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İznik

Not to be confused with İzmir or İzmit.

İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey. It was historically known as Nicaea (Greek:Νίκαια, Níkaia), from which its modern name also derives. The town lies in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake İznik, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south. The town is only 90 kilometres (56 miles) southeast of Istanbul but by road it is 200 km (124 miles) around the Gulf of İzmit. It is 80 km (50 miles) by road from Bursa.

İznik
İznik
Coordinates:40°25′45″N29°43′16″E /40.42917°N 29.72111°E /40.42917; 29.72111Coordinates: 40°25′45″N29°43′16″E /40.42917°N 29.72111°E /40.42917; 29.72111
CountryTurkey
ProvinceBursa
Government
• MayorOsman Sargın (AKP)
KaymakamHüseyin Karameşe
Area
• District736.51 km2 (284.37 sq mi)
Population
(2012)
Urban
22,507
• District
43,425
• District density59/km2 (150/sq mi)
Post code
16860
Websitewww.iznik.bel.tr

The town is situated with its west wall rising from the lake itself, providing both protection from siege from that direction, as well as a source of supplies which would be difficult to cut off. The lake is large enough that it cannot be blockaded from the land easily, and the city was large enough to make any attempt to reach the harbour from shore-based siege weapons very difficult.

The city was surrounded on all sides by 5 km (3 mi) of walls about 10 m (33 ft) high. These were in turn surrounded by a double ditch on the land portions, and also included over 100 towers in various locations. Large gates on the three landbound sides of the walls provided the only entrance to the city.

Today the walls are pierced in many places for roads, but much of the early work survives and as a result it is a tourist destination. The town has a population of about 15,000. It has been a district center of Bursa Province since 1930. It was in the district of Kocaeli between 1923 and 1927 and was a township of Yenişehir (bound to Bilecik before 1926) district between 1927 and 1930.

The town was an important producer of highly decorated fritware vessels and tiles in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The First Council of Nicaea (; Ancient Greek:Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

Contents

İznik derives from the Ancient Greek name of the city, Nicaea (Greek:Νίκαια), prefixed with εἰς, meaning 'to' or 'into'.

For the history before the Ottoman conquest, see Nicaea.

In 1331, Sultan Orhan captured the city from the Byzantines and for a short period the town became the capital of the expanding Ottoman emirate. The large church of Hagia Sophia in the centre of the town was converted into a mosque and became known as the Orhan Mosque. A madrasa and baths were built nearby. In 1334 Orhan built a mosque and an imaret (soup kitchen) just outside the Yenisehir gate (Yenişeh Kapısı) on the south side of the town.

  • Iznik Wall at Yenişehir Gate

  • Iznik Wall at Yenişehir Gate

  • Iznik Wall at Lefke Gate

  • Iznik Wall at Lefke Gate

  • Iznik Wall at Istanbul Gate

  • Iznik Theatre

  • Iznik Church remains possibly Dormition

  • Iznik Church remains possibly Dormition

  • Iznik Suleymanpasha Medresesi

  • Izik Hagia Sophia Mosque

The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta stayed in Iznik at the end of 1331 soon after the capture of the town by Orhan. According to Ibn Battuta, the town was in ruins and only inhabited by a small number of people who were in the service of the sultan. Within the city walls were gardens and cultivated plots with each house surrounded by an orchard. The town produced fruit, walnuts, chestnuts and large sweet grapes.

A census in 1520 recorded 379 Muslim and 23 Christian households while a census taken a century later in 1624 recorded 351 Muslim and 10 Christian households. Assuming five members for each household, these figures suggest that the population was around 2,000. Various estimates in the 18th and 19th centuries give similar numbers. The town was poor and the population small even when the ceramic production was at its peak during the second half of the 16th century.

The Byzantine city is estimated to have had a population of 20,000–30,000 but in the Ottoman period the town was never prosperous and occupied only a small fraction of the walled area. The English clergyman John Covel visited Iznik in 1677 and found that only a third of the town was occupied. In 1745 the English traveller Richard Pococke reported that Iznik was no more than a village. A succession of visitors described the town in unflattering terms. After his visit in 1779, the Italian archaeologist Domenico Sestini wrote that Iznik was nothing but an abandoned town with no life, no noise and no movement. In 1797 James Dallaway described Iznik as "a wretched village of long lanes and mud walls...". The town was seriously damaged in 1921 during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922); the population became refugees and many historical buildings were damaged or destroyed.

Panoramic view of İznik (ancient Nicaea) with Lake İznik in the background.
Main article: Iznik pottery

The town became more important with the development a pottery and tile making industry during the Ottoman period in the 16th century, known as the İznik Çini. Iznik ceramic tiles were used to decorate many of the mosques in Istanbul designed by Mimar Sinan. However, this industry declined in the 17th century and İznik became a mainly agricultural minor town in the area when a major railway bypassed it in the 19th century.

  • Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne

  • Iznik Museum in Nilüfer Hatun Soup Kitchen

  • Iznik Museum exhibit

  • Iznik Museum Exhibit

  • Iznik Museum exhibit

  • Iznik Museum exhibit

A number of monuments were erected by the Ottomans in the period between the conquest in 1331 and 1402 when the town was sacked by Timur. Among those that have survived are:

  • Hacı Özbek Mosque (1333). This mosque was built only three years after the conquest. The portico on the west side of the building was demolished in 1940 to widen the road.
  • Yeşil Mosque of Iznik Green Mosque (1378–1391). The mosque was built for Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha, the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. It is located near the Lefke Gate on the east side of the town. It was damaged in 1922 during the Greco-Turkish War and restored between 1956 and 1969.
  • Hagia Sophia also known as Aya Sofya (Greek:Ἁγία Σοφία, "Holy Wisdom") is a Byzantine-era former church building which was built by Justinian I in the middle of the city in the 6th century.
  • Nilüfer Hatun Soup Kitchen (Nilüfer Hatun Imareti) (1388). The building was abandoned for many years but was restored in 1955 and is now a museum.
  • Süleyman Pasa Madrasa (mid 14th century). This is one of the two surviving madrasas in the town. It was restored in the 19th century and again in 1968.
  • Mausoleum of Çandarli Hayreddin Pasa (14th century). The main room contains fifteen sarcophagi. A lower room contains three more sarcophagi including that of Hayreddin Pasha. The mausoleum is located in a cemetery outside the Lefke gate to the east of the town.

Several monuments survived into the 20th century but were destroyed during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). These include:

  • Church of the Koimesis/Dormition (6th–8th century but rebuilt after the 1065 earthquake). This was the only church in the town that was not transformed into a mosque. It was decorated with 11th century Byzantine mosaics of which photographs survive.
  • Eşrefzâde Rumi Mosque (15th century). Eşrefzâde Rumi was married to the daughter of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli. He founded a sufi sect and after his death in 1469–70 his tomb became a pilgrimage site. The mosque has been restored and the tomb is decorated with Iznik tiles.
  • Seyh Kutbeddin Mosque and Mausoleum (15th century). The mosque and mausoleum have been rebuilt.
  • Iznik Esrefoglu complex Exterior

  • Iznik Esrefoglu complex Interior

  • Iznik Esrefoglu complex tombs

  • Iznik Seyh Kutbuddin mosque with mausoleum

  • Iznik Seyh Kutbuddin mosque Tombs

The İznik Ultramarathon is a 130 km (81 mi) trail endurance running event that takes place around Lake İznik in April since 2012 as the country's longest single-stage athletics competition.

Twin towns – sister cities

İznik is twinned with:

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved5 March 2013.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved27 February 2013.
  3. Lonely Planet Turkey ed. Verity Campbell 2007 Page 291 "Original İznik tiles are antiquities and cannot be exported from Turkey, but new tiles make great, if not particularly cheap, souvenirs."
  4. Raby 1989, p. 19–20.
  5. Tsivikis, Nikolaos (23 March 2007), "Nicaea, Church of Hagia Sophia", Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor, Foundation of the Hellenic World, retrieved20 September 2014.
  6. St. Sophia Museum, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  7. Raby 1989, p. 20.
  8. Dunn 2005, p. 158 note 20. Raby (1989, p. 20) suggests a date between 1334 and 1339.
  9. Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, pp. 323–324; Gibb 1962, p. 453
  10. Raby 1989, pp. 20–21.
  11. Raby 1989, p. 21.
  12. Covel 1893, p. 281.
  13. Pococke 1745, p. 123.
  14. Sestini 1789, pp. 219–220.
  15. Dallaway 1797, p. 169.
  16. Uyan, Ayhan (28 November 2011), İznik'te Milli Mücadelede Yunan Tahribatı, iznikrehber.com, retrieved19 June 2013
  17. http://mini-site.louvre.fr/trois-empires/en/ceramiques-ottomanes.php
  18. Haci Özbek Mosque, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  19. Green Mosque, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  20. "İznikte Gezilecek Yerler". Türkiye'nin En Güncel Gezi ve Seyahat Sitesi, GeziPedia.net (in Turkish). Retrieved27 June 2020.
  21. Hazlitt, Classical Gazetteer, "Nicæa"
  22. Nilüfer Hatun Soup Kitchen, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  23. Süleyman Pasa Madrasa, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  24. Tomb of Çandarli Hayreddin Pasa, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  25. Kastrinakis, Nikos (16 June 2005), "Nicaea (Byzantium), Dormition Church", Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor, Foundation of the Hellenic World, retrieved20 September 2014.
  26. Mango 1959.
  27. Kanaki, Elena (22 June 2005), "Nicaea (Byzantium), Church of the Dormition, Mosaics", Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor, Foundation of the Hellenic World, retrieved20 September 2014.
  28. Esrefzade Rumi Mosque, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  29. Seyh Kutbeddin Mosque and Tomb, ArchNet, retrieved20 September 2014.
  30. "Şeyh Kutbettin Camii ve Türbesi / Osmanlı mimarisi".
  31. "İznik'te maraton heyecanı başladı". Sabah (in Turkish). 14 April 2012. Retrieved26 November 2013.
  32. "Kardeş Şehirler". iznik.bel.tr (in Turkish). İznik. Retrieved18 January 2020.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toİznik.

İznik
Iznik Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Izmir or Izmit Iznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa Turkey 3 It was historically known as Nicaea Greek Nikaia Nikaia from which its modern name also derives The town lies in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake Iznik bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south The town is only 90 kilometres 56 miles southeast of Istanbul but by road it is 200 km 124 miles around the Gulf of Izmit It is 80 km 50 miles by road from Bursa IznikIznikCoordinates 40 25 45 N 29 43 16 E 40 42917 N 29 72111 E 40 42917 29 72111 Coordinates 40 25 45 N 29 43 16 E 40 42917 N 29 72111 E 40 42917 29 72111CountryTurkeyProvinceBursaGovernment MayorOsman Sargin AKP KaymakamHuseyin KarameseArea 1 District736 51 km2 284 37 sq mi Population 2012 2 Urban22 507 District43 425 District density59 km2 150 sq mi Post code16860Websitewww iznik bel tr The town is situated with its west wall rising from the lake itself providing both protection from siege from that direction as well as a source of supplies which would be difficult to cut off The lake is large enough that it cannot be blockaded from the land easily and the city was large enough to make any attempt to reach the harbour from shore based siege weapons very difficult The city was surrounded on all sides by 5 km 3 mi of walls about 10 m 33 ft high These were in turn surrounded by a double ditch on the land portions and also included over 100 towers in various locations Large gates on the three landbound sides of the walls provided the only entrance to the city Today the walls are pierced in many places for roads but much of the early work survives and as a result it is a tourist destination The town has a population of about 15 000 It has been a district center of Bursa Province since 1930 It was in the district of Kocaeli between 1923 and 1927 and was a township of Yenisehir bound to Bilecik before 1926 district between 1927 and 1930 The town was an important producer of highly decorated fritware vessels and tiles in the 16th and 17th centuries The First Council of Nicaea n aɪ ˈ s iː e Ancient Greek Nikaia ˈnikea was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea now Iznik Turkey by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325 Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Pottery and tiles 4 Surviving monuments 5 Sport 6 International relations 6 1 Twin towns sister cities 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEtymology EditIznik derives from the Ancient Greek name of the city Nicaea Greek Nikaia prefixed with eἰs meaning to or into History EditFor the history before the Ottoman conquest see Nicaea In 1331 Sultan Orhan captured the city from the Byzantines and for a short period the town became the capital of the expanding Ottoman emirate 4 The large church of Hagia Sophia in the centre of the town was converted into a mosque and became known as the Orhan Mosque 5 A madrasa and baths were built nearby 6 In 1334 Orhan built a mosque and an imaret soup kitchen just outside the Yenisehir gate Yeniseh Kapisi on the south side of the town 7 Iznik Wall at Yenisehir Gate Iznik Wall at Yenisehir Gate Iznik Wall at Lefke Gate Iznik Wall at Lefke Gate Iznik Wall at Istanbul Gate Iznik Theatre Iznik Church remains possibly Dormition Iznik Church remains possibly Dormition Iznik Suleymanpasha Medresesi Izik Hagia Sophia Mosque The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta stayed in Iznik at the end of 1331 soon after the capture of the town by Orhan 8 According to Ibn Battuta the town was in ruins and only inhabited by a small number of people who were in the service of the sultan Within the city walls were gardens and cultivated plots with each house surrounded by an orchard The town produced fruit walnuts chestnuts and large sweet grapes 7 9 A census in 1520 recorded 379 Muslim and 23 Christian households while a census taken a century later in 1624 recorded 351 Muslim and 10 Christian households Assuming five members for each household these figures suggest that the population was around 2 000 Various estimates in the 18th and 19th centuries give similar numbers 10 The town was poor and the population small even when the ceramic production was at its peak during the second half of the 16th century 11 The Byzantine city is estimated to have had a population of 20 000 30 000 but in the Ottoman period the town was never prosperous and occupied only a small fraction of the walled area The English clergyman John Covel visited Iznik in 1677 and found that only a third of the town was occupied 12 In 1745 the English traveller Richard Pococke reported that Iznik was no more than a village 13 A succession of visitors described the town in unflattering terms After his visit in 1779 the Italian archaeologist Domenico Sestini wrote that Iznik was nothing but an abandoned town with no life no noise and no movement 7 14 In 1797 James Dallaway described Iznik as a wretched village of long lanes and mud walls 7 15 The town was seriously damaged in 1921 during the Greco Turkish War 1919 1922 the population became refugees and many historical buildings were damaged or destroyed 16 Panoramic view of Iznik ancient Nicaea with Lake Iznik in the background Pottery and tiles EditMain article Iznik pottery The town became more important with the development a pottery and tile making industry during the Ottoman period in the 16th century known as the Iznik Cini Iznik ceramic tiles were used to decorate many of the mosques in Istanbul designed by Mimar Sinan However this industry declined in the 17th century 17 and Iznik became a mainly agricultural minor town in the area when a major railway bypassed it in the 19th century Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne Iznik Museum in Nilufer Hatun Soup Kitchen Iznik Museum exhibit Iznik Museum Exhibit Iznik Museum exhibit Iznik Museum exhibitSurviving monuments EditA number of monuments were erected by the Ottomans in the period between the conquest in 1331 and 1402 when the town was sacked by Timur Among those that have survived are Haci Ozbek Mosque 1333 This mosque was built only three years after the conquest The portico on the west side of the building was demolished in 1940 to widen the road 18 Yesil Mosque of Iznik Green Mosque 1378 1391 The mosque was built for Candarli Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire It is located near the Lefke Gate on the east side of the town It was damaged in 1922 during the Greco Turkish War and restored between 1956 and 1969 7 19 Hagia Sophia also known as Aya Sofya 20 Greek Ἁgia Sofia Holy Wisdom is a Byzantine era former church building which was built by Justinian I in the middle of the city in the 6th century 21 Nilufer Hatun Soup Kitchen Nilufer Hatun Imareti 1388 The building was abandoned for many years but was restored in 1955 and is now a museum 22 Suleyman Pasa Madrasa mid 14th century This is one of the two surviving madrasas in the town It was restored in the 19th century and again in 1968 23 Mausoleum of Candarli Hayreddin Pasa 14th century The main room contains fifteen sarcophagi A lower room contains three more sarcophagi including that of Hayreddin Pasha The mausoleum is located in a cemetery outside the Lefke gate to the east of the town 24 Several monuments survived into the 20th century but were destroyed during the Greco Turkish War 1919 1922 These include Church of the Koimesis Dormition 6th 8th century but rebuilt after the 1065 earthquake This was the only church in the town that was not transformed into a mosque 25 It was decorated with 11th century Byzantine mosaics of which photographs survive 26 27 Esrefzade Rumi Mosque 15th century Esrefzade Rumi was married to the daughter of Haci Bayram i Veli He founded a sufi sect and after his death in 1469 70 his tomb became a pilgrimage site 7 The mosque has been restored and the tomb is decorated with Iznik tiles 28 Seyh Kutbeddin Mosque and Mausoleum 15th century The mosque and mausoleum have been rebuilt 29 30 Iznik Esrefoglu complex Exterior Iznik Esrefoglu complex Interior Iznik Esrefoglu complex tombs Iznik Seyh Kutbuddin mosque with mausoleum Iznik Seyh Kutbuddin mosque TombsSport EditThe Iznik Ultramarathon is a 130 km 81 mi trail endurance running event that takes place around Lake Iznik in April since 2012 as the country s longest single stage athletics competition 31 International relations EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey Twin towns sister cities Edit Iznik is twinned with 32 Jingdezhen China Khulo Georgia Nikaia Greece Pithiviers France Spandau Berlin Germany Talas Kyrgyzstan Tutin SerbiaNotes Edit Area of regions including lakes km Regional Statistics Database Turkish Statistical Institute 2002 Retrieved 5 March 2013 Population of province district centers and towns villages by districts 2012 Address Based Population Registration System ABPRS Database Turkish Statistical Institute Retrieved 27 February 2013 Lonely Planet Turkey ed Verity Campbell 2007 Page 291 Original Iznik tiles are antiquities and cannot be exported from Turkey but new tiles make great if not particularly cheap souvenirs Raby 1989 p 19 20 Tsivikis Nikolaos 23 March 2007 Nicaea Church of Hagia Sophia Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World Asia Minor Foundation of the Hellenic World retrieved 20 September 2014 St Sophia Museum ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 a b c d e f Raby 1989 p 20 Dunn 2005 p 158 note 20 Raby 1989 p 20 suggests a date between 1334 and 1339 Defremery amp Sanguinetti 1854 pp 323 324 Gibb 1962 p 453 Raby 1989 pp 20 21 Raby 1989 p 21 Covel 1893 p 281 Pococke 1745 p 123 Sestini 1789 pp 219 220 Dallaway 1797 p 169 Uyan Ayhan 28 November 2011 Iznik te Milli Mucadelede Yunan Tahribati iznikrehber com retrieved 19 June 2013 http mini site louvre fr trois empires en ceramiques ottomanes php Haci Ozbek Mosque ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Green Mosque ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Iznikte Gezilecek Yerler Turkiye nin En Guncel Gezi ve Seyahat Sitesi GeziPedia net in Turkish Retrieved 27 June 2020 Hazlitt Classical Gazetteer Nicaea Nilufer Hatun Soup Kitchen ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Suleyman Pasa Madrasa ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Tomb of Candarli Hayreddin Pasa ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Kastrinakis Nikos 16 June 2005 Nicaea Byzantium Dormition Church Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World Asia Minor Foundation of the Hellenic World retrieved 20 September 2014 Mango 1959 Kanaki Elena 22 June 2005 Nicaea Byzantium Church of the Dormition Mosaics Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World Asia Minor Foundation of the Hellenic World retrieved 20 September 2014 Esrefzade Rumi Mosque ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Seyh Kutbeddin Mosque and Tomb ArchNet retrieved 20 September 2014 Seyh Kutbettin Camii ve Turbesi Osmanli mimarisi Iznik te maraton heyecani basladi Sabah in Turkish 14 April 2012 Retrieved 26 November 2013 Kardes Sehirler iznik bel tr in Turkish Iznik Retrieved 18 January 2020 References EditCovel John 1893 Extracts from the diaries of John Covel 1670 1679 In Bent J Theodore ed Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant London Hakluyt Society Dallaway James 1797 Constantinople Ancient and Modern with excursions to the shores and islands of the archipelago and to the Troad London T Cadell junr amp W Davies Defremery C Sanguinetti B R trans and eds 1854 Voyages d Ibn Batoutah Volume 2 in Arabic and French Paris Societe Asiatic CS1 maint extra text authors list link Dunn Ross E 2005 The Adventures of Ibn Battuta University of California Press ISBN 0 520 24385 4 First published in 1986 ISBN 0 520 05771 6 Gibb H A R trans and ed 1962 The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭuṭa A D 1325 1354 Volume 2 London Hakluyt Society CS1 maint extra text authors list link Mango Cyril 1959 The date of the narthex mosaics of the Church of the Dormition at Nicaea Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13 245 252 doi 10 2307 1291137 JSTOR 1291137 Pococke Richard 1745 A Description of the East and Some Other Countries Volume 2 part 2 London self published volume has extra text help Raby Julian 1989 Iznik Une village au milieu des jardins In Petsopoulos Yanni ed Iznik The Pottery of Ottoman Turkey London Alexandra Press pp 19 22 ISBN 978 1 85669 054 6 Sestini Domenico 1789 Voyage dans la Grece asiatique a la peninsule de Cyzique a Brusse et a Nicee avec des details sur l histoire naturelle de ces contrees in French London and Paris Leroy Further reading EditAlioglu E Fusun 2001 Similarities between early Ottoman architecture and local architecture or Byzantine architecture in Iznik ICOMOS International Millennium Congress More than two thousand years in the history of architecture Session 2 Historic Towns PDF UNESCO ICOMOS Alioglu E Fusun 2001 Establishing the sustainable identity of a historical city field of research Iznik ICOMOS International Millennium Congress More than two thousand years in the history of architecture Session 2 Historic Towns PDF UNESCO ICOMOS Raby Julian 1976 A seventeenth century description of Iznik Nicaea Istanbuler Mitteilungen 26 149 188 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Iznik Iznik travel guide from Wikivoyage Iznik ArchNet Information on the historic buildings in the town 300 photographs of the town and sights Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Iznik amp oldid 1052730887, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.