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Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (, alsoUS: , French: ; 2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, journalist, playwright, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in his renowned newspaper opinion headlined J'Accuse…! Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.

Émile Zola
Zola in 1902
BornÉmile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola
(1840-04-02)2 April 1840
Paris, France
Died29 September 1902(1902-09-29) (aged 62)
Paris, France
Resting placePanthéon, Paris and Coupvray
OccupationNovelist, journalist, playwright, poet
NationalityFrench
Genres
Literary movementNaturalism
Notable worksLes Rougon-Macquart, Thérèse Raquin, Germinal, Nana
SpouseÉléonore-Alexandrine Meley
RelativesFrançois Zola (father)
Émilie Aubert (mother)
Signature

Contents

Zola was born in Paris in 1840 to François Zola (originally Francesco Zolla) and Émilie Aubert. His father was an Italian engineer with some Greek ancestry, who was born in Venice in 1795, and engineered the Zola Dam in Aix-en-Provence; his mother was French. The family moved to Aix-en-Provence in the southeast when Émile was three years old. Four years later, in 1847, his father died, leaving his mother on a meager pension. In 1858, the Zolas moved to Paris, where Émile's childhood friend Paul Cézanne soon joined him. Zola started to write in the romantic style. His widowed mother had planned a law career for Émile, but he failed his baccalauréat examination twice.

Before his breakthrough as a writer, Zola worked for minimal pay as a clerk in a shipping firm and then in the sales department for the publisher Hachette. He also wrote literary and art reviews for newspapers. As a political journalist, Zola did not hide his dislike of Napoleon III, who had successfully run for the office of president under the constitution of the French Second Republic, only to use this position as a springboard for the coup d'état that made him emperor.

In 1862 Zola was naturalized as a French citizen. In 1865, he met Éléonore-Alexandrine Meley, who called herself Gabrielle, a seamstress, who became his mistress. They married on 31 May 1870. Together they cared for Zola's mother. She stayed with him all his life and was instrumental in promoting his work. The marriage remained childless. Alexandrine Zola had a child before she met Zola that she had given up, because she was unable to take care of it. When she confessed this to Zola after their marriage, they went looking for the girl, but she had died a short time after birth.

In 1888, he was given a camera, but he only began to use it in 1895 and attained a near professional level of expertise. Also in 1888, Alexandrine hired Jeanne Rozerot, a seamstress who was to live with them in their home in Médan. Zola fell in love with Jeanne and fathered two children with her: Denise in 1889 and Jacques in 1891. After Jeanne left Médan for Paris, Zola continued to support and visit her and their children. In November 1891 Alexandrine discovered the affair, which brought the marriage to the brink of divorce.[citation needed] The discord was partially healed, which allowed Zola to take an increasingly active role in the lives of the children. After Zola's death, the children were given his name as their lawful surname.

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Zola early in his career

During his early years, Zola wrote numerous short stories and essays, four plays, and three novels. Among his early books was Contes à Ninon, published in 1864. With the publication of his sordid autobiographical novel La Confession de Claude (1865) attracting police attention, Hachette fired Zola. His novel Les Mystères de Marseille appeared as a serial in 1867. He was also an aggressive critic, his articles on literature and art appearing in Villemessant's journal L'Événement. After his first major novel, Thérèse Raquin (1867), Zola started the series called Les Rougon-Macquart.

In Paris, Zola maintained his friendship with Cézanne, who painted a portrait of him with another friend from Aix-en-Provence, writer Paul Alexis, entitled Paul Alexis Reading to Zola.

Literary output

Paul Cézanne, Paul Alexis Reading to Émile Zola, 1869–1870, São Paulo Museum of Art

More than half of Zola's novels were part of the twenty-volume Les Rougon-Macquart cycle, which details the history of a single family under the reign of Napoléon III. Unlike Balzac, who in the midst of his literary career resynthesized his work into La Comédie Humaine, Zola from the start, at the age of 28, had thought of the complete layout of the series.[citation needed] Set in France's Second Empire, in the context of Baron Haussmann's changing Paris, the series traces the environmental and hereditary influences of violence, alcohol, and prostitution which became more prevalent during the second wave of the Industrial Revolution. The series examines two branches of the family—the respectable (that is, legitimate) Rougons and the disreputable (illegitimate) Macquarts—over five generations.

In the preface to the first novel of the series, Zola states, "I want to explain how a family, a small group of regular people, behaves in society, while expanding through the birth of ten, twenty individuals, who seem at first glance profoundly dissimilar, but who are shown through analysis to be intimately linked to one another. Heredity has its own laws, just like gravity. I will attempt to find and to follow, by resolving the double question of temperaments and environments, the thread that leads mathematically from one man to another."

Although Zola and Cézanne were friends from childhood, they experienced a falling out later in life over Zola's fictionalised depiction of Cézanne and the Bohemian life of painters in Zola's novel L'Œuvre (The Masterpiece, 1886).

From 1877, with the publication of L'Assommoir, Émile Zola became wealthy; he was better paid than Victor Hugo, for example. Because L'Assommoir was such a success, Zola was able to renegotiate his contract with his publisher Georges Charpentier to receive more than 14% royalties and the exclusive rights to serial publication in the press. Subsequently, sales of L'Assommoir were even exceeded by those of Nana (1880) and La Débâcle (1892). He became a figurehead among the literary bourgeoisie and organised cultural dinners with Guy de Maupassant, Joris-Karl Huysmans, and other writers at his luxurious villa (worth 300,000 francs) in Médan, near Paris, after 1880. Despite being nominated several times, Zola was never elected to the Académie française.

Zola's output also included novels on population (Fécondité) and work (Travail), a number of plays, and several volumes of criticism. He wrote every day for around 30 years, and took as his motto Nulla dies sine linea ("not a day without a line").

The self-proclaimed leader of French naturalism, Zola's works inspired operas such as those of Gustave Charpentier, notably Louise in the 1890s. His works, inspired by the concept of heredity and milieu (Claude Bernard and Hippolyte Taine) and by the realism of Balzac and Flaubert. He also provided the libretto for several operas by Alfred Bruneau, including Messidor (1897) and L'Ouragan (1901); several of Bruneau's other operas are adapted from Zola's writing. These provided a French alternative to Italian verismo.

He is considered to be a significant influence on those writers that are credited with the creation of the so-called new journalism; Wolfe, Capote, Thompson, Mailer, Didion, Talese and others. Tom Wolfe wrote that his goal in writing fiction was to document contemporary society in the tradition of John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens, and Émile Zola.[citation needed]

Main articles: Dreyfus affair and J'accuse
Front page cover of the newspaper L'Aurore for Thursday 13 January 1898, with the open letter J'Accuse…!, written by Émile Zola about the Dreyfus affair. The headline reads "I Accuse...! Letter to the President of the Republic"—Paris Museum of Jewish Art and History

Captain Alfred Dreyfus was a French-Jewish artillery officer in the French army. In September 1894, French intelligence found information about someone giving the German Embassy military secrets. Anti-semitism caused senior officers to suspect Dreyfus, though there was no direct evidence of any wrongdoing. Dreyfus was court-martialed, convicted of treason, and sent to Devil's Island in French Guiana.

Lt. Col. Georges Picquart came across evidence that implicated another officer, Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, and informed his superiors. Rather than move to clear Dreyfus, the decision was made to protect Esterhazy and ensure the original verdict was not overturned. Major Hubert-Joseph Henry forged documents that made it seem as if Dreyfus were guilty, while Picquart was reassigned to duty in Africa. However, Picquart's findings were communicated by his lawyer to the Senator Auguste Scheurer-Kestner, who took up the case, at first discreetly and then increasingly publicly. Meanwhile, further evidence was brought forward by Dreyfus's family and Esterhazy's estranged family and creditors. Under pressure, the general staff arranged for a closed court-martial to be held on 10–11 January 1898, at which Esterhazy was tried in camera and acquitted. Picquart was detained on charges of violation of professional secrecy.

In response Zola risked his career and more, and on 13 January 1898 published J'Accuse…! on the front page of the Paris daily L'Aurore. The newspaper was run by Ernest Vaughan and Georges Clemenceau, who decided that the controversial story would be in the form of an open letter to the President, Félix Faure. Zola's J'Accuse...! accused the highest levels of the French Army of obstruction of justice and antisemitism by having wrongfully convicted Alfred Dreyfus to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. Zola's intention was that he be prosecuted for libel so that the new evidence in support of Dreyfus would be made public. The case, known as the Dreyfus affair, deeply divided France between the reactionary army and Catholic church on one hand, and the more liberal commercial society on the other. The ramifications continued for many years; on the 100th anniversary of Zola's article, France's Roman Catholic daily paper, La Croix, apologised for its antisemitic editorials during the Dreyfus affair. As Zola was a leading French thinker and public figure, his letter formed a major turning point in the affair.[citation needed]

Zola was brought to trial for criminal libel on 7 February 1898, and was convicted on 23 February and removed from the Legion of Honour. The first judgment was overturned in April on a technicality, but a new suit was pressed against Zola, which opened on 18 July. At his lawyer's advice, Zola fled to England rather than wait for the end of the trial (at which he was again convicted). Without even having had the time to pack a few clothes, he arrived at Victoria Station on 19 July, the start of a brief and unhappy residence in the UK. After initially staying at the Grosvenor Hotel, Victoria, Zola then went to the Oatlands Park Hotel in Weybridge and shortly afterwards rented a house locally called Penn where he was joined by his family for the summer. At the end of August, they moved to another house in Addlestone called Summerfield. In early October the family moved to London and then his wife and children went back to France so the children could resume their schooling. Thereafter Zola lived alone in the Queen's Hotel, Norwood. He stayed in Upper Norwood from October 1898 to June 1899.[citation needed]

In France, the furious divisions over the Dreyfus affair continued. The fact of Major Henry's forgery was discovered and admitted to in August 1898, and the Government referred Dreyfus's original court-martial to the Supreme Court for review the following month, over the objections of the General Staff. Eight months later, on 3 June 1899, the Supreme Court annulled the original verdict and ordered a new military court-martial. The same month Zola returned from his exile in England. Still the anti-Dreyfusards would not give up, and on 8 September 1899 Dreyfus was again convicted. Dreyfus applied for a retrial, but the government countered by offering Dreyfus a pardon (rather than exoneration), which would allow him to go free, provided that he admit to being guilty. Although he was clearly not guilty, he chose to accept the pardon. Later the same month, despite Zola's condemnation, an amnesty bill was passed, covering "all criminal acts or misdemeanours related to the Dreyfus affair or that have been included in a prosecution for one of these acts", indemnifying Zola and Picquart, but also all those who had concocted evidence against Dreyfus. Dreyfus was finally completely exonerated by the Supreme Court in 1906.

Zola said of the affair, "The truth is on the march, and nothing shall stop it." Zola's 1898 article is widely marked in France as the most prominent manifestation of the new power of the intellectuals (writers, artists, academicians) in shaping public opinion, the media and the state.[citation needed]

On August 18, 1887, the French daily newspaper Le Figaro published "The Manifesto of the Five" shortly after La Terre was released. The signatories included Paul Bonnetain, J. H. Rosny, Lucien Descaves, Paul Margueritte and Gustave Guiches, who strongly disapproved of the lack of balance of both morals and aesthetics throughout the book's depiction of the revolution. The manifesto accused Zola of having "lowered the standard of Naturalism, of catering to large sales by deliberate obscenities, of being a morbid and impotent hypochondriac, incapable of taking a sane and healthy view of mankind. They freely referred to Zola's physiological weaknesses and expressed the utmost horror at the crudeness of La Terre."

Gravestone of Émile Zola at cimetière Montmartre; his remains are now interred in the Panthéon.
Graves of Alexandre Dumas, Victor Hugo and Émile Zola at the Panthéon in Paris

Zola died on 29 September 1902 of carbon monoxide poisoning caused by an improperly ventilated chimney. His funeral on 5 October was attended by thousands. Alfred Dreyfus initially had promised not to attend the funeral, but was given permission by Mme Zola and attended. At the time of his death Zola had just completed a novel, Vérité, about the Dreyfus trial. A sequel, Justice, had been planned, but was not completed.

His enemies were blamed for his death because of previous attempts on his life, but nothing could be proved at the time. Expressions of sympathy arrived from everywhere in France; for a week the vestibule of his house was crowded with notable writers, scientists, artists, and politicians who came to inscribe their names in the registers. On the other hand, Zola's enemies used the opportunity to celebrate in malicious glee. Writing in L'Intransigeant, Henri Rochefort claimed Zola had committed suicide, having discovered Dreyfus to be guilty.

Zola was initially buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris, but on 4 June 1908, just five years and nine months after his death, his remains were relocated to the Panthéon, where he shares a crypt with Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas. The ceremony was disrupted by an assassination attempt by Louis-Anthelme Grégori, a disgruntled journalist and admirer of Edouard Drumont, on Alfred Dreyfus, who was wounded in the arm by the gunshot. Grégori was acquitted by the Parisian court which accepted his defense that he had not meant to kill Dreyfus, meaning merely to graze him.

In 1953, an investigation ("Zola a-t-il été assassiné?") published by the journalist Jean Bedel in the newspaper Libération raised the idea that Zola's death might have been a murder rather than an accident. It is based on the revelation of the Norman pharmacist Pierre Hacquin, who was told by the chimney-sweep Henri Buronfosse that the latter intentionally blocked the chimney of Zola's apartment in Paris ("Hacquin, je vais vous dire comment Zola est mort. [...] Zola a été asphyxié volontairement. C'est nous qui avons bouché la cheminée de son appartement.").

Zola's Rougon-Macquart novels are a panoramic account of the Second French Empire. They tell the story of a family approximately between the years 1851 and 1871. These twenty novels contain over 300 characters, who descend from the two family lines of the Rougons and Macquarts. In Zola's words, which are the subtitle of the Rougon-Macquart series, they are "L'Histoire naturelle et sociale d'une famille sous le Second Empire" ("The natural and social history of a family under the Second Empire").

Most of the Rougon-Macquart novels were written during the French Third Republic. To an extent, attitudes and value judgments may have been superimposed on that picture with the wisdom of hindsight. Some critics classify Zola's work, and naturalism more broadly, as a particular strain of decadent literature, which emphasized the fallen, corrupted state of modern civilization. Nowhere is the doom-laden image of the Second Empire so clearly seen as in Nana, which culminates in echoes of the Franco-Prussian War (and hence by implication of the French defeat). Even in novels dealing with earlier periods of Napoleon III's reign the picture of the Second Empire is sometimes overlaid with the imagery of catastrophe.[citation needed]

Poster by Léon Choubrac advertising the publication of Zola's novel Germinal in Gil Blas, 25 November 1878

In the Rougon-Macquart novels, provincial life can seem to be overshadowed by Zola's preoccupation with the capital.[citation needed]. However, the following novels (see the individual titles in the Livre de poche series) scarcely touch on life in Paris: La Terre (peasant life in Beauce), Le Rêve (an unnamed cathedral city), Germinal (collieries in the northeast of France), La Joie de vivre (the Atlantic coast), and the four novels set in and around Plassans (modelled on his childhood home, Aix-en-Provence), (La Fortune des Rougon, La Conquête de Plassans, La Faute de l'Abbé Mouret and Le Docteur Pascal)[citation needed]. La Débâcle, the military novel is set for the most part in country districts of eastern France; its dénouement takes place in the capital during the civil war leading to the suppression of the Paris Commune. Though Paris has its role in La Bête humaine the most striking incidents (notably the train crash) take place elsewhere. Even the Paris-centred novels tend to set some scenes outside, if not very far from, the capital. In the political novel Son Excellence Eugène Rougon, the eponymous minister's interventions on behalf of his so-called friends, have their consequences elsewhere, and the reader is witness to some of them. Even Nana, one of Zola's characters most strongly associated with Paris, makes a brief and typically disastrous trip to the country.

In Le Roman expérimental and Les Romanciers naturalistes, Zola expounded the purposes of the "naturalist" novel. The experimental novel was to serve as a vehicle for scientific experiment, analogous to the experiments conducted by Claude Bernard and expounded by him in Introduction à la médecine expérimentale. Claude Bernard's experiments were in the field of clinical physiology, those of the Naturalist writers (Zola being their leader) would be in the realm of psychology influenced by the natural environment. Balzac, Zola claimed, had already investigated the psychology of lechery in an experimental manner, in the figure of Hector Hulot in La Cousine Bette.[citation needed] Essential to Zola's concept of the experimental novel was dispassionate observation of the world, with all that it involved by way of meticulous documentation. To him, each novel should be based upon a dossier.[citation needed]With this aim, he visited the colliery of Anzin in northern France, in February 1884 when a strike was on; he visited La Beauce (for La Terre), Sedan, Ardennes (for La Débâcle) and travelled on the railway line between Paris and Le Havre (when researching La Bête humaine).

Édouard Manet, Portrait of Émile Zola, 1868, Musée d'Orsay

Zola strongly claimed that Naturalist literature is an experimental analysis of human psychology.[citation needed] Considering this claim, many critics, such as György Lukács, find Zola strangely poor at creating lifelike and memorable characters in the manner of Honoré de Balzac or Charles Dickens, despite his ability to evoke powerful crowd scenes. It was important to Zola that no character should appear larger than life; but the criticism that his characters are "cardboard" is substantially more damaging. Zola, by refusing to make any of his characters larger than life (if that is what he has indeed done), did not inhibit himself from also achieving verisimilitude.

Although Zola found it scientifically and artistically unjustifiable to create larger-than-life characters, his work presents some larger-than-life symbols which, like the mine Le Voreux in Germinal,[citation needed] take on the nature of a surrogate human life. The mine, the still in L'Assommoir and the locomotive La Lison in La Bête humaine impress the reader with the vivid reality of human beings.[citation needed] The great natural processes of seedtime and harvest, death and renewal in La Terre are instinct with a vitality which is not human but is the elemental energy of life. Human life is raised to the level of the mythical as the hammerblows of Titans are seemingly heard underground at Le Voreux or in La Faute de l'Abbé Mouret, the walled park of Le Paradou encloses a re-enactment—and restatement—of the Book of Genesis.[citation needed]

Luc Barbut-Davray, Portrait of Zola, Oil on Canvas, 1899

In Zola there is the theorist and the writer, the poet, the scientist and the optimist – features that are basically joined in his own confession of positivism;[citation needed] later in his life, when he saw his own position turning into an anachronism, he would still style himself with irony and sadness over the lost cause as "an old and rugged Positivist".

The poet is the artist in words whose writing, as in the racecourse scene in Nana or in the descriptions of the laundry in L'Assommoir or in many passages of La Faute de l'Abbé Mouret, Le Ventre de Paris and La Curée, vies with the colourful impressionistic techniques of Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. The scientist is a believer in some measure of scientific determinism – not that this, despite his own words "devoid of free will" ("dépourvus de libre arbitre"), need always amount to a philosophical denial of free will. The creator of "la littérature putride", a term of abuse invented by an early critic of Thérèse Raquin (a novel which predates Les Rougon-Macquart series), emphasizes the squalid aspects of the human environment and upon the seamy side of human nature.

The optimist is that other face of the scientific experimenter, the man with an unshakable belief in human progress.[citation needed] Zola bases his optimism on innéité and on the supposed capacity of the human race to make progress in a moral sense. Innéité is defined by Zola as that process in which "se confondent les caractères physiques et moraux des parents, sans que rien d'eux semble s'y retrouver"; it is the term used in biology to describe the process whereby the moral and temperamental dispositions of some individuals are unaffected by the hereditary transmission of genetic characteristics. Jean Macquart and Pascal Rougon are two instances of individuals liberated from the blemishes of their ancestors by the operation of the process of innéité.[citation needed]

French language

Works translated into English

The 3 Cities

  1. Lourdes,
  2. Rome
  3. Paris

The 4 Gospels # Fruitfulness

  1. Work (1901)
  2. Truth (1903)
  3. Justice (Unfinished)

Standalones

  • The Flood (1880)
  • The Mysteries of Marseilles (1895)
  • The Fête at Coqueville (1907)

Modern Translations

  • Theresa Raquin (1995)

The Rougon-Macquart (1993-2020)

  1. La Fortune des Rougon (The Fortune of the Rougons) (2012)
  2. Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (His Excellency Eugène Rougon) (2018)
  3. La Curée (The Kill) (2004)
  4. L'Argent (Money) (2016)
  5. Le Rêve (The Dream) (2018)
  6. La Conquête de Plassans (The Conquest of Plassans) (2014)
  7. Pot-Bouille (Pot Luck) (1999)
  8. Au Bonheur des Dames (The Ladies Paradise/The Ladies' Delight) (1995)
  9. La Faute de l'Abbé Mouret (The Sin of Abbé Mouret) (2017)
  10. Une page d'amour (A Love Story) (2017)
  11. Le Ventre de Paris (The Belly of Paris) (2007)
  12. La joie de vivre (The Bright Side of Life) (2018)
  13. L'Assommoir (The Drinking Den) (2000)
  14. L'Œuvre (The Masterpiece) (1993)
  15. La Bête humaine (The Beast Within) (1999)
  16. Germinal (2004)
  17. Nana (2020)
  18. La Terre (The Earth) (2016)
  19. La Débâcle (The Debacle) (2000, reissued 2017)
  20. Le Docteur Pascal (Doctor Pascal) (2020)
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  29. Weybridge Society Newsletter Spring 2019
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  40. Cummins, Anthony (5 December 2015). "How Émile Zola made novels out of gutter voices and ultra-violence". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved3 November 2016.
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  42. Bernheimer, Charles (1999). Constable, Liz (ed.). Unknowing Decadence. Perennial Decay: On the Aesthetics and Politics of Decadence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 50–64.
  43. Nelson, Brian (15 February 2007). The Cambridge Companion to Zola. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139827270.
  44. Zola, Émile (2003). Nana. Paris, France: Livre de poche. ISBN 978-2253003656.
  45. Garnett, A. F. (1 January 2005). Steel Wheels: The Evolution of the Railways and how They Stimulated and Excited Engineers, Architects, Artists, Writers, Musicians and Travellers. Cannwood. ISBN 9780955025709.
  46. György Lukács, Studies in European Realism. A Sociological Survey of the Writings of Balzac, Stendhal, Zola, Tolstoy, Gorki and Others, London: 1950, pp. 91–95.
  47. Émile Zola, Les Romanciers naturalistes, Paris: 1903, pp. 126–129.
  48. Letter from Émile Zola to Jules Lemaître, 14 March 1885.
  49. See Émile Zola's speech at the annual banquet of the Students' Association at the Hotel Moderne in Paris, 20 May 1893, published in English by The New York Times on 11 June 1893 at http://www.positivists.org.
  50. Émile Zola, Les Œuvres complètes, vol. 34, Paris: 1928, Thérèse Raquin, preface to 2nd edition, p. viii.
  51. Émile Zola, Les Œuvres complètes, vol. 34, Paris: 1928, Thérèse Raquin, preface to 2nd edition, p. xiv.
  52. Émile Zola, Les Œuvres complètes, vol. 22, Paris: 1928, Le Docteur Pascal, p. 38.
  53. Hitchens, Christopher (2001). Letters to a young contrarian. Basic Books. p. xiii. ISBN 9780465030323.
  54. "Stellar cast announced for Bill Gallagher's glittering new BBC One drama series The Paradise". BBC Media Centre. BBC. 17 May 2012. Retrieved26 September 2012.
  55. Holden, Stephen (29 March 2017). "Review: In 'Cézanne et Moi,' Zola and the Artist Are Pals. However ..." The New York Times. p. C8.
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Émile Zola
Emile Zola Language Watch Edit Emile Edouard Charles Antoine Zola ˈ z oʊ l e 1 2 also US z oʊ ˈ l ɑː 3 4 French emil zɔla 2 April 1840 29 September 1902 5 was a French novelist journalist playwright the best known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism 6 He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus which is encapsulated in his renowned newspaper opinion headlined J Accuse Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902 7 8 Emile ZolaZola in 1902BornEmile Edouard Charles Antoine Zola 1840 04 02 2 April 1840 Paris FranceDied29 September 1902 1902 09 29 aged 62 Paris FranceResting placePantheon Paris and CoupvrayOccupationNovelist journalist playwright poetNationalityFrenchGenresNovelshort storyLiterary movementNaturalismNotable worksLes Rougon Macquart Therese Raquin Germinal NanaSpouseEleonore Alexandrine MeleyRelativesFrancois Zola father Emilie Aubert mother Signature Contents 1 Early life 2 Later life 3 Career 3 1 Literary output 4 Dreyfus affair 5 The Manifesto of the Five 6 Death 7 Scope of the Rougon Macquart series 8 Quasi scientific purpose 9 Characterisation 10 Zola s optimism 11 In popular culture 12 Bibliography 12 1 French language 12 2 Works translated into English 12 2 1 Modern Translations 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External linksEarly life EditZola was born in Paris in 1840 to Francois Zola originally Francesco Zolla and Emilie Aubert His father was an Italian engineer with some Greek ancestry 9 who was born in Venice in 1795 and engineered the Zola Dam in Aix en Provence his mother was French 10 The family moved to Aix en Provence in the southeast when Emile was three years old Four years later in 1847 his father died leaving his mother on a meager pension In 1858 the Zolas moved to Paris where Emile s childhood friend Paul Cezanne soon joined him Zola started to write in the romantic style His widowed mother had planned a law career for Emile but he failed his baccalaureat examination twice 11 12 Before his breakthrough as a writer Zola worked for minimal pay as a clerk in a shipping firm and then in the sales department for the publisher Hachette 12 He also wrote literary and art reviews for newspapers As a political journalist Zola did not hide his dislike of Napoleon III who had successfully run for the office of president under the constitution of the French Second Republic only to use this position as a springboard for the coup d etat that made him emperor Later life EditIn 1862 Zola was naturalized as a French citizen 13 In 1865 he met Eleonore Alexandrine Meley who called herself Gabrielle a seamstress who became his mistress 11 They married on 31 May 1870 14 Together they cared for Zola s mother 12 She stayed with him all his life and was instrumental in promoting his work The marriage remained childless Alexandrine Zola had a child before she met Zola that she had given up because she was unable to take care of it When she confessed this to Zola after their marriage they went looking for the girl but she had died a short time after birth In 1888 he was given a camera but he only began to use it in 1895 and attained a near professional level of expertise 15 Also in 1888 Alexandrine hired Jeanne Rozerot a seamstress who was to live with them in their home in Medan 16 Zola fell in love with Jeanne and fathered two children with her Denise in 1889 and Jacques in 1891 17 After Jeanne left Medan for Paris Zola continued to support and visit her and their children In November 1891 Alexandrine discovered the affair which brought the marriage to the brink of divorce citation needed The discord was partially healed which allowed Zola to take an increasingly active role in the lives of the children After Zola s death the children were given his name as their lawful surname 18 Career EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message Zola early in his career During his early years Zola wrote numerous short stories and essays four plays and three novels Among his early books was Contes a Ninon published in 1864 9 With the publication of his sordid autobiographical novel La Confession de Claude 1865 attracting police attention Hachette fired Zola His novel Les Mysteres de Marseille appeared as a serial in 1867 He was also an aggressive critic his articles on literature and art appearing in Villemessant s journal L Evenement 9 After his first major novel Therese Raquin 1867 Zola started the series called Les Rougon Macquart In Paris Zola maintained his friendship with Cezanne who painted a portrait of him with another friend from Aix en Provence writer Paul Alexis entitled Paul Alexis Reading to Zola Literary output Edit Paul Cezanne Paul Alexis Reading to Emile Zola 1869 1870 Sao Paulo Museum of Art More than half of Zola s novels were part of the twenty volume Les Rougon Macquart cycle which details the history of a single family under the reign of Napoleon III Unlike Balzac who in the midst of his literary career resynthesized his work into La Comedie Humaine Zola from the start at the age of 28 had thought of the complete layout of the series citation needed Set in France s Second Empire in the context of Baron Haussmann s changing Paris the series traces the environmental and hereditary influences of violence alcohol and prostitution which became more prevalent during the second wave of the Industrial Revolution The series examines two branches of the family the respectable that is legitimate Rougons and the disreputable illegitimate Macquarts over five generations In the preface to the first novel of the series Zola states I want to explain how a family a small group of regular people behaves in society while expanding through the birth of ten twenty individuals who seem at first glance profoundly dissimilar but who are shown through analysis to be intimately linked to one another Heredity has its own laws just like gravity I will attempt to find and to follow by resolving the double question of temperaments and environments the thread that leads mathematically from one man to another 19 Although Zola and Cezanne were friends from childhood they experienced a falling out later in life over Zola s fictionalised depiction of Cezanne and the Bohemian life of painters in Zola s novel L Œuvre The Masterpiece 1886 From 1877 with the publication of L Assommoir Emile Zola became wealthy he was better paid than Victor Hugo for example 20 Because L Assommoir was such a success Zola was able to renegotiate his contract with his publisher Georges Charpentier to receive more than 14 royalties and the exclusive rights to serial publication in the press 21 Subsequently sales of L Assommoir were even exceeded by those of Nana 1880 and La Debacle 1892 9 He became a figurehead among the literary bourgeoisie and organised cultural dinners with Guy de Maupassant Joris Karl Huysmans and other writers at his luxurious villa worth 300 000 francs 22 in Medan near Paris after 1880 Despite being nominated several times Zola was never elected to the Academie francaise 9 Zola s output also included novels on population Fecondite and work Travail a number of plays and several volumes of criticism He wrote every day for around 30 years and took as his motto Nulla dies sine linea not a day without a line The self proclaimed leader of French naturalism Zola s works inspired operas such as those of Gustave Charpentier notably Louise in the 1890s His works inspired by the concept of heredity and milieu Claude Bernard and Hippolyte Taine 23 and by the realism of Balzac and Flaubert 24 He also provided the libretto for several operas by Alfred Bruneau including Messidor 1897 and L Ouragan 1901 several of Bruneau s other operas are adapted from Zola s writing These provided a French alternative to Italian verismo 25 He is considered to be a significant influence on those writers that are credited with the creation of the so called new journalism Wolfe Capote Thompson Mailer Didion Talese and others Tom Wolfe wrote that his goal in writing fiction was to document contemporary society in the tradition of John Steinbeck Charles Dickens and Emile Zola citation needed Dreyfus affair EditMain articles Dreyfus affair and J accuse Front page cover of the newspaper L Aurore for Thursday 13 January 1898 with the open letter J Accuse written by Emile Zola about the Dreyfus affair The headline reads I Accuse Letter to the President of the Republic Paris Museum of Jewish Art and History Captain Alfred Dreyfus was a French Jewish artillery officer in the French army In September 1894 French intelligence found information about someone giving the German Embassy military secrets Anti semitism caused senior officers to suspect Dreyfus though there was no direct evidence of any wrongdoing Dreyfus was court martialed convicted of treason and sent to Devil s Island in French Guiana Lt Col Georges Picquart came across evidence that implicated another officer Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy and informed his superiors Rather than move to clear Dreyfus the decision was made to protect Esterhazy and ensure the original verdict was not overturned Major Hubert Joseph Henry forged documents that made it seem as if Dreyfus were guilty while Picquart was reassigned to duty in Africa However Picquart s findings were communicated by his lawyer to the Senator Auguste Scheurer Kestner who took up the case at first discreetly and then increasingly publicly Meanwhile further evidence was brought forward by Dreyfus s family and Esterhazy s estranged family and creditors Under pressure the general staff arranged for a closed court martial to be held on 10 11 January 1898 at which Esterhazy was tried in camera and acquitted Picquart was detained on charges of violation of professional secrecy In response Zola risked his career and more and on 13 January 1898 published J Accuse 26 on the front page of the Paris daily L Aurore The newspaper was run by Ernest Vaughan and Georges Clemenceau who decided that the controversial story would be in the form of an open letter to the President Felix Faure Zola s J Accuse accused the highest levels of the French Army of obstruction of justice and antisemitism by having wrongfully convicted Alfred Dreyfus to life imprisonment on Devil s Island Zola s intention was that he be prosecuted for libel so that the new evidence in support of Dreyfus would be made public 27 The case known as the Dreyfus affair deeply divided France between the reactionary army and Catholic church on one hand and the more liberal commercial society on the other The ramifications continued for many years on the 100th anniversary of Zola s article France s Roman Catholic daily paper La Croix apologised for its antisemitic editorials during the Dreyfus affair 28 As Zola was a leading French thinker and public figure his letter formed a major turning point in the affair citation needed Zola was brought to trial for criminal libel on 7 February 1898 and was convicted on 23 February and removed from the Legion of Honour The first judgment was overturned in April on a technicality but a new suit was pressed against Zola which opened on 18 July At his lawyer s advice Zola fled to England rather than wait for the end of the trial at which he was again convicted Without even having had the time to pack a few clothes he arrived at Victoria Station on 19 July the start of a brief and unhappy residence in the UK After initially staying at the Grosvenor Hotel Victoria Zola then went to the Oatlands Park Hotel in Weybridge and shortly afterwards rented a house locally called Penn where he was joined by his family for the summer At the end of August they moved to another house in Addlestone called Summerfield In early October the family moved to London and then his wife and children went back to France so the children could resume their schooling Thereafter Zola lived alone in the Queen s Hotel Norwood 29 He stayed in Upper Norwood from October 1898 to June 1899 citation needed In France the furious divisions over the Dreyfus affair continued The fact of Major Henry s forgery was discovered and admitted to in August 1898 and the Government referred Dreyfus s original court martial to the Supreme Court for review the following month over the objections of the General Staff Eight months later on 3 June 1899 the Supreme Court annulled the original verdict and ordered a new military court martial The same month Zola returned from his exile in England Still the anti Dreyfusards would not give up and on 8 September 1899 Dreyfus was again convicted Dreyfus applied for a retrial but the government countered by offering Dreyfus a pardon rather than exoneration which would allow him to go free provided that he admit to being guilty Although he was clearly not guilty he chose to accept the pardon Later the same month despite Zola s condemnation an amnesty bill was passed covering all criminal acts or misdemeanours related to the Dreyfus affair or that have been included in a prosecution for one of these acts indemnifying Zola and Picquart but also all those who had concocted evidence against Dreyfus Dreyfus was finally completely exonerated by the Supreme Court in 1906 30 Zola said of the affair The truth is on the march and nothing shall stop it 31 Zola s 1898 article is widely marked in France as the most prominent manifestation of the new power of the intellectuals writers artists academicians in shaping public opinion the media and the state citation needed The Manifesto of the Five EditOn August 18 1887 the French daily newspaper Le Figaro published The Manifesto of the Five shortly after La Terre was released The signatories included Paul Bonnetain J H Rosny Lucien Descaves Paul Margueritte and Gustave Guiches who strongly disapproved of the lack of balance of both morals and aesthetics throughout the book s depiction of the revolution The manifesto accused Zola of having lowered the standard of Naturalism of catering to large sales by deliberate obscenities of being a morbid and impotent hypochondriac incapable of taking a sane and healthy view of mankind They freely referred to Zola s physiological weaknesses and expressed the utmost horror at the crudeness of La Terre 32 Death Edit Gravestone of Emile Zola at cimetiere Montmartre his remains are now interred in the Pantheon Graves of Alexandre Dumas Victor Hugo and Emile Zola at the Pantheon in Paris Zola died on 29 September 1902 of carbon monoxide poisoning caused by an improperly ventilated chimney 33 His funeral on 5 October was attended by thousands Alfred Dreyfus initially had promised not to attend the funeral but was given permission by Mme Zola and attended 34 35 At the time of his death Zola had just completed a novel Verite about the Dreyfus trial A sequel Justice had been planned but was not completed His enemies were blamed for his death because of previous attempts on his life but nothing could be proved at the time Expressions of sympathy arrived from everywhere in France for a week the vestibule of his house was crowded with notable writers scientists artists and politicians who came to inscribe their names in the registers 36 On the other hand Zola s enemies used the opportunity to celebrate in malicious glee 37 Writing in L Intransigeant Henri Rochefort claimed Zola had committed suicide having discovered Dreyfus to be guilty Zola was initially buried in the Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris but on 4 June 1908 just five years and nine months after his death his remains were relocated to the Pantheon where he shares a crypt with Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas 38 The ceremony was disrupted by an assassination attempt by Louis Anthelme Gregori a disgruntled journalist and admirer of Edouard Drumont on Alfred Dreyfus who was wounded in the arm by the gunshot Gregori was acquitted by the Parisian court which accepted his defense that he had not meant to kill Dreyfus meaning merely to graze him In 1953 an investigation Zola a t il ete assassine published by the journalist Jean Bedel in the newspaper Liberation raised the idea that Zola s death might have been a murder rather than an accident 39 It is based on the revelation of the Norman pharmacist Pierre Hacquin who was told by the chimney sweep Henri Buronfosse that the latter intentionally blocked the chimney of Zola s apartment in Paris Hacquin je vais vous dire comment Zola est mort Zola a ete asphyxie volontairement C est nous qui avons bouche la cheminee de son appartement 39 Scope of the Rougon Macquart series EditZola s Rougon Macquart novels are a panoramic account of the Second French Empire They tell the story of a family approximately between the years 1851 and 1871 These twenty novels contain over 300 characters who descend from the two family lines of the Rougons and Macquarts In Zola s words which are the subtitle of the Rougon Macquart series they are L Histoire naturelle et sociale d une famille sous le Second Empire The natural and social history of a family under the Second Empire 40 41 Most of the Rougon Macquart novels were written during the French Third Republic To an extent attitudes and value judgments may have been superimposed on that picture with the wisdom of hindsight Some critics classify Zola s work and naturalism more broadly as a particular strain of decadent literature which emphasized the fallen corrupted state of modern civilization 42 Nowhere is the doom laden image of the Second Empire so clearly seen as in Nana which culminates in echoes of the Franco Prussian War and hence by implication of the French defeat 43 Even in novels dealing with earlier periods of Napoleon III s reign the picture of the Second Empire is sometimes overlaid with the imagery of catastrophe citation needed Poster by Leon Choubrac advertising the publication of Zola s novel Germinal in Gil Blas 25 November 1878 In the Rougon Macquart novels provincial life can seem to be overshadowed by Zola s preoccupation with the capital citation needed However the following novels see the individual titles in the Livre de poche series scarcely touch on life in Paris La Terre peasant life in Beauce Le Reve an unnamed cathedral city Germinal collieries in the northeast of France La Joie de vivre the Atlantic coast and the four novels set in and around Plassans modelled on his childhood home Aix en Provence La Fortune des Rougon La Conquete de Plassans La Faute de l Abbe Mouret and Le Docteur Pascal citation needed La Debacle the military novel is set for the most part in country districts of eastern France its denouement takes place in the capital during the civil war leading to the suppression of the Paris Commune Though Paris has its role in La Bete humaine the most striking incidents notably the train crash take place elsewhere Even the Paris centred novels tend to set some scenes outside if not very far from the capital In the political novel Son Excellence Eugene Rougon the eponymous minister s interventions on behalf of his so called friends have their consequences elsewhere and the reader is witness to some of them Even Nana one of Zola s characters most strongly associated with Paris makes a brief and typically disastrous trip to the country 44 Quasi scientific purpose EditIn Le Roman experimental and Les Romanciers naturalistes Zola expounded the purposes of the naturalist novel The experimental novel was to serve as a vehicle for scientific experiment analogous to the experiments conducted by Claude Bernard and expounded by him in Introduction a la medecine experimentale Claude Bernard s experiments were in the field of clinical physiology those of the Naturalist writers Zola being their leader would be in the realm of psychology influenced by the natural environment 11 Balzac Zola claimed had already investigated the psychology of lechery in an experimental manner in the figure of Hector Hulot in La Cousine Bette citation needed Essential to Zola s concept of the experimental novel was dispassionate observation of the world with all that it involved by way of meticulous documentation To him each novel should be based upon a dossier citation needed With this aim he visited the colliery of Anzin in northern France in February 1884 when a strike was on he visited La Beauce for La Terre Sedan Ardennes for La Debacle and travelled on the railway line between Paris and Le Havre when researching La Bete humaine 45 Characterisation Edit Edouard Manet Portrait of Emile Zola 1868 Musee d Orsay Zola strongly claimed that Naturalist literature is an experimental analysis of human psychology citation needed Considering this claim many critics such as Gyorgy Lukacs 46 find Zola strangely poor at creating lifelike and memorable characters in the manner of Honore de Balzac or Charles Dickens despite his ability to evoke powerful crowd scenes It was important to Zola that no character should appear larger than life 47 but the criticism that his characters are cardboard is substantially more damaging Zola by refusing to make any of his characters larger than life if that is what he has indeed done did not inhibit himself from also achieving verisimilitude Although Zola found it scientifically and artistically unjustifiable to create larger than life characters his work presents some larger than life symbols which like the mine Le Voreux in Germinal citation needed take on the nature of a surrogate human life The mine the still in L Assommoir and the locomotive La Lison in La Bete humaine impress the reader with the vivid reality of human beings citation needed The great natural processes of seedtime and harvest death and renewal in La Terre are instinct with a vitality which is not human but is the elemental energy of life 48 Human life is raised to the level of the mythical as the hammerblows of Titans are seemingly heard underground at Le Voreux or in La Faute de l Abbe Mouret the walled park of Le Paradou encloses a re enactment and restatement of the Book of Genesis citation needed Zola s optimism Edit Luc Barbut Davray Portrait of Zola Oil on Canvas 1899 In Zola there is the theorist and the writer the poet the scientist and the optimist features that are basically joined in his own confession of positivism citation needed later in his life when he saw his own position turning into an anachronism he would still style himself with irony and sadness over the lost cause as an old and rugged Positivist 49 The poet is the artist in words whose writing as in the racecourse scene in Nana or in the descriptions of the laundry in L Assommoir or in many passages of La Faute de l Abbe Mouret Le Ventre de Paris and La Curee vies with the colourful impressionistic techniques of Claude Monet and Pierre Auguste Renoir The scientist is a believer in some measure of scientific determinism not that this despite his own words devoid of free will depourvus de libre arbitre 50 need always amount to a philosophical denial of free will The creator of la litterature putride a term of abuse invented by an early critic of Therese Raquin a novel which predates Les Rougon Macquart series emphasizes the squalid aspects of the human environment and upon the seamy side of human nature 51 The optimist is that other face of the scientific experimenter the man with an unshakable belief in human progress citation needed Zola bases his optimism on inneite and on the supposed capacity of the human race to make progress in a moral sense Inneite is defined by Zola as that process in which se confondent les caracteres physiques et moraux des parents sans que rien d eux semble s y retrouver 52 it is the term used in biology to describe the process whereby the moral and temperamental dispositions of some individuals are unaffected by the hereditary transmission of genetic characteristics Jean Macquart and Pascal Rougon are two instances of individuals liberated from the blemishes of their ancestors by the operation of the process of inneite citation needed In popular culture EditThe Life of Emile Zola 1937 is a well received film biography starring Paul Muni that devotes significant footage to detailing Zola s involvement in exonerating Dreyfus The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture Zola is known to have been an inspiration to Christopher Hitchens as found in his book Letters to a Young Contrarian 2001 53 The 2012 BBC TV series The Paradise is based on Zola s 1883 novel Au Bonheur des Dames 54 Cezanne et Moi 2016 is a French film directed by Daniele Thompson that explores the friendship between Zola and the Post Impressionist painter Paul Cezanne 55 Zola is referenced as an important cultural figure in the Korean Drama SKY Castle 2018 Bibliography EditFrench language Edit La Confession de Claude 1865 Les Mysteres de Marseille 1867 Therese Raquin 1867 Madeleine Ferat 1868 Nouveaux Contes a Ninon 1874 Le Roman Experimental 1880 Jacques Damour et autres nouvelles 1880 L Attaque du moulin 1877 short story included inLes Soirees de Medan L Inondation The Flood novella 1880 Les Rougon Macquart La Fortune des Rougon 1871 La Curee 1871 72 Le Ventre de Paris 1873 La Conquete de Plassans 1874 La Faute de l Abbe Mouret 1875 Son Excellence Eugene Rougon 1876 L Assommoir 1877 Une page d amour 1878 Nana 1880 Pot Bouille 1882 Au Bonheur des Dames 1883 La joie de vivre 1884 Germinal 1885 L Œuvre 1886 La Terre 1887 Le Reve 1888 La Bete humaine 1890 L Argent 1891 La Debacle 1892 Le Docteur Pascal 1893 Les Trois Villes Lourdes 1894 Rome 1896 Paris 1898 Les Quatre Evangiles Fecondite 1899 Travail 1901 Verite 1903 published posthumously Justice unfinished Works translated into English Edit The 3 Cities Lourdes Rome Paris The 4 Gospels Fruitfulness Work 1901 Truth 1903 Justice Unfinished Standalones The Flood 1880 The Mysteries of Marseilles 1895 The Fete at Coqueville 1907 Modern Translations Edit Theresa Raquin 1995 The Rougon Macquart 1993 2020 La Fortune des Rougon The Fortune of the Rougons 2012 Son Excellence Eugene Rougon His Excellency Eugene Rougon 2018 La Curee The Kill 2004 L Argent Money 2016 Le Reve The Dream 2018 La Conquete de Plassans The Conquest of Plassans 2014 Pot Bouille Pot Luck 1999 Au Bonheur des Dames The Ladies Paradise The Ladies Delight 1995 La Faute de l Abbe Mouret The Sin of Abbe Mouret 2017 Une page d amour A Love Story 2017 Le Ventre de Paris The Belly of Paris 2007 La joie de vivre The Bright Side of Life 2018 L Assommoir The Drinking Den 2000 L Œuvre The Masterpiece 1993 La Bete humaine The Beast Within 1999 Germinal 2004 Nana 2020 La Terre The Earth 2016 La Debacle The Debacle 2000 reissued 2017 Le Docteur Pascal Doctor Pascal 2020 See also Edit Biography portal The Works of Emile Zola https readingzola wordpress com List of unsolved deathsReferences Edit Zola Random House Webster s Unabridged Dictionary Zola Emile Lexico UK Dictionary Oxford University Press Retrieved 22 August 2019 Zola The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 5th ed Boston Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Retrieved 22 August 2019 Zola Collins English Dictionary HarperCollins Retrieved 22 August 2019 Emile Zola Biography Writer infoplease Retrieved 15 July 2011 Mitterand Henri 2002 Zola et le naturalisme Paris France Presses universitaires de France p 23 ISBN 978 2130525103 Nomination Database Literature 1901 Nobel Foundation Retrieved 7 February 2014 Nomination Database Literature 1902 Nobel Foundation Retrieved 7 February 2014 a b c d e Marzials Frank Thomas 1911 Zola Emile Edouard Charles Antoine In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 28 11th ed Cambridge University Press p 1001 Sacquin Michele Cabannes Viviane 2002 Zola et autour d une oeuvre Au bonheur des dames Bibliotheque nationale de France ISBN 9782717722161 a b c Larousse Emile Zola a b c Berg William J 24 September 2020 Emile Zola French author Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 9 November 2020 Anonym Church opponent of Italian descent Emile Zola is a writer of France and pioneer of the printing school tellerreport com www tellerreport com Retrieved 9 November 2020 Brown Frederick 1995 Zola A Life Farrar Straus Giroux p 195 ISBN 0374297428 August Marilyn 14 December 2000 IN LATER YEARS ZOLA SAW WORLD THROUGH A CAMERA Pittsburgh Post Gazette p F 8 via ProQuest Brown Frederick 1995 Zola A Life Farrar Straus Giroux pp 614 615 ISBN 0374297428 Brown Frederick 1995 Zola A Life Farrar Straus Giroux pp 646 648 ISBN 0374297428 Brown Frederick 1995 Zola A Life Farrar Straus Giroux p 802 ISBN 0374297428 Zola Emile 1981 La Fortune des Rougon Paris France Gallimard p 27 Zola Emile 2005 The Three Cities Trilogy Complete Lourdes Rome and Paris Library of Alexandria ISBN 978 1 4655 2672 4 Martyn Lyons 2011 Books a living history Los Angeles J Paul Getty Museum p 143 ISBN 9781606060834 OCLC 707023033 Literary gossip The Week A Canadian Journal of Politics Literature Science and Arts 1 4 61 27 December 1883 Retrieved 23 April 2013 Zola Emile 1902 Le Roman experimental Paris Charpentier pp 1 53 retrieved 7 January 2021 Mitterand Henri 1986 Zola et le naturalisme Presses universitaires de France Richard Langham Smith 2001 Zola Emile Grove Music Online 8th ed Oxford University Press J accuse letter at French wikisource Correspondence Between Emile Zola and Imprisoned Alfred Dreyfus Shapell Manuscript Foundation World News Briefs French Paper Apologizes For Slurs on Dreyfus The New York Times Reuters 13 January 1998 Retrieved 25 March 2018 Weybridge Society Newsletter Spring 2019 Bridger David Wolk Samuel 1 January 1976 The New Jewish Encyclopedia Behrman House Inc p 111 ISBN 978 0874411201 Wikisource I Accuse English URL http en wikisource org wiki J accuse Boyd Ernest 19 August 2013 From the Stacks Realism in France The New Republic ISSN 0028 6583 Retrieved 25 November 2020 The Strange Death of Emile Zola History Today Volume 52 9 September 2002 Retrieved 21 February 2017 Thousands March at Funeral of Emile Zola Municipal Guards Line the Route to Preserve Order The New York Times 6 October 1902 From the archives The tragic death of M Zola 30 September 1902 The Guardian 29 June 2002 Vizetelly Ernest Alfred 1904 Emile Zola Novelist and Reformer An Account of His Life amp Work John Lane the Bodley Head p 511 Full text of Emile Zola Novelist And Reformer An Account Of His Life And Work Retrieved 7 February 2014 Paris Monuments Pantheon Close up picture of the interior of the crypt of Victor Hugo left Alexandre Dumas middle Emile Zola right ParisPhotoGallery Retrieved 30 January 2012 a b Mounier Kuhn Angelique 8 August 2014 L asphyxie d Emile Zola Le Temps in French pp 8 9 Cummins Anthony 5 December 2015 How Emile Zola made novels out of gutter voices and ultra violence The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved 3 November 2016 Rougon Macquart cycle Work by Zola Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc Retrieved 3 November 2016 Bernheimer Charles 1999 Constable Liz ed Unknowing Decadence Perennial Decay On the Aesthetics and Politics of Decadence Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press pp 50 64 Nelson Brian 15 February 2007 The Cambridge Companion to Zola Cambridge University Press ISBN 9781139827270 Zola Emile 2003 Nana Paris France Livre de poche ISBN 978 2253003656 Garnett A F 1 January 2005 Steel Wheels The Evolution of the Railways and how They Stimulated and Excited Engineers Architects Artists Writers Musicians and Travellers Cannwood ISBN 9780955025709 Gyorgy Lukacs Studies in European Realism A Sociological Survey of the Writings of Balzac Stendhal Zola Tolstoy Gorki and Others London 1950 pp 91 95 Emile Zola Les Romanciers naturalistes Paris 1903 pp 126 129 Letter from Emile Zola to Jules Lemaitre 14 March 1885 See Emile Zola s speech at the annual banquet of the Students Association at the Hotel Moderne in Paris 20 May 1893 published in English by The New York Times on 11 June 1893 at http www positivists org Emile Zola Les Œuvres completes vol 34 Paris 1928 Therese Raquin preface to 2nd edition p viii Emile Zola Les Œuvres completes vol 34 Paris 1928 Therese Raquin preface to 2nd edition p xiv Emile Zola Les Œuvres completes vol 22 Paris 1928 Le Docteur Pascal p 38 Hitchens Christopher 2001 Letters to a young contrarian Basic Books p xiii ISBN 9780465030323 Stellar cast announced for Bill Gallagher s glittering new BBC One drama series The Paradise BBC Media Centre BBC 17 May 2012 Retrieved 26 September 2012 Holden Stephen 29 March 2017 Review In Cezanne et Moi Zola and the Artist Are Pals However The New York Times p C8 Further reading EditBorie Jean 1971 Zola et les mythes ou de la nausee au salut Pierres vives in French Paris Editions du Seuil OCLC 299742040 Brown Frederick 1995 Zola A Life New York City Farrar Straus and Giroux ISBN 978 0 374 29742 8 OCLC 31044880 Ellis Havelock 1898 Zola Affirmations London Walter Scott pp 131 157 Harrow Susan 2010 Zola the Body Modern Pressures and Prospects of Representation Legenda London ISBN 9781906540760 OCLC 9781906540760 Hemmings F W J 1966 Emile Zola Oxford Clarendon Press OCLC 3383139 Lukacs Gyorgy 1950 Studies in European Realism A Sociological Survey of the Writings of Balzac Stendhal Zola Tolstoy Gorki and Others Translated by Bonee Edith Foreword by Roy Pascal London Hillway Publishing OCLC 2463154 Mitterand Henri 1986 Zola et le naturalisme Zola and Naturalism Que sais je in French Paris Presses Universitaires de France ISBN 978 2 13 039642 0 OCLC 15289843 Mitterand Henri 1999 Zola in French Paris Fayard ISBN 978 2 213 60083 3 OCLC 659987814 Newton Joy 1967 Emile Zola impressionniste Cahiers naturalistes in French 33 pp 39 52 Newton Joy 1967 Cahiers naturalistes in French 34 pp 124 38 Wilson Angus 1952 Emile Zola An Introductory Study of His Novels London Secker and Warburg OCLC 818448 Warembourg Nicolas 2008 Lire voir entendre un avocat pour Zola pour Dreyfus contre la terre entiere in French Paris Louis Audibert p 153 External links EditEmile Zolaat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Works by Emile Zola in eBook form at Standard Ebooks Works by Emile Zola at Project Gutenberg Works by Emile Zola at Faded Page Canada Works by or about Emile Zola at Internet Archive Works by Emile Zola at LibriVox public domain audiobooks Works by Emile Zola at Open Library Life of Emile Zola on NotreProvence fr in English Emile Zola at InterText Digital Library in French Emile Zola at Livres amp Ebooks in French Emile Zola exhibition at the Bibliotheque nationale de France Lorgues Plassans in French Livres audio gratuits pour Emile Zola in French Woehr Jack J 2004 The Rougon Macquart Novels of Emile Zola for English speaking Readers Retrieved 28 January 2011 Works about Emile Zola at the Internet Archive References to Emile Zola in historic European newspapers Emile Zola Writes a Letter to Alfred Dreyfus at the Height of the Dreyfus Affair Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Emile Zola amp oldid 1053278864, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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