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İskenderun

İskenderun (Arabic:الإسكندرونة‎, Greek:Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

İskenderun
İskenderun
Location of İskenderun within Turkey
Show map of Turkey
İskenderun
İskenderun (Mediterranean)
Show map of Mediterranean
Coordinates:36°34′54″N36°09′54″E /36.5817°N 36.1650°E /36.5817; 36.1650Coordinates: 36°34′54″N36°09′54″E /36.5817°N 36.1650°E /36.5817; 36.1650
CountryTurkey
RegionMediterranean
ProvinceHatay
Government
• MayorMehmet Fatih Tosyalı (AKP)
Area
• District636.75 km2 (245.85 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
(2012)
Urban
184,833
• District
318,780
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Postal code
31
Area code(s)(0)326
Licence plate31
Websitewww.iskenderun.bel.tr

Contents

The city was founded as Alexandria (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) to commemorate Alexander the Great’s victory over the Persian Darius III at Issus (Cilicia) in (333 BC).

Starting in the Middle Ages, Western pilgrims used the diminutive Romance form Alexandretta.

After the Muslim conquest of Syria, it was named al-ʼIskandarūn (Arabic الإسكندرون), the Arabic rendering of the original "Alexandrou"; this name was further turkified into Ottoman Turkish as İskenderūn (إسكندرون), which in turn was preserved in its current modern Turkish form as İskenderun.

İskenderun is located on the eastern Mediterranean coast on the Gulf of İskenderun, at the foot of the Nur Mountains (Amanos Mountains).

İskenderun is a busy commercial centre and is one of the largest cities in Hatay Province, similar in size to the provincial seat of Antakya. The city is one of Turkey's largest ports on the Mediterranean and an important industrial centre, home to the İsdemir steelworks, one of Turkey's largest. İskenderun has an active, modern life with good hotels, restaurants and cafes along the palm-lined sea front. There is a variety of accommodation for visitors. İskenderun is also an important naval training base.

Climate

İskenderun has hot, dry summers, and mild, moderately rainy winters (Köppen: Csa, Trewartha: Cs). At certain times of the year the town is swept by a strong wind called 'Yarıkkaya'. The countryside contains large areas of fruit groves. It is an important producer of oranges, tangerines and lemons, and even tropical fruits such as mangoes.

Climate data for İskenderun
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77.0)
26.4
(79.5)
31.7
(89.1)
36.0
(96.8)
40.0
(104.0)
37.6
(99.7)
37.2
(99.0)
38.8
(101.8)
40.0
(104.0)
37.4
(99.3)
31.2
(88.2)
26.5
(79.7)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
16.1
(61.0)
18.7
(65.7)
22.3
(72.1)
25.5
(77.9)
28.5
(83.3)
30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
30.3
(86.5)
27.1
(80.8)
21.7
(71.1)
17.1
(62.8)
23.7
(74.7)
Average low °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
9.0
(48.2)
11.3
(52.3)
14.7
(58.5)
18.4
(65.1)
22.0
(71.6)
25.0
(77.0)
25.7
(78.3)
23.3
(73.9)
18.9
(66.0)
13.8
(56.8)
10.2
(50.4)
16.7
(62.1)
Record low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.3
(31.5)
0.4
(32.7)
5.1
(41.2)
11.2
(52.2)
14.8
(58.6)
18.6
(65.5)
18.6
(65.5)
15.4
(59.7)
8.1
(46.6)
2.4
(36.3)
0.8
(33.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 81.7
(3.22)
85.6
(3.37)
85.9
(3.38)
63.8
(2.51)
47.0
(1.85)
35.4
(1.39)
12.1
(0.48)
18.9
(0.74)
39.4
(1.55)
79.8
(3.14)
88.8
(3.50)
89.4
(3.52)
727.8
(28.65)
Average rainy days 11.3 11.1 11.4 9.4 6.6 3.3 3.1 3.7 5.8 8.7 8.7 11.1 94.2
Average relative humidity (%) 61 63 66 69 72 74 74 72 67 65 63 63 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 142.8 189.1 216 279 309 294.5 288.3 264 232.5 168 124 2,637.4
Source 1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü
Source 2: Weatherbase
Iskenderun mean sea temperature
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
17.6 °C (63.7 °F) 16.4 °C (61.5 °F) 16.6 °C (61.9 °F) 17.6 °C (63.7 °F) 20.9 °C (69.6 °F) 24.8 °C (76.6 °F) 27.5 °C (81.5 °F) 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) 27.8 °C (82.0 °F) 25.4 °C (77.7 °F) 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) 18.9 °C (66.0 °F)

Distinctive İskenderun dishes include Künefe, a hot dessert with cheese. The main dishes include the Turkish staples such as döner and other kebabs served in the flat dürüm bread, lahmacun and also Antakya influenced cuisine including kibbeh, and sour pomegranate syrup used as a salad dressing. İskenderun in particular offers good quality fish and prawns.

Ruins of Bagras Castle on the Nur (Amanos) Mountains near İskenderun

Antiquity

İskenderun preserves the name, but probably not the exact site, of Alexandria ad Issum. The settlement was founded by Alexander the Great in 333 BC to supersede Myriandus as the key to the Syrian Gates, about 37 km (23 miles) south of the scene of his victory at the Battle of Issus against the Persian King Darius III. Alexander camped in the highlands of İskenderun, around Esentepe, and then ordered the city to be established and named Alexandria. İskenderun is one of many cities founded on Alexander's orders, including Alexandria, Egypt. A memorial, a monument and a bronze statue for the victory raised at the city, and Herodian writes that they were there even at his time.

The importance of the place comes from its relation to the Syrian Gates, the easiest approach to the open ground of Hatay Province and Aleppo.

Ecclesiastical history

The Peutinger Map showing İskenderun and Seleucia in the 4th century.

The bishopric of Alexandria Minor was a suffragan of Anazarbus, the capital and so also the ecclesiastical metropolis of the Roman province of Cilicia Secunda. Greek menologia speak of Saint Helenus, and the martyr saints Aristio and Theodore as early bishops of the See. But the first documented one is Hesychius, who took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325 and in a synod at Antioch in 341. Philomusus participated in the First Council of Constantinople in 381. Baranes is mentioned in connection with a synod at Antioch in 445. At the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Julianus was represented by his metropolitan, Cyrus of Anazarbus. Basilius was at the synod in Constantinople in 459 that condemned simoniacs. In 518, Paulus was deposed by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian for supporting the Jacobite Severus of Antioch.

The district center and Gulf of İskenderun

No longer a residential diocese, Alexandria Minor is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In that list it was long named Cambysopolis, but the Annuario Pontificio now gives the correct ancient name.

Ottoman era

Iskenderun Courthouse

There was fighting here under the Ottoman Empire: in 1606 the army of General Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppressed the Jelali revolts. The Ottomans continued to fortify the city, and the remains of the early 17th-century Ottoman castle walls can still be seen where the Güzün stream crosses the Varyant road. The city was well described in 1675 by the English naval chaplain Henry Teonge in his diary. The next army to cross the Belen Pass and attack Anatolia through here were the Egyptians of Muhammad Ali in 1832.

View of the Mediterranean Sea from the promenade of İskenderun

However, in the later Ottoman period the city developed as the main port on the Mediterranean for the overland trade from Baghdad and India, which had great importance until the establishment of the Egyptian overland route. Iskenderun served as a base, first for Genoese and Venetian merchants, then Western and Northern European merchants. The British Levant Company maintained an agency and factory here for 200 years, until 1825, in spite of high mortality among its employees because of regional disease, some due to lack of sanitation systems. During the 19th century the port grew, and the road to Aleppo was improved. The railway was built in 1912.

At the outset of World War I, when Britain was contemplating the partition of the Ottoman Empire, Lord Kitchener considered the conquest of Alexandretta to be essential in providing Britain with a port and railhead from which to access Iraq. He proposed a new railway be built to the east from Alexandretta, which would greatly reduce the time for reaching India from the UK. The De Bunsen Committee (8 April - 30 June 1915), a British inter-departmental group which was set up to discuss the issue in greater detail, preferred Haifa for this purpose.

Ultimately the British decided not to attack the Ottoman Empire via Alexandretta. On 8 February 1915 the French foreign minister, Théophile Delcassé, protested to Britain's Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey about such an attack, citing a commitment that Britain made in 1912 that it had no designs on Syria. The German field marshal, Hindenburg, subsequently said that

"Perhaps not the whole course of the war, but certainly the fate of our Ottoman Ally, could have been settled out of hand, if England had secured a decision in that region, or even seriously attempted it. Possession of the country south of the Tauras [mountains] would have been lost to Turkey at a blow if the English had succeeded in landing at Alexandretta".

Armenians, who have maintained a cultural and economic presence in Iskenderun for centuries, most notably due to trade, were wiped out in the Hamidian Massacres, Adana Massacres, and the Armenian genocide, after centuries of discrimination.[citation needed]

Republic of Hatay

Main article: Hatay State
Turkish forces under Colonel Şükrü Kanatlı entered İskenderun on 5 July 1938
Interior of Ulu Mosque in İskenderun
İskenderun Orthodox Church

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War, most of Hatay including İskenderun was occupied by French troops. In July 1920 the San Remo conference assigned the Alexandretta sanjak to Turkey, although it connected to south Syria with its north-western corner. Between 1921 and 1937, the city was part of the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta within French-controlled Syria, under the League of Nations French Mandate of Syria and the Lebanon. The Republic of Hatay was founded in 1938 and, in 1939, it joined the Republic of Turkey after a referendum. The referendum was, and still is, regarded as illegitimate by Syria, as the Turkish government moved supporters into the city and the Turkish Army "expelled most of the province's Alawite Arabs and Armenian majority" to decide the referendum result. In the 2010s Syria still claimed against Turkey its sovereignty on the Alexandretta region.

Panoramic view of the Gulf of İskenderun from İskenderun's district center

The city has two association football clubs. One of them is Körfez İskenderunspor. The more successful İskenderunspor folded in 2006, although a phoenix club İskenderunspor 1967 was then founded in 2009.

The city's basketball team is called İskenderun Belediyesi Spor Kulübü.

İskenderun is served by the Güney Gazetesi newspaper.

İskenderun is featured in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade as an important starting point for the Grail map. The State of Hatay is depicted as being ruled by a Sultan, although it was technically a transitional republic.

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved5 March 2013.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved27 February 2013.
  3. Cpt. Charlewood (1871). "Euphrates Valley Railway". Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art. 4 (2): 428.
  4. Parsons, Abraham (1808). "Travels in Africa and Asia". The Critical Review, or, Annals of Literature. 3:14: 135.
  5. Justice, Alexander (1707). A General Treatise of the Monies and Exchanges of all trading Nations. S. and J. Sprint, and J. Nicholson. p. 232.
  6. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition, s.v. Iskandarūn
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved23 February 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Iskenderun, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  9. Ltd, Copyright Global Sea Temperatures - A-Connect. "İskenderun Sea Temperature May Average, Turkey - Sea Temperatures". World Sea Temperatures.
  10. Herodian, History of the Empire, §3.4.1
  11. Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 903-906
  12. Siméon Vailhé, v. Alexandria minor ou Alexandrette, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. II, Paris 1914, coll. 287-289
  13. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 829
  14. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908, s.v. Cambysopolis
  15. David Fromkin (1989). A Peace to End all Peace. p. 149.
  16. James Barr (2011). A Line in the Sand. p. 15.
  17. A.J. Barker (1967). The Neglected War: Mesopotamia 1914-1918. p. 472.
  18. "Hamidian massacres | Ottoman and Armenian history".
  19. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1124&context=historyfacpub
  20. "Armenian Genocide | History, Causes, & Facts".
  21. I. William Zartman (1 July 2017). States, boundaries and sovereignty in the Middle East: unsteady but unchanging. International Affairs. 93. Oxford University Press. pp. 937–948. doi:10.1093/ia/iix118. ISSN 0020-5850. OCLC 1005506048. Retrieved17 May 2021.
  22. Sarah Shields, Fezzes in the River Oxford University Press, 2011
  23. Fisk, Robert (1 February 2012). "Robert Fisk: Syria is used to the slings and arrows of friends and enemies". The Independent. Retrieved15 September 2013. French handed it over to Turkey after a fraudulent referendum
  24. Fisk, Robert. "A LAND IN THE SHADOW OF DEATH". The Independent. Retrieved15 September 2013. After engineering a fraudulent referendum in north-west Syria - the Turks trucked their supporters into the city
  25. Jack Kalpakian (2004). Identity, Conflict and Cooperation in International River Systems (Hardcover ed.). Ashgate Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 0-7546-3338-1. Turkish army ... expelled most the province's Alawite Arabs and Armenian majority. A rigged referendum followed

Sources

Wikimedia Commons has media related toİskenderun.
Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.) article Scanderoon.

İskenderun
Iskenderun Language Watch Edit Iskenderun Arabic الإسكندرونة Greek Ale3andretta Little Alexandria historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon 3 4 5 is a city in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey IskenderunCityIskenderunLocation of Iskenderun within TurkeyShow map of TurkeyIskenderunIskenderun Mediterranean Show map of MediterraneanCoordinates 36 34 54 N 36 09 54 E 36 5817 N 36 1650 E 36 5817 36 1650 Coordinates 36 34 54 N 36 09 54 E 36 5817 N 36 1650 E 36 5817 36 1650CountryTurkeyRegionMediterraneanProvinceHatayGovernment MayorMehmet Fatih Tosyali AKP Area 1 District636 75 km2 245 85 sq mi Elevation4 m 13 ft Population 2012 2 Urban184 833 District318 780Time zoneUTC 3 TRT Postal code31Area code s 0 326Licence plate31Websitewww wbr iskenderun wbr bel wbr tr Contents 1 Names 2 Geography 2 1 Climate 3 Cuisine 4 History 4 1 Antiquity 4 2 Ecclesiastical history 4 3 Ottoman era 4 4 Republic of Hatay 5 Main sights 6 Sport 7 Media 8 Film 9 Notable natives 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksNames EditThe city was founded as Alexandria Ἀle3andreia to commemorate Alexander the Great s victory over the Persian Darius III at Issus Cilicia in 333 BC Starting in the Middle Ages Western pilgrims used the diminutive Romance form Alexandretta 6 After the Muslim conquest of Syria it was named al ʼIskandarun Arabic الإسكندرون the Arabic rendering of the original Alexandrou this name was further turkified into Ottoman Turkish as Iskenderun إسكندرون which in turn was preserved in its current modern Turkish form as Iskenderun Geography EditIskenderun is located on the eastern Mediterranean coast on the Gulf of Iskenderun at the foot of the Nur Mountains Amanos Mountains Iskenderun is a busy commercial centre and is one of the largest cities in Hatay Province similar in size to the provincial seat of Antakya The city is one of Turkey s largest ports on the Mediterranean and an important industrial centre home to the Isdemir steelworks one of Turkey s largest Iskenderun has an active modern life with good hotels restaurants and cafes along the palm lined sea front There is a variety of accommodation for visitors Iskenderun is also an important naval training base Climate Edit Iskenderun has hot dry summers and mild moderately rainy winters Koppen Csa Trewartha Cs At certain times of the year the town is swept by a strong wind called Yarikkaya The countryside contains large areas of fruit groves It is an important producer of oranges tangerines and lemons and even tropical fruits such as mangoes Climate data for IskenderunMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 25 0 77 0 26 4 79 5 31 7 89 1 36 0 96 8 40 0 104 0 37 6 99 7 37 2 99 0 38 8 101 8 40 0 104 0 37 4 99 3 31 2 88 2 26 5 79 7 40 0 104 0 Average high C F 15 4 59 7 16 1 61 0 18 7 65 7 22 3 72 1 25 5 77 9 28 5 83 3 30 7 87 3 31 5 88 7 30 3 86 5 27 1 80 8 21 7 71 1 17 1 62 8 23 7 74 7 Average low C F 8 6 47 5 9 0 48 2 11 3 52 3 14 7 58 5 18 4 65 1 22 0 71 6 25 0 77 0 25 7 78 3 23 3 73 9 18 9 66 0 13 8 56 8 10 2 50 4 16 7 62 1 Record low C F 0 8 30 6 0 3 31 5 0 4 32 7 5 1 41 2 11 2 52 2 14 8 58 6 18 6 65 5 18 6 65 5 15 4 59 7 8 1 46 6 2 4 36 3 0 8 33 4 0 8 30 6 Average precipitation mm inches 81 7 3 22 85 6 3 37 85 9 3 38 63 8 2 51 47 0 1 85 35 4 1 39 12 1 0 48 18 9 0 74 39 4 1 55 79 8 3 14 88 8 3 50 89 4 3 52 727 8 28 65 Average rainy days 11 3 11 1 11 4 9 4 6 6 3 3 3 1 3 7 5 8 8 7 8 7 11 1 94 2Average relative humidity 61 63 66 69 72 74 74 72 67 65 63 63 67Mean monthly sunshine hours 130 2 142 8 189 1 216 279 309 294 5 288 3 264 232 5 168 124 2 637 4Source 1 Devlet Meteoroloji Isleri Genel Mudurlugu 7 Source 2 Weatherbase 8 Iskenderun mean sea temperature 9 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec17 6 C 63 7 F 16 4 C 61 5 F 16 6 C 61 9 F 17 6 C 63 7 F 20 9 C 69 6 F 24 8 C 76 6 F 27 5 C 81 5 F 28 5 C 83 3 F 27 8 C 82 0 F 25 4 C 77 7 F 21 5 C 70 7 F 18 9 C 66 0 F Cuisine EditDistinctive Iskenderun dishes include Kunefe a hot dessert with cheese The main dishes include the Turkish staples such as doner and other kebabs served in the flat durum bread lahmacun and also Antakya influenced cuisine including kibbeh and sour pomegranate syrup used as a salad dressing Iskenderun in particular offers good quality fish and prawns History Edit Ruins of Bagras Castle on the Nur Amanos Mountains near Iskenderun Antiquity Edit Iskenderun preserves the name but probably not the exact site of Alexandria ad Issum The settlement was founded by Alexander the Great in 333 BC to supersede Myriandus as the key to the Syrian Gates about 37 km 23 miles south of the scene of his victory at the Battle of Issus against the Persian King Darius III Alexander camped in the highlands of Iskenderun around Esentepe and then ordered the city to be established and named Alexandria Iskenderun is one of many cities founded on Alexander s orders including Alexandria Egypt A memorial a monument and a bronze statue for the victory raised at the city and Herodian writes that they were there even at his time 10 The importance of the place comes from its relation to the Syrian Gates the easiest approach to the open ground of Hatay Province and Aleppo Ecclesiastical history Edit The Peutinger Map showing Iskenderun and Seleucia in the 4th century The bishopric of Alexandria Minor was a suffragan of Anazarbus the capital and so also the ecclesiastical metropolis of the Roman province of Cilicia Secunda Greek menologia speak of Saint Helenus and the martyr saints Aristio and Theodore as early bishops of the See But the first documented one is Hesychius who took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325 and in a synod at Antioch in 341 Philomusus participated in the First Council of Constantinople in 381 Baranes is mentioned in connection with a synod at Antioch in 445 At the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Julianus was represented by his metropolitan Cyrus of Anazarbus Basilius was at the synod in Constantinople in 459 that condemned simoniacs In 518 Paulus was deposed by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian for supporting the Jacobite Severus of Antioch 11 12 The district center and Gulf of Iskenderun No longer a residential diocese Alexandria Minor is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see 13 In that list it was long named Cambysopolis 14 but the Annuario Pontificio now gives the correct ancient name Ottoman era Edit Iskenderun Courthouse There was fighting here under the Ottoman Empire in 1606 the army of General Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppressed the Jelali revolts The Ottomans continued to fortify the city and the remains of the early 17th century Ottoman castle walls can still be seen where the Guzun stream crosses the Varyant road The city was well described in 1675 by the English naval chaplain Henry Teonge in his diary The next army to cross the Belen Pass and attack Anatolia through here were the Egyptians of Muhammad Ali in 1832 View of the Mediterranean Sea from the promenade of Iskenderun Cathedral of the Annunciation Iskenderun However in the later Ottoman period the city developed as the main port on the Mediterranean for the overland trade from Baghdad and India which had great importance until the establishment of the Egyptian overland route Iskenderun served as a base first for Genoese and Venetian merchants then Western and Northern European merchants The British Levant Company maintained an agency and factory here for 200 years until 1825 in spite of high mortality among its employees because of regional disease some due to lack of sanitation systems During the 19th century the port grew and the road to Aleppo was improved The railway was built in 1912 At the outset of World War I when Britain was contemplating the partition of the Ottoman Empire Lord Kitchener considered the conquest of Alexandretta to be essential in providing Britain with a port and railhead from which to access Iraq He proposed a new railway be built to the east from Alexandretta which would greatly reduce the time for reaching India from the UK The De Bunsen Committee 8 April 30 June 1915 a British inter departmental group which was set up to discuss the issue in greater detail preferred Haifa for this purpose 15 Ultimately the British decided not to attack the Ottoman Empire via Alexandretta On 8 February 1915 the French foreign minister Theophile Delcasse protested to Britain s Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey about such an attack citing a commitment that Britain made in 1912 that it had no designs on Syria 16 The German field marshal Hindenburg subsequently said that Perhaps not the whole course of the war but certainly the fate of our Ottoman Ally could have been settled out of hand if England had secured a decision in that region or even seriously attempted it Possession of the country south of the Tauras mountains would have been lost to Turkey at a blow if the English had succeeded in landing at Alexandretta 17 Armenians who have maintained a cultural and economic presence in Iskenderun for centuries most notably due to trade were wiped out in the Hamidian Massacres 18 Adana Massacres 19 and the Armenian genocide 20 after centuries of discrimination citation needed Republic of Hatay Edit Main article Hatay State Turkish forces under Colonel Sukru Kanatli entered Iskenderun on 5 July 1938 Interior of Ulu Mosque in Iskenderun Iskenderun Orthodox Church Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War most of Hatay including Iskenderun was occupied by French troops In July 1920 the San Remo conference assigned the Alexandretta sanjak to Turkey although it connected to south Syria with its north western corner 21 Between 1921 and 1937 the city was part of the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta within French controlled Syria under the League of Nations French Mandate of Syria and the Lebanon 22 The Republic of Hatay was founded in 1938 and in 1939 it joined the Republic of Turkey after a referendum The referendum was and still is regarded as illegitimate by Syria as the Turkish government moved supporters into the city 23 24 and the Turkish Army expelled most of the province s Alawite Arabs and Armenian majority to decide the referendum result 25 In the 2010s Syria still claimed against Turkey its sovereignty on the Alexandretta region 21 Main sights EditYakacik Payas contains a splendid example of Ottoman architecture dating to the 16th century the kulliye of Sokollu Mehmet Pasha comprising a mosque Turkish bath hamam Dervish lodge bazaar caravanserai and madrasa Muslim school The Cathedral of the Annunciation is the seat of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Anatolia Sogukoluk a mountain resort on the way to Antakya is a quiet retreat from the heat of the coast in the summer months Bakras Bagras Castle which was built in antiquity and restored many times in later centuries particularly during the Crusades when it was a stronghold of the Knights Templar served as a watchtower on the 27 km 17 mi mountain road from Iskenderun to Antakya Antioch Arsuz Ulucinar a holiday resort town on the coast to the south of Iskenderun has beautiful sandy beaches a very warm sea and places of historical interest The coast is lined with holiday homes and there is accommodation in hotels or guest houses Panoramic view of the Gulf of Iskenderun from Iskenderun s district centerSport EditThe city has two association football clubs One of them is Korfez Iskenderunspor The more successful Iskenderunspor folded in 2006 although a phoenix club Iskenderunspor 1967 was then founded in 2009 The city s basketball team is called Iskenderun Belediyesi Spor Kulubu Media EditIskenderun is served by the Guney Gazetesi newspaper Film EditIskenderun is featured in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade as an important starting point for the Grail map The State of Hatay is depicted as being ruled by a Sultan although it was technically a transitional republic Notable natives EditNilufer Cinar Corlulu Erol Erdinc Cem Erman Helenus of Alexandria Cilicia Selcuk Inan Yalcin Kucuk Yasin Ozdenak Sarkis Soghanalian Jehan Barbur Ugur SahinSee also EditCukurova Hatay Province Names of Asian cities in different languages Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade List of cities founded by Alexander the GreatReferences Edit Area of regions including lakes km Regional Statistics Database Turkish Statistical Institute 2002 Retrieved 5 March 2013 Population of province district centers and towns villages by districts 2012 Address Based Population Registration System ABPRS Database Turkish Statistical Institute Retrieved 27 February 2013 Cpt Charlewood 1871 Euphrates Valley Railway Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science Literature and Art 4 2 428 Parsons Abraham 1808 Travels in Africa and Asia The Critical Review or Annals of Literature 3 14 135 Justice Alexander 1707 A General Treatise of the Monies and Exchanges of all trading Nations S and J Sprint and J Nicholson p 232 Encyclopedia of Islam 2nd edition s v Iskandarun Archived copy Archived from the original on 7 October 2011 Retrieved 23 February 2011 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Iskenderun Turkey Travel Weather Averages Weatherbase Weatherbase Ltd Copyright Global Sea Temperatures A Connect Iskenderun Sea Temperature May Average Turkey Sea Temperatures World Sea Temperatures Herodian History of the Empire 3 4 1 Michel Lequien Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus Paris 1740 Vol II coll 903 906 Simeon Vailhe v Alexandria minor ou Alexandrette in Dictionnaire d Histoire et de Geographie ecclesiastiques vol II Paris 1914 coll 287 289 Annuario Pontificio 2013 Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978 88 209 9070 1 p 829 Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 s v Cambysopolis David Fromkin 1989 A Peace to End all Peace p 149 James Barr 2011 A Line in the Sand p 15 A J Barker 1967 The Neglected War Mesopotamia 1914 1918 p 472 Hamidian massacres Ottoman and Armenian history https digitalcommons unl edu cgi viewcontent cgi article 1124 amp context historyfacpub Armenian Genocide History Causes amp Facts a b I William Zartman 1 July 2017 States boundaries and sovereignty in the Middle East unsteady but unchanging International Affairs 93 Oxford University Press pp 937 948 doi 10 1093 ia iix118 ISSN 0020 5850 OCLC 1005506048 Retrieved 17 May 2021 Sarah Shields Fezzes in the River Oxford University Press 2011 Fisk Robert 1 February 2012 Robert Fisk Syria is used to the slings and arrows of friends and enemies The Independent Retrieved 15 September 2013 French handed it over to Turkey after a fraudulent referendum Fisk Robert A LAND IN THE SHADOW OF DEATH The Independent Retrieved 15 September 2013 After engineering a fraudulent referendum in north west Syria the Turks trucked their supporters into the city Jack Kalpakian 2004 Identity Conflict and Cooperation in International River Systems Hardcover ed Ashgate Publishing p 130 ISBN 0 7546 3338 1 Turkish army expelled most the province s Alawite Arabs and Armenian majority A rigged referendum followed Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Alexandretta Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press Iskenderun GuideExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Iskenderun Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica 9th ed article Scanderoon Iskenderun Iskenderun pictures Iskenderun News Information on Iskenderun in Turkish Catholic Church of Iskenderun Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Iskenderun amp oldid 1053797594, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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