The surface of the islands is generally rocky and the soil thin due to glacial stripping at the end of the most recent ice age. The islands also contain many meadows that are home to many different kinds of insects, such as the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

Sheep grazing on a small island.

The islands' landmass occupies a total area of 1,527 square kilometres (590 sq mi). Ninety per cent of the population live on Fasta Åland, which is also the site of the capital town of Mariehamn. Fasta Åland is the largest island in the archipelago. Its area is difficult to estimate due to its irregular shape and coastline, but estimates range from 740 square kilometres to 879 square kilometres to over 1,010 square kilometres, depending on what is included or excluded. There are several harbours.


During the Åland Islands dispute, the parties sought support from different maps of the islands. On the Swedish map, the most densely populated main island dominated, and many skerries were left out. On the Finnish map, many smaller islands or skerries were, for technical reasons, given a slightly exaggerated size. The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden than to Finland; the Finnish map stressed the continuity of the archipelago between the main island and mainland Finland, while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side. One consequence is the often repeated number of "over 6,000" skerries that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration.[citation needed]

Climate

Åland has a humid continental climate (Dfb) that is influenced by its maritime position, especially in summer. While summers are cooler than on both the Swedish and Finnish mainland, winters see little difference to the adjacent parts of Sweden and are only narrowly milder than in mainland Finland.

Climate data for Mariehamn (normals 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
10.5
(50.9)
15.4
(59.7)
21.1
(70.0)
26.7
(80.1)
29.4
(84.9)
29.9
(85.8)
30.7
(87.3)
24.8
(76.6)
19.0
(66.2)
14.1
(57.4)
10.1
(50.2)
30.7
(87.3)
Average high °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.3
(36.1)
7.4
(45.3)
13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63.0)
20.4
(68.7)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
9.5
(49.1)
4.6
(40.3)
1.7
(35.1)
9.3
(48.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.5
(38.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.8
(55.0)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
10.9
(51.6)
6.5
(43.7)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.7
(42.3)
Average low °C (°F) −5.3
(22.5)
−6.6
(20.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.7
(38.7)
8.2
(46.8)
11.8
(53.2)
11.1
(52.0)
7.1
(44.8)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.1
(35.8)
Record low °C (°F) −32.3
(−26.1)
−32.9
(−27.2)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.2
(34.2)
0.5
(32.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−11.8
(10.8)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 49.7
(1.96)
31.4
(1.24)
33.4
(1.31)
28.6
(1.13)
33.4
(1.31)
52.3
(2.06)
55.6
(2.19)
75.1
(2.96)
60.0
(2.36)
68.1
(2.68)
66.5
(2.62)
56.5
(2.22)
610.5
(24.04)
Source 1: Météo Climat
Source 2: Météo Climat
Ferry port in Överö [sv], Föglö

Åland's economy is heavily dominated by shipping, trade and tourism. Shipping represents about 40% of the economy, with several international carriers owned and operated from Åland. Most companies aside from shipping are small, with fewer than ten employees. Farming and fishing are important in combination with the food industry. A few high-profile technology companies contribute to a prosperous economy. Wind power is rapidly developing, aiming at reversing the direction in the cables to the mainland in coming years. In December 2011, wind power accounted for 31.5% of Åland's total electricity usage.[citation needed] One of Åland's most significant tourist hotels is Hotel Arkipelag, located east side of the Mariehamn's city center.

The main ports are the Western Harbour of Mariehamn (south), Berghamn (west) and Långnäs on the eastern shore of the Main Island. Fasta Åland has the only four highways in Åland: Highway 1 (from Mariehamn to Eckerö), Highway 2 (from Mariehamn to Sund), Highway 3 (from Mariehamn to Lumparland) and Highway 4 (from Finström to Geta).

Mariehamn served as the base for the last large oceanic commercial sailing-ships in the world. Their final tasks involved bringing Australian wheat to Great Britain, a trade which Åland shipowner Gustaf Erikson kept going until 1947. The ships latterly made only one round-trip from South Australia to Britain per year, (the grain race), after each marathon voyage going back to Mariehamn to lay up for a few months. The ship Pommern, now a museum in Mariehamn, was one of these last vessels.

The abolition of tax-free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the European Union made Finland demand an exception for the Åland Islands on the European Union value-added tax rules. The exception allows for maintained tax-free sales on the ferries between Sweden and Finland (provided they stop at Mariehamn or Långnäs) and at the airport, but has also made Åland a different tax-zone, meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands. Two million people visit the Åland Islands every year - but most of them just for a few hours before the ferry returns again, or the passengers change from one ship to another.

Unemployment was 3.9% in January 2014

Torggatan, a pedestrian street in the city of Mariehamn
The Bank of Åland at Nygatan in the city of Mariehamn

The Finnish State also collects taxes, duties and fees in Åland. In return, the Finnish Government places a sum of money at the disposal of the Åland Parliament. The sum is 0.5% of total Government income, excluding Government loans. If the sum paid to the Finnish state exceeds 0.5%, then any amount above goes back to the Parliament of Åland as "diligence money". In 2010 the amount of taxes paid by Åland Islanders comprised 0.7% of the total taxes paid in Finland.

According to Eurostat, as of 2006[update] Åland was the 20th-wealthiest of the EU's 268 regions, and the wealthiest in Finland, with a GDP per inhabitant 47% above the EU mean.

Bank of Åland is headquartered on the island.

The euro is the sole legal tender (as with the rest of Finland), although most businesses in Åland unofficially accept the Swedish krona.

Ethnicity and language

Languages in the Åland Islands (2019)
Languages percent
Swedish
86.5%
Finnish
4.7%
Other
8.8%

Most inhabitants speak Swedish (the sole official language) as their first language: 86.5% in 2019, while 4.7% spoke Finnish. The language of instruction in publicly financed schools is Swedish (In the rest of Finland, bilingual municipalities provide schooling both in Finnish and in Swedish). (See Åland Swedish for information about the dialect.)

The issue of the ethnicity of the Ålanders, and the correct linguistic classification of their language, remains somewhat sensitive and controversial. They may be considered either ethnic Swedes or Swedish-speaking Finns, but their language is closer to the Uppländska dialect of Sweden than to Finland Swedish.[citation needed] See Languages of Sweden.

Regional citizenship or the right of domicile (hembygdsrätt) is a prerequisite for voting, standing as a candidate for the Legislative Assembly, or owning and holding real estate situated in unplanned areas of Åland.

Education

Ålands Lyceum, a gymnasium in Mariehamn

In 2010, there were 22 primary schools in Åland. Eight of them covered both upper and lower secondary schools, two were upper secondary schools and 12 were primary schools (grades 1–6). For post-primary studies, you can choose either the traditional high school of Ålands Lyceum [sv] or the Åland vocational high school, which offers a double degree in high school and vocational studies. Of these, Ålands Lyceum is a relatively large high school; according to the 2018 statistics of the education administration, as many as 432 high school students studied there. Åland University of Applied Sciences teaches about 600 students in maritime, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, IT, finance, hotels, restaurants and health care.

Finnish language has been a compulsory subject in upper secondary school, but optional in primary school; however, 80 per cent of students have chosen it. In 2006, it was proposed to remove the compulsory Finnish language from upper secondary schools.

Religion

The St. Olaf's Church, Jomala, is the oldest in the Åland Islands

The majority of the population, 70.5%, belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. The Åland islands contain Finland's oldest Christian churches, including St. Olaf's Church, Jomala, which dating from the late 13th century is likely to be the oldest in Finland.[citation needed] The Åland Islands' largest church is the Church of St. John in Sund, dating from shortly after.

Literature

The most famous writers in Åland are Anni Blomqvist, known for her five-volume Stormskärs-Maja series, Sally Salminen, whose best-known work is the 1936 novel Katrina, and Ulla-Lena Lundberg, who has described her native Kökar. Each of these works are set in Åland.

The sailing ship Linden (center) in Östra Hamnen, Mariehamn's eastern port

Cinema and television

A 2016 historical drama film Devil's Bride, directed by Saara Cantell, takes place in the 17th century in Åland during the witch hunts. It won the Best Foreign Language Film Award at the Toronto Female Eye Film Festival in 2017. Also, a 2013 drama film Disciple, directed by Ulrika Bengts, is set in Åland.

Sport

In association football Åland national team competes in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1991 and 2009. The islands also hosted the 1974 and 1977 Women's Nordic Football Championship. Competitions and teams are organised by the Åland Football Association which also organise the Ålands Cup for clubs.

Women's football club Åland United, founded in 2004, and men's IFK Mariehamn are the islands' leading football clubs. IFK play in the Veikkausliiga, Finland's highest football league. Both clubs play at the Wiklöf Holding Arena in Mariehamn.

Other smaller clubs include FC Åland, IF Finströms Kamraterna, IF Fram and Lemlands IF.

The islands hosted the 2017 and 2018 Paf Masters, an annual bonspiel-women's curling tournamen hosted in Eckerö.

The Åland Stags is the islands' only rugby union club.

The coat of arms of Åland features a golden red deer on a blue field. This is traditionally surmounted by a comital coronet of the elder Swedish style. The arms borne today by the Åland Islands were originally granted to the similar-sounding island province of Öland in 1560, displaying a golden red deer on a blue field.

G. A. Wallin (1811–1852)
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Åland Islands
Aland Islands Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Aland Not to be confused with Oland or Aland Vidhana Sabha constituency Aland redirects here For the constituency see Aland constituency For the former province see Aland former province of Finland For other uses see Aland disambiguation The Aland Islands or simply Aland ˈ ɔː l e n d ˈ ɑː l e n d Finnish Ahvenanmaa ˈɑhʋenɑnˌmːɑː Swedish ˈǒːland listen Finland Swedish ˈoːlɑnd is an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland It is an autonomous and demilitarised region of Finland since 1920 by a decision of the League of Nations 2 and its only official language is Swedish It is the smallest region of Finland constituting 0 51 of its land area and 0 54 of its population Mariehamn is the capital city of Aland AlandAhvenanmaaAutonomous region of FinlandRegion of Aland Ahvenanmaan maakunta Finnish Landskapet Aland Swedish FlagCoat of armsMotto Islands of Peace verification needed 1 Anthem Alanningens sang Swedish English Song of the Alander Location of Aland within FinlandSovereign stateFinlandAutonomy granted7 May 1920 2 First Regional Assembly Autonomy Day 9 June 1922 3 4 EU accession1 January 1995Capitaland largest cityMariehamn 60 07 N 019 54 E 60 117 N 19 900 E 60 117 19 900Official languagesSwedishDemonym s AlandicAlandishAlanningAlandareAhvenanmaalainenGovernmentDevolved parliamentary autonomous region GovernorPeter Lindback PremierVeronica ThornroosLegislatureLagtingArea Total1 580 5 km2 610 sq mi unranked Highest elevation129 1 m 423 6 ft Population 2020 estimate30 129 6 223rd Density19 07 km2 49 4 sq mi GDP PPP 2007 estimate Total 1 563 billion 7 Per capita 55 829GDP nominal estimate TotalUS 1 282 093 196 Per capitaUS 42 553 8 HDI 2017 0 900 9 very highCurrencyEuro EUR Time zoneUTC 02 00 EET Summer DST UTC 03 00 EEST Date formatdd mm yyyyDriving siderightCalling code 358 18ISO 3166 codeAXFI 01Internet TLD axWebsitewww aland ax Aland comprises Fasta Aland on which 90 of the population resides 10 and a further 6 500 skerries and islands to its east 11 Of Aland s thousands of islands 60 are inhabited Fasta Aland is separated from the coast of Roslagen in Sweden by 38 kilometres 24 mi of open water to the west In the east the Aland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago Sea Aland s only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Market which it shares with Sweden 12 From Mariehamn there is a ferry distance of about 160 kilometres 99 mi to Turku a coastal city of mainland Finland and also to Stockholm the capital of Sweden Aland s autonomous status means that those provincial powers normally exercised by representatives of the central Finnish government are largely exercised by its own government The current demilitarised neutral position of Aland dates back to the days of the Paris Peace Treaty after the Aland War in the 1850s 13 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the autonomous status 14 Contents 1 Autonomy 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Politics 4 1 Aland and the EU 5 Administration 6 Municipalities 7 Geography 7 1 Climate 8 Economy 9 Demographics 9 1 Ethnicity and language 9 2 Education 9 3 Religion 10 Culture 10 1 Literature 10 2 Cinema and television 10 3 Sport 11 Heraldry 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External linksAutonomy EditSee also Special member state territories and the European Union The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations in 1921 following the Aland Islands dispute It was reaffirmed within the treaty admitting Finland to the European Union By law Aland is politically neutral and entirely demilitarised and residents are exempt from conscription to the Finnish Defence Forces The islands were granted extensive autonomy by the Parliament of Finland in the Act on the Autonomy of Aland of 1920 which was later replaced by new legislation by the same name in 1951 and 1991 The constitution of Finland defines a constitution of Aland by referring to this act Aland remains exclusively Swedish speaking by this act 15 The people of Aland are also very negative about the use and presence of the Finnish language in Aland to any extent 16 17 possibly to emphasise their own Alandic identity Although a referendum to join the European Union had been held in mainland Finland on 16 October 1994 Aland held a separate vote on 20 November as they were a separate customs jurisdiction EU membership was approved by 73 64 of voters 18 In connection with Finland s admission to the European Union a protocol was signed concerning the Aland Islands that stipulates among other things that provisions of the European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners i e persons who do not enjoy home region rights hembygdsratt in Aland to acquire and hold real property or to provide certain services 19 Etymology EditAland s original name was in the Proto Norse language Ahvaland which means land of water Ahva is related to the Latin word for water aqua citation needed In Swedish this first developed into Aland and eventually into Aland literally river land even though rivers are not a prominent feature of Aland s geography The Finnish and Estonian names of the island Ahvenanmaa and Ahvenamaa perch land are seen to preserve another form of the old name 20 Another theory suggests that the Finnish Ahvenanmaa would be the original name of the archipelago from which the Swedish Aland derives 21 The official name Landskapet Aland means the Region of Aland landskap is cognate to English landscape History EditMain article History of the Aland Islands Swedish Map of Aland from before 1667 with shipping lanes harbours churches and various boundaries marked Historical affiliations Swedish Empire 1157 1809 Russian Empire 1809 1917 Finland 1917 present Members of the Neolithic Comb Ceramic culture started settling the islands some 7000 years ago after the islands had begun to re emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice age Two neolithic cultures met on Aland the Comb Ceramic culture and the later Pit Comb Ware culture which spread from the west citation needed 22 Stone Age and Bronze Age people obtained food by hunting seals and birds fishing and gathering plants They also started agriculture early on In the Iron Age contacts with Scandinavia increased citation needed From the Iron Age Aland has six hillforts From the Viking age there are over 380 documented burial sites 22 The coat of arms of Aland were originally granted to the similar sounding island province of Oland in 1560 and display a golden red deer on a blue field 23 This is traditionally surmounted by a comital coronet of the elder Swedish style 24 Along with Finland the Aland Islands formed part of the territory ceded to Russia by Sweden under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in September 1809 As a result they became part of the semi autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland 1809 1917 During negotiations Sweden failed to secure a provision that the islands not be fortified The issue was important not only for Sweden but also for the United Kingdom which as a result of the Treaty of 1809 became concerned that a Russian military presence on the islands could threaten Britain s commercial interests in its trade passing through the Baltic citation needed The Aland Islands during the Crimean War It was here that the Battle of Bomarsund was fought In 1832 Russia started to fortify the islands with the great fortress of Bomarsund In 1854 as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War against Russia a combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress during the Aland War The 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Aland archipelago 13 During the Finnish Civil War in 1918 Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and White and Red Finnish troops who came from Finland over the frozen sea Within weeks the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Aland at the request of the White conservative Senate of Finland Aland blue with historical and modern provinces of the rest of Finland gray juxtaposed After 1917 the residents of the islands worked towards having them ceded to Sweden In 1919 96 4 of the voters on the islands signed a petition for secession from Finland and for integration with Sweden with over 95 in favour 25 Swedish nationalist sentiments had strengthened particularly as a result of the anti Swedish tendencies in Finland and as a result of Finnish nationalism fuelled by Finland s struggle to retain its autonomy and resistance against Russification The conflict between the Swedish speaking minority and the Finnish speaking majority on the Finnish mainland prominent in Finnish politics since the 1840s contributed to the apprehension of the Aland population about a future within Finland Finland however declined to cede the islands and instead offered the islanders an autonomous status Nevertheless the residents did not approve the offer and in 1921 the dispute over the islands went before the newly formed League of Nations The latter decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Aland Islands should be made an autonomous territory One of the important proponents of a diplomatic solution to the case was Nitobe Inazō who was one of the Under Secretaries General of the League and the director of the International Bureaux Section in charge of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation 26 The Aland convention of 20 October 1921 signed by Sweden Finland Germany the United Kingdom France Italy Denmark Poland Estonia and Latvia was the first international agreement achieved by the League 27 Thus Finland was obliged to ensure the residents of the Aland Islands the right to maintain the Swedish language as well as their own culture and local traditions The convention of 1921 established the neutral status of Aland by international treaty prohibiting the placing of military installations or forces on the islands 28 Aland s Regional Assembly convened for its first plenary session in Mariehamn on June 9 1922 3 today the day is celebrated as Self Government Day of Aland 4 The islanders disappointment about insufficient support from Sweden in the League of Nations Swedish disrespect for Aland s demilitarised status in the 1930s and some feelings of a shared destiny with Finland during and after the Second World War changed their perception of their relationship with Finland from a Swedish province in Finnish possession to an autonomous part of Finland 29 failed verification Despite the condition of neutrality from the 1921 Convention the islanders enjoyed safety at sea during the war of 1939 1945 as their merchant fleet sailed both for the Allied countries and for Nazi Germany Consequently Aland shipping was not generally attacked as the various military forces rarely knew which cargo was being carried or to whom Finland marked the 150th anniversary of the demilitarisation of the Aland Islands by issuing a high value commemorative coin the 5 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Aland Islands commemorative coin minted in 2006 The obverse depicts a pine tree a typical feature of the Aland Islands The reverse features a boat s stern and rudder with a dove perched on the tiller a symbol of 150 years of peace Politics EditMain article Politics of Aland The Parliament of Aland with the flags of anticlockwise starting with EU the European Union Aland Islands Finland Sweden Denmark Norway Poland Germany Estonia Russia Lithuania and Latvia The Aland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Aland and international treaties These laws guarantee the islands autonomy from Finland which has ultimate sovereignty over them as well as a demilitarised status The Government of Aland or Landskapsregering answers to the Parliament of Aland or Lagting in accordance with the principles of parliamentarism 15 Aland has its own flag and has issued its own postage stamps since 1984 30 It runs its own police force and is an associate member of the Nordic Council 31 The islands are demilitarised and the population is exempt from conscription Although Aland s autonomy preceded the creation of the regions of Finland the autonomous government of Aland also has responsibility for the functions undertaken by Finland s regional councils Aland Post provides postal services to the islands and is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation The islands are considered a separate nation for amateur radio purposes and have their own call sign prefix granted by Finland OH0 OF0 and OG0 last character is zero 32 The Aland Islands are guaranteed representation in the Finnish parliament to which they elect one representative Aland also has a different system of political parties from the mainland Homeschooling which has been effectively banned in Sweden since 2011 is allowed by the Finnish government Due to the islands proximity to Sweden and because the islands are Swedish speaking a number of Swedish homeschooling families have moved from the Swedish mainland to Aland including Jonas Himmelstrand the chairman of the Swedish association for homeschooling 33 After a reform of the electoral law the Aland Islands were to introduce internet voting in 2019 for expat voters in the parliamentary elections considering opening the use of the same system for the next elections 2023 to all the voters 34 However its use was cancelled at the last minute due to a lack of evidence of the trustability of the system 35 Aland s parties include a separatist party called the Future of Aland Swedish Alands Framtid whose main program includes driving autonomous Aland into a completely independent state 36 37 Aland and the EU Edit Aland held its own referendum on membership of the European Union on 20 November 1994 A majority of Alanders voted in favour of membership and it followed Finland into the Union in 1995 A special Aland protocol regulates Aland s position within the EU It has some important exceptions concerning the right of non Alanders to own real estate and the right of non Alandic companies to establish themselves in the region and concerning EU tax legislation The last item s derogation means that Aland is considered a third country for tax purposes which has had the most important effect of allowing the profitable sale of tax exempt goods on ferries to and from Sweden and Finland to continue Membership of the EU is questioned by the Alanders who were left without any compensation for the transfer of power from self government to both Finland and the EU that resulted from membership which has contributed to a deterioration in relations between the authorities in Aland Finland and the EU Administration Edit An Aland licence plate The State Department of Aland represents the Finnish central government and performs many administrative duties It has a somewhat different function from the other Regional Administrative Agencies owing to its autonomy Before 2010 the state administration was handled by the Aland State Provincial Office Aland has its own postal administration but still uses the Finnish five digit postal code system using the number range 22000 22999 with the prefix AX The lowest numbered postal code is for the capital Mariehamn AX 22100 and the highest AX 22950 for Jurmo Municipalities EditMain article Municipalities of Aland 1 The Aland Islands contain a total of 16 municipalities more than 40 of people living in the Aland Islands live in Mariehamn the capital of the islands Mariehamn Population 11 718 Jomala Population 5 393 Finstrom Population 2 610 Lemland Population 2 136 Saltvik Population 1 818 Hammarland Population 1 603 Sund Population 1 012 Eckero Population 950 Foglo Population 523 Geta Population 519 Vardo Population 460 Brando Population 451 Lumparland Population 374 Kumlinge Population 307 Kokar Population 227 Sottunga Population 100 Population as 31 March 2021 38 Geography EditMain article Geography of Aland Geographical features and municipalities of the Aland Islands People hiking in the Aland Islands The Aland Islands occupy a position of strategic importance as they command one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm as well as the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia in addition to being situated near the Gulf of Finland The Aland archipelago includes nearly three hundred habitable islands of which about eighty are inhabited the remainder are merely some 6 200 skerries and desolate rocks 11 The archipelago is connected to Aboland archipelago in the east Finnish Turunmaan saaristo Swedish Abolands skargard the archipelago adjacent to the southwest coast of Finland Together they form the Archipelago Sea To the West from Aland is the Sea of Aland and to the North is the Bothnian Sea The Degersand Beach in Eckero 39 The surface of the islands is generally rocky and the soil thin due to glacial stripping at the end of the most recent ice age 11 The islands also contain many meadows that are home to many different kinds of insects such as the Glanville fritillary butterfly Sheep grazing on a small island The islands landmass occupies a total area of 1 527 square kilometres 590 sq mi 40 Ninety per cent of the population live on Fasta Aland which is also the site of the capital town of Mariehamn Fasta Aland is the largest island in the archipelago Its area is difficult to estimate due to its irregular shape and coastline but estimates range from 740 square kilometres 11 to 879 square kilometres 41 to over 1 010 square kilometres depending on what is included or excluded There are several harbours During the Aland Islands dispute the parties sought support from different maps of the islands On the Swedish map the most densely populated main island dominated and many skerries were left out On the Finnish map many smaller islands or skerries were for technical reasons given a slightly exaggerated size The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden than to Finland the Finnish map stressed the continuity of the archipelago between the main island and mainland Finland while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side One consequence is the often repeated number of over 6 000 skerries that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration citation needed Climate Edit Aland has a humid continental climate Dfb that is influenced by its maritime position especially in summer While summers are cooler than on both the Swedish and Finnish mainland winters see little difference to the adjacent parts of Sweden and are only narrowly milder than in mainland Finland Climate data for Mariehamn normals 1981 2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 10 9 51 6 10 5 50 9 15 4 59 7 21 1 70 0 26 7 80 1 29 4 84 9 29 9 85 8 30 7 87 3 24 8 76 6 19 0 66 2 14 1 57 4 10 1 50 2 30 7 87 3 Average high C F 0 3 32 5 0 3 31 5 2 3 36 1 7 4 45 3 13 3 55 9 17 2 63 0 20 4 68 7 19 4 66 9 14 7 58 5 9 5 49 1 4 6 40 3 1 7 35 1 9 3 48 7 Daily mean C F 2 5 27 5 3 5 25 7 0 9 30 4 3 5 38 3 8 5 47 3 12 8 55 0 16 2 61 2 15 3 59 5 10 9 51 6 6 5 43 7 2 2 36 0 1 0 30 2 5 7 42 3 Average low C F 5 3 22 5 6 6 20 1 4 1 24 6 0 5 31 1 3 7 38 7 8 2 46 8 11 8 53 2 11 1 52 0 7 1 44 8 3 5 38 3 0 2 31 6 3 7 25 3 2 1 35 8 Record low C F 32 3 26 1 32 9 27 2 25 0 13 0 18 9 2 0 6 5 20 3 2 2 28 0 1 2 34 2 0 5 32 9 6 7 19 9 11 8 10 8 20 0 4 0 28 9 20 0 32 9 27 2 Average precipitation mm inches 49 7 1 96 31 4 1 24 33 4 1 31 28 6 1 13 33 4 1 31 52 3 2 06 55 6 2 19 75 1 2 96 60 0 2 36 68 1 2 68 66 5 2 62 56 5 2 22 610 5 24 04 Source 1 Meteo Climat 42 Source 2 Meteo Climat 43 Economy EditSee also Transport on the Aland Islands Mariehamn Airport in Jomala Ferry port in Overo sv Foglo Aland s economy is heavily dominated by shipping trade and tourism Shipping represents about 40 of the economy with several international carriers owned and operated from Aland Most companies aside from shipping are small with fewer than ten employees Farming and fishing are important in combination with the food industry A few high profile technology companies contribute to a prosperous economy Wind power is rapidly developing aiming at reversing the direction in the cables to the mainland in coming years In December 2011 wind power accounted for 31 5 of Aland s total electricity usage citation needed One of Aland s most significant tourist hotels is Hotel Arkipelag 44 located east side of the Mariehamn s city center The main ports are the Western Harbour of Mariehamn south Berghamn west and Langnas on the eastern shore of the Main Island Fasta Aland has the only four highways in Aland Highway 1 from Mariehamn to Eckero Highway 2 from Mariehamn to Sund Highway 3 from Mariehamn to Lumparland and Highway 4 from Finstrom to Geta Mariehamn served as the base for the last large oceanic commercial sailing ships in the world Their final tasks involved bringing Australian wheat to Great Britain a trade which Aland shipowner Gustaf Erikson kept going until 1947 The ships latterly made only one round trip from South Australia to Britain per year the grain race after each marathon voyage going back to Mariehamn to lay up for a few months The ship Pommern now a museum in Mariehamn was one of these last vessels The abolition of tax free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the European Union made Finland demand an exception for the Aland Islands on the European Union value added tax rules The exception allows for maintained tax free sales on the ferries between Sweden and Finland provided they stop at Mariehamn or Langnas and at the airport but has also made Aland a different tax zone meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands Two million people visit the Aland Islands every year but most of them just for a few hours before the ferry returns again or the passengers change from one ship to another 45 Unemployment was 3 9 in January 2014 46 Torggatan a pedestrian street in the city of Mariehamn The Bank of Aland at Nygatan in the city of Mariehamn The Finnish State also collects taxes duties and fees in Aland In return the Finnish Government places a sum of money at the disposal of the Aland Parliament The sum is 0 5 of total Government income excluding Government loans If the sum paid to the Finnish state exceeds 0 5 then any amount above goes back to the Parliament of Aland as diligence money 47 In 2010 the amount of taxes paid by Aland Islanders comprised 0 7 of the total taxes paid in Finland 48 According to Eurostat as of 2006 update Aland was the 20th wealthiest of the EU s 268 regions and the wealthiest in Finland with a GDP per inhabitant 47 above the EU mean 49 50 Bank of Aland is headquartered on the island The euro is the sole legal tender as with the rest of Finland although most businesses in Aland unofficially accept the Swedish krona 51 Demographics EditEthnicity and language Edit Languages in the Aland Islands 2019 Languages percentSwedish 86 5 Finnish 4 7 Other 8 8 See also Languages of Aland Most inhabitants speak Swedish the sole official language as their first language 86 5 in 2019 while 4 7 spoke Finnish The language of instruction in publicly financed schools is Swedish In the rest of Finland bilingual municipalities provide schooling both in Finnish and in Swedish See Aland Swedish for information about the dialect The issue of the ethnicity of the Alanders and the correct linguistic classification of their language remains somewhat sensitive and controversial They may be considered either ethnic Swedes or Swedish speaking Finns but their language is closer to the Upplandska dialect of Sweden than to Finland Swedish citation needed See Languages of Sweden Regional citizenship or the right of domicile hembygdsratt is a prerequisite for voting standing as a candidate for the Legislative Assembly or owning and holding real estate situated in unplanned areas of Aland 15 Education Edit Alands Lyceum a gymnasium in Mariehamn In 2010 there were 22 primary schools in Aland Eight of them covered both upper and lower secondary schools two were upper secondary schools and 12 were primary schools grades 1 6 52 For post primary studies you can choose either the traditional high school of Alands Lyceum sv or the Aland vocational high school which offers a double degree in high school and vocational studies Of these Alands Lyceum is a relatively large high school according to the 2018 statistics of the education administration as many as 432 high school students studied there 53 Aland University of Applied Sciences teaches about 600 students 54 in maritime mechanical engineering electrical engineering IT finance hotels restaurants and health care 55 Finnish language has been a compulsory subject in upper secondary school but optional in primary school however 80 per cent of students have chosen it In 2006 it was proposed to remove the compulsory Finnish language from upper secondary schools 56 Religion Edit The St Olaf s Church Jomala is the oldest in the Aland Islands The majority of the population 70 5 belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland 57 The Aland islands contain Finland s oldest Christian churches including St Olaf s Church Jomala which dating from the late 13th century is likely to be the oldest in Finland citation needed The Aland Islands largest church is the Church of St John in Sund dating from shortly after 58 Culture EditLiterature Edit The most famous writers in Aland are Anni Blomqvist known for her five volume Stormskars Maja series 59 Sally Salminen whose best known work is the 1936 novel Katrina 60 and Ulla Lena Lundberg who has described her native Kokar Each of these works are set in Aland The sailing ship Linden center in Ostra Hamnen Mariehamn s eastern port Cinema and television Edit A 2016 historical drama film Devil s Bride directed by Saara Cantell takes place in the 17th century in Aland during the witch hunts 61 It won the Best Foreign Language Film Award at the Toronto Female Eye Film Festival in 2017 62 Also a 2013 drama film Disciple directed by Ulrika Bengts is set in Aland 63 64 Sport Edit See also Football in Aland In association football Aland national team competes in the biennial Island Games which it hosted in 1991 and 2009 The islands also hosted the 1974 and 1977 Women s Nordic Football Championship Competitions and teams are organised by the Aland Football Association which also organise the Alands Cup for clubs Women s football club Aland United founded in 2004 and men s IFK Mariehamn are the islands leading football clubs IFK play in the Veikkausliiga Finland s highest football league Both clubs play at the Wiklof Holding Arena in Mariehamn Other smaller clubs include FC Aland IF Finstroms Kamraterna IF Fram and Lemlands IF The islands hosted the 2017 and 2018 Paf Masters an annual bonspiel women s curling tournamen hosted in Eckero The Aland Stags is the islands only rugby union club Heraldry EditThe coat of arms of Aland features a golden red deer on a blue field This is traditionally surmounted by a comital coronet of the elder Swedish style 24 The arms borne today by the Aland Islands were originally granted to the similar sounding island province of Oland in 1560 displaying a golden red deer on a blue field 23 Notable people Edit G A Wallin 1811 1852 Anni Blomqvist author Adelina Engman football player Robert Helenius boxer Johan Hellstrom boxer Karl Emanuel Jansson painter Peter Lindback politician and governor Ulla Lena Lundberg author Robert Mattson shipowner and businessman Pehr Henrik Nordgren composer Joel Pettersson painter and author Sally Salminen author Annica Sjolund football player Veronica Thornroos politician Georg August Wallin professor explorer and orientalist Atos Wirtanen politician and journalistSee also EditAland Islands dispute Aland Islands official football team Aland Swedish Aland War Aland s Autonomy Day Battle of Aland Islands Coat of arms of Aland Flag of Aland Government of Aland Invasion of Aland Languages of Aland Paf Alands Penningautomatforening Provincial Governors of Finland Public holidays in Aland Transport on the Aland Islands Bibliography of the Aland Islands Index of Aland related articles Outline of the Aland IslandsReferences Edit Tim Vickery Associated Press 18 July 2004 Deseret News a b Hurst Hannum 1993 Agreement between Sweden and Finland Relating to Guarantees in the Law of 7 May 1920 on the Autonomy of the Aaland Islands Basic Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights Martinus Nijhoff Publishers p 141 ISBN 0 7923 1977 X a b Ahvenanmaa pahkinankuoressa Ahvenanmaa ahaa in Finnish 2007 p 3 a b Ahvenanmaan historiaa lyhyesti Pohjola Norden in Finnish Retrieved 10 December 2020 Ennakkovakiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain helmikuu 2016 Pxnet2 stat fi Retrieved 31 March 2016 Tilastokeskus Population www tilastokeskus fi Retrieved 9 August 2021 Valkommen till ASUB Alands statistik och utredningsbyra Asub ax Retrieved 26 October 2017 Facts about Aland Nordic cooperation www norden org Retrieved 9 August 2021 Sub national HDI Area Database Global Data Lab hdi globaldatalab org Retrieved 13 September 2018 The Aland Islands Osterholm info 9 May 2012 Archived from the original on 9 May 2012 Retrieved 26 October 2017 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link a b c d Scheffel Richard L Wernet Susan J eds 1980 Natural Wonders of the World United States of America Reader s Digest Association Inc p 3 ISBN 0 89577 087 3 An account of the border on Market and how it was redrawn in 1985 appears in Hidden Europe Magazine 11 November 2006 pp 26 29 ISSN 1860 6318 a b Uneasy Sweden and the Menace of Prussianism An Analysis of the Scandinavian Situation in View of Kaiser s Reported Ambition to Make the Baltic a German Lake PDF Query nytimes com Retrieved 26 October 2017 100 years of autonomy Aland celebrates Nordic Labour Journal Retrieved 30 June 2021 a b c Act on the Autonomy of Aland PDF Finlex 1991 Retrieved 25 January 2017 IL IL reportaasi paljastaa suomenkielisten karun arjen Ahvenanmaalla Haukkumista kiusaamista ja syrjintaa Totuus on se etta kaikista maailman kielista suomi on vihatuin in Finnish IL Ahvenanmaan opetusministeri ei tunnista kritiikkia suomen kielen alennustilasta Pitaa kunnioittaa Ahvenanmaata yksikielisena in Finnish Aland Inseln Finnland 20 November 1994 Beitritt zur EU Direct Democracy Aland in the European Union Europe Information Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland 2013 p 7 Retrieved 25 January 2017 Virrankoski Pentti 2001 Suomen historia Ensimmainen osa SKS ISBN 951 746 321 9 p 59 Lars Hulden 2001 Finlandssvenska bebyggelsenamn Svenska litteratursallskapet i Finland ISBN 951 583 071 0 a b aland the history Aland Museum Retrieved 15 January 2016 a b Neveus Clara Waern Jacques de 1992 Ny Svensk Vapenbok in Swedish Stockholm Sweden Streiffert amp Co Bokforlag HB p 32 ISBN 91 7886 092 X a b Maakuntien vaakunat in Finnish Archived from the original on 21 February 2007 Retrieved 19 July 2013 ch Beat Muller beat at sign sudd dot Aland Inseln Finnland Juni 1919 Anschluss an Schweden in German Sudd ch Retrieved 26 October 2017 Margery Post Abbott Mary Ellen Chijioke Pink Dandelion amp John William Oliver Historical Dictionary of the Friends Quakers p 246 Scarecrow Press 2011 ISBN 0810868571 F S Northedge The League of Nations Its Life and Times 1920 1946 Holmes amp Meier 1986 ISBN 978 0 7185 1316 0 pp 77 78 Elgan Elisabeth 2015 Historical Dictionary of Sweden Rowman amp Littlefield p 26 ISBN 9781442250710 The recognition of states law and practice in debate and evolution Thomas D Grant illustrated Greenwood Publishing Group 1999 ISBN 0 275 96350 0 ISBN 978 0 275 96350 7 pp 129 30 Product catalogue Aland Stamps Retrieved 10 February 2017 The 2007 Session of the Nordic Council European Tribune 2007 Retrieved 10 February 2017 International Prefixes Radio Society of Great Britain Retrieved 10 February 2017 Allt fler hemundervisare flyttar till Aland Alandstidningen Retrieved 12 August 2015 Krimmer R Duenas Cid D Krivonosova I Serrano R A Freire M amp Wrede C 2019 September 27 Nordic Pioneers facing the first use of Internet Voting in the Aland Islands Parliamentary Elections 2019 Duenas Cid David Krivonosova Iuliia Serrano Radu Freire Marlon Krimmer Robert 7 May 2020 Tripped at the Finishing Line The Aland Islands Internet Voting Project In Krimmer Robert Volkamer Melanie Beckert Bernhard Kusters Ralf Kulyk Oksana Duenas Cid David Solvak Mihkel eds Electronic Voting Lecture Notes in Computer Science 12455 Springer International Publishing pp 36 49 doi 10 1007 978 3 030 60347 2 3 ISBN 978 3 030 60346 5 S2CID 221911723 via Springer Link Viva Aland Independence Dream Not Dead But More Autonomy Comes First Wednesday s papers Aland s separatists take heart housing market warning and pig farm vaccinations Yle Uutiset https www asub ax sites www asub ax files attachments page statistisk arsbok for aland 2019 1 pdf The Degersand Beach World Beach Guide Statistical Yearbook of Finland 2016 PDF Stat fi p 505 Archived from the original PDF on 11 February 2017 Retrieved 7 February 2017 Europe Council of 1 January 2012 Biodiversity and Climate Change Reports and Guidance Developed Under the Bern Convention Council of Europe p 251 ISBN 9789287170590 Finland climate averages 1981 2010 Meteo Climat Extreme values for Jomala Maarianahaminan Lentoansema Meteo Climat 19 March 2017 Hotel Arkipelag Aland many travellers far fewer overnighters Nordic Labour Journal June 27 2019 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 12 August 2014 Retrieved 12 August 2014 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Lagtingets uppgifter Lagtinget ax 22 October 2015 Retrieved 26 October 2017 Om landskapet Aland tillkommande skattegottgorelse for 2010 PDF 13 March 2013 Archived from the original on 13 March 2013 Retrieved 26 October 2017 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Europe s Regions PDF 20 August 2012 Archived from the original on 20 August 2012 Retrieved 26 October 2017 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Ahvenanmaa on EU n 20 vaurain alue Helsingin Sanomat 19 February 2009 Retrieved 19 July 2009 Symington Andy Bain Carolyn Bonetto Cristian Ham Anthony amp Kaminski Anna 2013 Scandinavia Lonely Planet Grundskolor pa Aland in Swedish Alands kommunforbund Retrieved 24 November 2020 Lukiokoulutuksen oppilaat vipunen fi in Finnish Opetushallinnon tilastopalvelu Vipunen Retrieved 24 November 2020 Info om Hogskolan pa Aland ha ax in Swedish Retrieved 24 November 2020 Studera pa Aland in Swedish AMS arbetsmarknad Studierna Retrieved 24 November 2020 Pakkosuomi uhan alla Ahvenanmaalla Sveriges Radio Sveriges Radio Sisuradio 2006 Retrieved 24 November 2020 Key figures on population by region in 1990 2020 Statistics Finland Churches in Aland Muuka com Retrieved 26 October 2017 Anni Blomqvist authorscalendar info Romanen Katrina var bara borjan Sally Salminen var sa mycket mer sager Ulrika Gustafsson som skrivit en biografi over smabrukardottern fran Vardo som blev forfattare mot alla odds in Swedish Devil s Bride Brosmark Brosmark com Retrieved 31 July 2020 Best Foreign Feature Elinpetersdottir com June 2017 Retrieved 31 July 2020 Kotiapulaisesta kirjailijaksi in Finnish Uusi Suomi 2008 Retrieved 31 July 2020 Oppipoika 2013 Elokuvauutiset in Finnish Retrieved 31 July 2020 Further reading EditBarros James The Aland Islands Question Its Settlement by the League of Nations 1 Mead W R Saltvik Studies from an Aland Parish 2 Sederholm J J On Migmatites and Associated Pre Cambrian Rocks of Southwestern Finland Part III The Aland Islands 3 External links Edit Media related to Aland at Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Atlas of Aland Official website in English Government of Aland in Swedish B7 Baltic Islands Network The example of Aland autonomy as a minor protector The Aland example autonomy protects a minority Alandstidningen local newspaper Upton A F July 1970 Review The English Historical Review Oxford University Press 85 336 631 doi 10 1093 ehr lxxxv 336 631 a JSTOR 563263 Coleman Alice December 1964 Review The Geographical Journal Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers 130 4 571 572 doi 10 2307 1792320 JSTOR 1792320 Grogan Robert October November 1935 Review The Journal of Geology The University of Chicago Press 43 7 784 Bibcode 1935JG 43 784G doi 10 1086 624372 JSTOR 30057950 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Aland Islands amp oldid 1053042393, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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