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Iceland

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Iceland (disambiguation).

Coordinates:65°N18°W /65°N 18°W /65; -18

Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland; ()) is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean and the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is the only part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that rises above sea-level, and its central volcanic plateau is erupting almost constantly. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, and most of its islands have a polar climate.

Iceland
Ísland
Anthem: "Lofsöngur" (lit.'Hymn')
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Capital
and largest city
Reykjavík
64°08′N21°56′W /64.133°N 21.933°W /64.133; -21.933
Official language
and national language
Icelandic
Ethnic groups
(2018)
Religion
(2020)
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Guðni Th. Jóhannesson
Katrín Jakobsdóttir
LegislatureAlthing
Formation
9th century
Commonwealth
Founding of the Althing
930–1262
1262–1397
1397–1523
1523–1814
14 January 1814
5 January 1874
• Extended home rule
1 February 1904
1 December 1918
17 June 1944
Area
• Total
102,775 km2 (39,682 sq mi) (106th)
• Water (%)
2.07 (as of 2015)
Population
• 2021 estimate
371,580 (179th)
• 2011 census
315,556
• Density
3.5/km2 (9.1/sq mi) (190th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$19.8 billion (142nd)
• Per capita
$54,482 (16th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$20.8 billion
• Per capita
$57,189 (5th)
Gini (2018) 23.2
low · 2nd
HDI (2019) 0.949
very high · 4th
CurrencyIcelandic króna (ISK)
Time zoneUTC (GMT/WET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+354
ISO 3166 codeIS
Internet TLD.is

According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, Norwegians, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls (i.e., slaves or serfs) of Gaelic origin.

The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence.[citation needed]

In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944. Although its parliament (Althing) was suspended from 1799 to 1845, the island republic has been credited with sustaining the world's oldest and longest-running parliament.

Until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialization of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity, and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world. It became a part of the European Economic Area in 1994; this further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance, biotechnology, and manufacturing.

Iceland has a market economy with relatively low taxes, compared to other OECD countries, as well as the highest trade union membership in the world. It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, democratic, and social stability, as well as equality, ranking third in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2020, it was ranked as the fourth-most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, and it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy.

Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is closely related to Faroese. The country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, and medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a lightly armed coast guard.

Contents

Norsemen landing in Iceland – a 19th-century depiction by Oscar Wergeland

The Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd (or Naddador) was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, and in the 9th century, he named it Snæland or "snow land" because it was snowing. Following Naddodd, the Swede Garðar Svavarsson arrived, and so the island was then called Garðarshólmur which means "Garðar's Isle".[citation needed]

Then came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; his daughter drowned en route, then his livestock starved to death. The sagas say that the rather despondent Flóki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord (Arnarfjörður) full of icebergs, which led him to give the island its new and present name. The notion that Iceland's Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth.

874–1262: Settlement and Commonwealth

Ingólfr Arnarson (modern Icelandic: Ingólfur Arnarson), the first permanent Scandinavian settler

According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived, possibly members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula. Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880. In 2016, archaeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður that has been dated to as early as 800.

Swedish Viking explorer Garðar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island. He stayed during the winter and built a house in Húsavík. Garðar departed the following summer, but one of his men, Náttfari, decided to stay behind with two slaves. Náttfari settled in what is now known as Náttfaravík, and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland.

The Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in 874. Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers, largely Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed; the Althing, a legislative and judicial assembly, was initiated to regulate the Icelandic Commonwealth. Lack of arable land also served as an impetus to the settlement of Greenland starting in 986. The period of these early settlements coincided with the Medieval Warm Period, when temperatures were similar to those of the early 20th century. At this time about 25% of Iceland was covered with forest, compared to 1% in the present day. Christianity was adopted by consensus around 999–1000, although Norse paganism persisted among segments of the population for some years afterwards.

The Middle Ages

Ósvör, a replica of an old fishing outpost outside Bolungarvík

The Icelandic Commonwealth lasted until the 13th century when the political system devised by the original settlers proved unable to cope with the increasing power of Icelandic chieftains. The internal struggles and civil strife of the Age of the Sturlungs led to the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262, which ended the Commonwealth and brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown. Possession of Iceland passed from the Kingdom of Norway (872–1397) to the Kalmar Union in 1415, when the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden were united. After the break-up of the union in 1523, it remained a Norwegian dependency, as a part of Denmark–Norway.

Infertile soil, volcanic eruptions, deforestation and an unforgiving climate made for harsh life in a society where subsistence depended almost entirely on agriculture. The Black Death swept Iceland twice, first in 1402–1404 and again in 1494–1495. The former outbreak killed 50% to 60% of the population, and the latter 30% to 50%.

Reformation and the Early Modern period

Around the middle of the 16th century, as part of the Protestant Reformation, King Christian III of Denmark began to impose Lutheranism on all his subjects. Jón Arason, the last Catholic bishop of Hólar, was beheaded in 1550 along with two of his sons. The country subsequently became officially Lutheran, and Lutheranism has since remained the dominant religion.

A map of Iceland published in the early 17th century by Gerardus Mercator

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Denmark imposed harsh trade restrictions on Iceland. Natural disasters, including volcanic eruption and disease, contributed to a decreasing population. In the summer of 1627, Barbary Pirates committed the events known locally as the Turkish Abductions, in which hundreds of residents were taken into slavery in North Africa and dozens killed; this was the only invasion in Icelandic history to have casualties. A great smallpox epidemic in the 18th century killed around a third of the population. In 1783 the Laki volcano erupted, with devastating effects. In the years following the eruption, known as the Mist Hardships (Icelandic: Móðuharðindin), over half of all livestock in the country died. Around a quarter of the population starved to death in the ensuing famine.

1814–1918: Independence movement

In 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel but Iceland remained a Danish dependency. Throughout the 19th century, the country's climate continued to grow colder, resulting in mass emigration to the New World, particularly to the region of Gimli, Manitoba in Canada, which was sometimes referred to as New Iceland. About 15,000 people emigrated, out of a total population of 70,000.

A national consciousness arose in the first half of the 19th century, inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from mainland Europe. An Icelandic independence movement took shape in the 1850s under the leadership of Jón Sigurðsson, based on the burgeoning Icelandic nationalism inspired by the Fjölnismenn and other Danish-educated Icelandic intellectuals. In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and limited home rule. This was expanded in 1904, and Hannes Hafstein served as the first Minister for Iceland in the Danish cabinet.

1918–1944: Independence and the Kingdom of Iceland

The Danish–Icelandic Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918 and valid for 25 years, recognised Iceland as a fully sovereign and independent state in a personal union with Denmark. The Government of Iceland established an embassy in Copenhagen and requested that Denmark carry out on its behalf certain defence and foreign affairs matters, subject to consultation with the Althing. Danish embassies around the world displayed two coats of arms and two flags: those of the Kingdom of Denmark and those of the Kingdom of Iceland. Iceland's legal position became comparable to those of countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Canada, whose sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II.

During World War II, Iceland joined Denmark in asserting neutrality. After the German occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940, the Althing replaced the King with a regent and declared that the Icelandic government would take control of its own defence and foreign affairs. A month later, British armed forces conducted Operation Fork, the invasion and occupation of the country, violating Icelandic neutrality. In 1941, the Government of Iceland, friendly to Britain, invited the then-neutral United States to take over its defence so that Britain could use its troops elsewhere.

1944–present: Republic of Iceland

British and Icelandic vessels collide in the Atlantic Ocean during the Cod Wars. The Icelandic vessel is shown on the left; the British vessel is on the right.

On 31 December 1943, the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union expired after 25 years. Beginning on 20 May 1944, Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with Denmark, abolish the monarchy, and establish a republic. The vote was 97% to end the union, and 95% in favour of the new republican constitution. Iceland formally became a republic on 17 June 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as its first president.

In 1946, the US Defence Force Allied left Iceland. The nation formally became a member of NATO on 30 March 1949, amid domestic controversy and riots. On 5 May 1951, a defence agreement was signed with the United States. American troops returned to Iceland as the Iceland Defence Force and remained throughout the Cold War. The US withdrew the last of its forces on 30 September 2006.

Iceland prospered during the Second World War. The immediate post-war period was followed by substantial economic growth, driven by industrialisation of the fishing industry and the US Marshall Plan programme, through which Icelanders received the most aid per capita of any European country (at US$209, with the war-ravaged Netherlands a distant second at US$109).

The 1970s were marked by the Cod Wars—several disputes with the United Kingdom over Iceland's extension of its fishing limits to 200 nmi (370 km) offshore. Iceland hosted a summit in Reykjavík in 1986 between United States President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev, during which they took significant steps toward nuclear disarmament. A few years later, Iceland became the first country to recognise the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania as they broke away from the USSR. Throughout the 1990s, the country expanded its international role and developed a foreign policy oriented toward humanitarian and peacekeeping causes. To that end, Iceland provided aid and expertise to various NATO-led interventions in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Iraq.

Iceland joined the European Economic Area in 1994, after which the economy was greatly diversified and liberalised. International economic relations increased further after 2001, when Iceland's newly deregulated banks began to raise great amounts of external debt, contributing to a 32% increase in Iceland's gross national income between 2002 and 2007.

Economic boom and crisis

In 2003–2007, following the privatisation of the banking sector under the government of Davíð Oddsson, Iceland moved toward having an economy based on international investment banking and financial services. It was quickly becoming one of the most prosperous countries in the world, but was hit hard by a major financial crisis. The crisis resulted in the greatest migration from Iceland since 1887, with a net emigration of 5,000 people in 2009. Iceland's economy stabilised under the government of Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, and grew by 1.6% in 2012. The centre-right Independence Party was returned to power in coalition with the Progressive Party in the 2013 election. In the following years, Iceland saw a surge in tourism as the country became a popular holiday destination. In 2016, Prime Minister Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson resigned after being implicated in the Panama Papers scandal. Early elections in 2016 resulted in a right-wing coalition government of the Independence Party, the Reform Party and Bright Future. This government fell when Bright Future quit the coalition due to a scandal involving then-Prime Minister Bjarni Benediktsson's father's letter of support for a convicted child sex offender. Snap elections in October 2017 brought to power a new coalition consisting of the Independence Party, the Progressive Party and the Left-Green Movement, headed by Katrín Jakobsdóttir.

General topographic map
Further information: Geography of Iceland

Iceland is at the juncture of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. The main island is entirely south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the small Icelandic island of Grímsey off the main island's northern coast. The country lies between latitudes 63 and 68°N, and longitudes 25 and 13°W.

Iceland is closer to continental Europe than to mainland North America, although it is closest to Greenland (290 km, 180 mi), an island of North America. Iceland is generally included in Europe for geographical, historical, political, cultural, linguistic and practical reasons. Geologically, the island includes parts of both continental plates. The closest bodies of land in Europe are the Faroe Islands (420 km, 260 mi); Jan Mayen Island (570 km, 350 mi); Shetland and the Outer Hebrides, both about 740 km (460 mi); and the Scottish mainland and Orkney, both about 750 km (470 mi). The nearest part of Continental Europe is mainland Norway, about 970 km (600 mi) away, while mainland North America is 2,070 km (1,290 mi) away, at the northern tip of Labrador.

Three typical Icelandic landscapes

Iceland is the world's 18th-largest island, and Europe's second-largest island after Great Britain. (The island of Ireland is third.) The main island covers 101,826 km2 (39,315 sq mi), but the entire country is 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi) in size, of which 62.7% is tundra. Iceland contains about 30 minor islands, including the lightly populated Grímsey and the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago. Lakes and glaciers cover 14.3% of its surface; only 23% is vegetated. The largest lakes are Þórisvatn reservoir: 83–88 km2 (32–34 sq mi) and Þingvallavatn: 82 km2 (32 sq mi); other important lakes include Lagarfljót and Mývatn. Jökulsárlón is the deepest lake, at 248 m (814 ft).

Geologically, Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a ridge along which the oceanic crust spreads and forms new oceanic crust. This part of the mid-ocean ridge is located above a mantle plume, causing Iceland to be subaerial (above the surface of the sea). The ridge marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American Plates, and Iceland was created by rifting and accretion through volcanism along the ridge.

Many fjords punctuate Iceland's 4,970-km-long (3,088-mi) coastline, which is also where most settlements are situated. The island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland, is a cold and uninhabitable combination of sand, mountains, and lava fields. The major towns are the capital city of Reykjavík, along with its outlying towns of Kópavogur, Hafnarfjörður, and Garðabær, nearby Reykjanesbær where the international airport is located, and the town of Akureyri in northern Iceland. The island of Grímsey on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland, whereas Kolbeinsey contains the northernmost point of Iceland. Iceland has three national parks: Vatnajökull National Park, Snæfellsjökull National Park, and Þingvellir National Park. The country is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection, having been ranked 13th in Yale University's Environmental Performance Index of 2012.

Geology

Main article: Geology of Iceland
See also: Iceland hotspot
The erupting Geysir in Haukadalur valley, the oldest known geyser in the world
Gullfoss, an iconic waterfall of Iceland

A geologically young land, Iceland is the surface expression of the Iceland Plateau, a large igneous province forming as a result of volcanism from the Iceland hotspot and along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the latter of which runs right through it. This means that the island is highly geologically active with many volcanoes including Hekla, Eldgjá, Herðubreið, and Eldfell. The volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783–1784 caused a famine that killed nearly a quarter of the island's population. In addition, the eruption caused dust clouds and haze to appear over most of Europe and parts of Asia and Africa for several months afterward, and affected climates in other areas.

Iceland has many geysers, including Geysir, from which the English word is derived, and the famous Strokkur, which erupts every 8–10 minutes. After a phase of inactivity, Geysir started erupting again after a series of earthquakes in 2000. Geysir has since grown quieter and does not erupt often.

With the widespread availability of geothermal power and the harnessing of many rivers and waterfalls for hydroelectricity, most residents have access to inexpensive hot water, heating, and electricity. The island is composed primarily of basalt, a low-silica lava associated with effusive volcanism as has occurred also in Hawaii. Iceland, however, has a variety of volcanic types (composite and fissure), many producing more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite. Iceland has hundreds of volcanoes with about 30 active volcanic systems.

Surtsey, one of the youngest islands in the world, is part of Iceland. Named after Surtr, it rose above the ocean in a series of volcanic eruptions between 8 November 1963 and 5 June 1968. Only scientists researching the growth of new life are allowed to visit the island.

On 21 March 2010, a volcano in Eyjafjallajökull in the south of Iceland erupted for the first time since 1821, forcing 600 people to flee their homes. Additional eruptions on 14 April forced hundreds of people to abandon their homes. The resultant cloud of volcanic ash brought major disruption to air travel across Europe.

High-field overview of area around Reykir

Another large eruption occurred on 21 May 2011. This time it was the Grímsvötn volcano, located under the thick ice of Europe's largest glacier, Vatnajökull. Grímsvötn is one of Iceland's most active volcanoes, and this eruption was much more powerful than the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull activity, with ash and lava hurled 20 km (12 mi) into the atmosphere, creating a large cloud.

A great deal of volcanic activity was occurring in the Reykjanes Peninsula in 2020 and into 2021, after nearly 800 years of inactivity. After the eruption of the Fagradalsfjall volcano on 19 March 2021, National Geographic's experts predicted that this "may mark the start of decades of volcanic activity." The eruption was small, leading to a prediction that this volcano was unlikely to threaten "any population centers".

The highest elevation for Iceland is listed as 2,110 m (6,923 ft) at Hvannadalshnúkur (64°00′N 16°39′W).

Climate

Main article: Climate of Iceland

The climate of Iceland's coast is subarctic. The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world. Regions in the world with similar climates include the Aleutian Islands, the Alaska Peninsula, and Tierra del Fuego, although these regions are closer to the equator. Despite its proximity to the Arctic, the island's coasts remain ice-free through the winter. Ice incursions are rare, with the last having occurred on the north coast in 1969.

The climate varies between different parts of the island. Generally speaking, the south coast is warmer, wetter, and windier than the north. The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country. Low-lying inland areas in the north are the aridest. Snowfall in winter is more common in the north than in the south.

The highest air temperature recorded was 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) on 22 June 1939 at Teigarhorn on the southeastern coast. The lowest was −38 °C (−36.4 °F) on 22 January 1918 at Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur in the northeastern hinterland. The temperature records for Reykjavík are 26.2 °C (79.2 °F) on 30 July 2008, and −24.5 °C (−12.1 °F) on 21 January 1918.

Climate data for Reykjavík, Iceland (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
2.8
(37.0)
3.2
(37.8)
5.7
(42.3)
9.4
(48.9)
11.7
(53.1)
13.3
(55.9)
13.0
(55.4)
10.1
(50.2)
6.8
(44.2)
3.4
(38.1)
2.2
(36.0)
7.0
(44.6)
Average low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−2.1
(28.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.4
(32.7)
3.6
(38.5)
6.7
(44.1)
8.3
(46.9)
7.9
(46.2)
5.0
(41.0)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.3
(29.7)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.9
(35.4)
Source 1: Icelandic Meteorological Office
Source 2: All Icelandic weather station climatic monthly means
Climate data for Akureyri, Iceland (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.7
(35.1)
2.1
(35.8)
5.4
(41.7)
9.5
(49.1)
13.2
(55.8)
14.5
(58.1)
13.9
(57.0)
9.9
(49.8)
5.9
(42.6)
2.6
(36.7)
1.3
(34.3)
6.7
(44.1)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.3
(36.1)
6.0
(42.8)
7.5
(45.5)
7.1
(44.8)
3.5
(38.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.2
(32.4)
Source 1: Icelandic Meteorological Office
Source 2: All Icelandic weather station climatic monthly means

Plants

Phytogeographically, Iceland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Plantlife consists mainly of grassland, which is regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Iceland is the northern birch (Betula pubescens), which formerly formed forests over much of Iceland, along with aspens (Populus tremula), rowans (Sorbus aucuparia), common junipers (Juniperus communis), and other smaller trees, mainly willows.

When the island was first settled, it was extensively forested, with around 30% of the land covered in trees. In the late 12th century, Ari the Wise described it in the Íslendingabók as "forested from mountain to sea shore". Permanent human settlement greatly disturbed the isolated ecosystem of thin, volcanic soils and limited species diversity. The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber. Deforestation, climatic deterioration during the Little Ice Age, and overgrazing by sheep imported by settlers caused a loss of critical topsoil due to erosion. Today, many farms have been abandoned. Three-quarters of Iceland's 100,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi) is affected by soil erosion; 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi) is affected to a degree serious enough to make the land useless. Only a few small birch stands now exist in isolated reserves. The planting of new forests has increased the number of trees, but the result does not compare to the original forests. Some of the planted forests include introduced species. The tallest tree in Iceland is a sitka spruce planted in 1949 in Kirkjubæjarklaustur; it was measured at 25.2 m (83 ft) in 2013. Algae such as Chondrus crispus, Phyllphora truncata and Phyllophora crispa and others have been recorded from Iceland.

Animals

Main article: Wildlife of Iceland
The Arctic fox is the only indigenous land mammal in Iceland and was the only land mammal prior to the arrival of humans.

The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the Arctic fox, which came to the island at the end of the ice age, walking over the frozen sea. On rare occasions, bats have been carried to the island with the winds, but they are not able to breed there. No native or free-living reptiles or amphibians are on the island.

The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep, cattle, chickens, goats, the sturdy Icelandic horse, and the Icelandic Sheepdog, all descendants of animals imported by Europeans. Wild mammals include the Arctic fox, mink, mice, rats, rabbits, and reindeer. Polar bears occasionally visit the island, travelling from Greenland on icebergs, but no Icelandic populations exist. In June 2008, two polar bears arrived in the same month. Marine mammals include the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seal (Phoca vitulina).

Many species of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Iceland's economy, accounting for roughly half of the country's total exports. Birds, especially seabirds, are an important part of Iceland's animal life. Atlantic puffins, skuas, and black-legged kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs.

Commercial whaling is practised intermittently along with scientific whale hunts. Whale watching has become an important part of Iceland's economy since 1997.

Around 1,300 species of insects are known in Iceland. This is low compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). Iceland is essentially free of mosquitoes.

Main article: Politics of Iceland
The political system of Iceland

Iceland has a left–right multi-party system. Following the 2017 parliamentary election, the biggest parties are the centre-right Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn), the Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin – grænt framboð) and the Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn). These three parties form the ruling coalition in the cabinet led by leftist Katrín Jakobsdóttir. Other political parties with seats in the Althing (Parliament) are the Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin), the Centre Party (Miðflokkurinn), Iceland's Pirates, the People's Party (Flokkur fólksins), and the Reform Party (Viðreisn).

Iceland was the first country in the world to have a political party formed and led entirely by women. Known as the Women's List or Women's Alliance (Kvennalistinn), it was founded in 1983 to advance the political, economic, and social needs of women. After participating in its first parliamentary elections, the Women's List helped increase the proportion of female parliamentarians by 15%. It disbanded in 1999, formally merging the next year with the Social Democratic Alliance, although about half of its members joined the Left-Green Movement instead. It did leave a lasting influence on Iceland's politics: every major party has a 40% quota for women, and in 2009 nearly a third of members of parliament were female, compared to the global average of 16%. Following the 2016 elections, 48% of members of parliament are female.

In 2016, Iceland was ranked second in the strength of its democratic institutions and 13th in government transparency. The country has a high level of civic participation, with 81.4% voter turnout during the most recent elections, compared to an OECD average of 72%. However, only 50% of Icelanders say they trust their political institutions, slightly less than the OECD average of 56% (and most probably a consequence of the political scandals in the wake of the Icelandic financial crisis).

Government

A 19th-century depiction of the Alþingi of the Commonwealth in session at Þingvellir

Iceland is a representative democracy and a parliamentary republic. The modern parliament, Alþingi (English: Althing), was founded in 1845 as an advisory body to the Danish monarch. It was widely seen as a re-establishment of the assembly founded in 930 in the Commonwealth period, and temporarily suspended from 1799 to 1845. Consequently, "it is arguably the world's oldest parliamentary democracy." It has 63 members, elected for a maximum period of four years.

The head of government is the prime minister who, together with the cabinet, is responsible for executive government.

The president, in contrast, is elected by popular vote for a term of four years with no term limit. The elections for president, the Althing, and local municipal councils are all held separately every four years. The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial head of state and serves as a diplomat, but may veto laws voted by the parliament and put them to a national referendum. The president is Guðni Th. Jóhannesson.

The cabinet is appointed by the president after a general election to the Althing; however, the appointment is usually negotiated by the leaders of the political parties, who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how to distribute its seats, under the condition that it has majority support in the Althing. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves within a reasonable time span does the president exercise this power and appoint the cabinet personally. This has not happened since the republic was founded in 1944, but in 1942 regent Sveinn Björnsson, who had been installed in that position by the Althing in 1941, appointed a non-parliamentary government. The regent had, for all practical purposes, the position of a president, and Sveinn would later become the country's first president in 1944.

The governments of Iceland have always been coalition governments, with two or more parties involved, as no single political party has ever received a majority of seats in the Althing throughout the republican period. The extent of the political power possessed by the office of the president is disputed by legal scholars[which?], in Iceland; several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers, but other provisions and traditions suggest differently.[citation needed] In 1980, Icelanders elected Vigdís Finnbogadóttir as president, the world's first directly elected female head of state. She retired from office in 1996. In 2009, Iceland became the first country with an openly gay head of government when Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir became prime minister.

Administrative divisions

Iceland is divided into regions, constituencies, and municipalities. The eight regions are primarily used for statistical purposes. District court jurisdictions also use an older version of this division. Until 2003, the constituencies for the parliamentary elections were the same as the regions, but by an amendment to the constitution, they were changed to the current six constituencies:

The redistricting change was made to balance the weight of different districts of the country since previously a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavík city area. The imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system but still exists.

Sixty-nine municipalities in Iceland govern local matters like schools, transport, and zoning. These are the actual second-level subdivisions of Iceland, as the constituencies have no relevance except in elections and for statistical purposes. Reykjavík is by far the most populous municipality, about four times more populous than Kópavogur, the second one.

Foreign relations

Nordic prime ministers and the president of Finland visiting the White House in 2016, with Iceland's Sigurður second from the left

Iceland, which is a member of the UN, NATO, EFTA, Council of Europe and OECD, maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations, but its ties with the Nordic countries, Germany, the United States, Canada, and the other NATO nations are particularly close. Historically, due to cultural, economic, and linguistic similarities, Iceland is a Nordic country, and it participates in intergovernmental cooperation through the Nordic Council.

Iceland is a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), which allows the country access to the single market of the European Union (EU). It was not a member of the EU, but in July 2009, the Icelandic parliament, the Althing, voted in favour of the application for EU membership and officially applied on 17 July 2009. However, in 2013, opinion polls showed that many Icelanders were now against joining the EU; following the 2013 Icelandic parliamentary election the two parties that formed the island's new government—the centrist Progressive Party and the right-wing Independence Party—announced they would hold a referendum on EU membership.

The Prime Minister of Iceland meets with the First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon at Bute House in 2019.

Military

Main article: Military of Iceland

Iceland has no standing army but has the Icelandic Coast Guard which also maintains the Iceland Air Defence System, and an Iceland Crisis Response Unit to support peacekeeping missions and perform paramilitary functions.

The Iceland Defense Force (IDF) was a military command of the United States Armed Forces from 1951 to 2006. The IDF, created at the request of NATO, came into existence when the United States signed an agreement to provide for the defence of Iceland. The IDF also consisted of civilian Icelanders and military members of other NATO nations. The IDF was downsized after the end of the Cold War and the U.S. Air Force maintained four to six interceptor aircraft at the Naval Air Station Keflavik, until they were withdrawn on 30 September 2006. Since May 2008, NATO nations have periodically deployed fighters to patrol Icelandic airspace under the Icelandic Air Policing mission. Iceland supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite much domestic controversy, deploying a Coast Guard EOD team to Iraq, which was replaced later by members of the Iceland Crisis Response Unit. Iceland has also participated in the conflict in Afghanistan and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.[citation needed] Despite the ongoing financial crisis the first new patrol ship in decades was launched on 29 April 2009.

Iceland was the neutral host of the historic 1986 Reagan–Gorbachev summit in Reykjavík, which set the stage for the end of the Cold War. Iceland's principal historical international disputes involved disagreements over fishing rights.[citation needed] Conflict with the United Kingdom led to a series of so-called Cod Wars, which included confrontations between the Icelandic Coast Guard and the Royal Navy over British fishermen: in 1952–1956 due to the extension of Iceland's fishing zone from 3 to 4 nmi (5.6 to 7.4 km; 3.5 to 4.6 mi), in 1958–1961 following a further extension to 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi), in 1972–1973 with another extension to 50 nmi (92.6 km; 57.5 mi), and in 1975–1976 after another extension to 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi).[citation needed]

According to the 2011 Global Peace Index, Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world, due to its lack of armed forces, low crime rate and high level of socio-political stability. Iceland is listed in Guinness World Records as the "country ranked most at peace" and the "lowest military spending per capita".

A proportional representation of Iceland exports, 2019
Akureyri is the largest town in Iceland outside the Capital Region. Most rural towns are based on the fishing industry, which provides 40% of Iceland's exports.
Main article: Economy of Iceland

In 2007, Iceland was the seventh-most productive country in the world per capita (US$54,858), and the fifth-most productive by GDP at purchasing power parity ($40,112). About 85 percent of total primary energy supply in Iceland is derived from domestically produced renewable energy sources. Use of abundant hydroelectric and geothermal power has made Iceland the world's largest electricity producer per capita. As a result of its commitment to renewable energy, the 2016 Global Green Economy Index ranked Iceland among the top 10 greenest economies in the world. Historically, Iceland's economy depended heavily on fishing, which still provides 40% of export earnings and employs 7% of the workforce. The economy is vulnerable to declining fish stocks and to falls in world prices for its main material exports: fish and fish products, aluminium, and ferrosilicon. Whaling in Iceland has been historically significant. Iceland still relies heavily on fishing, but its importance is diminishing from an export share of 90% in the 1960s to 40% in 2006.

Until the 20th century, Iceland was a fairly poor country. It is now one of the most developed countries in the world. Strong economic growth had led Iceland to be ranked first in the United Nations' Human Development Index report for 2007/2008, although in 2011 its HDI rating had fallen to 14th place as a result of the economic crisis. Nevertheless, according to the Economist Intelligence Index of 2011, Iceland has the second-highest quality of life in the world. Based on the Gini coefficient, Iceland also has one of the lowest rates of income inequality in the world, and when adjusted for inequality, its HDI ranking is 6th. Iceland's unemployment rate has declined consistently since the crisis, with 4.8% of the labour force being unemployed as of June 2012[update], compared to 6% in 2011 and 8.1% in 2010.

Many political parties remain opposed to EU membership, primarily due to Icelanders' concern about losing control over their natural resources (particularly fisheries). The national currency of Iceland is the Icelandic króna (ISK). Iceland is the only country in the world to have a population under two million yet still have a floating exchange rate and an independent monetary policy.

A poll released on 5 March 2010 by Capacent Gallup showed that 31% of respondents were in favour of adopting the euro and 69% opposed. Another Capacent Gallup poll conducted in February 2012 found that 67.4% of Icelanders would reject EU membership in a referendum.

Graphical depiction of Iceland's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories

Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, including software production, biotechnology, and finance; industry accounts for around a quarter of economic activity, while services comprise close to 70%. The tourism sector is expanding, especially in ecotourism and whale-watching. On average, Iceland receives around 1.1 million visitors annually, which is more than three times the native population. 1.7 million people visited Iceland in 2016, 3 times more than the number that came in 2010. Iceland's agriculture industry, accounting for 5.4% of GDP, consists mainly of potatoes, green vegetables (in greenhouses), mutton and dairy products. The financial centre is Borgartún in Reykjavík, which hosts a large number of companies and three investment banks. Iceland's stock market, the Iceland Stock Exchange (ISE), was established in 1985.

Iceland is ranked 27th in the 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, lower than in prior years but still among the freest in the world. As of 2016[update], it ranks 29th in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitive Index, one place lower than in 2015. According to INSEAD's Global Innovation Index, Iceland is the 11th most innovative country in the world. Unlike most Western European countries, Iceland has a flat tax system: the main personal income tax rate is a flat 22.75%, and combined with municipal taxes, the total tax rate equals no more than 35.7%, not including the many deductions that are available. The corporate tax rate is a flat 18%, one of the lowest in the world. There is also a value added tax, whereas a net wealth tax was eliminated in 2006. Employment regulations are relatively flexible and the labour market is one of the freest in the world. Property rights are strong and Iceland is one of the few countries where they are applied to fishery management. Like other welfare states, taxpayers pay various subsidies to each other, but with spending being less than in most European countries.

Despite low tax rates, agricultural assistance is the highest among OECD countries and a potential impediment to structural change. Also, health care and education spending have relatively poor returns by OECD measures, though improvements have been made in both areas. The OECD Economic Survey of Iceland 2008 had highlighted Iceland's challenges in currency and macroeconomic policy. There was a currency crisis that started in the spring of 2008, and on 6 October trading in Iceland's banks was suspended as the government battled to save the economy. An assessment by the OECD 2011 determined that Iceland has made progress in many areas, particularly in creating a sustainable fiscal policy and restoring the health of the financial sector; however, challenges remain in making the fishing industry more efficient and sustainable, as well as in improving monetary policy to address inflation. Iceland's public debt has decreased since the economic crisis, and as of 2015[update] is the 31st-highest in the world by proportion of national GDP.

Economic contraction

Iceland had been hit especially hard by the Great Recession that began in December 2007 because of the failure of its banking system and a subsequent economic crisis. Before the crash of the country's three largest banks, Glitnir, Landsbanki and Kaupthing, their combined debt exceeded approximately six times the nation's gross domestic product of €14 billion ($19 billion). In October 2008, the Icelandic parliament passed emergency legislation to minimise the impact of the financial crisis. The Financial Supervisory Authority of Iceland used permission granted by the emergency legislation to take over the domestic operations of the three largest banks. Icelandic officials, including central bank governor Davíð Oddsson, stated that the state did not intend to take over any of the banks' foreign debts or assets. Instead, new banks were established to take on the domestic operations of the banks, and the old banks were to be run into bankruptcy.

On 28 October 2008, the Icelandic government raised interest rates to 18% (as of August 2019[update], it was 3.5%), a move forced in part by the terms of acquiring a loan from International Monetary Fund (IMF). After the rate hike, trading on the Icelandic króna finally resumed on the open market, with valuation at around 250 ISK per euro, less than one-third the value of the 1:70 exchange rate during most of 2008, and a significant drop from the 1:150 exchange ratio of the week before. On 20 November 2008, the Nordic countries agreed to lend Iceland $2.5 billion.

On 26 January 2009, the coalition government collapsed due to public dissent over the handling of the financial crisis. A new left-wing government was formed a week later and immediately set about removing Central Bank governor Davíð Oddsson and his aides from the bank through changes in law. Davíð was removed on 26 February 2009 in the wake of protests outside the Central Bank.

Thousands of Icelanders left the country after the collapse, many of those moving to Norway. In 2005, 293 people moved from Iceland to Norway; in 2009, the figure was 1,625. In April 2010, the Icelandic Parliament's Special Investigation Commission published the findings of its investigation, revealing the extent of control fraud in this crisis. By June 2012, Landsbanki managed to repay about half of the Icesave debt.

According to Bloomberg, Iceland is on the trajectory of 2% unemployment as a result of crisis-management decisions made back in 2008, including allowing the banks to fail.

Transport

The Ring Road of Iceland and some towns it passes through: 1. Reykjavík, 2. Borgarnes, 3. Blönduós, 4. Akureyri, 5. Egilsstaðir, 6. Höfn, 7. Selfoss
Main article: Transport in Iceland

Iceland has a high level of car ownership per capita, with a car for every 1.5 inhabitants; it is the main form of transport. Iceland has 13,034 km (8,099 mi) of administered roads, of which 4,617 km (2,869 mi) are paved and 8,338 km (5,181 mi) are not. A great number of roads remain unpaved, mostly little-used rural roads. The road speed limits are 30 km/h (19 mph) and 50 km/h (31 mph) in towns, 80 km/h (50 mph) on gravel country roads and 90 km/h (56 mph) on hard-surfaced roads.

Route 1, or the Ring Road (Icelandic: Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur), was completed in 1974, and is the main road that runs around Iceland and connects all the inhabited parts of the island, with the interior of the island being uninhabited. This paved road is 1,332 km (828 mi) long with one lane in each direction, except near larger towns and cities and in the Hvalfjörður Tunnel where it has more lanes. Many bridges on it, especially in the north and east, are single lanes and made of timber and/or steel.

Keflavík International Airport (KEF) is the largest airport and the main aviation hub for international passenger transport. It serves several international and domestic airline companies. KEF is in the vicinity of the larger metropolitan capital areas, 49 km (30 mi) to the WSW of Reykjavík center, and public bus services are available.

Iceland has no passenger railways.

Reykjavík Airport (RKV) is the second-largest airport, located just 1.5 km from the capital centre. RKV serves general aviation traffic, and has daily or regular domestic flights to 12 local townships within Iceland. RKV also serves international flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands, business and private airplanes along with aviation training.

Akureyri Airport (AEY) and Egilsstaðir Airport (EGS) are two other domestic airports with limited international service capacity. There are a total of 103 registered airports and airfields in Iceland; most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas. The second-longest runway is at Geitamelur, a four-runway glider field around 100 km (62 mi) east of Reykjavík.

Six main ferry services provide regular access to various outpost communities or shorten travel distances.[circular reference]

Energy

The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station services the Capital Region's hot water and electricity needs. Virtually all of Iceland's electricity comes from renewable resources.
Iceland electricity production by source

Renewable sourcesgeothermal and hydropower—provide effectively all of Iceland's electricity and around 85% of the nation's total primary energy consumption, with most of the remainder consisting of imported oil products used in transportation and in the fishing fleet. A 2000 report from the University of Iceland suggested that Iceland could potentially convert from oil to hydrogen power by 2040. Iceland's largest geothermal power plants are Hellisheiði and Nesjavellir, while Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant is the country's largest hydroelectric power station. When the Kárahnjúkavirkjun started operating, Iceland became the world's largest electricity producer per capita. Iceland is one of the few countries that have filling stations dispensing hydrogen fuel for cars powered by fuel cells.[citation needed] It is also one of a few countries capable of producing hydrogen in adequate quantities at a reasonable cost, because of Iceland's plentiful renewable sources of energy.[further explanation needed]

Despite this, Icelanders emitted 16.9 tonnes of CO2 per capita in 2016, the highest in EFTA, mainly resulting from transport and aluminium smelting. Nevertheless, in 2010, Iceland was reported by Guinness World Records as "the Greenest Country", reaching the highest score by the Environmental Sustainability Index, which measures a country's water use, biodiversity and adoption of clean energies, with a score of 93.5/100.

On 22 January 2009, Iceland announced its first round of offshore licences for companies wanting to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and production in a region northeast of Iceland, known as the Dreki area. Three exploration licences were awarded but all were subsequently relinquished.

As of 2012[update], the government of Iceland was in talks with the government of the United Kingdom about the possibility of constructing Icelink, a high-voltage direct-current connector for transmission of electricity between the two countries. Such a cable would give Iceland access to a market where electricity prices have generally been much higher than those in Iceland. Iceland has considerable renewable energy resources, especially geothermal energy and hydropower resources, and most of the potential has not been developed, partly because there is not enough demand for additional electricity generation capacity from the residents and industry of Iceland; the United Kingdom is interested in importing inexpensive electricity from renewable sources of energy, and this could lead to further development of the energy resources.

Education and science

Reykjavík Junior College (Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík), located in downtown Reykjavík, is the oldest gymnasium in Iceland.

The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines. However, playschools, primary schools, and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities. The government does allow citizens to home educate their children, however, under a very strict set of demands. Students must adhere closely to the government-mandated curriculum, and the parent teaching must acquire a government approved teaching certificate.

Nursery school, or leikskóli, is non-compulsory education for children younger than six years and is the first step in the education system. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 1994. They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible.[citation needed]

Compulsory education, or grunnskóli, comprises primary and lower secondary education, which often is conducted at the same institution. Education is mandatory by law for children aged from 6 to 16 years. The school year lasts nine months, beginning between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June. The minimum number of school days was once 170, but after a new teachers' wage contract, it increased to 180. Lessons take place five days a week. All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity, although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education.

Upper secondary education, or framhaldsskóli, follows lower secondary education. These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. Though not compulsory, everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education. This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of 1996. All schools in Iceland are mixed-sex schools. The largest seat of higher education is the University of Iceland, which has its main campus in central Reykjavík. Other schools offering university-level instruction include Reykjavík University, University of Akureyri, Agricultural University of Iceland and Bifröst University.

An OECD assessment found 64% of Icelanders aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, which is lower than the OECD average of 73%. Among 25- to 34-year-olds, only 69% have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, significantly lower than the OECD average of 80%. Nevertheless, Iceland's education system is considered excellent: the Programme for International Student Assessment ranks it as the 16th best performing, above the OECD average. Students were particularly proficient in reading and mathematics.

According to a 2013 Eurostat report by the European Commission, Iceland spends around 3.11% of its GDP on scientific research and development (R&D), over 1 percentage point higher than the EU average of 2.03%, and has set a target of 4% to reach by 2020. Iceland was ranked 21st in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 20th in 2019. A 2010 UNESCO report found that out of 72 countries that spend the most on R&D (100 million US dollars or more), Iceland ranked 9th by proportion of GDP, tied with Taiwan, Switzerland, and Germany and ahead of France, the UK and Canada.

For statistics on demographics, see Demographics of Iceland.
See also: Icelanders
Reykjavík, Iceland's largest metropolitan area and the centre of the Capital Region which, with a population of 233,034, makes for 64% of Iceland's population. (numbers from 2020)

The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Gaelic origin. This is evident from literary evidence dating from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses. One such genetic study indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Gaelic origin, meaning many settlers of Iceland were Norsemen who brought Gaelic slaves with them.

Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement. The biopharmaceutical company deCODE genetics has funded the creation of a genealogy database that is intended to cover all of Iceland's known inhabitants. It views the database, called Íslendingabók, as a valuable tool for conducting research on genetic diseases, given the relative isolation of Iceland's population.

The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40,000 to 60,000 in the period ranging from initial settlement until the mid-19th century. During that time, cold winters, ash fall from volcanic eruptions, and bubonic plagues adversely affected the population several times. There were 37 famine years in Iceland between 1500 and 1804. The first census was carried out in 1703 and revealed that the population was then 50,358. After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during 1783–1784, the population reached a low of about 40,000. Improving living conditions have triggered a rapid increase in population since the mid-19th century—from about 60,000 in 1850 to 320,000 in 2008. Iceland has a relatively young population for a developed country, with one out of five people being 14 years old or younger. With a fertility rate of 2.1, Iceland is one of only a few European countries with a birth rate sufficient for long-term population growth (see table below).

In December 2007, 33,678 people (13.5% of the total population) living in Iceland had been born abroad, including children of Icelandic parents living abroad. Around 19,000 people (6% of the population) held foreign citizenship. Polish people make up the largest minority group by a considerable margin and still form the bulk of the foreign workforce. About 8,000 Poles now live in Iceland, 1,500 of them in Fjarðabyggð where they make up 75% of the workforce who are constructing the Fjarðarál aluminum plant. Large-scale construction projects in the east of Iceland (see Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant) have also brought in many people whose stay is expected to be temporary. Many Polish immigrants were also considering leaving in 2008 as a result of the Icelandic financial crisis.

The southwest corner of Iceland is by far the most densely populated region. It is also the location of the capital Reykjavík, the northernmost national capital in the world. More than 70 percent of Iceland's population live in the southwest corner (Greater Reykjavík and the nearby Southern Peninsula), which covers less than two percent of Iceland's land area. The largest town outside Greater Reykjavík is Reykjanesbær, which is located on the Southern Peninsula, less than 50 km (31 mi) from the capital. The largest town outside the southwest corner is Akureyri in northern Iceland.

Some 500 Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red settled Greenland in the late 10th century. The total population reached a high point of perhaps 5,000, and developed independent institutions before disappearing by 1500. People from Greenland attempted to set up a settlement at Vinland in North America, but abandoned it in the face of hostility from the indigenous residents.

Emigration of Icelanders to the United States and Canada began in the 1870s. As of 2006[update], Canada had over 88,000 people of Icelandic descent, while there are more than 40,000 Americans of Icelandic descent, according to the 2000 US census.

Urbanisation

Iceland's 10 most populous urban areas:

Language

See also: Icelandic name

Iceland's official written and spoken language is Icelandic, a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse. In grammar and vocabulary, it has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages; Icelandic has preserved more verb and noun inflection, and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from other languages. The puristic tendency in the development of Icelandic vocabulary is to a large degree a result of conscious language planning, in addition to centuries of isolation. Icelandic is the only living language to retain the use of the runic letter Þ in Latin script. The closest living relative of the Icelandic language is Faroese.

Icelandic Sign Language was officially recognised as a minority language in 2011. In education, its use for Iceland's deaf community is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide.

English and Danish are compulsory subjects in the school curriculum. English is widely understood and spoken, while basic to moderate knowledge of Danish is common mainly among the older generations. Polish is mostly spoken by the local Polish community (the largest minority of Iceland), and Danish is mostly spoken in a way largely comprehensible to Swedes and Norwegians—it is often referred to as skandinavíska (i. e. Scandinavian) in Iceland.

Rather than using family names, as is the usual custom in most Western nations, Icelanders carry patronymic or matronymic surnames, patronyms being far more commonly practised. Patronymic last names are based on the first name of the father, while matronymic names are based on the first name of the mother. These follow the person's given name, e.g. Elísabet Jónsdóttir ("Elísabet, Jón's daughter" (Jón, being the father)) or Ólafur Katrínarson ("Ólafur, Katrín's son" (Katrín being the mother)). Consequently, Icelanders refer to one another by their given name, and the Icelandic telephone directory is listed alphabetically by the first name rather than by surname. All new names must be approved by the Icelandic Naming Committee.

Health

Iceland has a universal health care system that is administered by its Ministry of Welfare (Icelandic: Velferðarráðuneytið) and paid for mostly by taxes (85%) and to a lesser extent by service fees (15%). Unlike most countries, there are no private hospitals, and private insurance is practically nonexistent.

A considerable portion of the government budget is assigned to health care, and Iceland ranks 11th in health care expenditures as a percentage of GDP and 14th in spending per capita. Overall, the country's health care system is one of the best performing in the world, ranked 15th by the World Health Organization. According to an OECD report, Iceland devotes far more resources to healthcare than most industrialised nations. As of 2009[update], Iceland had 3.7 doctors per 1,000 people (compared with an average of 3.1 in OECD countries) and 15.3 nurses per 1,000 people (compared with an OECD average of 8.4).

Icelanders are among the world's healthiest people, with 81% reporting they are in good health, according to an OECD survey. Although it is a growing problem, obesity is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Iceland has many campaigns for health and wellbeing, including the famous television show Lazytown, starring and created by former gymnastics champion Magnus Scheving. Infant mortality is one of the lowest in the world, and the proportion of the population that smokes is lower than the OECD average. Almost all women choose to terminate pregnancies of children with Down syndrome in Iceland. The average life expectancy is 81.8 (compared to an OECD average of 79.5), the fourth-highest in the world.

Iceland has a very low level of pollution, thanks to an overwhelming reliance on cleaner geothermal energy, a low population density, and a high level of environmental consciousness among citizens. According to an OECD assessment, the amount of toxic materials in the atmosphere is far lower than in any other industrialised country measured.

Religion

Main article: Religion in Iceland
Affiliation by religious movement (1 January 2018)
Affiliation % of population
Christianity 78.78 78.78
Church of Iceland 67.22 67.22
Other Lutheran churches 5.70 5.7
Roman Catholic Church 3.85 3.85
Eastern Orthodox Church 0.29 0.29
Other Christian denominations 1.72 1.72
Other religion or association 14.52 14.52
Germanic Heathenism 1.19 1.19
Humanist association 0.67 0.67
Zuism 0.55 0.55
Buddhism 0.42 0.42
Islam 0.30 0.3
Baháʼí Faith 0.10 0.1
Other and not specified 11.29 11.29
Unaffiliated 6.69 6.69
A church in the northwest of Iceland

Icelanders have freedom of religion guaranteed under the Constitution, although the Church of Iceland, a Lutheran body, is the state church:

The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Church in Iceland and, as such, it shall be supported and protected by the State.

Article 62, Section IV of Constitution of Iceland

Approximately 80 percent of Icelanders legally affiliate with a religious denomination, a process that happens automatically at birth and from which they can choose to opt-out. They also pay a church tax (sóknargjald), which the government directs to help support their registered religion, or, in the case of no religion, the University of Iceland.

The Registers Iceland keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen. In 2017, Icelanders were divided into religious groups as follows:

On March 8, 2021, Iceland formally recognized Judaism as a religion for the first time ever. Iceland's Jews will have the choice to register as such and direct their taxes to their own religion. Among other benefits, the recognition will also allow Jewish marriage, baby-naming and funeral ceremonies to be civilly recognized.

Iceland is a very secular country; as with other Nordic nations, church attendance is relatively low. The above statistics represent administrative membership of religious organisations, which does not necessarily reflect the belief demographics of the population. According to a study published in 2001, 23% of the inhabitants were either atheist or agnostic. A Gallup poll conducted in 2012 found that 57% of Icelanders considered themselves "religious", 31% considered themselves "non-religious", while 10% defined themselves as "convinced atheists", placing Iceland among the ten countries with the highest proportions of atheists in the world. Registration of Icelanders in the state church, the Church of Iceland, is declining at a rate of more than 1% per year.

Main article: Culture of Iceland

Icelandic culture has its roots in North Germanic traditions. Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas that were written during the High and Late Middle Ages. Centuries of isolation have helped to insulate the country's Nordic culture from external influence; a prominent example is the preservation of the Icelandic language, which remains the closest to Old Norse of all modern Nordic languages.

In contrast to other Nordic countries, Icelanders place relatively great importance on independence and self-sufficiency; in a public opinion analysis conducted by the European Commission, over 85% of Icelanders believe independence is "very important", compared to 47% of Norwegians, 49% of Danes, and an average of 53% for the EU25. Icelanders also have a very strong work ethic, working some of the longest hours of any industrialised nation.

According to a poll conducted by the OECD, 66% of Icelanders were satisfied with their lives, while 70% believed that their lives will be satisfying in the future. Similarly, 83% reported having more positive experiences in an average day than negative ones, compared to an OECD average of 72%, which makes Iceland one of the happiest countries in the OECD. A more recent 2012 survey found that around three-quarters of respondents stated they were satisfied with their lives, compared to a global average of about 53%.

Iceland is liberal with regard to LGBT rights issues. In 1996, the Icelandic parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same-sex couples, conferring nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage. In 2006, parliament voted unanimously to grant same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples in adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment. In 2010, the Icelandic parliament amended the marriage law, making it gender-neutral and defining marriage as between two individuals, making Iceland one of the first countries in the world to legalise same-sex marriages. The law took effect on 27 June 2010. The amendment to the law also means registered partnerships for same-sex couples are now no longer possible, and marriage is their only option—identical to the existing situation for opposite-sex couples.

Icelanders are known for their strong sense of community and lack of social isolation: An OECD survey found that 98% believe they know someone they could rely on in a time of need, higher than in any other industrialised country. Similarly, only 6% reported "rarely" or "never" socialising with others. This high level of social cohesion is attributed to the small size and homogeneity of the population, as well as to a long history of harsh survival in an isolated environment, which reinforced the importance of unity and cooperation.

Egalitarianism is highly valued among the people of Iceland, with income inequality being among the lowest in the world. The constitution explicitly prohibits the enactment of noble privileges, titles, and ranks. Everyone is addressed by their first name. As in other Nordic countries, equality between the sexes is very high; Iceland is consistently ranked among the top three countries in the world for women to live in.

Literature

Main article: Icelandic literature

In 2011, Reykjavík was designated a UNESCO City of Literature.

A page of Njáls saga from Möðruvallabók. The sagas are a significant part of the Icelandic heritage.

Iceland's best-known classical works of literature are the Icelanders' sagas, prose epics set in Iceland's age of settlement. The most famous of these include Njáls saga, about an epic blood feud, and Grænlendinga saga and Eiríks saga, describing the discovery and settlement of Greenland and Vinland (modern Newfoundland). Egils saga, Laxdæla saga, Grettis saga, Gísla saga and Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu are also notable and popular Icelanders' sagas.

A translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century. Important compositions since the 15th to the 19th century include sacred verse, most famously the Passion Hymns of Hallgrímur Pétursson, and rímur, rhyming epic poems. Originating in the 14th century, rímur were popular into the 19th century, when the development of new literary forms was provoked by the influential National-Romantic writer Jónas Hallgrímsson. In recent times, Iceland has produced many great writers, the best-known of whom is arguably Halldór Laxness, who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1955 (the only Icelander to win a Nobel Prize thus far). Steinn Steinarr was an influential modernist poet during the early 20th century who remains popular.

Icelanders are avid consumers of literature, with the highest number of bookstores per capita in the world. For its size, Iceland imports and translates more international literature than any other nation. Iceland also has the highest per capita publication of books and magazines, and around 10% of the population will publish a book in their lifetimes.

Most books in Iceland are sold between late September to early November. This time period is known as Jolabokaflod, the Christmas Book Flood. The Flood begins with the Iceland Publisher's Association distributing Bokatidindi, a catalogue of all new publications, free to each Icelandic home.

Art

Main article: Icelandic art

The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement for home rule and independence, which was very active in the mid-19th century.

Contemporary Icelandic painting is typically traced to the work of Þórarinn Þorláksson, who, following formal training in art in the 1890s in Copenhagen, returned to Iceland to paint and exhibit works from 1900 to his death in 1924, almost exclusively portraying the Icelandic landscape. Several other Icelandic men and women artists studied at Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts at that time, including Ásgrímur Jónsson, who together with Þórarinn created a distinctive portrayal of Iceland's landscape in a romantic naturalistic style. Other landscape artists quickly followed in the footsteps of Þórarinn and Ásgrímur. These included Jóhannes Kjarval and Júlíana Sveinsdóttir. Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment. Einar Hákonarson is an expressionistic and figurative painter who by some is considered to have brought the figure back into Icelandic painting. In the 1980s, many Icelandic artists worked with the subject of the new painting in their work.

In recent years artistic practice has multiplied, and the Icelandic art scene has become a setting for many large-scale projects and exhibitions. The artist-run gallery space Kling og Bang, members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank, has been a significant part of the trend of self-organised spaces, exhibitions, and projects. The Living Art Museum, Reykjavík Municipal Art Museum, Reykjavík Art Museum and the National Gallery of Iceland are the larger, more established institutions, curating shows and festivals.

Music

Main article: Music of Iceland
Björk, the best-known Icelandic musician

Much Icelandic music is related to Nordic music, and includes folk and pop traditions. Notable Icelandic music acts include medieval music group Voces Thules, alternative and indie rock acts such as The Sugarcubes, Sóley and Of Monsters and Men, jazz fusion band Mezzoforte, pop singers such as Hafdís Huld, Emilíana Torrini and Björk, solo ballad singers like Bubbi Morthens, and post-rock bands such as Amiina and Sigur Rós. Independent music is strong in Iceland, with bands such as múm and solo artists such as Daði Freyr.

Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious. Hymns, both religious and secular, are a particularly well-developed form of music, due to the scarcity of musical instruments throughout much of Iceland's history. Hallgrímur Pétursson wrote many Protestant hymns in the 17th century. Icelandic music was modernised in the 19th century, when Magnús Stephensen brought pipe organs, which were followed by harmoniums. Other vital traditions of Icelandic music are epic alliterative and rhyming ballads called rímur. Rímur are epic tales, usually a cappella, which can be traced back to skaldic poetry, using complex metaphors and elaborate rhyme schemes. The best-known rímur poet of the 19th century was Sigurður Breiðfjörð (1798–1846). A modern revitalisation of the tradition began in 1929 with the formation of Iðunn.[clarification needed]

Among Iceland's best-known classical composers are Daníel Bjarnason and Anna S. Þorvaldsdóttir (Anna Thorvaldsdottir), who in 2012 received the Nordic Council Music Prize and in 2015 was chosen as the New York Philharmonic's Kravis Emerging Composer, an honour that includes a $50,000 cash prize and a commission to write a composition for the orchestra; she is the second recipient.

The national anthem of Iceland is Lofsöngur, written by Matthías Jochumsson, with music by Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson.

Media

Icelandic director Baltasar Kormákur, best known for the films 101 Reykjavík, Jar City and Contraband, and television series Trapped

Iceland's largest television stations are the state-run Sjónvarpið and the privately owned Stöð 2 and SkjárEinn. Smaller stations exist, many of them local. Radio is broadcast throughout the country, including some parts of the interior. The main radio stations are Rás 1, Rás 2, X-ið 977, Bylgjan and FM957. The daily newspapers are Morgunblaðið and Fréttablaðið. The most popular websites are the news sites Vísir and Mbl.is.

Iceland is home to LazyTown (Icelandic: Latibær), a children's educational musical comedy program created by Magnús Scheving. It has become a very popular programme for children and adults and is shown in over 100 countries, including the Americas, the UK and Sweden. The LazyTown studios are located in Garðabær. The 2015 television crime series Trapped aired in the UK on BBC4 in February and March 2016, to critical acclaim and according to the Guardian "the unlikeliest TV hit of the year".

In 1992, the Icelandic film industry achieved its greatest recognition hitherto, when Friðrik Þór Friðriksson was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film for his Children of Nature. It features the story of an old man who is unable to continue running his farm. After being unwelcomed in his daughter's and father-in-law's house in town, he is put in a home for the elderly. There, he meets an old girlfriend of his youth, and they both begin a journey through the wilds of Iceland to die together. This is the only Icelandic movie to have ever been nominated for an Academy Award.

Singer-songwriter Björk received international acclaim for her starring role in the Danish musical drama Dancer in the Dark, directed by Lars von Trier, in which she plays Selma Ježková, a factory worker who struggles to pay for her son's eye operation. The film premiered at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival, where she won the Best Actress Award. The movie also led Björk to nominations for Best Original Song at the 73rd Academy Awards, with the song I've Seen It All and for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture - Drama.

Guðrún S. Gísladóttir, who is Icelandic, played one of the major roles in Russian filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky's film The Sacrifice (1986). Anita Briem, known for her performance in Showtime's The Tudors, is also Icelandic. Briem starred in the film Journey to the Center of the Earth (2008), which shot scenes in Iceland. The James Bond movie Die Another Day (2002) is set for a large part in Iceland. Christopher Nolan's film Interstellar (2014) was also filmed in Iceland for some of its scenes, as was Ridley Scott's Prometheus (2012).

On 17 June 2010, the parliament passed the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative, proposing greater protection of free speech rights and the identity of journalists and whistle-blowers—the strongest journalist protection law in the world. According to a 2011 report by Freedom House, Iceland is one of the highest-ranked countries in press freedom.

CCP Games, developers of the critically acclaimed EVE Online and Dust 514, is headquartered in Reykjavík. CCP Games hosts the third-most populated MMO in the world, which also has the largest total game area for an online game.[citation needed]

Iceland has a highly developed internet culture, with around 95% of the population having internet access, the highest proportion in the world. Iceland ranked 12th in the World Economic Forum's 2009–2010 Network Readiness Index, which measures a country's ability to competitively exploit communications technology. The United Nations International Telecommunication Union ranks the country third in its development of information and communications technology, having moved up four places between 2008 and 2010. In February 2013 the country (ministry of the interior) was researching possible methods to protect children in regards to Internet pornography, claiming that pornography online is a threat to children as it supports child slavery and abuse. Strong voices within the community expressed concerns with this, stating that it is impossible to block access to pornography without compromising freedom of speech.

Cuisine

Main articles: Icelandic cuisine and Þorramatur
A typical Þorramatur assortment

Much of Iceland's cuisine is based on fish, lamb, and dairy products, with little to no use of herbs or spices. Due to the island's climate, fruits and vegetables are not generally a component of traditional dishes, although the use of greenhouses has made them more common in contemporary food. Þorramatur is a selection of traditional cuisine consisting of many dishes and is usually consumed around the month of Þorri, which begins on the first Friday after 19 January. Traditional dishes also include skyr (a yoghurt-like cheese), hákarl (cured shark), cured ram, singed sheep heads, and black pudding, Flatkaka (flatbread), dried fish and dark rye bread traditionally baked in the ground in geothermal areas. Puffin is considered a local delicacy that is often prepared through broiling.

Breakfast usually consists of pancakes, cereal, fruit, and coffee, while lunch may take the form of a smörgåsbord. The main meal of the day for most Icelanders is dinner, which usually involves fish or lamb as the main course. Seafood is central to most Icelandic cooking, particularly cod and haddock but also salmon, herring, and halibut. It is often prepared in a wide variety of ways, either smoked, pickled, boiled, or dried. Lamb is by far the most common meat, and it tends to be either smoke-cured (known as hangikjöt) or salt-preserved (saltkjöt). Many older dishes make use of every part of the sheep, such as slátur, which consists of offal (internal organs and entrails) minced together with blood and served in sheep stomach. Additionally, boiled or mashed potatoes, pickled cabbage, green beans, and rye bread are prevalent side dishes.[citation needed]

Coffee is a popular beverage in Iceland, with the country being third placed by per capita consumption worldwide in 2016, and is drunk at breakfast, after meals, and with a light snack in mid-afternoon. Coca-Cola is also widely consumed, to the extent that the country is said to have one of the highest per capita consumption rates in the world.

Iceland's signature alcoholic beverage is brennivín (literally "burnt [i.e., distilled] wine"), which is similar in flavouring to the akvavit variant of Scandinavian brännvin. It is a type of schnapps made from distilled potatoes and flavoured with either caraway seeds or angelica. Its potency has earned it the nickname svarti dauði ("Black Death"). Modern distilleries on Iceland produce vodka (Reyka), gin (Ísafold), moss schnapps (Fjallagrasa), and a birch-flavoured schnapps and liqueur (Foss Distillery's Birkir and Björk). Martin Miller blends Icelandic water with its England-distilled gin on the island. Strong beer was banned until 1989, so bjórlíki, a mixture of legal, low-alcohol pilsner beer and vodka, became popular. Several strong beers are now made by Icelandic breweries.

Sport

Main article: Sport in Iceland
The Iceland men's national handball team (pictured) won the silver medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Handball is considered Iceland's national sport.

Sport is an important part of Icelandic culture, as the population is generally quite active. The main traditional sport in Iceland is Glíma, a form of wrestling thought to have originated in medieval times.

Iceland fans at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia

Popular sports include football, track and field, handball and basketball. Handball is often referred to as the national sport. The Icelandic national football team qualified for the 2016 UEFA European football championship for the first time. They recorded a draw against later winners Portugal in the group stage, and defeated England 2–1 in the round of 16, with goals from Ragnar Sigurðsson and Kolbeinn Sigþórsson. They then lost to hosts and later finalists France in the quarter finals. Following up on this, Iceland made its debut at the 2018 FIFA World Cup. For both the European and the world championship, Iceland is to date the smallest nation in terms of population to qualify.

Iceland is also the smallest country to ever qualify for Eurobasket, having done so in both 2015 and 2017. However, they have not managed to win a single game in the European Basketball final stages.

Iceland has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Iceland is also a world-class destination for alpine ski touring and Telemark skiing, with the Troll Peninsula in Northern Iceland being the main centre of activity. Although the country's environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are nevertheless many golf courses throughout the island, and Iceland has a greater percentage of the population playing golf than Scotland with over 17,000 registered golfers out of a population of approximately 300,000. Iceland hosts an annual international golf tournament known as the Arctic Open played through the night during the summer solstice at Akureyri Golf Club. Iceland has also won the second most World's Strongest Man competitions of any country with nine titles, including four by both Magnús Ver Magnússon and Jón Páll Sigmarsson and most recently Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson in 2018.

Iceland is also one of the leading countries in ocean rowing. Icelandic explorer and endurance athlete Fiann Paulholds the highest number of performance-based Guinness World Records within a single athletic discipline. As of 2020, he is the first and only person to achieve the Ocean Explorers Grand Slam (performing open-water crossings on each of the five oceans using human-powered vessels) and has claimed overall speed Guinness World Records for the fastest rowing of all four oceans (Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic) in a human-powered row boat. He had achieved a total of 41, including 33 performance based Guinness World Records by 2020.

Swimming is popular in Iceland. Geothermally heated outdoor pools are widespread, and swimming courses are a mandatory part of the national curriculum. Horseback riding, which was historically the most prevalent form of transportation on the island, remains a common pursuit for many Icelanders.

The oldest sports association in Iceland is the Reykjavík Shooting Association, founded in 1867. Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century with the encouragement of politicians and nationalists who were pushing for Icelandic independence. To this day, it remains a significant pastime.

Iceland has also produced many chess masters and hosted the historic World Chess Championship 1972 in Reykjavík during the height of the Cold War. As of 2008[update], there have been nine Icelandic chess grandmasters, a considerable number given the small size of the population. Bridge is also popular, with Iceland participating in a number of international tournaments. Iceland won the world bridge championship (the Bermuda Bowl) in Yokohama, Japan, in 1991 and took second place (with Sweden) in Hamilton, Bermuda, in 1950.

  1. By country of citizenship
  2. The Constitution of Iceland confirms the Church of Iceland as the state church of Iceland.
  3. Iceland uses UTC with no offset year round and has not observed daylight saving time since 1968. Since Iceland is much farther west than England, the Reykjavík local mean time (the time when the sun is the highest) is offset from the observed time by around 90 minutes.
  4. Although "Republic of Iceland" is found in some documents, it does not have official status. Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Union, Annex A5
  5. Greenland, an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark, is more sparsely populated.
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Bibliography

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Iceland
Iceland Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Island This article is about the country For other uses see Iceland disambiguation Coordinates 65 N 18 W 65 N 18 W 65 18 Iceland Icelandic Island ˈistlant listen d is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean and the most sparsely populated country in Europe e 13 The capital and largest city is Reykjavik Reykjavik and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two thirds of the population Iceland is the only part of the Mid Atlantic Ridge that rises above sea level and its central volcanic plateau is erupting almost constantly 14 15 The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields mountains and glaciers and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly and most of its islands have a polar climate IcelandIslandFlag Coat of armsAnthem Lofsongur lit Hymn source source track track track track track Show globeShow map of EuropeCapitaland largest cityReykjavik 64 08 N 21 56 W 64 133 N 21 933 W 64 133 21 933Official language and national languageIcelandicEthnic groups 2018 a 1 89 Icelandic5 Polish1 Lithuanians5 OthersReligion 2020 3 75 1 Christianity 63 5 Church of Iceland b 11 6 Other Christian21 5 No religion1 3 Asatruarfelagid2 1 OthersDemonym s IcelanderIcelandicGovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic PresidentGudni Th Johannesson Prime MinisterKatrin JakobsdottirLegislatureAlthingFormation Settlement9th century Commonwealth Founding of the Althing930 1262 Union with Norway Signing of the Old Covenant1262 1397 Kalmar Union1397 1523 Denmark Norway1523 1814 Treaty of Kiel Ceded to Denmark14 January 1814 Constitution and limited home rule Minister for Iceland appointed5 January 1874 Extended home rule1 February 1904 Sovereignty Danish Icelandic Act of Union1 December 1918 Republic17 June 1944Area Total102 775 4 km2 39 682 sq mi 106th Water 2 07 as of 2015 5 Population 2021 estimate371 580 6 179th 2011 census315 556 7 Density3 5 km2 9 1 sq mi 190th GDP PPP 2020 estimate Total 19 8 billion 8 142nd Per capita 54 482 8 16th GDP nominal 2020 estimate Total 20 8 billion 8 Per capita 57 189 8 5th Gini 2018 23 2 9 low 2ndHDI 2019 0 949 10 very high 4thCurrencyIcelandic krona ISK Time zoneUTC c GMT WET Date formatdd mm yyyyDriving siderightCalling code 354ISO 3166 codeISInternet TLD is According to the ancient manuscript Landnamabok the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingolfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island 16 In the following centuries Norwegians and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians emigrated to Iceland bringing with them thralls i e slaves or serfs of Gaelic origin The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing one of the world s oldest functioning legislative assemblies Following a period of civil strife Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway Denmark and Sweden Iceland thus followed Norway s integration into that union coming under Danish rule after Sweden s secession from the union in 1523 Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550 Iceland remained a distant semi colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence citation needed In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars Iceland s struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944 Although its parliament Althing was suspended from 1799 to 1845 the island republic has been credited with sustaining the world s oldest and longest running parliament Until the 20th century Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture Industrialization of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world It became a part of the European Economic Area in 1994 this further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance biotechnology and manufacturing Iceland has a market economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECD countries 17 as well as the highest trade union membership in the world 18 It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens 19 Iceland ranks high in economic democratic and social stability as well as equality ranking third in the world by median wealth per adult In 2020 it was ranked as the fourth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index 20 and it ranks first on the Global Peace Index Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation s Scandinavian heritage Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse and Gaelic settlers Icelandic a North Germanic language is descended from Old West Norse and is closely related to Faroese The country s cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine Icelandic literature and medieval sagas Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army with a lightly armed coast guard 21 Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 874 1262 Settlement and Commonwealth 2 2 The Middle Ages 2 3 Reformation and the Early Modern period 2 4 1814 1918 Independence movement 2 5 1918 1944 Independence and the Kingdom of Iceland 2 6 1944 present Republic of Iceland 2 6 1 Economic boom and crisis 3 Geography 3 1 Geology 3 2 Climate 3 3 Plants 3 4 Animals 4 Politics 4 1 Government 4 2 Administrative divisions 4 3 Foreign relations 4 4 Military 5 Economy 5 1 Economic contraction 5 2 Transport 5 3 Energy 5 4 Education and science 6 Demographics 6 1 Urbanisation 6 2 Language 6 3 Health 6 4 Religion 7 Culture 7 1 Literature 7 2 Art 7 3 Music 7 4 Media 7 5 Cuisine 7 6 Sport 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 10 1 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External linksEtymologySee also Names of Iceland Norsemen landing in Iceland a 19th century depiction by Oscar Wergeland The Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd or Naddador was the first Norseman to reach Iceland and in the 9th century he named it Snaeland or snow land because it was snowing Following Naddodd the Swede Gardar Svavarsson arrived and so the island was then called Gardarsholmur which means Gardar s Isle citation needed Then came a Viking named Floki Vilgerdarson his daughter drowned en route then his livestock starved to death The sagas say that the rather despondent Floki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord Arnarfjordur full of icebergs which led him to give the island its new and present name 22 The notion that Iceland s Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth 22 HistoryMain articles History of Iceland and Timeline of Icelandic history 874 1262 Settlement and Commonwealth See also Settlement of Iceland Icelandic Commonwealth and Christianisation of Iceland Ingolfr Arnarson modern Icelandic Ingolfur Arnarson the first permanent Scandinavian settler According to both Landnamabok and Islendingabok monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived possibly members of a Hiberno Scottish mission Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880 23 In 2016 archaeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stodvarfjordur that has been dated to as early as 800 24 Swedish Viking explorer Gardar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island 25 He stayed during the winter and built a house in Husavik Gardar departed the following summer but one of his men Nattfari decided to stay behind with two slaves Nattfari settled in what is now known as Nattfaravik and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland 26 27 The Norwegian Norse chieftain Ingolfr Arnarson built his homestead in present day Reykjavik in 874 Ingolfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers largely Scandinavians and their thralls many of whom were Irish or Scottish 28 By 930 most arable land on the island had been claimed the Althing a legislative and judicial assembly was initiated to regulate the Icelandic Commonwealth Lack of arable land also served as an impetus to the settlement of Greenland starting in 986 29 The period of these early settlements coincided with the Medieval Warm Period when temperatures were similar to those of the early 20th century 30 At this time about 25 of Iceland was covered with forest compared to 1 in the present day 31 Christianity was adopted by consensus around 999 1000 although Norse paganism persisted among segments of the population for some years afterwards 32 The Middle Ages See also Age of the Sturlungs osvor a replica of an old fishing outpost outside Bolungarvik The Icelandic Commonwealth lasted until the 13th century when the political system devised by the original settlers proved unable to cope with the increasing power of Icelandic chieftains 33 The internal struggles and civil strife of the Age of the Sturlungs led to the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262 which ended the Commonwealth and brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown Possession of Iceland passed from the Kingdom of Norway 872 1397 to the Kalmar Union in 1415 when the kingdoms of Norway Denmark and Sweden were united After the break up of the union in 1523 it remained a Norwegian dependency as a part of Denmark Norway Infertile soil volcanic eruptions deforestation and an unforgiving climate made for harsh life in a society where subsistence depended almost entirely on agriculture The Black Death swept Iceland twice first in 1402 1404 and again in 1494 1495 34 The former outbreak killed 50 to 60 of the population and the latter 30 to 50 35 Reformation and the Early Modern period See also Icelandic Reformation Danish Icelandic Trade Monopoly and Moduhardindin Around the middle of the 16th century as part of the Protestant Reformation King Christian III of Denmark began to impose Lutheranism on all his subjects Jon Arason the last Catholic bishop of Holar was beheaded in 1550 along with two of his sons The country subsequently became officially Lutheran and Lutheranism has since remained the dominant religion A map of Iceland published in the early 17th century by Gerardus Mercator In the 17th and 18th centuries Denmark imposed harsh trade restrictions on Iceland Natural disasters including volcanic eruption and disease contributed to a decreasing population In the summer of 1627 Barbary Pirates committed the events known locally as the Turkish Abductions in which hundreds of residents were taken into slavery in North Africa and dozens killed this was the only invasion in Icelandic history to have casualties 36 37 A great smallpox epidemic in the 18th century killed around a third of the population 38 39 In 1783 the Laki volcano erupted with devastating effects 40 In the years following the eruption known as the Mist Hardships Icelandic Moduhardindin over half of all livestock in the country died Around a quarter of the population starved to death in the ensuing famine 41 1814 1918 Independence movement See also Icelandic independence movement and Fjolnir journal In 1814 following the Napoleonic Wars Denmark Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel but Iceland remained a Danish dependency Throughout the 19th century the country s climate continued to grow colder resulting in mass emigration to the New World particularly to the region of Gimli Manitoba in Canada which was sometimes referred to as New Iceland About 15 000 people emigrated out of a total population of 70 000 42 A national consciousness arose in the first half of the 19th century inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from mainland Europe An Icelandic independence movement took shape in the 1850s under the leadership of Jon Sigurdsson based on the burgeoning Icelandic nationalism inspired by the Fjolnismenn and other Danish educated Icelandic intellectuals In 1874 Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and limited home rule This was expanded in 1904 and Hannes Hafstein served as the first Minister for Iceland in the Danish cabinet 1918 1944 Independence and the Kingdom of Iceland See also Kingdom of Iceland Invasion of Iceland and Iceland in World War II HMS Berwick led the British invasion of Iceland The Danish Icelandic Act of Union an agreement with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918 and valid for 25 years recognised Iceland as a fully sovereign and independent state in a personal union with Denmark The Government of Iceland established an embassy in Copenhagen and requested that Denmark carry out on its behalf certain defence and foreign affairs matters subject to consultation with the Althing Danish embassies around the world displayed two coats of arms and two flags those of the Kingdom of Denmark and those of the Kingdom of Iceland Iceland s legal position became comparable to those of countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada whose sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II During World War II Iceland joined Denmark in asserting neutrality After the German occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940 the Althing replaced the King with a regent and declared that the Icelandic government would take control of its own defence and foreign affairs 43 A month later British armed forces conducted Operation Fork the invasion and occupation of the country violating Icelandic neutrality 44 In 1941 the Government of Iceland friendly to Britain invited the then neutral United States to take over its defence so that Britain could use its troops elsewhere 43 1944 present Republic of Iceland British and Icelandic vessels collide in the Atlantic Ocean during the Cod Wars The Icelandic vessel is shown on the left the British vessel is on the right See also Icelandic constitutional referendum 1944 Iceland in the Cold War and Cod Wars On 31 December 1943 the Danish Icelandic Act of Union expired after 25 years Beginning on 20 May 1944 Icelanders voted in a four day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with Denmark abolish the monarchy and establish a republic The vote was 97 to end the union and 95 in favour of the new republican constitution 45 Iceland formally became a republic on 17 June 1944 with Sveinn Bjornsson as its first president In 1946 the US Defence Force Allied left Iceland The nation formally became a member of NATO on 30 March 1949 amid domestic controversy and riots On 5 May 1951 a defence agreement was signed with the United States American troops returned to Iceland as the Iceland Defence Force and remained throughout the Cold War The US withdrew the last of its forces on 30 September 2006 Iceland prospered during the Second World War The immediate post war period was followed by substantial economic growth driven by industrialisation of the fishing industry and the US Marshall Plan programme through which Icelanders received the most aid per capita of any European country at US 209 with the war ravaged Netherlands a distant second at US 109 46 47 The 1970s were marked by the Cod Wars several disputes with the United Kingdom over Iceland s extension of its fishing limits to 200 nmi 370 km offshore Iceland hosted a summit in Reykjavik in 1986 between United States President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev during which they took significant steps toward nuclear disarmament A few years later Iceland became the first country to recognise the independence of Estonia Latvia and Lithuania as they broke away from the USSR Throughout the 1990s the country expanded its international role and developed a foreign policy oriented toward humanitarian and peacekeeping causes To that end Iceland provided aid and expertise to various NATO led interventions in Bosnia Kosovo and Iraq 48 Iceland joined the European Economic Area in 1994 after which the economy was greatly diversified and liberalised International economic relations increased further after 2001 when Iceland s newly deregulated banks began to raise great amounts of external debt contributing to a 32 increase in Iceland s gross national income between 2002 and 2007 49 50 Economic boom and crisis Further information 2008 2011 Icelandic financial crisis and 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests In 2003 2007 following the privatisation of the banking sector under the government of David Oddsson Iceland moved toward having an economy based on international investment banking and financial services 51 It was quickly becoming one of the most prosperous countries in the world but was hit hard by a major financial crisis 51 The crisis resulted in the greatest migration from Iceland since 1887 with a net emigration of 5 000 people in 2009 52 Iceland s economy stabilised under the government of Johanna Sigurdardottir and grew by 1 6 in 2012 53 The centre right Independence Party was returned to power in coalition with the Progressive Party in the 2013 election 54 In the following years Iceland saw a surge in tourism as the country became a popular holiday destination In 2016 Prime Minister Sigmundur David Gunnlaugsson resigned after being implicated in the Panama Papers scandal 55 Early elections in 2016 resulted in a right wing coalition government of the Independence Party the Reform Party and Bright Future 56 This government fell when Bright Future quit the coalition due to a scandal involving then Prime Minister Bjarni Benediktsson s father s letter of support for a convicted child sex offender 57 Snap elections in October 2017 brought to power a new coalition consisting of the Independence Party the Progressive Party and the Left Green Movement headed by Katrin Jakobsdottir 58 Geography General topographic map Further information Geography of Iceland Iceland is at the juncture of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans The main island is entirely south of the Arctic Circle which passes through the small Icelandic island of Grimsey off the main island s northern coast The country lies between latitudes 63 and 68 N and longitudes 25 and 13 W Iceland is closer to continental Europe than to mainland North America although it is closest to Greenland 290 km 180 mi an island of North America Iceland is generally included in Europe for geographical historical political cultural linguistic and practical reasons 59 60 61 62 Geologically the island includes parts of both continental plates The closest bodies of land in Europe are the Faroe Islands 420 km 260 mi Jan Mayen Island 570 km 350 mi Shetland and the Outer Hebrides both about 740 km 460 mi and the Scottish mainland and Orkney both about 750 km 470 mi The nearest part of Continental Europe is mainland Norway about 970 km 600 mi away while mainland North America is 2 070 km 1 290 mi away at the northern tip of Labrador Three typical Icelandic landscapes Iceland is the world s 18th largest island and Europe s second largest island after Great Britain The island of Ireland is third The main island covers 101 826 km2 39 315 sq mi but the entire country is 103 000 km2 40 000 sq mi in size of which 62 7 is tundra Iceland contains about 30 minor islands including the lightly populated Grimsey and the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago Lakes and glaciers cover 14 3 of its surface only 23 is vegetated 63 The largest lakes are THorisvatn reservoir 83 88 km2 32 34 sq mi and THingvallavatn 82 km2 32 sq mi other important lakes include Lagarfljot and Myvatn Jokulsarlon is the deepest lake at 248 m 814 ft 64 Geologically Iceland is part of the Mid Atlantic Ridge a ridge along which the oceanic crust spreads and forms new oceanic crust This part of the mid ocean ridge is located above a mantle plume causing Iceland to be subaerial above the surface of the sea The ridge marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American Plates and Iceland was created by rifting and accretion through volcanism along the ridge 65 Many fjords punctuate Iceland s 4 970 km long 3 088 mi coastline which is also where most settlements are situated The island s interior the Highlands of Iceland is a cold and uninhabitable combination of sand mountains and lava fields The major towns are the capital city of Reykjavik along with its outlying towns of Kopavogur Hafnarfjordur and Gardabaer nearby Reykjanesbaer where the international airport is located and the town of Akureyri in northern Iceland The island of Grimsey on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland whereas Kolbeinsey contains the northernmost point of Iceland 66 Iceland has three national parks Vatnajokull National Park Snaefellsjokull National Park and THingvellir National Park 67 The country is considered a strong performer in environmental protection having been ranked 13th in Yale University s Environmental Performance Index of 2012 68 Geology Main article Geology of Iceland See also Iceland hotspot The erupting Geysir in Haukadalur valley the oldest known geyser in the world Gullfoss an iconic waterfall of Iceland A geologically young land Iceland is the surface expression of the Iceland Plateau a large igneous province forming as a result of volcanism from the Iceland hotspot and along the Mid Atlantic Ridge the latter of which runs right through it 69 This means that the island is highly geologically active with many volcanoes including Hekla Eldgja Herdubreid and Eldfell 70 The volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783 1784 caused a famine that killed nearly a quarter of the island s population 71 In addition the eruption caused dust clouds and haze to appear over most of Europe and parts of Asia and Africa for several months afterward and affected climates in other areas 72 Iceland has many geysers including Geysir from which the English word is derived and the famous Strokkur which erupts every 8 10 minutes After a phase of inactivity Geysir started erupting again after a series of earthquakes in 2000 Geysir has since grown quieter and does not erupt often 73 With the widespread availability of geothermal power and the harnessing of many rivers and waterfalls for hydroelectricity most residents have access to inexpensive hot water heating and electricity The island is composed primarily of basalt a low silica lava associated with effusive volcanism as has occurred also in Hawaii Iceland however has a variety of volcanic types composite and fissure many producing more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite Iceland has hundreds of volcanoes with about 30 active volcanic systems 74 Surtsey one of the youngest islands in the world is part of Iceland Named after Surtr it rose above the ocean in a series of volcanic eruptions between 8 November 1963 and 5 June 1968 66 Only scientists researching the growth of new life are allowed to visit the island 75 On 21 March 2010 a volcano in Eyjafjallajokull in the south of Iceland erupted for the first time since 1821 forcing 600 people to flee their homes 76 Additional eruptions on 14 April forced hundreds of people to abandon their homes 77 The resultant cloud of volcanic ash brought major disruption to air travel across Europe 78 High field overview of area around Reykir Another large eruption occurred on 21 May 2011 This time it was the Grimsvotn volcano located under the thick ice of Europe s largest glacier Vatnajokull Grimsvotn is one of Iceland s most active volcanoes and this eruption was much more powerful than the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull activity with ash and lava hurled 20 km 12 mi into the atmosphere creating a large cloud 79 A great deal of volcanic activity was occurring in the Reykjanes Peninsula in 2020 and into 2021 after nearly 800 years of inactivity After the eruption of the Fagradalsfjall volcano on 19 March 2021 National Geographic s experts predicted that this may mark the start of decades of volcanic activity The eruption was small leading to a prediction that this volcano was unlikely to threaten any population centers 80 The highest elevation for Iceland is listed as 2 110 m 6 923 ft at Hvannadalshnukur 64 00 N 16 39 W Climate Main article Climate of Iceland Koppen climate classification types of Iceland The climate of Iceland s coast is subarctic The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world Regions in the world with similar climates include the Aleutian Islands the Alaska Peninsula and Tierra del Fuego although these regions are closer to the equator Despite its proximity to the Arctic the island s coasts remain ice free through the winter Ice incursions are rare with the last having occurred on the north coast in 1969 81 The climate varies between different parts of the island Generally speaking the south coast is warmer wetter and windier than the north The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country Low lying inland areas in the north are the aridest Snowfall in winter is more common in the north than in the south The highest air temperature recorded was 30 5 C 86 9 F on 22 June 1939 at Teigarhorn on the southeastern coast The lowest was 38 C 36 4 F on 22 January 1918 at Grimsstadir and Modrudalur in the northeastern hinterland The temperature records for Reykjavik are 26 2 C 79 2 F on 30 July 2008 and 24 5 C 12 1 F on 21 January 1918 Climate data for Reykjavik Iceland 1961 1990 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage high C F 1 9 35 4 2 8 37 0 3 2 37 8 5 7 42 3 9 4 48 9 11 7 53 1 13 3 55 9 13 0 55 4 10 1 50 2 6 8 44 2 3 4 38 1 2 2 36 0 7 0 44 6 Average low C F 3 0 26 6 2 1 28 2 2 0 28 4 0 4 32 7 3 6 38 5 6 7 44 1 8 3 46 9 7 9 46 2 5 0 41 0 2 2 36 0 1 3 29 7 2 8 27 0 1 9 35 4 Source 1 Icelandic Meteorological Office 82 Source 2 All Icelandic weather station climatic monthly means 83 Climate data for Akureyri Iceland 1961 1990 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage high C F 0 9 33 6 1 7 35 1 2 1 35 8 5 4 41 7 9 5 49 1 13 2 55 8 14 5 58 1 13 9 57 0 9 9 49 8 5 9 42 6 2 6 36 7 1 3 34 3 6 7 44 1 Average low C F 5 5 22 1 4 7 23 5 4 2 24 4 1 5 29 3 2 3 36 1 6 0 42 8 7 5 45 5 7 1 44 8 3 5 38 3 0 4 32 7 3 5 25 7 5 1 22 8 0 2 32 4 Source 1 Icelandic Meteorological Office 82 Source 2 All Icelandic weather station climatic monthly means 83 Plants Phytogeographically Iceland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom Plantlife consists mainly of grassland which is regularly grazed by livestock The most common tree native to Iceland is the northern birch Betula pubescens which formerly formed forests over much of Iceland along with aspens Populus tremula rowans Sorbus aucuparia common junipers Juniperus communis and other smaller trees mainly willows When the island was first settled it was extensively forested with around 30 of the land covered in trees In the late 12th century Ari the Wise described it in the Islendingabok as forested from mountain to sea shore 84 Permanent human settlement greatly disturbed the isolated ecosystem of thin volcanic soils and limited species diversity The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber 85 Deforestation climatic deterioration during the Little Ice Age and overgrazing by sheep imported by settlers caused a loss of critical topsoil due to erosion Today many farms have been abandoned Three quarters of Iceland s 100 000 square kilometres 39 000 sq mi is affected by soil erosion 18 000 km2 6 900 sq mi is affected to a degree serious enough to make the land useless 84 Only a few small birch stands now exist in isolated reserves The planting of new forests has increased the number of trees but the result does not compare to the original forests Some of the planted forests include introduced species 85 The tallest tree in Iceland is a sitka spruce planted in 1949 in Kirkjubaejarklaustur it was measured at 25 2 m 83 ft in 2013 86 Algae such as Chondrus crispus Phyllphora truncata and Phyllophora crispa and others have been recorded from Iceland 87 Animals Main article Wildlife of Iceland The Arctic fox is the only indigenous land mammal in Iceland and was the only land mammal prior to the arrival of humans The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the Arctic fox 85 which came to the island at the end of the ice age walking over the frozen sea On rare occasions bats have been carried to the island with the winds but they are not able to breed there No native or free living reptiles or amphibians are on the island 88 The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep cattle chickens goats the sturdy Icelandic horse and the Icelandic Sheepdog all descendants of animals imported by Europeans Wild mammals include the Arctic fox mink mice rats rabbits and reindeer Polar bears occasionally visit the island travelling from Greenland on icebergs but no Icelandic populations exist 89 In June 2008 two polar bears arrived in the same month 90 Marine mammals include the grey seal Halichoerus grypus and harbour seal Phoca vitulina Many species of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland and the fishing industry is a major part of Iceland s economy accounting for roughly half of the country s total exports Birds especially seabirds are an important part of Iceland s animal life Atlantic puffins skuas and black legged kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs 91 Commercial whaling is practised intermittently 92 93 along with scientific whale hunts 94 Whale watching has become an important part of Iceland s economy since 1997 95 Around 1 300 species of insects are known in Iceland This is low compared with other countries over one million species have been described worldwide Iceland is essentially free of mosquitoes 96 PoliticsMain article Politics of Iceland The political system of Iceland Iceland has a left right multi party system Following the 2017 parliamentary election the biggest parties are the centre right Independence Party Sjalfstaedisflokkurinn the Left Green Movement Vinstrihreyfingin graent frambod and the Progressive Party Framsoknarflokkurinn These three parties form the ruling coalition in the cabinet led by leftist Katrin Jakobsdottir Other political parties with seats in the Althing Parliament are the Social Democratic Alliance Samfylkingin the Centre Party Midflokkurinn Iceland s Pirates the People s Party Flokkur folksins and the Reform Party Vidreisn Iceland was the first country in the world to have a political party formed and led entirely by women 97 Known as the Women s List or Women s Alliance Kvennalistinn it was founded in 1983 to advance the political economic and social needs of women After participating in its first parliamentary elections the Women s List helped increase the proportion of female parliamentarians by 15 98 It disbanded in 1999 formally merging the next year with the Social Democratic Alliance although about half of its members joined the Left Green Movement instead It did leave a lasting influence on Iceland s politics every major party has a 40 quota for women and in 2009 nearly a third of members of parliament were female compared to the global average of 16 99 Following the 2016 elections 48 of members of parliament are female 100 In 2016 Iceland was ranked second in the strength of its democratic institutions 101 and 13th in government transparency 102 The country has a high level of civic participation with 81 4 voter turnout during the most recent elections 103 compared to an OECD average of 72 However only 50 of Icelanders say they trust their political institutions slightly less than the OECD average of 56 and most probably a consequence of the political scandals in the wake of the Icelandic financial crisis 104 Government See also Government of Iceland The Parliament of Iceland in Reykjavik The Cabinet of Iceland and the Prime Minister s Office in Reykjavik A 19th century depiction of the Althingi of the Commonwealth in session at THingvellir Iceland is a representative democracy and a parliamentary republic The modern parliament Althingi English Althing was founded in 1845 as an advisory body to the Danish monarch It was widely seen as a re establishment of the assembly founded in 930 in the Commonwealth period and temporarily suspended from 1799 to 1845 Consequently it is arguably the world s oldest parliamentary democracy 105 It has 63 members elected for a maximum period of four years 106 The head of government is the prime minister who together with the cabinet is responsible for executive government The president in contrast is elected by popular vote for a term of four years with no term limit The elections for president the Althing and local municipal councils are all held separately every four years 107 The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial head of state and serves as a diplomat but may veto laws voted by the parliament and put them to a national referendum 108 109 The president is Gudni Th Johannesson The cabinet is appointed by the president after a general election to the Althing however the appointment is usually negotiated by the leaders of the political parties who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how to distribute its seats under the condition that it has majority support in the Althing Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves within a reasonable time span does the president exercise this power and appoint the cabinet personally This has not happened since the republic was founded in 1944 but in 1942 regent Sveinn Bjornsson who had been installed in that position by the Althing in 1941 appointed a non parliamentary government The regent had for all practical purposes the position of a president and Sveinn would later become the country s first president in 1944 The governments of Iceland have always been coalition governments with two or more parties involved as no single political party has ever received a majority of seats in the Althing throughout the republican period The extent of the political power possessed by the office of the president is disputed by legal scholars which in Iceland several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers but other provisions and traditions suggest differently citation needed In 1980 Icelanders elected Vigdis Finnbogadottir as president the world s first directly elected female head of state She retired from office in 1996 In 2009 Iceland became the first country with an openly gay head of government when Johanna Sigurdardottir became prime minister 110 Administrative divisions Main article Administrative divisions of Iceland Iceland is divided into regions constituencies and municipalities The eight regions are primarily used for statistical purposes District court jurisdictions also use an older version of this division 66 Until 2003 the constituencies for the parliamentary elections were the same as the regions but by an amendment to the constitution they were changed to the current six constituencies Reykjavik North and Reykjavik South city regions Southwest four non contiguous suburban areas around Reykjavik Northwest and Northeast northern half of Iceland split and South southern half of Iceland excluding Reykjavik and suburbs The redistricting change was made to balance the weight of different districts of the country since previously a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavik city area The imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system but still exists 66 Sixty nine municipalities in Iceland govern local matters like schools transport and zoning 111 These are the actual second level subdivisions of Iceland as the constituencies have no relevance except in elections and for statistical purposes Reykjavik is by far the most populous municipality about four times more populous than Kopavogur the second one 66 Regions of Iceland Constituencies of Iceland Municipalities of IcelandForeign relations Nordic prime ministers and the president of Finland visiting the White House in 2016 with Iceland s Sigurdur second from the left Main article Foreign relations of Iceland See also Accession of Iceland to the European Union Iceland which is a member of the UN NATO EFTA Council of Europe and OECD maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations but its ties with the Nordic countries Germany the United States Canada and the other NATO nations are particularly close Historically due to cultural economic and linguistic similarities Iceland is a Nordic country and it participates in intergovernmental cooperation through the Nordic Council Iceland is a member of the European Economic Area EEA which allows the country access to the single market of the European Union EU It was not a member of the EU but in July 2009 the Icelandic parliament the Althing voted in favour of the application for EU membership 112 and officially applied on 17 July 2009 113 However in 2013 opinion polls showed that many Icelanders were now against joining the EU following the 2013 Icelandic parliamentary election the two parties that formed the island s new government the centrist Progressive Party and the right wing Independence Party announced they would hold a referendum on EU membership 114 115 The Prime Minister of Iceland meets with the First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon at Bute House in 2019 Military Main article Military of Iceland Iceland has no standing army but has the Icelandic Coast Guard which also maintains the Iceland Air Defence System and an Iceland Crisis Response Unit to support peacekeeping missions and perform paramilitary functions The Iceland Defense Force IDF was a military command of the United States Armed Forces from 1951 to 2006 The IDF created at the request of NATO came into existence when the United States signed an agreement to provide for the defence of Iceland The IDF also consisted of civilian Icelanders and military members of other NATO nations The IDF was downsized after the end of the Cold War and the U S Air Force maintained four to six interceptor aircraft at the Naval Air Station Keflavik until they were withdrawn on 30 September 2006 Since May 2008 NATO nations have periodically deployed fighters to patrol Icelandic airspace under the Icelandic Air Policing mission 116 117 Iceland supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite much domestic controversy deploying a Coast Guard EOD team to Iraq 118 which was replaced later by members of the Iceland Crisis Response Unit Iceland has also participated in the conflict in Afghanistan and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia citation needed Despite the ongoing financial crisis the first new patrol ship in decades was launched on 29 April 2009 119 Iceland was the neutral host of the historic 1986 Reagan Gorbachev summit in Reykjavik which set the stage for the end of the Cold War Iceland s principal historical international disputes involved disagreements over fishing rights citation needed Conflict with the United Kingdom led to a series of so called Cod Wars which included confrontations between the Icelandic Coast Guard and the Royal Navy over British fishermen in 1952 1956 due to the extension of Iceland s fishing zone from 3 to 4 nmi 5 6 to 7 4 km 3 5 to 4 6 mi in 1958 1961 following a further extension to 12 nmi 22 2 km 13 8 mi in 1972 1973 with another extension to 50 nmi 92 6 km 57 5 mi and in 1975 1976 after another extension to 200 nmi 370 4 km 230 2 mi citation needed According to the 2011 Global Peace Index Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world due to its lack of armed forces low crime rate and high level of socio political stability 120 Iceland is listed in Guinness World Records as the country ranked most at peace and the lowest military spending per capita 121 Economy A proportional representation of Iceland exports 2019 Akureyri is the largest town in Iceland outside the Capital Region Most rural towns are based on the fishing industry which provides 40 of Iceland s exports Main article Economy of Iceland In 2007 Iceland was the seventh most productive country in the world per capita US 54 858 and the fifth most productive by GDP at purchasing power parity 40 112 About 85 percent of total primary energy supply in Iceland is derived from domestically produced renewable energy sources 122 Use of abundant hydroelectric and geothermal power has made Iceland the world s largest electricity producer per capita 123 As a result of its commitment to renewable energy the 2016 Global Green Economy Index ranked Iceland among the top 10 greenest economies in the world 124 Historically Iceland s economy depended heavily on fishing which still provides 40 of export earnings and employs 7 of the workforce 66 The economy is vulnerable to declining fish stocks and to falls in world prices for its main material exports fish and fish products aluminium and ferrosilicon Whaling in Iceland has been historically significant Iceland still relies heavily on fishing but its importance is diminishing from an export share of 90 in the 1960s to 40 in 2006 125 Until the 20th century Iceland was a fairly poor country It is now one of the most developed countries in the world Strong economic growth had led Iceland to be ranked first in the United Nations Human Development Index report for 2007 2008 126 although in 2011 its HDI rating had fallen to 14th place as a result of the economic crisis Nevertheless according to the Economist Intelligence Index of 2011 Iceland has the second highest quality of life in the world 127 Based on the Gini coefficient Iceland also has one of the lowest rates of income inequality in the world 128 and when adjusted for inequality its HDI ranking is 6th 129 Iceland s unemployment rate has declined consistently since the crisis with 4 8 of the labour force being unemployed as of June 2012 update compared to 6 in 2011 and 8 1 in 2010 66 130 131 Many political parties remain opposed to EU membership primarily due to Icelanders concern about losing control over their natural resources particularly fisheries 132 The national currency of Iceland is the Icelandic krona ISK Iceland is the only country in the world to have a population under two million yet still have a floating exchange rate and an independent monetary policy 133 A poll released on 5 March 2010 by Capacent Gallup showed that 31 of respondents were in favour of adopting the euro and 69 opposed 134 Another Capacent Gallup poll conducted in February 2012 found that 67 4 of Icelanders would reject EU membership in a referendum 135 Graphical depiction of Iceland s product exports in 28 colour coded categories Iceland s economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade including software production biotechnology and finance industry accounts for around a quarter of economic activity while services comprise close to 70 136 The tourism sector is expanding especially in ecotourism and whale watching On average Iceland receives around 1 1 million visitors annually which is more than three times the native population 104 1 7 million people visited Iceland in 2016 3 times more than the number that came in 2010 137 Iceland s agriculture industry accounting for 5 4 of GDP 66 consists mainly of potatoes green vegetables in greenhouses mutton and dairy products 66 The financial centre is Borgartun in Reykjavik which hosts a large number of companies and three investment banks Iceland s stock market the Iceland Stock Exchange ISE was established in 1985 138 Iceland is ranked 27th in the 2012 Index of Economic Freedom lower than in prior years but still among the freest in the world 139 As of 2016 update it ranks 29th in the World Economic Forum s Global Competitive Index one place lower than in 2015 140 According to INSEAD s Global Innovation Index Iceland is the 11th most innovative country in the world 141 Unlike most Western European countries Iceland has a flat tax system the main personal income tax rate is a flat 22 75 and combined with municipal taxes the total tax rate equals no more than 35 7 not including the many deductions that are available 142 The corporate tax rate is a flat 18 one of the lowest in the world 142 There is also a value added tax whereas a net wealth tax was eliminated in 2006 Employment regulations are relatively flexible and the labour market is one of the freest in the world Property rights are strong and Iceland is one of the few countries where they are applied to fishery management 142 Like other welfare states taxpayers pay various subsidies to each other but with spending being less than in most European countries Despite low tax rates agricultural assistance is the highest among OECD countries and a potential impediment to structural change Also health care and education spending have relatively poor returns by OECD measures though improvements have been made in both areas The OECD Economic Survey of Iceland 2008 had highlighted Iceland s challenges in currency and macroeconomic policy 143 There was a currency crisis that started in the spring of 2008 and on 6 October trading in Iceland s banks was suspended as the government battled to save the economy 144 An assessment by the OECD 2011 145 determined that Iceland has made progress in many areas particularly in creating a sustainable fiscal policy and restoring the health of the financial sector however challenges remain in making the fishing industry more efficient and sustainable as well as in improving monetary policy to address inflation 146 Iceland s public debt has decreased since the economic crisis and as of 2015 update is the 31st highest in the world by proportion of national GDP 147 Economic contraction Main article 2008 2011 Icelandic financial crisis 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests Iceland had been hit especially hard by the Great Recession that began in December 2007 because of the failure of its banking system and a subsequent economic crisis Before the crash of the country s three largest banks Glitnir Landsbanki and Kaupthing their combined debt exceeded approximately six times the nation s gross domestic product of 14 billion 19 billion 148 149 In October 2008 the Icelandic parliament passed emergency legislation to minimise the impact of the financial crisis The Financial Supervisory Authority of Iceland used permission granted by the emergency legislation to take over the domestic operations of the three largest banks 150 Icelandic officials including central bank governor David Oddsson stated that the state did not intend to take over any of the banks foreign debts or assets Instead new banks were established to take on the domestic operations of the banks and the old banks were to be run into bankruptcy On 28 October 2008 the Icelandic government raised interest rates to 18 as of August 2019 update it was 3 5 a move forced in part by the terms of acquiring a loan from International Monetary Fund IMF After the rate hike trading on the Icelandic krona finally resumed on the open market with valuation at around 250 ISK per euro less than one third the value of the 1 70 exchange rate during most of 2008 and a significant drop from the 1 150 exchange ratio of the week before On 20 November 2008 the Nordic countries agreed to lend Iceland 2 5 billion 151 On 26 January 2009 the coalition government collapsed due to public dissent over the handling of the financial crisis A new left wing government was formed a week later and immediately set about removing Central Bank governor David Oddsson and his aides from the bank through changes in law David was removed on 26 February 2009 in the wake of protests outside the Central Bank 152 Thousands of Icelanders left the country after the collapse many of those moving to Norway In 2005 293 people moved from Iceland to Norway in 2009 the figure was 1 625 153 In April 2010 the Icelandic Parliament s Special Investigation Commission published the findings of its investigation 154 revealing the extent of control fraud in this crisis 155 By June 2012 Landsbanki managed to repay about half of the Icesave debt 156 According to Bloomberg Iceland is on the trajectory of 2 unemployment as a result of crisis management decisions made back in 2008 including allowing the banks to fail 157 Transport The Ring Road of Iceland and some towns it passes through 1 Reykjavik 2 Borgarnes 3 Blonduos 4 Akureyri 5 Egilsstadir 6 Hofn 7 Selfoss Main article Transport in Iceland Iceland has a high level of car ownership per capita with a car for every 1 5 inhabitants it is the main form of transport 158 Iceland has 13 034 km 8 099 mi of administered roads of which 4 617 km 2 869 mi are paved and 8 338 km 5 181 mi are not A great number of roads remain unpaved mostly little used rural roads The road speed limits are 30 km h 19 mph and 50 km h 31 mph in towns 80 km h 50 mph on gravel country roads and 90 km h 56 mph on hard surfaced roads 159 Route 1 or the Ring Road Icelandic THjodvegur 1 or Hringvegur was completed in 1974 and is the main road that runs around Iceland and connects all the inhabited parts of the island with the interior of the island being uninhabited This paved road is 1 332 km 828 mi 160 long with one lane in each direction except near larger towns and cities and in the Hvalfjordur Tunnel where it has more lanes Many bridges on it especially in the north and east are single lanes and made of timber and or steel Keflavik International Airport KEF 161 is the largest airport and the main aviation hub for international passenger transport It serves several international and domestic airline companies 162 KEF is in the vicinity of the larger metropolitan capital areas 49 km 30 mi 163 to the WSW of Reykjavik center and public bus services are available 164 Iceland has no passenger railways Reykjavik Airport RKV 165 is the second largest airport located just 1 5 km from the capital centre RKV serves general aviation traffic and has daily or regular domestic flights to 12 local townships within Iceland 166 RKV also serves international flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands business and private airplanes along with aviation training Akureyri Airport AEY 167 and Egilsstadir Airport EGS 168 are two other domestic airports with limited international service capacity There are a total of 103 registered airports and airfields in Iceland most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas The second longest runway is at Geitamelur a four runway glider field around 100 km 62 mi east of Reykjavik Six main ferry services provide regular access to various outpost communities or shorten travel distances 169 circular reference Energy The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station services the Capital Region s hot water and electricity needs Virtually all of Iceland s electricity comes from renewable resources 170 Iceland electricity production by source See also Renewable energy in Iceland Renewable sources geothermal and hydropower provide effectively all of Iceland s electricity 170 and around 85 of the nation s total primary energy consumption 171 with most of the remainder consisting of imported oil products used in transportation and in the fishing fleet 172 173 A 2000 report from the University of Iceland suggested that Iceland could potentially convert from oil to hydrogen power by 2040 174 Iceland s largest geothermal power plants are Hellisheidi and Nesjavellir 175 176 while Karahnjukar Hydropower Plant is the country s largest hydroelectric power station 177 When the Karahnjukavirkjun started operating Iceland became the world s largest electricity producer per capita 178 Iceland is one of the few countries that have filling stations dispensing hydrogen fuel for cars powered by fuel cells citation needed It is also one of a few countries capable of producing hydrogen in adequate quantities at a reasonable cost because of Iceland s plentiful renewable sources of energy further explanation needed Despite this Icelanders emitted 16 9 tonnes of CO2 per capita in 2016 the highest in EFTA mainly resulting from transport and aluminium smelting 179 Nevertheless in 2010 Iceland was reported by Guinness World Records as the Greenest Country reaching the highest score by the Environmental Sustainability Index which measures a country s water use biodiversity and adoption of clean energies with a score of 93 5 100 180 On 22 January 2009 Iceland announced its first round of offshore licences for companies wanting to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and production in a region northeast of Iceland known as the Dreki area 181 Three exploration licences were awarded but all were subsequently relinquished 182 As of 2012 update the government of Iceland was in talks with the government of the United Kingdom about the possibility of constructing Icelink a high voltage direct current connector for transmission of electricity between the two countries 183 Such a cable would give Iceland access to a market where electricity prices have generally been much higher than those in Iceland 184 Iceland has considerable renewable energy resources especially geothermal energy and hydropower resources 185 and most of the potential has not been developed partly because there is not enough demand for additional electricity generation capacity from the residents and industry of Iceland the United Kingdom is interested in importing inexpensive electricity from renewable sources of energy and this could lead to further development of the energy resources Education and science See also Education in Iceland Reykjavik Junior College Menntaskolinn i Reykjavik located in downtown Reykjavik is the oldest gymnasium in Iceland The Ministry of Education Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines However playschools primary schools and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities The government does allow citizens to home educate their children however under a very strict set of demands 186 Students must adhere closely to the government mandated curriculum and the parent teaching must acquire a government approved teaching certificate Nursery school or leikskoli is non compulsory education for children younger than six years and is the first step in the education system The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 1994 They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible citation needed Compulsory education or grunnskoli comprises primary and lower secondary education which often is conducted at the same institution Education is mandatory by law for children aged from 6 to 16 years The school year lasts nine months beginning between 21 August and 1 September ending between 31 May and 10 June The minimum number of school days was once 170 but after a new teachers wage contract it increased to 180 Lessons take place five days a week All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education 187 Upper secondary education or framhaldsskoli follows lower secondary education These schools are also known as gymnasia in English Though not compulsory everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of 1996 All schools in Iceland are mixed sex schools The largest seat of higher education is the University of Iceland which has its main campus in central Reykjavik Other schools offering university level instruction include Reykjavik University University of Akureyri Agricultural University of Iceland and Bifrost University An OECD assessment found 64 of Icelanders aged 25 64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree which is lower than the OECD average of 73 Among 25 to 34 year olds only 69 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree significantly lower than the OECD average of 80 104 Nevertheless Iceland s education system is considered excellent the Programme for International Student Assessment ranks it as the 16th best performing above the OECD average 188 Students were particularly proficient in reading and mathematics According to a 2013 Eurostat report by the European Commission Iceland spends around 3 11 of its GDP on scientific research and development R amp D over 1 percentage point higher than the EU average of 2 03 and has set a target of 4 to reach by 2020 189 Iceland was ranked 21st in the Global Innovation Index in 2020 down from 20th in 2019 190 191 192 193 A 2010 UNESCO report found that out of 72 countries that spend the most on R amp D 100 million US dollars or more Iceland ranked 9th by proportion of GDP tied with Taiwan Switzerland and Germany and ahead of France the UK and Canada 194 DemographicsFor statistics on demographics see Demographics of Iceland See also Icelanders Reykjavik Iceland s largest metropolitan area and the centre of the Capital Region which with a population of 233 034 makes for 64 of Iceland s population numbers from 2020 The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Gaelic origin This is evident from literary evidence dating from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses One such genetic study indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Gaelic origin meaning many settlers of Iceland were Norsemen who brought Gaelic slaves with them 195 Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement The biopharmaceutical company deCODE genetics has funded the creation of a genealogy database that is intended to cover all of Iceland s known inhabitants It views the database called Islendingabok as a valuable tool for conducting research on genetic diseases given the relative isolation of Iceland s population The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40 000 to 60 000 in the period ranging from initial settlement until the mid 19th century During that time cold winters ash fall from volcanic eruptions and bubonic plagues adversely affected the population several times 16 There were 37 famine years in Iceland between 1500 and 1804 196 The first census was carried out in 1703 and revealed that the population was then 50 358 After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during 1783 1784 the population reached a low of about 40 000 197 Improving living conditions have triggered a rapid increase in population since the mid 19th century from about 60 000 in 1850 to 320 000 in 2008 Iceland has a relatively young population for a developed country with one out of five people being 14 years old or younger With a fertility rate of 2 1 Iceland is one of only a few European countries with a birth rate sufficient for long term population growth see table below 198 199 In December 2007 33 678 people 13 5 of the total population living in Iceland had been born abroad including children of Icelandic parents living abroad Around 19 000 people 6 of the population held foreign citizenship Polish people make up the largest minority group by a considerable margin and still form the bulk of the foreign workforce About 8 000 Poles now live in Iceland 1 500 of them in Fjardabyggd where they make up 75 of the workforce who are constructing the Fjardaral aluminum plant 200 Large scale construction projects in the east of Iceland see Karahnjukar Hydropower Plant have also brought in many people whose stay is expected to be temporary Many Polish immigrants were also considering leaving in 2008 as a result of the Icelandic financial crisis 201 The southwest corner of Iceland is by far the most densely populated region It is also the location of the capital Reykjavik the northernmost national capital in the world More than 70 percent of Iceland s population live in the southwest corner Greater Reykjavik and the nearby Southern Peninsula which covers less than two percent of Iceland s land area The largest town outside Greater Reykjavik is Reykjanesbaer which is located on the Southern Peninsula less than 50 km 31 mi from the capital The largest town outside the southwest corner is Akureyri in northern Iceland Some 500 Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red settled Greenland in the late 10th century 202 The total population reached a high point of perhaps 5 000 and developed independent institutions before disappearing by 1500 203 People from Greenland attempted to set up a settlement at Vinland in North America but abandoned it in the face of hostility from the indigenous residents 204 Emigration of Icelanders to the United States and Canada began in the 1870s As of 2006 update Canada had over 88 000 people of Icelandic descent 205 while there are more than 40 000 Americans of Icelandic descent according to the 2000 US census 206 Urbanisation Iceland s 10 most populous urban areas vte Largest cities or towns in Iceland statice wbr isRank Name Region Pop Reykjavik Kopavogur 1 Reykjavik Capital Region 128 793 Hafnarfjordur Reykjanesbaer2 Kopavogur Capital Region 36 9753 Hafnarfjordur Capital Region 29 7994 Reykjanesbaer Southern Peninsula 18 9205 Akureyri Northeastern Region 18 9256 Gardabaer Capital Region 16 2997 Mosfellsbaer Capital Region 11 4638 Arborg Southern Region 9 4859 Akranes Western Region 7 41110 Fjardabyggd Eastern Region 5 070 Language Main articles Languages of Iceland and Icelandic language See also Icelandic name Iceland s official written and spoken language is Icelandic a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse In grammar and vocabulary it has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages Icelandic has preserved more verb and noun inflection and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from other languages The puristic tendency in the development of Icelandic vocabulary is to a large degree a result of conscious language planning in addition to centuries of isolation Icelandic is the only living language to retain the use of the runic letter TH in Latin script The closest living relative of the Icelandic language is Faroese Icelandic Sign Language was officially recognised as a minority language in 2011 In education its use for Iceland s deaf community is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide English and Danish are compulsory subjects in the school curriculum English is widely understood and spoken while basic to moderate knowledge of Danish is common mainly among the older generations 207 Polish is mostly spoken by the local Polish community the largest minority of Iceland and Danish is mostly spoken in a way largely comprehensible to Swedes and Norwegians it is often referred to as skandinaviska i e Scandinavian in Iceland 208 Rather than using family names as is the usual custom in most Western nations Icelanders carry patronymic or matronymic surnames patronyms being far more commonly practised Patronymic last names are based on the first name of the father while matronymic names are based on the first name of the mother These follow the person s given name e g Elisabet Jonsdottir Elisabet Jon s daughter Jon being the father or olafur Katrinarson olafur Katrin s son Katrin being the mother 209 Consequently Icelanders refer to one another by their given name and the Icelandic telephone directory is listed alphabetically by the first name rather than by surname 210 All new names must be approved by the Icelandic Naming Committee Health Iceland has a universal health care system that is administered by its Ministry of Welfare Icelandic Velferdarraduneytid 211 and paid for mostly by taxes 85 and to a lesser extent by service fees 15 Unlike most countries there are no private hospitals and private insurance is practically nonexistent 212 A considerable portion of the government budget is assigned to health care 212 and Iceland ranks 11th in health care expenditures as a percentage of GDP 213 and 14th in spending per capita 214 Overall the country s health care system is one of the best performing in the world ranked 15th by the World Health Organization 215 According to an OECD report Iceland devotes far more resources to healthcare than most industrialised nations As of 2009 update Iceland had 3 7 doctors per 1 000 people compared with an average of 3 1 in OECD countries and 15 3 nurses per 1 000 people compared with an OECD average of 8 4 216 Icelanders are among the world s healthiest people with 81 reporting they are in good health according to an OECD survey 104 Although it is a growing problem obesity is not as prevalent as in other developed countries 216 Iceland has many campaigns for health and wellbeing including the famous television show Lazytown starring and created by former gymnastics champion Magnus Scheving Infant mortality is one of the lowest in the world 217 and the proportion of the population that smokes is lower than the OECD average 216 Almost all women choose to terminate pregnancies of children with Down syndrome in Iceland 218 The average life expectancy is 81 8 compared to an OECD average of 79 5 the fourth highest in the world 219 Iceland has a very low level of pollution thanks to an overwhelming reliance on cleaner geothermal energy a low population density and a high level of environmental consciousness among citizens 220 According to an OECD assessment the amount of toxic materials in the atmosphere is far lower than in any other industrialised country measured 221 Religion Main article Religion in Iceland Affiliation by religious movement 1 January 2018 222 Affiliation of populationChristianity 78 78 78 78 Church of Iceland 67 22 67 22 Other Lutheran churches 5 70 5 7 Roman Catholic Church 3 85 3 85 Eastern Orthodox Church 0 29 0 29 Other Christian denominations 1 72 1 72 Other religion or association 14 52 14 52 Germanic Heathenism 1 19 1 19 Humanist association 0 67 0 67 Zuism 0 55 0 55 Buddhism 0 42 0 42 Islam 0 30 0 3 Bahaʼi Faith 0 10 0 1 Other and not specified 11 29 11 29 Unaffiliated 6 69 6 69 A church in the northwest of Iceland Icelanders have freedom of religion guaranteed under the Constitution although the Church of Iceland a Lutheran body is the state church The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Church in Iceland and as such it shall be supported and protected by the State Article 62 Section IV of Constitution of Iceland 223 Approximately 80 percent of Icelanders legally affiliate with a religious denomination a process that happens automatically at birth and from which they can choose to opt out They also pay a church tax soknargjald which the government directs to help support their registered religion or in the case of no religion the University of Iceland 224 The Registers Iceland keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen In 2017 Icelanders were divided into religious groups as follows 67 22 members of the Church of Iceland 11 56 members of other Christian denomination 11 29 other religions and not specified 6 69 unaffiliated 1 19 members of Germanic Heathen groups 99 of them belonging to Asatruarfelagid 0 67 members of the Icelandic Ethical Humanist Association 0 55 members of Zuist groups On March 8 2021 Iceland formally recognized Judaism as a religion for the first time ever Iceland s Jews will have the choice to register as such and direct their taxes to their own religion Among other benefits the recognition will also allow Jewish marriage baby naming and funeral ceremonies to be civilly recognized 224 Iceland is a very secular country as with other Nordic nations church attendance is relatively low 225 226 The above statistics represent administrative membership of religious organisations which does not necessarily reflect the belief demographics of the population According to a study published in 2001 23 of the inhabitants were either atheist or agnostic 227 A Gallup poll conducted in 2012 found that 57 of Icelanders considered themselves religious 31 considered themselves non religious while 10 defined themselves as convinced atheists placing Iceland among the ten countries with the highest proportions of atheists in the world 228 Registration of Icelanders in the state church the Church of Iceland is declining at a rate of more than 1 per year CultureMain article Culture of Iceland Icelandic culture has its roots in North Germanic traditions Icelandic literature is popular in particular the sagas and eddas that were written during the High and Late Middle Ages Centuries of isolation have helped to insulate the country s Nordic culture from external influence a prominent example is the preservation of the Icelandic language which remains the closest to Old Norse of all modern Nordic languages 229 In contrast to other Nordic countries Icelanders place relatively great importance on independence and self sufficiency in a public opinion analysis conducted by the European Commission over 85 of Icelanders believe independence is very important compared to 47 of Norwegians 49 of Danes and an average of 53 for the EU25 230 Icelanders also have a very strong work ethic working some of the longest hours of any industrialised nation 231 According to a poll conducted by the OECD 66 of Icelanders were satisfied with their lives while 70 believed that their lives will be satisfying in the future Similarly 83 reported having more positive experiences in an average day than negative ones compared to an OECD average of 72 which makes Iceland one of the happiest countries in the OECD 104 A more recent 2012 survey found that around three quarters of respondents stated they were satisfied with their lives compared to a global average of about 53 232 Iceland is liberal with regard to LGBT rights issues In 1996 the Icelandic parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same sex couples conferring nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage In 2006 parliament voted unanimously to grant same sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples in adoption parenting and assisted insemination treatment In 2010 the Icelandic parliament amended the marriage law making it gender neutral and defining marriage as between two individuals making Iceland one of the first countries in the world to legalise same sex marriages The law took effect on 27 June 2010 233 The amendment to the law also means registered partnerships for same sex couples are now no longer possible and marriage is their only option identical to the existing situation for opposite sex couples 233 Icelanders are known for their strong sense of community and lack of social isolation An OECD survey found that 98 believe they know someone they could rely on in a time of need higher than in any other industrialised country Similarly only 6 reported rarely or never socialising with others 104 This high level of social cohesion is attributed to the small size and homogeneity of the population as well as to a long history of harsh survival in an isolated environment which reinforced the importance of unity and cooperation 234 Egalitarianism is highly valued among the people of Iceland with income inequality being among the lowest in the world 128 The constitution explicitly prohibits the enactment of noble privileges titles and ranks 235 Everyone is addressed by their first name As in other Nordic countries equality between the sexes is very high Iceland is consistently ranked among the top three countries in the world for women to live in 236 237 238 Literature Main article Icelandic literature In 2011 Reykjavik was designated a UNESCO City of Literature 239 A page of Njals saga from Modruvallabok The sagas are a significant part of the Icelandic heritage Iceland s best known classical works of literature are the Icelanders sagas prose epics set in Iceland s age of settlement The most famous of these include Njals saga about an epic blood feud and Graenlendinga saga and Eiriks saga describing the discovery and settlement of Greenland and Vinland modern Newfoundland Egils saga Laxdaela saga Grettis saga Gisla saga and Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu are also notable and popular Icelanders sagas A translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century Important compositions since the 15th to the 19th century include sacred verse most famously the Passion Hymns of Hallgrimur Petursson and rimur rhyming epic poems Originating in the 14th century rimur were popular into the 19th century when the development of new literary forms was provoked by the influential National Romantic writer Jonas Hallgrimsson In recent times Iceland has produced many great writers the best known of whom is arguably Halldor Laxness who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1955 the only Icelander to win a Nobel Prize thus far Steinn Steinarr was an influential modernist poet during the early 20th century who remains popular Icelanders are avid consumers of literature with the highest number of bookstores per capita in the world For its size Iceland imports and translates more international literature than any other nation 235 Iceland also has the highest per capita publication of books and magazines 240 and around 10 of the population will publish a book in their lifetimes 241 Most books in Iceland are sold between late September to early November This time period is known as Jolabokaflod the Christmas Book Flood 239 The Flood begins with the Iceland Publisher s Association distributing Bokatidindi a catalogue of all new publications free to each Icelandic home 239 Art Main article Icelandic art The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement for home rule and independence which was very active in the mid 19th century THingvellir by THorarinn B THorlaksson Contemporary Icelandic painting is typically traced to the work of THorarinn THorlaksson who following formal training in art in the 1890s in Copenhagen returned to Iceland to paint and exhibit works from 1900 to his death in 1924 almost exclusively portraying the Icelandic landscape Several other Icelandic men and women artists studied at Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts at that time including Asgrimur Jonsson who together with THorarinn created a distinctive portrayal of Iceland s landscape in a romantic naturalistic style Other landscape artists quickly followed in the footsteps of THorarinn and Asgrimur These included Johannes Kjarval and Juliana Sveinsdottir Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment Einar Hakonarson is an expressionistic and figurative painter who by some is considered to have brought the figure back into Icelandic painting In the 1980s many Icelandic artists worked with the subject of the new painting in their work In recent years artistic practice has multiplied and the Icelandic art scene has become a setting for many large scale projects and exhibitions The artist run gallery space Kling og Bang members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank has been a significant part of the trend of self organised spaces exhibitions and projects 242 The Living Art Museum Reykjavik Municipal Art Museum Reykjavik Art Museum and the National Gallery of Iceland are the larger more established institutions curating shows and festivals Music Main article Music of Iceland Bjork the best known Icelandic musician Much Icelandic music is related to Nordic music and includes folk and pop traditions Notable Icelandic music acts include medieval music group Voces Thules alternative and indie rock acts such as The Sugarcubes Soley and Of Monsters and Men jazz fusion band Mezzoforte pop singers such as Hafdis Huld Emiliana Torrini and Bjork solo ballad singers like Bubbi Morthens and post rock bands such as Amiina and Sigur Ros Independent music is strong in Iceland with bands such as mum and solo artists such as Dadi Freyr Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious Hymns both religious and secular are a particularly well developed form of music due to the scarcity of musical instruments throughout much of Iceland s history Hallgrimur Petursson wrote many Protestant hymns in the 17th century Icelandic music was modernised in the 19th century when Magnus Stephensen brought pipe organs which were followed by harmoniums Other vital traditions of Icelandic music are epic alliterative and rhyming ballads called rimur Rimur are epic tales usually a cappella which can be traced back to skaldic poetry using complex metaphors and elaborate rhyme schemes 243 The best known rimur poet of the 19th century was Sigurdur Breidfjord 1798 1846 A modern revitalisation of the tradition began in 1929 with the formation of Idunn clarification needed Among Iceland s best known classical composers are Daniel Bjarnason and Anna S THorvaldsdottir Anna Thorvaldsdottir who in 2012 received the Nordic Council Music Prize and in 2015 was chosen as the New York Philharmonic s Kravis Emerging Composer an honour that includes a 50 000 cash prize and a commission to write a composition for the orchestra she is the second recipient 244 The national anthem of Iceland is Lofsongur written by Matthias Jochumsson with music by Sveinbjorn Sveinbjornsson 245 Media Icelandic director Baltasar Kormakur best known for the films 101 Reykjavik Jar City and Contraband and television series Trapped See also Media of Iceland and Cinema of Iceland Iceland s largest television stations are the state run Sjonvarpid and the privately owned Stod 2 and SkjarEinn Smaller stations exist many of them local Radio is broadcast throughout the country including some parts of the interior The main radio stations are Ras 1 Ras 2 X id 977 Bylgjan and FM957 The daily newspapers are Morgunbladid and Frettabladid The most popular websites are the news sites Visir and Mbl is 246 Iceland is home to LazyTown Icelandic Latibaer a children s educational musical comedy program created by Magnus Scheving It has become a very popular programme for children and adults and is shown in over 100 countries including the Americas the UK and Sweden 247 The LazyTown studios are located in Gardabaer The 2015 television crime series Trapped aired in the UK on BBC4 in February and March 2016 to critical acclaim and according to the Guardian the unlikeliest TV hit of the year 248 In 1992 the Icelandic film industry achieved its greatest recognition hitherto when Fridrik THor Fridriksson was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film for his Children of Nature 249 It features the story of an old man who is unable to continue running his farm After being unwelcomed in his daughter s and father in law s house in town he is put in a home for the elderly There he meets an old girlfriend of his youth and they both begin a journey through the wilds of Iceland to die together This is the only Icelandic movie to have ever been nominated for an Academy Award 250 Singer songwriter Bjork received international acclaim for her starring role in the Danish musical drama Dancer in the Dark directed by Lars von Trier in which she plays Selma Jezkova a factory worker who struggles to pay for her son s eye operation The film premiered at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival where she won the Best Actress Award The movie also led Bjork to nominations for Best Original Song at the 73rd Academy Awards with the song I ve Seen It All and for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture Drama 251 Gudrun S Gisladottir who is Icelandic played one of the major roles in Russian filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky s film The Sacrifice 1986 Anita Briem known for her performance in Showtime s The Tudors is also Icelandic Briem starred in the film Journey to the Center of the Earth 2008 which shot scenes in Iceland The James Bond movie Die Another Day 2002 is set for a large part in Iceland Christopher Nolan s film Interstellar 2014 was also filmed in Iceland for some of its scenes as was Ridley Scott s Prometheus 2012 252 On 17 June 2010 the parliament passed the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative proposing greater protection of free speech rights and the identity of journalists and whistle blowers the strongest journalist protection law in the world 253 According to a 2011 report by Freedom House Iceland is one of the highest ranked countries in press freedom 254 CCP Games developers of the critically acclaimed EVE Online and Dust 514 is headquartered in Reykjavik CCP Games hosts the third most populated MMO in the world which also has the largest total game area for an online game citation needed Iceland has a highly developed internet culture with around 95 of the population having internet access the highest proportion in the world 255 Iceland ranked 12th in the World Economic Forum s 2009 2010 Network Readiness Index which measures a country s ability to competitively exploit communications technology 256 The United Nations International Telecommunication Union ranks the country third in its development of information and communications technology having moved up four places between 2008 and 2010 257 In February 2013 the country ministry of the interior was researching possible methods to protect children in regards to Internet pornography claiming that pornography online is a threat to children as it supports child slavery and abuse Strong voices within the community expressed concerns with this stating that it is impossible to block access to pornography without compromising freedom of speech 258 259 260 Cuisine Main articles Icelandic cuisine and THorramatur A typical THorramatur assortment Much of Iceland s cuisine is based on fish lamb and dairy products with little to no use of herbs or spices Due to the island s climate fruits and vegetables are not generally a component of traditional dishes although the use of greenhouses has made them more common in contemporary food THorramatur is a selection of traditional cuisine consisting of many dishes and is usually consumed around the month of THorri which begins on the first Friday after 19 January Traditional dishes also include skyr a yoghurt like cheese hakarl cured shark cured ram singed sheep heads and black pudding Flatkaka flatbread dried fish and dark rye bread traditionally baked in the ground in geothermal areas 261 Puffin is considered a local delicacy that is often prepared through broiling Breakfast usually consists of pancakes cereal fruit and coffee while lunch may take the form of a smorgasbord The main meal of the day for most Icelanders is dinner which usually involves fish or lamb as the main course Seafood is central to most Icelandic cooking particularly cod and haddock but also salmon herring and halibut It is often prepared in a wide variety of ways either smoked pickled boiled or dried Lamb is by far the most common meat and it tends to be either smoke cured known as hangikjot or salt preserved saltkjot Many older dishes make use of every part of the sheep such as slatur which consists of offal internal organs and entrails minced together with blood and served in sheep stomach Additionally boiled or mashed potatoes pickled cabbage green beans and rye bread are prevalent side dishes citation needed Coffee is a popular beverage in Iceland with the country being third placed by per capita consumption worldwide in 2016 262 and is drunk at breakfast after meals and with a light snack in mid afternoon Coca Cola is also widely consumed to the extent that the country is said to have one of the highest per capita consumption rates in the world 263 Iceland s signature alcoholic beverage is brennivin literally burnt i e distilled wine which is similar in flavouring to the akvavit variant of Scandinavian brannvin It is a type of schnapps made from distilled potatoes and flavoured with either caraway seeds or angelica Its potency has earned it the nickname svarti daudi Black Death Modern distilleries on Iceland produce vodka Reyka gin Isafold moss schnapps Fjallagrasa and a birch flavoured schnapps and liqueur Foss Distillery s Birkir and Bjork Martin Miller blends Icelandic water with its England distilled gin on the island Strong beer was banned until 1989 so bjorliki a mixture of legal low alcohol pilsner beer and vodka became popular Several strong beers are now made by Icelandic breweries Sport Main article Sport in Iceland The Iceland men s national handball team pictured won the silver medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics Handball is considered Iceland s national sport 264 Sport is an important part of Icelandic culture as the population is generally quite active 265 The main traditional sport in Iceland is Glima a form of wrestling thought to have originated in medieval times Iceland fans at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia Popular sports include football track and field handball and basketball Handball is often referred to as the national sport 264 The Icelandic national football team qualified for the 2016 UEFA European football championship for the first time They recorded a draw against later winners Portugal in the group stage and defeated England 2 1 in the round of 16 with goals from Ragnar Sigurdsson and Kolbeinn Sigthorsson They then lost to hosts and later finalists France in the quarter finals 266 Following up on this Iceland made its debut at the 2018 FIFA World Cup For both the European and the world championship Iceland is to date the smallest nation in terms of population to qualify Iceland is also the smallest country to ever qualify for Eurobasket having done so in both 2015 and 2017 However they have not managed to win a single game in the European Basketball final stages Iceland has excellent conditions for skiing fishing snowboarding ice climbing and rock climbing although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public Iceland is also a world class destination for alpine ski touring and Telemark skiing with the Troll Peninsula in Northern Iceland being the main centre of activity Although the country s environment is generally ill suited for golf there are nevertheless many golf courses throughout the island and Iceland has a greater percentage of the population playing golf than Scotland with over 17 000 registered golfers out of a population of approximately 300 000 267 Iceland hosts an annual international golf tournament known as the Arctic Open played through the night during the summer solstice at Akureyri Golf Club 268 269 Iceland has also won the second most World s Strongest Man competitions of any country with nine titles including four by both Magnus Ver Magnusson and Jon Pall Sigmarsson and most recently Hafthor Julius Bjornsson in 2018 Iceland is also one of the leading countries in ocean rowing Icelandic explorer and endurance athlete Fiann Paulholds the highest number of performance based Guinness World Records within a single athletic discipline As of 2020 he is the first and only person to achieve the Ocean Explorers Grand Slam performing open water crossings on each of the five oceans using human powered vessels and has claimed overall speed Guinness World Records for the fastest rowing of all four oceans Atlantic Indian Pacific and Arctic in a human powered row boat He had achieved a total of 41 including 33 performance based Guinness World Records by 2020 270 271 272 273 274 Swimming is popular in Iceland Geothermally heated outdoor pools are widespread and swimming courses are a mandatory part of the national curriculum 269 Horseback riding which was historically the most prevalent form of transportation on the island remains a common pursuit for many Icelanders The oldest sports association in Iceland is the Reykjavik Shooting Association founded in 1867 Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century with the encouragement of politicians and nationalists who were pushing for Icelandic independence To this day it remains a significant pastime 275 Iceland has also produced many chess masters and hosted the historic World Chess Championship 1972 in Reykjavik during the height of the Cold War As of 2008 update there have been nine Icelandic chess grandmasters a considerable number given the small size of the population 276 Bridge is also popular with Iceland participating in a number of international tournaments Iceland won the world bridge championship the Bermuda Bowl in Yokohama Japan in 1991 and took second place with Sweden in Hamilton Bermuda in 1950 See also Iceland portal Index of Iceland related articles Outline of Iceland Greenland VikingNotes By country of citizenship The Constitution of Iceland confirms the Church of Iceland as the state church of Iceland 2 Iceland uses UTC with no offset year round and has not observed daylight saving time since 1968 11 Since Iceland is much farther west than England the Reykjavik local mean time the time when the sun is the highest is offset from the 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Press 2011 Percentage of Individuals using the Internet itu int 2010 The Networked Readiness Index 2009 2010 PDF Members weforum org Archived from the original PDF on 28 July 2011 Retrieved 19 November 2012 Measuring the Information Society PDF International Telecommunication Union 2011 p 12 ISBN 978 9261138011 Iceland wants to ban Internet porn CNN Retrieved 16 February 2013 Visir Ekkert frumvarp um klam fram komid VISIR Retrieved 29 September 2013 Visir Ad trua a netid VISIR Retrieved 29 September 2013 Thorkelsdottir Nina The ultimate guide to Icelandic delicacies part one Travelade Nina Thorkelsdottir Retrieved 18 April 2017 Jones Lora 13 April 2018 Coffee Who grows drinks and pays the most BBC News Retrieved 13 May 2018 Wilcox and Latif p 126 a b Wilcox and Latif p 110 Wilcox and Latif p 109 Amy Lawrence 29 December 2016 A 2016 football moment to remember Iceland light up Euro 2016 The Guardian retrieved 3 August 2017 Tee Off in the Midnight Sun of Reykjavik 25 June 2013 Archived from the original on 14 June 2016 Retrieved 4 May 2016 Daley Paul 2008 Golf Architecture A Worldwide Perspective Volume 4 Pelican Publishing p 92 ISBN 9781589806160 a b Wilcox and Latif p 111 Educator Marc Boyd Businessman Columnist Freelance 12 July 2016 Team Uniting Nations On Pace To Shatter A World Record In Rowing Huffington Post The Huffington Post Retrieved 9 October 2016 Freezing Temps and Rotting Hands Speaking With the Men of the Record Breaking Polar Row Expedition Men s Journal Retrieved 4 October 2017 http www washingtontimes com The Washington Times Polar Row exploration team smashes world records in icy north The Washington Times Retrieved 4 October 2017 Search Results Guinness World Records Archived from the original on 7 June 2020 Retrieved 9 January 2020 Impossible Row team achieve first ever row across the Drake Passage Guinness World Records 27 December 2019 Retrieved 9 January 2020 Skotfelag Reykjavikur Archived from the original on 13 October 2007 Retrieved 2 September 2007 Wilcox and Latif p 112 Bibliography Wilcox Jonathan Latif Zawiah Abdul 2007 Cultures of the World Iceland Marshall Cavendish ISBN 978 0 7614 2074 3 Further readingBjarnason Egill 2021 How Iceland Changed the World The Big History of a Small Island Penguin 2021 Byock Jesse 1990 Medieval Iceland Society Sagas and Power University of California Press ISBN 9780520069541 Heidarsson Jakob Oskar 2015 Iceland My Small Island Jonsson Asgeir 2008 Why Iceland How One of the World s Smallest Countries Became the Meltdown s Biggest Casualty McGraw Hill Professional ISBN 978 0 07 163284 3 Jonsson Ivar 2012 Explaining the Crisis of Iceland A Realist Approach in Journal of Critical Realism 11 1 External linksIcelandat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Gateway to Iceland Government Offices of Iceland Icelandic Government Information Center amp Icelandic Embassies Visit Iceland the official Icelandic Tourist Board Iceland The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Iceland entry at Encyclopaedia Britannica Iceland at Curlie Iceland from BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Iceland Geographic data related to Iceland at OpenStreetMap Incredible Iceland Fire and Ice slideshow by Life magazine A Photographer s View of Iceland Documentary produced by Prairie Public Television Arason Steingrimur Writings on Iceland at Dartmouth College Library Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Iceland amp oldid 1054250377, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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