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Ögedei Khan

Ögedei (also Ogodei; Mongolian:Өгэдэй, romanized: Ögedei, Mongolian:ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ Ögedei, ᠥᠭᠦᠳᠡᠢ Ögüdei; Chinese:窩闊台 Wōkuòtái; c. 1186 – 11 December 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan and second khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and Mongol conquests of China. Like all of Genghis' primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in China, Iran, and Central Asia.

Ögedei Khagan
2nd Khagan-Emperor of the Mongol Empire
(Supreme Khan of the Mongols)
King of Kings
Emperor of the Yuan dynasty (posthumously)
A portrait of Ögedei produced during the Yuan dynasty. Original size is 47 cm wide and 59.4 cm high. Paint and ink on silk. Now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan.
2nd Khagan-Emperor of the Mongol Empire
Reign13 September 1229 – 11 December 1241
Coronation13 September 1229 in Khuruldai at the Kherlen's Khödöö Aral, Mongolia
PredecessorGenghis Khan
SuccessorTöregene (as regent)
Güyük Khan
Bornc. 1186
Khamag Mongol
Died11 December 1241 (aged 55)
Mongol Empire
ConsortBorakchin Khatun
Töregene Khatun
Möge Khatun
Alqui Khatun
Kirgistani Khatun
Kujulder Khatun
Jujai Khatun
Jachin Khatun
Argana Khatun
IssueGüyük Khan
Godan Khan
Khochu
Khorachar
Khashi
Kadan
Melig
Posthumous name
Emperor Yingwen (英文皇帝, posthumously given in 1266)
Temple name
Taizong (太宗, posthumously given in 1266)
DynastyBorjigin
FatherGenghis Khan
MotherBörte Ujin
ReligionTengriism

Contents

Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and Börte Ujin. He participated in the turbulent events of his father's rise. When Ögedei was 17 years old, Genghis Khan experienced the disastrous defeat of Khalakhaljid Sands against the army of Jamukha. Ögedei was heavily wounded and lost on the battlefield. His father's adopted brother and companion Borokhula rescued him. Although he was already married, in 1204 his father gave him Töregene, the wife of a defeated Merkit chief. The addition of such a wife was not uncommon in steppe culture.

After Genghis was proclaimed Emperor or Khagan in 1206, myangans (thousands) of the Jalayir, Besud, Suldus, and Khongqatan clans were given to him as his appanage. Ögedei's territory occupied the Emil and Hobok rivers. According to his father's wish, Ilugei, the commander of the Jalayir, became Ögedei's tutor.

Ögedei, along with his brothers, campaigned independently for the first time in November 1211 against the Jin dynasty . He was sent to ravage the land south through Hebei and then north through Shanxi in 1213. Ögedei's force drove the Jin garrison out of the Ordos, and he rode to the juncture of the Xi Xia, Jin, and Song domains.

During the Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, Ögedei and Chagatai massacred the residents of Otrar after a five-month siege in 1219–20 and joined Jochi who was outside the walls of Urganch. Because Jochi and Chagatai were quarreling over the military strategy, Ögedei was appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the siege of Urganch. They captured the city in 1221. When the rebellion broke out in southeast Persia and Afghanistan, Ögedei also pacified Ghazni.

Coronation of Ögedei in 1229. Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.

The Empress Yisui insisted that Genghis Khan designate an heir before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219. After the terrible brawl between two elder sons Jochi and Chagatai, they agreed that Ögedei was to be chosen as heir. Genghis confirmed their decision.

Genghis Khan died in 1227, and Jochi had died a year or two earlier. Ögedei's younger brother Tolui held the regency until 1229. Ögedei was elected supreme khan in 1229, according to the kurultai held at Kodoe Aral on the Kherlen River after Genghis' death, although this was never really in doubt as it was Genghis' clear wish that he be succeeded by Ögedei. After ritually declining three times, Ögedei was proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols on 13 September 1229. Chagatai continued to support his younger brother's claim.

Genghis Khan saw Ögedei as having a courteous and generous character. His charisma is partially credited for his success in keeping the Empire on his father's path. Thanks mostly to the organization left behind by Genghis Khan, and to the personality of Ögedei, the affairs of the Mongol Empire remained for the most part stable during his reign. Ögedei was a pragmatic man, though he made some mistakes during his reign. Ögedei had no delusions that he was his father's equal as a military commander or organizer and used the abilities of those he found most capable.

Notwithstanding reports of his charisma, Ögedei was criticized by Mongol and Persian chroniclers for a crime he committed in 1237, which according to Persian chroniclers consisted of ordering the rape of four thousand Oirat girls above the age of seven. These girls were then confiscated for Ögedei's harem or given to caravan hostels throughout the Mongol Empire for use as prostitutes. This move brought the Oirat and their lands under Ögedei's control following the death of Ögedei's sister Checheyigen, who previously controlled Oirat lands.

Expansion in the Middle East

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After destroying the Khwarazmian empire, Genghis Khan was free to move against Western Xia. In 1226, however, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last of the Khwarizm monarchs, returned to Persia to revive the empire lost by his father, Muhammad ‘Ala al-Din II. The Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan. Another army that marched against Jalal al-Din scored a pyrrhic victory in the vicinity of Isfahan but was unable to follow up that success.

With Ögedei's consent to launch a campaign, Chormaqan left Bukhara at the head of 30,000 to 50,000 Mongol soldiers. He occupied Persia and Khorasan, two long-standing bases of Khwarazmian support. Crossing the Amu Darya River in 1230 and entering Khorasan without encountering any opposition, Chormaqan passed through quickly. He left a sizable contingent behind under the command of Dayir Noyan, who had further instructions to invade western Afghanistan. Chormaqan and the majority of his army then entered Tabaristan (modern-day Mazandaran), a region between the Caspian Sea and Alborz mountains, in the autumn of 1230, thus avoiding the mountainous area to the south, which was controlled by the Nizari Ismailis (the Assassins).

Upon reaching the city of Rey, Chormaqan made his winter camp there and dispatched his armies to pacify the rest of northern Persia. In 1231, he led his army southward and quickly captured the cities of Qum and Hamadan. From there, he sent armies into the regions of Fars and Kirman, whose rulers quickly submitted, preferring to pay tribute to Mongol overlords rather than having their states ravaged. Meanwhile, further east, Dayir steadily achieved his goals in capturing Kabul, Ghazni, and Zawulistan. With the Mongols already in control of Persia, Jalal al-Din was isolated in Transcaucasia where he was banished. Thus all of Persia was added to the Mongol Empire.

The fall of the Jin dynasty

At the end of 1230, responding to the Jin's unexpected defeat of the Mongol general Doqulkhu, the Khagan went south to Shanxi province with Tolui, clearing the area of the Jin forces and taking the city of Fengxiang. After passing the summer in the north, they again campaigned against the Jin in Henan, cutting through territory of South China to assault the Jin's rear. By 1232 the Jin Emperor was besieged in his capital of Kaifeng. Ögedei soon departed, leaving the final conquest to his generals. After taking several cities, the Mongols, with the belated assistance of the Song dynasty, destroyed the Jin with the fall of Caizhou in February 1234. However, a viceroy of the Song murdered a Mongol ambassador, and the Song armies recaptured the former imperial capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang, and Chang'an, which were now ruled by the Mongols.

In addition to the war with the Jin dynasty, Ögedei crushed the Eastern Xia founded by Puxian Wannu in 1233, pacifying southern Manchuria. Ögedei subdued the Water Tatars in the northern part of the region and suppressed their rebellion in 1237.

Conquest of Georgia and Armenia

Ögedei conquered the Kingdom of Georgia and Armenia

The Mongols under Chormaqan returned to the Caucasus in 1232. The walls of Ganjak were breached by catapult and battering ram in 1235. The Mongols eventually withdrew after the citizens of Irbil agreed to send a yearly tribute to the court of the khagan. Chormaqan waited until 1238, when the force of Möngke Khan was also active in the north Caucasus. After subduing Armenia, Chormaqan took Tiflis. In 1238, the Mongols captured Lorhe whose ruler, Shahanshah, fled with his family before the Mongols arrived, leaving the rich city to its fate. After putting up a spirited defense at Hohanaberd, the city's ruler, Hasan Jalal, submitted to the Mongols. Another column then advanced against Gaian, ruled by Prince Avak. The Mongol commander Tokhta ruled out a direct assault and had his men construct a wall around the city, and Avak soon surrendered. By 1240, Chormaqan had completed the conquest of Transcaucasia, forcing the Georgian nobles to surrender.

Invasion of Korea

In 1224, a Mongol envoy was killed in obscure circumstances and Korea stopped paying tribute. Ögedei dispatched Saritai to subdue Korea and avenge the dead envoy in 1231. Thus, Mongol armies began to invade Korea in order to subdue the kingdom. The Goryeo King temporarily submitted and agreed to accept Mongol overseers. When they withdrew for the summer, however, Choe U moved the capital from Kaesong to Ganghwa Island. Saritai was hit with a stray arrow and died as he campaigned against them.

Ögedei announced plans for the conquest of the Koreans, the Southern Song, the Kipchaks and their European allies, all of whom killed Mongol envoys, at the kurultai in Mongolia in 1234. Ögedei appointed Danqu commander of the Mongol army and made Bog Wong, a defected Korean general, governor of 40 cities with their subjects. When the court of Goryeo sued for peace in 1238, Ögedei demanded that the king of Goryeo appear before him in person. The Goryeo king finally sent his relative Yeong Nong-gun Sung with ten noble boys to Mongolia as hostages, temporarily ending the war in 1241.

Europe

The Mongol army captures a Rus' city

The Mongol Empire expanded westward under the command of Batu Khan to subdue the western steppes and drive into Europe. Their western conquests included Volga Bulgaria, almost all of Alania, Cumania, and Rus', along with a brief occupation of Hungary. They also invaded Poland, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, the Latin Empire, and Austria. During the siege of Kolomna, the Khagan's half brother Khulgen was killed by an arrow.

Amid the conquest, Ögedei's son Güyük and Chagatai's grandson Büri ridiculed Batu, and the Mongol camp suffered dissension. The Khagan harshly criticized Güyük: "You broke the spirit of every man in your army...Do you think that the Russians surrendered because of how mean you were to your own men?". He then sent Güyük back to continue the conquest of Europe. Güyük and another of Ögedei's sons, Kadan, attacked Transylvania and Poland, respectively.

Although Ögedei Khan had granted permission to invade the remainder of Europe, all the way to the "Great Sea", the Atlantic Ocean, the Mongol advance stalled in East Europe early in 1242, the year after his death. Mongol propaganda would later attribute the drive's failure to his untimely demise necessitating Batu's withdrawal to personally participate in the election of Ögedei's successor. But Batu never in fact returned to Mongolia for such an election and a successor wouldn't be named until 1246. A likely reason the advance stalled and never regained momentum is that European fortifications posed a strategic problem that Mongol commanders were unable to surmount with the resources they had available.

Conflict with Song China

In a series of razzias from 1235 to 1245, the Mongols commanded by Ögedei's sons penetrated deep into the Song Dynasty and reached Chengdu, Xiangyang and Yangtze River. But they could not succeed in completing their conquest due to climate and the number of Song troops, and Ögedei's son Khochu died in the process. In 1240, Ögedei's other son Khuden dispatched a subsidiary expedition to Tibet. The situation between the two nations worsened when Song officers murdered Ögedei's envoys headed by Selmus.

The Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent under the leadership of Ögedei helped bring political stability and re-establish the Silk Road, the primary trading route between East and West.

India

Ögedei appointed Dayir commander of Ghazni and Menggetu commander in Qonduz. In winter 1241 the Mongol force invaded the Indus valley and besieged Lahore, which was controlled by the Delhi Sultanate. However, Dayir died storming the town, on 30 December 1241, and the Mongols butchered the town before withdrawing from the Delhi Sultanate.

Some time after 1235 another Mongol force invaded Kashmir, stationing a darughachi there for several years. Soon Kashmir became a Mongolian dependency. Around the same time, a Kashmiri Buddhist master, Otochi, and his brother Namo arrived at the court of Ögedei.

Ögedei began the bureaucratization of Mongol administration. Three divisions constituted his administration:

Mahamud Yalavach promoted a system in which the government would delegate tax collection to tax farmers who collect payments in silver. Yelu Chucai encouraged Ögedei to institute a traditional Chinese system of government, with taxation in the hands of government agents and payment in a government issued currency. The Muslim merchants, working with capital supplied by the Mongol aristocrats, loaned at higher interest the silver needed for tax payments. In particular, Ögedei actively invested in these ortoq enterprises. At the same time the Mongols began circulating paper currency backed by silver reserves.

Ögedei Khan in traditional Mongolian script

Ögedei abolished the branch departments of state affairs and divided the areas of Mongol-ruled China into ten routes according to the suggestion of Yelü Chucai. He also divided the empire into Beshbalik and Yanjing administration, while the headquarters in Karakorum directly dealt with Manchuria, Mongolia and Siberia. Late in his reign, Amu Darya administration was established. Turkestan was administered by Mahamud Yalavach, while Yelu Chucai administered North China from 1229 to 1240. Ögedei appointed Shigi Khutugh chief judge in China. In Iran, Ögedei appointed first Chin-temur, a Kara-kitai, and then Korguz, an Uyghur who proved to be honest administrator. Later, some of Yelu Chucai's duties were transferred to Mahamud Yalavach and taxes were handed over to Abd-ur-Rahman, who promised to double the annual payments of silver. The Ortoq or partner merchants lent Ögedei's money at exorbitant rates of interest to the peasants, though Ögedei banned considerably higher rates. Despite it proving profitable, many people fled their homes to avoid the tax collectors and their strong-arm gangs.

Ögedei had imperial princes tutored by the Christian scribe Qadaq and the Taoist priest Li Zhichang and built schools and an academy. Ögedei Khan also decreed to issue paper currency backed by silk reserves and founded a Department responsible for destroying old notes. Yelu Chucai protested to Ögedei that his large-scale distribution of appanages in Iran, Western and North China, and Khorazm could lead to a disintegration of the Empire. Ögedei thus decreed that the Mongol nobles could appoint overseers in the appanages, but the court would appoint other officials and collect taxes.

The Khagan proclaimed the Great Yassa as an integral body of precedents, confirming the continuing validity of his father's commands and ordinances, while adding his own. Ögedei codified rules of dress and conduct during the kurultais. Throughout the Empire, in 1234, he created postroad stations (Yam) with a permanent staff who would supply post riders' needs. Relay stations were set up every 25 miles and the yam staff supplied remounts to the envoys and served specified rations. The attached households were exempt from other taxes, but they had to pay a qubchuri tax to supply the goods. Ögedei ordered Chagatai and Batu to control their yams separately. The Khagan prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas (tablets that gave the bearer authority to demand goods and services from civilian populations) and jarliqs. Ögedei decreed that within decimal units one out of every 100 sheep of the well-off should be levied for the poor of the unit, and that one sheep and one mare from every herd should be forwarded to form a herd for the imperial table.

Stone tortoise of Karakorum
Main article: Karakorum

From 1235–38 Ögedei constructed a series of palaces and pavilions at stopping places in his annual nomadic route through central Mongolia. The first palace Wanangong was constructed by North Chinese artisans. The Emperor urged his relatives build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site. The construction of the city, Karakorum (Хархорум), was finished in 1235, assigning different quarters to Islamic and North Chinese craftsmen, who competed to win Ögedei's favor. Earthen walls with 4 gates surrounded the city. Attached were private apartments, while in front of stood a giant stone tortoise bearing an engraved pillar, like those that were commonly used in East Asia. There was a castle with doors like the gates of the garden and a series of lakes where many water fowl gathered. Ögedei erected several houses of worship for his Buddhist, Muslim, Taoist, and Christian followers. In the Chinese ward, there was a Confucian temple where Yelu Chucai used to create or regulate a calendar on the Chinese model.

Like his father Genghis Khan, Ögedei had many wives and sixty concubines: Ögedei married first Boraqchin and then Töregene. Other wives included Möge Khatun (former concubine of Genghis Khan) and Jachin.

Principal wives:

  1. Boraqchin
  2. Töregene
    1. Güyük — the 3rd Great Khan of the Mongols
    2. Koden — the first Buddhist Mongol prince
    3. Köchü (died 1237) — during the campaign in Song China
      1. Shiremün — appointed heir by Ögedei
      2. Boladchi
      3. Söse
    4. Qarachar
      1. Totaq
    5. Qashi — died during reign of Ögedei
  3. Möge Khatun
  4. Körügene

Concubines:

  1. Erkene
    1. Kadan
  2. Unknown concubine
    1. Melik — brought up by Danishmand Hajib.
Statue of Ögedei Khan in Mongolia

Ögedei was considered to be his father's favorite son, ever since his childhood. As an adult, he was known for his ability to sway doubters in any debate in which he was involved, simply by the force of his personality. He was a physically big, jovial, and charismatic man, who seemed mostly to be interested in enjoying good times. He was intelligent and steady in character. His charisma was partially credited for his success in keeping the Mongol Empire on the path that his father had set.[citation needed]

The sudden death of Tolui in 1232 seems to have affected Ögedei deeply. According to some sources, Tolui sacrificed his own life, accepting a poisoned drink in shamanist ritual in order to save Ögedei who was suffering from illness. Other sources say Ögedei orchestrated Tolui's death with the help of shamans who drugged the alcoholic Tolui.

Ögedei was well known for his alcoholism. Chagatai entrusted an official to watch his habit, but Ögedei managed to drink anyway. It is commonly told that Ögedei did so by vowing to reduce the number of cups he drank a day then having cups twice the size created for his personal use. When he died at dawn on 11 December 1241, after a late-night drinking bout with Abd-ur-Rahman, the people blamed the sister of Tolui's widow and Abd-ur-Rahman. The Mongol aristocrats recognized, however, that the Khagan's own lack of self-control had killed him.

Ögedei was also known to be a humble man, who did not believe himself to be a genius, and who was willing to listen to and use the great generals that his father left him, as well as those he himself found to be most capable. He was the Emperor (Khagan) but not a dictator. Like all Mongols at his time, he was raised and educated as a warrior from childhood, and as the son of Genghis Khan, he was a part of his father's plan to establish a world empire. His military experience was notable for his willingness to listen to his generals and adapt to circumstances. He was a pragmatic person, much like his father, and looked at the end rather than the means. His steadiness of character and dependability were the traits that his father most valued, and that gained him the role of successor to his father, despite his two older brothers.

However, Mongol and Persian chroniclers criticize Ögedei for a crime he committed in 1237 which violated the laws of his father, Genghis Khan, which forbade seizure, rape, kidnapping, bartering, or selling young girls, who were allowed to be married at a young age but could not engage in sexual activity until the age of sixteen. Mongol chronicles were vague about the nature of the crime, but Persian chroniclers indicated that after the Oirat did not send girls for Ögedei's harem, Ögedei had four thousand Oirat girls above the age of seven stripped naked and raped by his soldiers repeatedly in full sight of the girls' relatives. Two of these girls died from the ordeal, and the remaining non-raped were divided up by soldiers, with some being sent to the royal harem, and others assigned to caravan hostels for sexual servitude, and others not deemed suitable for this were left present for anyone to carry them away or use them for any purposes deemed fit. Ögedei seems not to have done this out of sexual depravity as such, but more to consolidate power over the Oirat.

The above account, including the assumption that Mongol sources criticized the crime (still questionable), was described in Jack Weatherford's 2011 book The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire. Weatherford calls it "the most horrendous crime of his twelve-year reign and one of the worst Mongol atrocities recorded". A more recent book in Mongol historiography "Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire" (2018) by Anne F. Broadbridge links the "infamous alleged mass rape of Oirat girls" to Ögedei's requisitioning of girls from his uncle Temüge Otchigin's territories without Temüge's approval. Broadbridge notes however that "with all the evidence suppressed, this can only be a surmise". The History of the Yuan or Yuanshi (YS 2, 35) and Secret History of the Mongols (SHM 281) speak of a forceful requisitioning of women by Ögedei from the "left wing" and "uncle Otchigin's domain" respectively but do not mention a rape (De Rachewiltz 2004). In the Secret History Ögedei expresses remorse for his act stating "as to my second fault, to listen to the word of a woman without principle, and to have the girls of my uncle Otchigin's domain brought to me was surely a mistake" but De Rachewiltz notes that the entire paragraph listing four good deeds and four mistakes may be a posthumous assessment (De Rachewiltz 2004).

The only account alleging a rape is in Chapter 32 of the Tarikh-i Jahangushay (History of the World Conqueror) written in 1252 by Juvayni (1226-1283). This entire chapter was later copied verbatim by Rashid Al-Din into his early 14th century Jami' Al-Tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles) albeit in a slightly abridged version. In Chapter 32 Juvayni starts by praising Ögedei Khan then proceeds to give 50 highly detailed anecdotes to illustrate Ögedei's "clemency, forgiveness, justice and generosity" followed by one anecdote to illustrate his "violence, severity, fury and awesomeness" which was the rape incident. This anecdote closes the chapter. The name of the tribe is unclear in two manuscripts of Juvayni but Manuscript D and Rashid-Al-Din give it as Oirat. Broadbridge and De Rachewiltz questioned the factual accuracy of this identification with the Oirats. The anecdotes are written in the style of a Persian tale. Juvaini notes the source of Anecdote 46 by saying "one of my friends of pleasing speech told me the following story". The anecdotes praising Ögedei take a pronounced pro-Muslim, anti-Chinese stance. A number of anecdotes evince a tone of ridicule for Ögedei's lack of self-control. While the anecdotes may contain a kernel of truth some seem to be apocryphal legends originating from the community of Muslim merchants and should be approached with a degree of caution. Another Persian account was the mass sodomy against soldiers of the Jin Dynasty because "they jeered at the Mongols" and expressed "evil thoughts". This was quoted in Rashid-Al-Din and noted by Weatherford. Although this account could be exaggerated, it depicts the usage of rape as a weapon.

According to Weatherford, Ögedei violated every single law regarding the sexual intercourse, rape, kidnap, and selling of girls and women that Genghis Khan had created.[failed verification]

In the Tarikh-i Jahangushay Juvayni claims Ögedei died shortly after his lion-like hounds chased and tore to pieces a wolf he saved and released despite his having hoped God Almighty would spare his ill bowels if he released a living creature. This anecdote (Anecdote 47) contradicts the standard account of Ögedei's death from a late-night drinking bout with Abd-ur-Rahman.

Ögedei had nominated his grandson Shiremun as his heir, but Güyük eventually succeeded him after the five-year regency of his widow Töregene Khatun. However, Batu, the Khan of the Golden Horde (also known as the Kipchak Khanate or the Ulus of Jochi) only nominally accepted Güyük, who died on the way to confront Batu. It was not until 1255, well into the reign of Möngke Khan, that Batu felt secure enough to again prepare to invade Europe. He died before his plans could be implemented.

When Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty in 1271, he had Ögedei Khan placed on the official record as Taizong (Chinese:太宗).

Mongolian Airlines named its Boeing 737-800 EI-CSG Ogoodei Khan.

  1. Decades before Kublai Khan announced the dynastic name "Great Yuan" in 1271, Khagans (Great Khans) of the "Great Mongol State" (Yeke Mongγol Ulus) already started to use the Chinese title of Emperor (Chinese:皇帝; pinyin: Huángdì) practically in the Chinese language since Spring 1206 in the First Year of the reign of Genghis Khan (as成吉思皇帝; 'Genghis Emperor').
  2. Ogedei died at the age of 56 by Chinese historical standards (55 by modern western standards) in 1241, meaning he was born in 1186.

Citations

  1. Broadbridge, Anne F. Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire.
  2. "Güyük entry, the official Mongolian glossary of history". mongoltoli.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved17 March 2017.
  3. "Instances of 'ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ' in The Abbreviated Golden History, and The Story of the Asragch". tmsdl.media.ritsumei.ac.jp. Retrieved17 March 2017.
  4. "Instances of 'ᠥᠭᠦᠳᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ' in The Story of the Asragch". tmsdl.media.ritsumei.ac.jp. Retrieved3 March 2017.
  5. "太祖本纪 [Chronicle of Taizu]". 《元史》 [History of Yuan] (in Chinese). 元年丙寅,大会诸王群臣,建九斿白旗,即皇帝位于斡难河之源,诸王群臣共上尊号曰成吉思皇帝["Genghis Huangdi"]。
  6. John Joseph Saunders The History of the Mongol Conquests, p. 74.
  7. Secret history of the Mongols, $3, II
  8. Marvin C Whiting Imperial Chinese Military History, p. 355.
  9. John Joseph Saunders The History of the Mongol Conquests, p. 57.
  10. John Powell Magill's Guide to Military History: Jap-Pel, p. 1148.
  11. Richard Ernest Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt Dupuy The encyclopedia of military history, p. 336.
  12. Michael Prawdin, Gerard (INT) Chaliand, The Mongol Empire, p. 237.
  13. The Secret history of the Mongols
  14. Weatherford, Jack. (2011). The secret history of the mongol queens : how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire. pp. 89–90. ISBN 9780307407160. OCLC 915759962.
  15. Weatherford, Jack, 1946- (2010), The secret history of the Mongol queens : how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire, Crown Publishers, ISBN 978-0307407153, OCLC 951745549CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link), pp. 90–91.
  16. Timothy May-Mongol Empire: Chormaquan and the Mongol Conquest of the Middle East
  17. Michel Hoàng, Ingrid Cranfield Genghis Khan, p. 159.
  18. J.Bor Mongol hiigeed Eurasiin diplomat shashtir, vol.II, p. 197.
  19. He was the son of Genghis Khan by Khulan khatun of the Merkid clan.
  20. Deep ditches and well-built walls: a reappraisal of the Mongol withdrawal from Europe in 1242 by Lindsey Stephen Pow, 2012, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/25533.
  21. Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, p. 263.
  22. Islamic Culture Board Islamic culture, p. 256.
  23. Thomas T. Allsen Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia, p. 84.
  24. Enkhbold, Enerelt (2019). "The role of the ortoq in the Mongol Empire in forming business partnerships". Central Asian Survey. 38 (4): 531–547. doi:10.1080/02634937.2019.1652799. S2CID 203044817.
  25. David Morgan The Mongols, p. 102.
  26. Chunjiang Fu, Asiapac Editorial, Liping Yang Chinese History, p. 148.
  27. Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach Medieval Islamic Civilization, p. 632.
  28. Mongolia Society – Occasional Papers – p. 17.
  29. Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb, 1247-1318. (1971). The successors of Genghis Khan. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 620. ISBN 0-231-03351-6. OCLC 160563.
  30. Denis Sinor, John R. Krueger, Rudi Paul Lindner, Valentin Aleksandrovich The Uralic and Altaic Series, p. 176.
  31. Weatherford, Jack. (2011). The secret history of the mongol queens : how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire. p. 92. ISBN 9780307407160. OCLC 915759962.
  32. David Morgan The Mongols, p. 104.
  33. Weatherford, Jack. (2011). The secret history of the mongol queens : how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9780307407160. OCLC 915759962.
  34. Broadbridge, Anne F. (2018). Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-108-42489-9.
  35. De Rachewiltz, Igor. The Secret History of the Mongols, A Mongolian Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century, Translated with a Historical and Philological Commentary, Volume One. Brill Leiden Boston: Brill's Inner Asian Library. pp. 1032–1035.
  36. Boyle, John Andrew (1958). The History of the World Conqueror by Ala-ad-din Ata-Malik JUVAINI, Translated from the text of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 201.
  37. Boyle, John Andrew (1958). The History of the World Conqueror by Ala-ad-din Ata-Malik JUVAINI, Translated from the text of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 228.

Sources

  • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven, The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1998
  • Chambers, James, The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe
  • Hildinger, Erik, Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1700
  • Morgan, David, The Mongols, ISBN 0-631-17563-6
  • Nicolle, David, The Mongol Warlords Brockhampton Press, 1998
  • Reagan, Geoffry, The Guinness Book of Decisive Battles, Canopy Books, New York (1992)
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  • Sicker, Martin The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna, Praeger Publishers, 2000
  • Soucek, Svatopluk, A History of Inner Asia, Cambridge, 2000
Ögedei Khan
House of Borjigin (1206–1634)
Born: 1186 Died: 1241
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Khagan-Emperor of the Mongol Empire
1229–1241
Succeeded by

Ögedei Khan
Ogedei Khan Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Ogodei Ogedei also Ogodei Mongolian Өgedej romanized Ogedei Mongolian ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ Ogedei 2 3 ᠥᠭᠦᠳᠡᠢ Ogudei 4 Chinese 窩闊台 Wōkuotai c 1186 11 December 1241 was the third son of Genghis Khan and second khagan emperor note 1 of the Mongol Empire succeeding his father He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and Mongol conquests of China 6 Like all of Genghis primary sons he participated extensively in conquests in China Iran and Central Asia Ogedei Khagan2nd Khagan Emperor of the Mongol Empire Supreme Khan of the Mongols King of Kings Emperor of the Yuan dynasty posthumously A portrait of Ogedei produced during the Yuan dynasty Original size is 47 cm wide and 59 4 cm high Paint and ink on silk Now located in the National Palace Museum Taipei Taiwan 2nd Khagan Emperor of the Mongol Empire note 1 Reign13 September 1229 11 December 1241Coronation13 September 1229 in Khuruldai at the Kherlen s Khodoo Aral MongoliaPredecessorGenghis KhanSuccessorToregene as regent Guyuk KhanBornc 1186 note 2 Khamag MongolDied11 December 1241 aged 55 Mongol EmpireConsortBorakchin Khatun Toregene Khatun Moge Khatun Alqui Khatun Kirgistani Khatun Kujulder Khatun Jujai Khatun Jachin Khatun Argana KhatunIssueGuyuk Khan Godan Khan Khochu Khorachar Khashi Kadan MeligPosthumous nameEmperor Yingwen 英文皇帝 posthumously given in 1266 Temple nameTaizong 太宗 posthumously given in 1266 DynastyBorjiginFatherGenghis KhanMotherBorte UjinReligionTengriism Contents 1 Background 2 Ascendancy to Supreme Khan 3 World conquests 3 1 Expansion in the Middle East 3 2 The fall of the Jin dynasty 3 3 Conquest of Georgia and Armenia 3 4 Invasion of Korea 3 5 Europe 3 6 Conflict with Song China 3 7 India 4 Administration 5 Karakorum 6 Wives concubines and children 7 Character 8 Death and aftermath 9 Ancestry 10 Memorial 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 13 1 Citations 13 2 Sources 14 External linksBackground EditOgedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and Borte Ujin He participated in the turbulent events of his father s rise When Ogedei was 17 years old Genghis Khan experienced the disastrous defeat of Khalakhaljid Sands against the army of Jamukha Ogedei was heavily wounded and lost on the battlefield 7 His father s adopted brother and companion Borokhula rescued him Although he was already married in 1204 his father gave him Toregene the wife of a defeated Merkit chief The addition of such a wife was not uncommon in steppe culture After Genghis was proclaimed Emperor or Khagan in 1206 myangans thousands of the Jalayir Besud Suldus and Khongqatan clans were given to him as his appanage Ogedei s territory occupied the Emil and Hobok rivers According to his father s wish Ilugei the commander of the Jalayir became Ogedei s tutor Ogedei along with his brothers campaigned independently for the first time in November 1211 against the Jin dynasty He was sent to ravage the land south through Hebei and then north through Shanxi in 1213 Ogedei s force drove the Jin garrison out of the Ordos and he rode to the juncture of the Xi Xia Jin and Song domains 8 During the Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia Ogedei and Chagatai massacred the residents of Otrar after a five month siege in 1219 20 and joined Jochi who was outside the walls of Urganch 9 Because Jochi and Chagatai were quarreling over the military strategy Ogedei was appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the siege of Urganch 10 They captured the city in 1221 When the rebellion broke out in southeast Persia and Afghanistan Ogedei also pacified Ghazni 11 Ascendancy to Supreme Khan Edit Coronation of Ogedei in 1229 Rashid al Din early 14th century The Empress Yisui insisted that Genghis Khan designate an heir before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219 After the terrible brawl between two elder sons Jochi and Chagatai they agreed that Ogedei was to be chosen as heir Genghis confirmed their decision Genghis Khan died in 1227 and Jochi had died a year or two earlier Ogedei s younger brother Tolui held the regency until 1229 Ogedei was elected supreme khan in 1229 according to the kurultai held at Kodoe Aral on the Kherlen River after Genghis death although this was never really in doubt as it was Genghis clear wish that he be succeeded by Ogedei After ritually declining three times Ogedei was proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols on 13 September 1229 12 Chagatai continued to support his younger brother s claim Genghis Khan saw Ogedei as having a courteous and generous character 13 His charisma is partially credited for his success in keeping the Empire on his father s path Thanks mostly to the organization left behind by Genghis Khan and to the personality of Ogedei the affairs of the Mongol Empire remained for the most part stable during his reign Ogedei was a pragmatic man though he made some mistakes during his reign Ogedei had no delusions that he was his father s equal as a military commander or organizer and used the abilities of those he found most capable Notwithstanding reports of his charisma Ogedei was criticized by Mongol and Persian chroniclers for a crime he committed in 1237 which according to Persian chroniclers consisted of ordering the rape of four thousand Oirat girls above the age of seven These girls were then confiscated for Ogedei s harem or given to caravan hostels throughout the Mongol Empire for use as prostitutes 14 This move brought the Oirat and their lands under Ogedei s control following the death of Ogedei s sister Checheyigen who previously controlled Oirat lands 15 World conquests EditExpansion in the Middle East Edit This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June 2014 Learn how and when to remove this template message After destroying the Khwarazmian empire Genghis Khan was free to move against Western Xia In 1226 however Jalal ad Din Mingburnu the last of the Khwarizm monarchs returned to Persia to revive the empire lost by his father Muhammad Ala al Din II The Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan Another army that marched against Jalal al Din scored a pyrrhic victory in the vicinity of Isfahan but was unable to follow up that success With Ogedei s consent to launch a campaign Chormaqan left Bukhara at the head of 30 000 to 50 000 Mongol soldiers He occupied Persia and Khorasan two long standing bases of Khwarazmian support Crossing the Amu Darya River in 1230 and entering Khorasan without encountering any opposition Chormaqan passed through quickly He left a sizable contingent behind under the command of Dayir Noyan who had further instructions to invade western Afghanistan Chormaqan and the majority of his army then entered Tabaristan modern day Mazandaran a region between the Caspian Sea and Alborz mountains in the autumn of 1230 thus avoiding the mountainous area to the south which was controlled by the Nizari Ismailis the Assassins Upon reaching the city of Rey Chormaqan made his winter camp there and dispatched his armies to pacify the rest of northern Persia In 1231 he led his army southward and quickly captured the cities of Qum and Hamadan From there he sent armies into the regions of Fars and Kirman whose rulers quickly submitted preferring to pay tribute to Mongol overlords rather than having their states ravaged Meanwhile further east Dayir steadily achieved his goals in capturing Kabul Ghazni and Zawulistan With the Mongols already in control of Persia Jalal al Din was isolated in Transcaucasia where he was banished Thus all of Persia was added to the Mongol Empire The fall of the Jin dynasty Edit See also Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty At the end of 1230 responding to the Jin s unexpected defeat of the Mongol general Doqulkhu the Khagan went south to Shanxi province with Tolui clearing the area of the Jin forces and taking the city of Fengxiang After passing the summer in the north they again campaigned against the Jin in Henan cutting through territory of South China to assault the Jin s rear By 1232 the Jin Emperor was besieged in his capital of Kaifeng Ogedei soon departed leaving the final conquest to his generals After taking several cities the Mongols with the belated assistance of the Song dynasty destroyed the Jin with the fall of Caizhou in February 1234 However a viceroy of the Song murdered a Mongol ambassador and the Song armies recaptured the former imperial capitals of Kaifeng Luoyang and Chang an which were now ruled by the Mongols In addition to the war with the Jin dynasty Ogedei crushed the Eastern Xia founded by Puxian Wannu in 1233 pacifying southern Manchuria Ogedei subdued the Water Tatars in the northern part of the region and suppressed their rebellion in 1237 Conquest of Georgia and Armenia Edit Ogedei conquered the Kingdom of Georgia and Armenia Main article Mongol invasion of Georgia and Armenia The Mongols under Chormaqan returned to the Caucasus in 1232 The walls of Ganjak were breached by catapult and battering ram in 1235 The Mongols eventually withdrew after the citizens of Irbil agreed to send a yearly tribute to the court of the khagan Chormaqan waited until 1238 when the force of Mongke Khan was also active in the north Caucasus 16 After subduing Armenia Chormaqan took Tiflis In 1238 the Mongols captured Lorhe whose ruler Shahanshah fled with his family before the Mongols arrived leaving the rich city to its fate After putting up a spirited defense at Hohanaberd the city s ruler Hasan Jalal submitted to the Mongols Another column then advanced against Gaian ruled by Prince Avak The Mongol commander Tokhta ruled out a direct assault and had his men construct a wall around the city and Avak soon surrendered By 1240 Chormaqan had completed the conquest of Transcaucasia forcing the Georgian nobles to surrender Invasion of Korea Edit Main article Mongol invasions of Korea In 1224 a Mongol envoy was killed in obscure circumstances and Korea stopped paying tribute 17 Ogedei dispatched Saritai to subdue Korea and avenge the dead envoy in 1231 Thus Mongol armies began to invade Korea in order to subdue the kingdom The Goryeo King temporarily submitted and agreed to accept Mongol overseers When they withdrew for the summer however Choe U moved the capital from Kaesong to Ganghwa Island Saritai was hit with a stray arrow and died as he campaigned against them Ogedei announced plans for the conquest of the Koreans the Southern Song the Kipchaks and their European allies all of whom killed Mongol envoys at the kurultai in Mongolia in 1234 Ogedei appointed Danqu commander of the Mongol army and made Bog Wong a defected Korean general governor of 40 cities with their subjects When the court of Goryeo sued for peace in 1238 Ogedei demanded that the king of Goryeo appear before him in person The Goryeo king finally sent his relative Yeong Nong gun Sung with ten noble boys to Mongolia as hostages temporarily ending the war in 1241 18 Europe Edit The Mongol army captures a Rus city Main article Mongol invasion of Europe The Mongol Empire expanded westward under the command of Batu Khan to subdue the western steppes and drive into Europe Their western conquests included Volga Bulgaria almost all of Alania Cumania and Rus along with a brief occupation of Hungary They also invaded Poland Croatia Serbia Bulgaria the Latin Empire and Austria During the siege of Kolomna the Khagan s half brother Khulgen 19 was killed by an arrow Amid the conquest Ogedei s son Guyuk and Chagatai s grandson Buri ridiculed Batu and the Mongol camp suffered dissension The Khagan harshly criticized Guyuk You broke the spirit of every man in your army Do you think that the Russians surrendered because of how mean you were to your own men He then sent Guyuk back to continue the conquest of Europe Guyuk and another of Ogedei s sons Kadan attacked Transylvania and Poland respectively Although Ogedei Khan had granted permission to invade the remainder of Europe all the way to the Great Sea the Atlantic Ocean the Mongol advance stalled in East Europe early in 1242 the year after his death Mongol propaganda would later attribute the drive s failure to his untimely demise necessitating Batu s withdrawal to personally participate in the election of Ogedei s successor But Batu never in fact returned to Mongolia for such an election and a successor wouldn t be named until 1246 A likely reason the advance stalled and never regained momentum is that European fortifications posed a strategic problem that Mongol commanders were unable to surmount with the resources they had available 20 Conflict with Song China Edit Main article Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty In a series of razzias from 1235 to 1245 the Mongols commanded by Ogedei s sons penetrated deep into the Song Dynasty and reached Chengdu Xiangyang and Yangtze River But they could not succeed in completing their conquest due to climate and the number of Song troops and Ogedei s son Khochu died in the process In 1240 Ogedei s other son Khuden dispatched a subsidiary expedition to Tibet The situation between the two nations worsened when Song officers murdered Ogedei s envoys headed by Selmus 21 The Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent under the leadership of Ogedei helped bring political stability and re establish the Silk Road the primary trading route between East and West India Edit Main article Mongol invasions of India Ogedei appointed Dayir commander of Ghazni and Menggetu commander in Qonduz In winter 1241 the Mongol force invaded the Indus valley and besieged Lahore which was controlled by the Delhi Sultanate However Dayir died storming the town on 30 December 1241 and the Mongols butchered the town before withdrawing from the Delhi Sultanate 22 Some time after 1235 another Mongol force invaded Kashmir stationing a darughachi there for several years Soon Kashmir became a Mongolian dependency 23 Around the same time a Kashmiri Buddhist master Otochi and his brother Namo arrived at the court of Ogedei Administration EditOgedei began the bureaucratization of Mongol administration Three divisions constituted his administration the Christian eastern Turks represented by Chinqai the Uyghur scribe and the Keraites the Islamic cycle represented by two Khorazmians Mahumud Yalavach and Masud Beg the North Chinese Confucian circle represented by Yelu Chucai a Khitan and Nianhe Zhong shan a Jurchen Mahamud Yalavach promoted a system in which the government would delegate tax collection to tax farmers who collect payments in silver Yelu Chucai encouraged Ogedei to institute a traditional Chinese system of government with taxation in the hands of government agents and payment in a government issued currency The Muslim merchants working with capital supplied by the Mongol aristocrats loaned at higher interest the silver needed for tax payments 24 In particular Ogedei actively invested in these ortoq enterprises 24 At the same time the Mongols began circulating paper currency backed by silver reserves Ogedei Khan in traditional Mongolian script Ogedei abolished the branch departments of state affairs and divided the areas of Mongol ruled China into ten routes according to the suggestion of Yelu Chucai He also divided the empire into Beshbalik and Yanjing administration while the headquarters in Karakorum directly dealt with Manchuria Mongolia and Siberia Late in his reign Amu Darya administration was established Turkestan was administered by Mahamud Yalavach while Yelu Chucai administered North China from 1229 to 1240 Ogedei appointed Shigi Khutugh chief judge in China In Iran Ogedei appointed first Chin temur a Kara kitai and then Korguz an Uyghur who proved to be honest administrator Later some of Yelu Chucai s duties were transferred to Mahamud Yalavach and taxes were handed over to Abd ur Rahman who promised to double the annual payments of silver 25 The Ortoq or partner merchants lent Ogedei s money at exorbitant rates of interest to the peasants though Ogedei banned considerably higher rates Despite it proving profitable many people fled their homes to avoid the tax collectors and their strong arm gangs Ogedei had imperial princes tutored by the Christian scribe Qadaq and the Taoist priest Li Zhichang and built schools and an academy Ogedei Khan also decreed to issue paper currency backed by silk reserves and founded a Department responsible for destroying old notes Yelu Chucai protested to Ogedei that his large scale distribution of appanages in Iran Western and North China and Khorazm could lead to a disintegration of the Empire 26 Ogedei thus decreed that the Mongol nobles could appoint overseers in the appanages but the court would appoint other officials and collect taxes The Khagan proclaimed the Great Yassa as an integral body of precedents confirming the continuing validity of his father s commands and ordinances while adding his own Ogedei codified rules of dress and conduct during the kurultais Throughout the Empire in 1234 he created postroad stations Yam with a permanent staff who would supply post riders needs 27 Relay stations were set up every 25 miles and the yam staff supplied remounts to the envoys and served specified rations The attached households were exempt from other taxes but they had to pay a qubchuri tax to supply the goods Ogedei ordered Chagatai and Batu to control their yams separately The Khagan prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas tablets that gave the bearer authority to demand goods and services from civilian populations and jarliqs Ogedei decreed that within decimal units one out of every 100 sheep of the well off should be levied for the poor of the unit and that one sheep and one mare from every herd should be forwarded to form a herd for the imperial table 28 Karakorum Edit Stone tortoise of Karakorum Main article Karakorum From 1235 38 Ogedei constructed a series of palaces and pavilions at stopping places in his annual nomadic route through central Mongolia The first palace Wanangong was constructed by North Chinese artisans The Emperor urged his relatives build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site The construction of the city Karakorum Harhorum was finished in 1235 assigning different quarters to Islamic and North Chinese craftsmen who competed to win Ogedei s favor Earthen walls with 4 gates surrounded the city Attached were private apartments while in front of stood a giant stone tortoise bearing an engraved pillar like those that were commonly used in East Asia There was a castle with doors like the gates of the garden and a series of lakes where many water fowl gathered Ogedei erected several houses of worship for his Buddhist Muslim Taoist and Christian followers In the Chinese ward there was a Confucian temple where Yelu Chucai used to create or regulate a calendar on the Chinese model Wives concubines and children EditLike his father Genghis Khan Ogedei had many wives and sixty concubines 29 Ogedei married first Boraqchin and then Toregene Other wives included Moge Khatun former concubine of Genghis Khan and Jachin Principal wives Boraqchin Toregene Guyuk the 3rd Great Khan of the Mongols Koden the first Buddhist Mongol prince Kochu died 1237 during the campaign in Song China Shiremun appointed heir by Ogedei Boladchi Sose Qarachar Totaq Qashi died during reign of Ogedei Kaidu 1235 1301 Moge Khatun Korugene Concubines Erkene Kadan Unknown concubine Melik brought up by Danishmand Hajib Character Edit Statue of Ogedei Khan in Mongolia Ogedei was considered to be his father s favorite son ever since his childhood As an adult he was known for his ability to sway doubters in any debate in which he was involved simply by the force of his personality He was a physically big jovial and charismatic man who seemed mostly to be interested in enjoying good times He was intelligent and steady in character His charisma was partially credited for his success in keeping the Mongol Empire on the path that his father had set citation needed The sudden death of Tolui in 1232 seems to have affected Ogedei deeply According to some sources Tolui sacrificed his own life accepting a poisoned drink in shamanist ritual in order to save Ogedei who was suffering from illness 30 Other sources say Ogedei orchestrated Tolui s death with the help of shamans who drugged the alcoholic Tolui 31 Ogedei was well known for his alcoholism Chagatai entrusted an official to watch his habit but Ogedei managed to drink anyway It is commonly told that Ogedei did so by vowing to reduce the number of cups he drank a day then having cups twice the size created for his personal use When he died at dawn on 11 December 1241 after a late night drinking bout with Abd ur Rahman the people blamed the sister of Tolui s widow and Abd ur Rahman The Mongol aristocrats recognized however that the Khagan s own lack of self control had killed him Ogedei was also known to be a humble man who did not believe himself to be a genius and who was willing to listen to and use the great generals that his father left him as well as those he himself found to be most capable He was the Emperor Khagan but not a dictator 32 Like all Mongols at his time he was raised and educated as a warrior from childhood and as the son of Genghis Khan he was a part of his father s plan to establish a world empire His military experience was notable for his willingness to listen to his generals and adapt to circumstances He was a pragmatic person much like his father and looked at the end rather than the means His steadiness of character and dependability were the traits that his father most valued and that gained him the role of successor to his father despite his two older brothers However Mongol and Persian chroniclers criticize Ogedei for a crime he committed in 1237 which violated the laws of his father Genghis Khan which forbade seizure rape kidnapping bartering or selling young girls who were allowed to be married at a young age but could not engage in sexual activity until the age of sixteen 14 Mongol chronicles were vague about the nature of the crime but Persian chroniclers indicated that after the Oirat did not send girls for Ogedei s harem Ogedei had four thousand Oirat girls above the age of seven stripped naked and raped by his soldiers repeatedly in full sight of the girls relatives Two of these girls died from the ordeal and the remaining non raped were divided up by soldiers with some being sent to the royal harem and others assigned to caravan hostels for sexual servitude and others not deemed suitable for this were left present for anyone to carry them away or use them for any purposes deemed fit Ogedei seems not to have done this out of sexual depravity as such but more to consolidate power over the Oirat 33 The above account including the assumption that Mongol sources criticized the crime still questionable was described in Jack Weatherford s 2011 book The Secret History of the Mongol Queens How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire Weatherford calls it the most horrendous crime of his twelve year reign and one of the worst Mongol atrocities recorded A more recent book in Mongol historiography Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire 2018 by Anne F Broadbridge links the infamous alleged mass rape of Oirat girls to Ogedei s requisitioning of girls from his uncle Temuge Otchigin s territories without Temuge s approval Broadbridge notes however that with all the evidence suppressed this can only be a surmise 34 The History of the Yuan or Yuanshi YS 2 35 and Secret History of the Mongols SHM 281 speak of a forceful requisitioning of women by Ogedei from the left wing and uncle Otchigin s domain respectively but do not mention a rape De Rachewiltz 2004 35 In the Secret History Ogedei expresses remorse for his act stating as to my second fault to listen to the word of a woman without principle and to have the girls of my uncle Otchigin s domain brought to me was surely a mistake but De Rachewiltz notes that the entire paragraph listing four good deeds and four mistakes may be a posthumous assessment De Rachewiltz 2004 35 The only account alleging a rape is in Chapter 32 of the Tarikh i Jahangushay History of the World Conqueror written in 1252 by Juvayni 1226 1283 36 This entire chapter was later copied verbatim by Rashid Al Din into his early 14th century Jami Al Tawarikh Compendium of Chronicles albeit in a slightly abridged version In Chapter 32 Juvayni starts by praising Ogedei Khan then proceeds to give 50 highly detailed anecdotes to illustrate Ogedei s clemency forgiveness justice and generosity followed by one anecdote to illustrate his violence severity fury and awesomeness which was the rape incident This anecdote closes the chapter The name of the tribe is unclear in two manuscripts of Juvayni but Manuscript D and Rashid Al Din give it as Oirat Broadbridge and De Rachewiltz questioned the factual accuracy of this identification with the Oirats 34 35 The anecdotes are written in the style of a Persian tale Juvaini notes the source of Anecdote 46 by saying one of my friends of pleasing speech told me the following story 37 The anecdotes praising Ogedei take a pronounced pro Muslim anti Chinese stance A number of anecdotes evince a tone of ridicule for Ogedei s lack of self control While the anecdotes may contain a kernel of truth some seem to be apocryphal legends originating from the community of Muslim merchants and should be approached with a degree of caution Another Persian account was the mass sodomy against soldiers of the Jin Dynasty because they jeered at the Mongols and expressed evil thoughts This was quoted in Rashid Al Din and noted by Weatherford Although this account could be exaggerated it depicts the usage of rape as a weapon 33 According to Weatherford Ogedei violated every single law regarding the sexual intercourse rape kidnap and selling of girls and women that Genghis Khan had created 33 failed verification Death and aftermath EditIn the Tarikh i Jahangushay Juvayni claims Ogedei died shortly after his lion like hounds chased and tore to pieces a wolf he saved and released despite his having hoped God Almighty would spare his ill bowels if he released a living creature This anecdote Anecdote 47 contradicts the standard account of Ogedei s death from a late night drinking bout with Abd ur Rahman Ogedei had nominated his grandson Shiremun as his heir but Guyuk eventually succeeded him after the five year regency of his widow Toregene Khatun However Batu the Khan of the Golden Horde also known as the Kipchak Khanate or the Ulus of Jochi only nominally accepted Guyuk who died on the way to confront Batu It was not until 1255 well into the reign of Mongke Khan that Batu felt secure enough to again prepare to invade Europe He died before his plans could be implemented When Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty in 1271 he had Ogedei Khan placed on the official record as Taizong Chinese 太宗 Ancestry EditSee also Family tree of Genghis Khan HoelunYesugei BaghaturBorteTemujin Genghis Khan HasarHachiunTemugeBelguteiBehterJochiChagataiOgedeiToluiMemorial EditMongolian Airlines named its Boeing 737 800 EI CSG Ogoodei Khan See also EditHouse of OgedeiNotes Edit a b Decades before Kublai Khan announced the dynastic name Great Yuan in 1271 Khagans Great Khans of the Great Mongol State Yeke Monggol Ulus already started to use the Chinese title of Emperor Chinese 皇帝 pinyin Huangdi practically in the Chinese language since Spring 1206 in the First Year of the reign of Genghis Khan as 成吉思皇帝 Genghis Emperor 5 Ogedei died at the age of 56 by Chinese historical standards 55 by modern western standards in 1241 meaning he was born in 1186 1 References EditCitations Edit Broadbridge Anne F Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire Guyuk entry the official Mongolian glossary of history mongoltoli mn in Mongolian Retrieved 17 March 2017 Instances of ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ in The Abbreviated Golden History and The Story of the Asragch tmsdl media ritsumei ac jp Retrieved 17 March 2017 Instances of ᠥᠭᠦᠳᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ in The Story of the Asragch tmsdl media ritsumei ac jp Retrieved 3 March 2017 太祖本纪 Chronicle of Taizu 元史 History of Yuan in Chinese 元年丙寅 帝大会诸王群臣 建九斿白旗 即皇帝位于斡难河之源 诸王群臣共上尊号曰成吉思皇帝 Genghis Huangdi John Joseph Saunders The History of the Mongol Conquests p 74 Secret history of the Mongols 3 II Marvin C Whiting Imperial Chinese Military History p 355 John Joseph Saunders The History of the Mongol Conquests p 57 John Powell Magill s Guide to Military History Jap Pel p 1148 Richard Ernest Dupuy Trevor Nevitt Dupuy The encyclopedia of military history p 336 Michael Prawdin Gerard INT Chaliand The Mongol Empire p 237 The Secret history of the Mongols a b Weatherford Jack 2011 The secret history of the mongol queens how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire pp 89 90 ISBN 9780307407160 OCLC 915759962 Weatherford Jack 1946 2010 The secret history of the Mongol queens how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire Crown Publishers ISBN 978 0307407153 OCLC 951745549 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link pp 90 91 Timothy May Mongol Empire Chormaquan and the Mongol Conquest of the Middle East Michel Hoang Ingrid Cranfield Genghis Khan p 159 J Bor Mongol hiigeed Eurasiin diplomat shashtir vol II p 197 He was the son of Genghis Khan by Khulan khatun of the Merkid clan Deep ditches and well built walls a reappraisal of the Mongol withdrawal from Europe in 1242 by Lindsey Stephen Pow 2012 University of Calgary Calgary AB doi 10 11575 PRISM 25533 Herbert Franke Denis Twitchett John King Fairbank The Cambridge History of China Volume 6 Alien Regimes and Border States p 263 Islamic Culture Board Islamic culture p 256 Thomas T Allsen Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia p 84 a b Enkhbold Enerelt 2019 The role of the ortoq in the Mongol Empire in forming business partnerships Central Asian Survey 38 4 531 547 doi 10 1080 02634937 2019 1652799 S2CID 203044817 David Morgan The Mongols p 102 Chunjiang Fu Asiapac Editorial Liping Yang Chinese History p 148 Josef W Meri Jere L Bacharach Medieval Islamic Civilization p 632 Mongolia Society Occasional Papers p 17 Rashid al Din Ṭabib 1247 1318 1971 The successors of Genghis Khan New York Columbia University Press p 620 ISBN 0 231 03351 6 OCLC 160563 Denis Sinor John R Krueger Rudi Paul Lindner Valentin Aleksandrovich The Uralic and Altaic Series p 176 Weatherford Jack 2011 The secret history of the mongol queens how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire p 92 ISBN 9780307407160 OCLC 915759962 David Morgan The Mongols p 104 a b c Weatherford Jack 2011 The secret history of the mongol queens how the daughters of Genghis Khan rescued his empire pp 90 91 ISBN 9780307407160 OCLC 915759962 a b Broadbridge Anne F 2018 Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire United Kingdom Cambridge University Press p 187 ISBN 978 1 108 42489 9 a b c De Rachewiltz Igor The Secret History of the Mongols A Mongolian Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century Translated with a Historical and Philological Commentary Volume One Brill Leiden Boston Brill s Inner Asian Library pp 1032 1035 Boyle John Andrew 1958 The History of the World Conqueror by Ala ad din Ata Malik JUVAINI Translated from the text of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press p 201 Boyle John Andrew 1958 The History of the World Conqueror by Ala ad din Ata Malik JUVAINI Translated from the text of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press p 228 Sources Edit Amitai Preiss Reuven The Mamluk Ilkhanid War 1998 Chambers James The Devil s Horsemen The Mongol Invasion of Europe Hildinger Erik Warriors of the Steppe A Military History of Central Asia 500 B C to A D 1700 Morgan David The Mongols ISBN 0 631 17563 6 Nicolle David The Mongol Warlords Brockhampton Press 1998 Reagan Geoffry The Guinness Book of Decisive Battles Canopy Books New York 1992 Saunders J J The History of the Mongol Conquests Routledge amp Kegan Paul Ltd 1971 ISBN 0 8122 1766 7 Sicker Martin The Islamic World in Ascendancy From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna Praeger Publishers 2000 Soucek Svatopluk A History of Inner Asia Cambridge 2000External links EditMedieval History Mongol Invasion of Europe The Islamic World to 1600 The Golden Horde Ogedei KhanHouse of Borjigin 1206 1634 Born 1186 Died 1241Regnal titlesPreceded by Tolui Khagan Emperor of the Mongol Empire 1229 1241 Succeeded by Toregene Khatun regent Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Ogedei Khan amp oldid 1047737905, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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