fbpx
Wikipedia

Śāriputra

Śāriputra (Sanskrit:शारिपुत्र; Tibetan: ཤཱ་རིའི་བུ་, Pali: Sāriputta, lit. "the son of Śāri", born Upatiṣya, Pali: Upatissa) was one of the top disciples of the Buddha. He is considered the first of the Buddha's two chief male disciples, together with Maudgalyāyana (Pali: Moggallāna). Śāriputra had a key leadership role in the ministry of the Buddha and is considered in many Buddhist schools to have been important in the development of the Buddhist Abhidharma. He frequently appears in Mahayana sutras, and in some sutras, is used as a counterpoint to represent the Hinayana school of Buddhism.

Śāriputra
Statue of Śāriputra, depicting his "golden complexion".
TitleFirst chief disciple (Paṭhamasāvaka), right hand side chief disciple (Dakkhinasāvaka), foremost of the wise
Personal
Born
Upatiṣya (Pali: Upatissa)

Nālaka or Upatiṣya Village, Rajgir, Magadha
Died
Nālaka or Upatiṣya Village, Rajgir, Magadha
ReligionBuddhism
ParentsVaṇganta or Tisya (father), Sāri (mother)
Schoolall
Senior posting
TeacherGautama Buddha
Translations of
Śāriputra
Sanskritशारिपुत्र
Śāriputra
PaliSāriputta
Burmeseရှင်သာရိပုတ္တရာ
(Shin Sāriputtarā)

(MLCTS: ʃɪ̀ɴθàɹḭpoʊʔtəɹà)
Chinese舎利弗
(Pinyin: Shèlìfú)
舎利子
(Pinyin: Shèlìzi
)
Japanese舎利弗しゃりほつ
(Rōmaji: Sharihotsu)
舎利子しゃりし
(romaji: Sharishi
)
Khmerសារីបុត្រ
(UNGEGN: sareibŏt)
Korean사리불
(RR: Saribul)
사리자
(RR: Sarija
)
Sinhalaසාරිපුත්ත
Tibetanཤཱ་རིའི་བུ་
(Wylie: shA ri'i bu)
(THL: sha ri bu
)
Thaiสารีบุตร
(RTGS: Saribut)
VietnameseXá Lợi Phất
Xá Lợi Tử
Glossary of Buddhism

Buddhist texts relate that Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana were childhood friends who became spiritual wanderers in their youth. After having searched for spiritual truth with other contemporary teachers, they came into contact with the teachings of the Buddha and ordained as monks under him, after which the Buddha declared the friends his two chief disciples. Śāriputra was said to have attained enlightenment as an arhat two weeks after ordination. As chief disciple Śāriputra assumed a leadership role in the Sangha, doing tasks like looking after monks, assigning them objects of meditation, and clarifying points of doctrine. He was the first disciple the Buddha allowed to ordain other monks. Śāriputra died shortly before the Buddha in his hometown and was cremated. According to Buddhist texts, his relics were then enshrined at Jetavana Monastery. Archaeological findings from the 1800s suggest his relics may have been redistributed across the Indian subcontinent by subsequent kings.

Śāriputra is regarded as an important and wise disciple of the Buddha, particularly in Theravada Buddhism where he is given a status close to a second Buddha. In Buddhist art, he is often depicted alongside the Buddha, usually to his right. Śāriputra was known for his strict adherence to the Buddhist monastic rules, as well as for his wisdom and teaching ability, giving him the title "General of the Dharma" (Sanskrit: Dharmasenāpati; Pali: Dhammasenāpati). Śāriputra is considered the disciple of the Buddha who was foremost in wisdom. His female counterpart was Kṣemā (Pali: Khemā).

Contents

According to Buddhist texts, when a fully enlightened Buddha appears in the world, he always has a set of chief disciples. For the current Buddha, Gautama, his chief male disciples were Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana, while his chief female disciples were Kṣemā and Utpalavarṇā. According to the Buddhavaṃsa, all Buddhas of the past followed this pattern of selecting two chief male disciples and two chief female disciples. German Buddhist scholar and monk Nyanaponika Thera states that the reason Buddhas always select two chief disciples is to balance responsibilities according to each disciple's specific skills.

According to the Pali Canon, in the distant past Śāriputra was born a wealthy brahmin named Sarada who gave away his wealth to become an ascetic who developed a large following. At that time, Sarada and his followers were visited by the past Buddha, Anomadassī, and were given a sermon by Anomadassī Buddha and his chief disciples. Upon hearing the sermon from Anomadassī Buddha's first chief disciple, Nisabha, Sarada became inspired and resolved to become the first chief disciple of a future Buddha. He then made this wish in front of Anomadassī Buddha, who looked into the future and then declared that his aspiration would come true. Upon hearing the prediction, Sarada went to his close friend Sirivaddhana and asked him to resolve to become the second chief disciple of the same Buddha. Sirivaddhana then made a large offering to Anomadassī Buddha and his following and made the wish as suggested. Anomadassī Buddha looked into the future and declared that Sirivaddhana's aspiration would also come true. The two friends then spent the rest of their lives and many future lives doing good deeds. According to Buddhist legend, the aspiration came true in the time of Gautama Buddha with Sarada being reborn as Śāriputra and Sirivaddhana being reborn as Maudgalyāyana.

Early life

Buddhist texts describe that Śāriputra was born with the birth name Upatiṣya (Pali: Upatissa) to a wealthy brahmin family in a village near Rājagaha in the ancient Indian kingdom of Magadha. Texts from the Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition state he was named after his father, while the Pali commentaries of the Theravada tradition state he was named after his birth village. Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian refers to Śāriputra's birth village as Nāla (Nālaka) while Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang refers to the village as Kālapināka. The village has been variously identified as being either modern-day Sarichak, Chandiman (Chandimau), or Nanan (considered most likely to be the correct location).

Upatiṣya is described as having had a "golden complexion". He had six siblings; three brothers named Upasena, Cunda and Revata, and three sisters named Cāla, Upacālā and Sīsupacālā. Each of his siblings would grow up to become arhat disciples of the Buddha. According to the Pali tradition, Upatiṣya's father was named Vangunta, while according to Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition his father was named Tiṣya (Pali: Tissa). Upatiṣya's mother was named Śārī (alternatively called Rūpaśārī, Śārika, or Śāradvatī), because she had eyes like a śārika bird. His mother was the reason Upatiṣya later became known as Śāriputra (son of Śāri) and sometimes Śāradvatīputra (son of Śāradvatī).

A stupa dedicated to Śāriputra at the ancient Nalanda monastery. Nyanaponika Thera states that Nalanda was probably close to where Śāriputra was born and died.

Upatiṣya was born the same day as Kolita (who would later be known as Maudgalyāyana), a boy from a neighboring village whose family had been friends with Upatiṣya's family for seven generations, and became friends with him as a child. Upatiṣya and Kolita both became masters of the Vedas through their education and each developed a large following of brahmin youths. One day the realization that life is impermanent overtook the two friends during a festival in Rājagaha and they developed a sense of spiritual urgency.

Realizing the pointlessness of the impermanent material world, the two friends set out as ascetics to search for an end to rebirth. In Mūlasarvāstivāda texts, the two friends visited all six major teachers of India at the time before realizing none of them had the right path. According to Pali texts, the two friends and their following of brahmin youths became students under only one of the teachers, the ascetic Sañjaya Vairatiputra (Pali: Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta), who was staying nearby. Pali texts describe Sañjaya as a teacher in the Indian Sceptic tradition, with Upatiṣya and Kolita eventually becoming dissatisfied with his teachings and leaving. In Mūlasarvāstivāda texts, the Chinese Buddhist Canon and in Tibetan accounts, however, he is depicted as a wise teacher with meditative vision who becomes ill and dies. In some accounts, he predicts the coming of the Buddha through his visions. After being unable to find what they were looking for, the two friends went their separate ways but made a pact that if one was to find the path to Nirvana, he would tell the other.

Meeting the Buddha

Ivory relief depicting Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana becoming disciples of the Buddha

After leaving Sañjaya, Upatiṣya encountered the monk Aśvajit (Pali:Assaji), one of the Buddha's first five arhat disciples. Upatiṣya noticed how serene the monk appeared and approached him to ask for a teaching. Aśvajit said he was still newly ordained but would teach what he can, and proceeded to teach the famous Ye Dharma Hetu stanza:

Of all those things that from a cause arise,

Tathagata the cause thereof has told;

And how they cease to be, that too he tells,

This is the doctrine of the Great Recluse.

Translated by Nyanaponika Thera

This stanza has become particularly famous in the Buddhist world, having been inscribed onto many Buddhist statues. According to philosopher Paul Carus, the stanza breaks away from the idea of divine intervention prevalent in ancient Brahmanism at the time and instead teaches that the origin and end of all things depends on its causation.

Following the teaching, Upatiṣya attained sotapanna, the first stage of enlightenment. Upatiṣya then went to Kolita to tell him about the incident and, after reciting the stanza for him, Kolita also attained sotapanna. The two friends, along with a large chunk of Sañjaya's disciples, then ordained as monks under the Buddha, with everybody in the group becoming arhats that day except for Upatiṣya and Kolita. Nyanaponika Thera states that the friends required longer preparatory periods before enlightening in order to fulfill their roles as chief disciples. Several texts describe the ordination with miraculous elements, such as the disciples' clothes suddenly being replaced with Buddhist robes and their hair falling out on its own. After ordaining, Upatiṣya started being called Śāriputra (Pali: Sāriputta), and Kolita started being called Maudgalyāyana (Pali: Moggallāna).

After Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana ordained, the Buddha declared them his two chief disciples (Pali: aggasavaka), following the tradition of appointing a pair of chief disciples as the past Buddhas did, according to Buddhist belief. Since they were newly ordained some of the monks in the assembly felt offended, but the Buddha explained that he gave them the roles because they had made the resolve to become the chief disciples many lifetimes ago. Maudgalyāyana attained arhatship seven days after ordaining following intense meditation training. Śāriputra attained arhatship two weeks after ordaining while fanning the Buddha as the Buddha was delivering the Vedanāpariggaha Sutta to a wandering ascetic. Pali texts state that the ascetic was Śāriputra's nephew but Chinese, Tibetan and Sanskrit texts state he was Śāriputra's uncle. According to commentaries such as the Atthakatha, Śāriputra took longer to achieve enlightenment than Maudgalyāyana because his knowledge had to be more thorough as first chief disciple, and thus required more preparation time.

Chief disciple

A statue of Śāriputra at Bodh Gaya.

Śāriputra is considered to have been the Buddha's first chief disciple, foremost in wisdom, a title he shared with the nun Kṣemā (Pali: Khemā). He shared the title of chief male disciple with Maudgalyāyana, together described in the Mahāpadāna Sutta, as "the chief pair of disciples, the excellent pair" (Pali: sāvakayugaṁ aggaṁ bhaddayugaṁ). In the Mahavagga, the Buddha declared his two chief male disciples as being foremost in wisdom and foremost in psychic powers, referencing Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana respectively. Texts describe that none of the Buddha's other disciples could answer questions that Maudgalyāyana was able to answer while Maudgalyāyana was unable to answer questions Śāriputra was able to answer. Buddhist tradition maintains that the first chief disciple, Śāriputra, customarily sat to the Buddha's right hand side, while the second chief disciple, Maudgalyāyana, sat to the left. The disciples have thus been stylized as the right hand and left hand disciples of the Buddha in Buddhist tradition and art accordingly.

As the first chief disciple, Śāriputra's role was the systematization and analysis of the Buddha's teachings. The Buddhist canon often shows Śāriputra asking the Buddha questions and entreating the Buddha to teach, as well as himself clarifying points and questioning disciples, in some cases seemingly to test the knowledge of fellow disciples. The Buddha would often suggest a topic and have Śāriputra elaborate and deliver a sermon on it. In two discourses recorded in the Tripitaka, the Dasuttara Sutta and the Saṅgīti Sutta, the Buddha declared he needed to rest his back, and had Śāriputra teach in his place while the Buddha listened in the audience. His ability to teach the Dharma earned him the title of "General of the Dharma" (Sanskrit: Dharmasenapati). Buddhist texts indicate that Śāriputra still had some flaws, however. In the Catuma Sutta, when a group of young monks made noise and were ordered by the Buddha to leave, the Buddha reprimanded Śāriputra for not concluding that it was the chief disciples' responsibility to look after the monks, something Maudgalyāyana was able to conclude. On another occasion the Buddha reprimanded Śāriputra for teaching the dying brahmin, Dhanañjani, in a way that led him to rebirth in the Brahma realm rather than teaching in a way that led to enlightenment.

Śāriputra assumed a leadership role in the Buddha's monastic community, or Sangha. Buddhist texts describe that Śāriputra routinely took charge of monastic affairs usually handled by the Buddha himself, such as attending to sick monks or visiting lay followers before their deaths. In one instance, when a group of monks planned to travel elsewhere, the Buddha told them to ask Śāriputra for permission first. Śāriputra was the first disciple of the Buddha who was asked to ordain monks in his place, with the Buddha giving him the ordination procedure. He was also entrusted to ordain the Buddha's son Rahula. When Śāriputra trained pupils, he gave them material and spiritual help, and assigned them an object of meditation. In the Saccavibhanga Sutta, the Buddha compared Śāriputra to a mother who gives birth to a child while comparing Maudgalyāyana to a nurse who raises a child. Śāriputra would train students to sotapanna, the first stage of enlightenment, and Maudgalyāyana would train students to arhatship, the highest stage of enlightenment. However, Nyanaponika Thera notes that there are several individual cases where Śāriputra guided monks to the higher stages of enlightenment as well.

Person

Buddhist texts portray Śāriputra as someone who took an active role in debating and converting heretics, considered to have been one of his great prerogatives. In the Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition, when the six heretical teachers of the time challenged the Buddhists to a contest, the Buddha had Śāriputra contend against them. Mūlasarvāstivāda texts state that Śāriputra used psychic powers to create a huge storm and transform himself into various forms, subduing the rival teachers and converting the residents of Savatthi. When the monk Devadatta created a schism in the Buddha's monastic community and led some of the Buddha's disciples away, Śāriputra played a key role in restoring the community. According to texts, upon hearing about the schism, Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana pretended to join Devadatta's community. After the chief disciples joined, Devadatta claimed to have had a backache and had Śāriputra preach in his place, but Devadatta fell asleep and Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana used the opportunity to get the following to return to the Buddha.

Gilded statue of Śāriputra from Burma.

Buddhist texts generally credit the establishment of the monastic rules to Śāriputra, with Śāriputra being the one to ask the Buddha to create the rules. When Śāriputra asked the Buddha, he said he would lay them down at the right time. Śāriputra was known for his conscientiousness and meticulous adherence to monastic rules. In one story, Śāriputra became ill with an ailment that could be treated with garlic, but refused it because the Buddha had previously laid down a rule forbidding monks to eat garlic, with Śāriputra only taking it after the Buddha rescinded the rule. In another story, Śāriputra found that meal cakes tended to make him greedy and then made a vow to abstain from them. A Buddhist commentary describes that one time when the other monks had left to collect alms, Śāriputra meticulously cleaned and organized the monastery to keep heretics from criticizing the disciples. Several Buddhist texts relate that Śāriputra was reborn as a snake in a previous life and that this was the reason for some of his stubbornness. In a Mahāsāṃghika text the Buddha punished Śāriputra by making him stand in the sun for failing to prevent some monks from making incorrect remarks. When the other monks later asked the Buddha to stop the punishment, the Buddha said that Śāriputra's decision to receive the punishment could not be changed, just as he was unwilling to change his mind when he was a snake. In a Mahīśāsaka text, Śāriputra refused to take a type of fruit, even when prescribed as medicine, after another monk suspected him of sneaking delicious food, the Buddha likewise references Śāriputra's life as a snake to explain his stubbornness.

Although Maudgalyāyana is described as having been foremost in psychic powers, Buddhist texts state that Śāriputra also exhibited such powers himself. In various texts, Śāriputra is reported to have exhibited several psychic abilities such as levitation and the ability to visit other realms of existence, as well as abilities common among arhats such as recalling past lives and clairvoyance. In one story, a yaksha, or spirit, hit Śāriputra in the head while he was meditating. When Maudgalyāyana saw the incident and came to ask Śāriputra if he was okay, Śāriputra stated he didn't even notice the blow and suffered only a minor headache. Maudgalyāyana then praised Śāriputra for his psychic abilities by being able to sustain a blow with little notice, described in the Patisambhidamagga text as an example of “the power of intervention by concentration” (Pali: samādhivipphāra-iddhi). In Mūlasarvāstivāda texts, Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana descended to hell to give Devadatta the prophecy that he will become a pratyekabuddha in the future. During the visit, it is said that Maudgalyāyana attempted to relieve the suffering of those in hell by creating rain but the rain dispersed. After Śāriputra saw this, he created a rain that did relieve the suffering of those in hell, using a wisdom based meditation. In another Mūlasarvāstivāda text, the Buddha sent Maudgalyāyana to retrieve Śāriputra, who was doing sewing work. When Śāriputra stated he would go after his sewing work was complete, Maudgalyāyana attempted to force him to come by using his psychic powers to shake the ground but Śāriputra was unaffected. When Śāriputra told him to return first, Maudgalyāyana went back to the Buddha and found that Śāriputra had already arrived. When Maudgalyāyana saw this, he stated that the power of psychic abilities was no match for the power of wisdom.

Painting depicting the death of Śāriputra at the Bangkok National Museum.

Death

Buddhist texts all state that Śāriputra died shortly before the Buddha, with texts generally indicating he died in his hometown. According to Pāli commentaries, Śāriputra arose from meditation one day and realized through his meditative insight that the chief disciples were supposed to achieve parinirvana before the Buddha, and that he had seven more days to live. Śāriputra then traveled to his hometown to teach his mother, who was yet to be converted to Buddhism. After he converted his mother, Śāriputra died peacefully on the full moon day of Kartika a few months before the Buddha. According to Mūlasarvāstivāda texts, however, it is said that Śāriputra achieved paranirvana voluntarily because he didn't want to witness the Buddha's death, in some accounts he was also motivated by Maudgalyāyana intending to achieve paranirvana after being beaten and mortally injured by a rival religious group. In the Sarvāstivāda account, Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana both achieved paranirvana voluntarily on the same day, because they didn't want to witness the Buddha's death. In several versions of the story, various heavenly beings from Buddhist cosmology are said to have come to pay respect to Śāriputra near his time of death.

A funeral was held for Śāriputra in the city of Rajgir where his remains were cremated. His relics were then brought by Śāriputra's assistant, Cunda, to the Buddha in Śrāvastī. In the Anupada Sutta, the Buddha gave a eulogy of Śāriputra, praising his intellect and virtue. According to a Dighanikaya commentary, the Buddha enshrined Śāriputra's relics in a cetiya at Jetavana. In Mūlasarvāstivāda texts, the relics were given to the lay disciple, Anathapindika, and it is him who builds a stupa and enshrines the relics at Jetavana.

Main article: Abhidharma
According to Theravada tradition, the Buddha taught the Abhidharma in Tavatimsa heaven and returned to earth daily to give Śāriputra a summary.

Śāriputra is said to have played a key role in the development of the Abhidharma texts of the Buddhist Tripitaka. Buddhist scholar monks Rewata Dhamma and Bhikkhu Bodhi describe the Abhidharma as "an abstract and highly technical systemization of the doctrine". According to Theravada tradition, the Abhidharma, or "Higher Dharma", is said to have been preached by the Buddha to devas while he was spending the rainy season in Tavatimsa Heaven. It is said that the Buddha returned to earth daily to give a summary to Śāriputra, who classified and reordered the teachings and relayed it to his disciples, in what would become the Abhidharma Pitaka. Various sets of the Sarvastivada school of Buddhism, however, attribute each of the seven books of the Abhidharma to different authors, with Śāriputra being attributed as the author of just the Sangitiparyaya in the Chinese Sarvastivada tradition and as the author of the Dharmaskandha in the Sanskrit and Tibetan Sarvastivada traditions. In the Vatsiputriya tradition, a subset of the Sarvastivada school, Śāriputra is said to have transmitted the Abhidharma to Rahula, who later transmitted it to the school's founder, Vatsiputra. As the author of the Abhidharma in Buddhist tradition, Śāriputra is considered to be the patron saint of the Abhidharmists.

French religion writer André Migot, argues that the Abhidharma was formulated no earlier than the time of Emperor Asoka, and thus cannot really be attributed to the historic Śāriputra, at least not the version known by modern scholars. English historian Edward J. Thomas dates the development of the Abhidharma as being sometime between the third century BCE and the first century CE. However, Migot states that a simpler version of the Abhidharma likely existed in early Buddhism, before it evolved and was written down in its current form. Migot points to the mention of the "Matrka" Pitaka in Cullavagga texts as the precursor to the Abhidharma Pitaka. Migot argues that the Matrka Pitaka, recited by Mahākāśyapa at the First Buddhist Council according to Ashokavadana texts, likely began as a condensed version of Buddhist doctrine that developed over time with metaphysical aspects to become the Abhidharma. Thomas also states that the Abhidharma had earlier roots and was developed based on existing material, likely a method of discussing the principles of the Buddha's teachings. According to Thomas, different Buddhist schools compiled their own Abhidharma works separately, but based it on common existing material.

A Chinese painting depicting the events of the Vimalakīrti sutra.

Śāriputra frequently appears in Mahayana sutras, often asking the Buddha to teach or engaging in the dialogue himself. Migot states that it is significant that Śāriputra has a continuity in Mahayana texts, as most of the Buddha's great disciples are usually absent from Mahayana literature. Migot credits the importance of Śāriputra in the early Vatsiputriya Buddhist school with why Śāriputra often appeared in Mahayana texts. While depictions of Śāriputra in the Pāli Canon generally portray him as a wise and powerful arhat, second only to the Buddha, Mahayana texts give him a wider range of depictions. Some Mahayana sutras portray him as a great Buddhist disciple while others portray him as a counterpoint with insufficient understanding of Mahayana doctrine, representative of the Hinayana tradition. Buddhist studies scholar Donald S. Lopez Jr. describes the latter as "intentional irony" aimed at depicting how profound Mahayana doctrine is by showing that even the wisest "Hinayana" disciple had difficulty understanding it.

The Vimalakīrti Sūtra

In the Vimalakīrti Sūtra, Śāriputra is depicted as being unable to grasp Mahayana doctrines such as non-duality and emptiness. In the sutra, a goddess listening to Vimalakīrti scatters flowers which fall onto Śāriputra's robes. Not wanting to break the monastic rules, which forbid decorating oneself with flowers, he tries to remove them but is unable to. The goddess then accuses Śāriputra of being attached to the duality of what is proper and improper. Later in the sutra, Śāriputra asks that if the goddess is so spiritually advanced, why doesn't she transform out of her female state, indicative of cultural sexism. The goddess responds by using her powers to switch bodies with Śāriputra to demonstrate that male and female is just an illusion because, according to Mahayana doctrine, all things are empty and so male and female don't really exist.

Prajñāpāramitā sutras

In prajñāpāramitā sutras Śāriputra is often depicted as the counterpoint to the true meaning of prajñāpāramitā. In the Astasahasrika Prajñāpāramitā Sutra, Śāriputra is portrayed as being unable to understand the ultimate meaning of prajñāpāramitā and instead must be instructed by the disciple Subhūti. According to Buddhist scholar Edward Conze, the sutra depicts Śāriputra as being preoccupied with dualities, making him unable to grasp the true meaning of prajnaparamita. In the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra, Śāriputra is one of the principal interlocutors, asking questions and being instructed. Conze states that Śāriputra has to be instructed in this sutra because, despite his great wisdom, prajnaparamita doctrine was too advanced for his comprehension. The Da zhidu lun commentary to the sutra describes Śāriputra as someone who pursued the bodhisattva path in a past life but gave up and turned to the Śrāvaka path after donating his eye to a beggar who threw the eye on the ground.

Religious studies scholar Douglas Osto argues that Śāriputra is portrayed as such in Prajñāpāramitā sutras due to his association with the Abhidharma, which teaches that dharmas are the final reality. This is in contrast to the core teachings of Prajñāpāramitā sutras, which teach that all dharmas are empty, thus making Śāriputra the ideal counterpoint.

Other Mahayana Sutras

Japanese depiction of the Lotus Sutra, where Śāriputra prompts the Buddha to preach.

Śāriputra plays a major role in the Heart Sutra, where the teaching is directed at him. Śāriputra prompts the teaching of the sutra by asking the Mahayana bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara how to practice wisdom. Avalokiteśvara's response to Śāriputra, then makes up the body of the sutra. When Avalokiteśvara finishes the sutra the Buddha shows approval of the teaching, and Śāriputra, Avalokiteśvara, and the audience then rejoice. In the Lotus Sutra, the Buddha starts talking about the higher wisdom of buddhas and his use of skillful means (Sanskrit: upāya) to teach the Dharma, which leaves the arhats in the assembly confused. Śāriputra then asks the Buddha to explain his teachings for the benefit of other beings, prompting the Buddha to teach the Lotus Sutra. Later in the sutra, the Buddha explains that Śāriputra had followed the bodhisattva path in past lives but had forgotten and followed the Śrāvaka path in this life. The Buddha then assures Śāriputra that he will also achieve buddhahood and declares that Śāriputra will become the future Buddha Padmaprabha. In the listing of the great arhats in the assembly at the beginning of the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, Śāriputra is mentioned as the fifteenth of the great arhats, while in the Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra he is placed as the first.

One of the Sanchi stupas, where relics of Śāriputra were excavated.

According to accounts from the 7th century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, Śāriputra's as well as Maudgalyāyana's relics could be found in the Indian city of Mathura in stupas built by King Asoka. However, as of 1999, no archaeological reports had confirmed such findings at the sites mentioned by either Chinese pilgrims or Buddhist texts, although findings were made at other sites.

In 1851, archaeologists Alexander Cunningham and Lieutenant Fred. C. Maisey discovered a pair of sandstone boxes with encased bone fragments inside during an excavation of one of the stupas in the city of Sanchi, with Śāriputra's and Maudgalyāyana's names inscribed on them in Brāhmī text. Śāriputra's casket contained pieces of sandalwood, which Cunningham believed was part of Śāriputra's funeral pyre. Śāriputra's box was positioned at the south, while Maudgalyāyana's was positioned at the north. According to Cunningham, people in ancient India sat facing the east during religious ceremonies and even used the word east (para) for "front", as well as the word south (dakshina) for "right" and the word north (vami) for "left", meaning the positioning of the caskets symbolized each disciple's relative positions as right and left hand disciple respectively. This positioning has also been explained by the fact that the Buddha traditionally sat facing the east, which would make the south his right hand side, and the north his left hand side. Another excavation by Cunningham and Maisey at stupas in the nearby town of Satdhāra found another pair of caskets with encased bone fragments with the two chief disciples' names inscribed. Cunningham concluded that the relics were enshrined in stupas near Rajagaha after the disciples' deaths until the time of King Asoka, who then redistributed them in stupas throughout India. Scholars have also theorized that a Sunga king may have also have done a similar redistribution of the relics of the Buddha and his leading disciples and built stupas such as the one in Sanchi to enshrine them.

Sketch made by Cunningham of the Sanchi relic caskets attributed to the chief disciples.

Cunningham and Maisey later divided their findings among each other, with Maisey bringing the Satdhāra relics to Britain and eventually loaning them to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 1866. The relics were eventually purchased by the Museum in 1921 from Maisley's son. Cunningham brought his findings to Britain on two ships, one of which sank, thus the Sanchi relics are believed to have been lost. However, historian Torkel Brekke argues that Maisey took all the relics with him, and thus the Sanchi relics went to Britain along with the Satdhāra ones. In the early 20th century, Buddhist organizations in India and Burma began pressuring the British government to return the relics to India, where they can be properly venerated. Although the Victoria and Albert Museum initially resisted, the British government eventually ordered them to return the relics for diplomatic reasons. The relics were transferred to predominantly Buddhist Sri Lanka in 1947 in accordance with an agreement made with Buddhist organizations, where they were put on temporary display at the Colombo Museum. In 1949, the relics were sent to India where they were put on tour around northern India and various parts of Asia. In 1950, the relics were sent on tour to Burma, with Burmese Prime Minister U Nu later asking India for a portion of the relics. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru agreed to make a "permanent loan" of a portion of the relics to Burma where they were enshrined in the Kaba Aye Pagoda in 1952. Sri Lanka also obtained a portion of the relics, which were brought from Sanchi in 1952 and kept at the Maha Bodhi Society in Sri Lanka. The portion of the relics that remained in India were enshrined at the Chethiyagiri Vihara in Sanchi, also in 1952.

Image of the Buddha with his chief disciples at Bangkok Art and Culture Centre. Śāriputra is traditionally depicted on the right side of the Buddha while Maudgalyāyana is traditionally depicted on the left.

As the chief disciple of the Buddha, Śāriputra is considered to be a particularly important figure in Buddhism, especially in the Theravada tradition. According to Buddhist academic Reginald Ray, Śāriputra was the greatest arhat in the Pali Canon and is ranked in the canon as being close to a second Buddha. In one text, he is referred to as "King of the Dharma" (Sanskrit: Dharmaraja) a title generally reserved for the Buddha, and is described in several texts as one who "spins the wheel of the Dharma", a prerogative generally associated with Buddhas. In the Pali Canon, Śāriputra is credited as the main expounder of several suttas, due to the Buddha trusting in his profound teaching ability. Indologist Alex Wayman describes Śāriputra as being exemplary of the four brahma-vihārās, and credits these virtues with why the Buddha entrusted him with leadership of the Sangha.

In Buddhist art, he is often depicted alongside the Buddha and Maudgalyāyana, with Śāriputra usually depicted on the Buddha's right hand side and Maudgalyāyana usually depicted on the Buddha's left hand side. According to Nyanaponika Thera, this imagery symbolizes the relative positions they held in life, with Śāriputra being the Buddha's right hand monk. In Mahayana Buddhism this iconography of flanking the Buddha on his right and left is sometimes used for other figures as well, such as the Mahayana bodhisattvas Samantabhadra and Mañjuśrī, or the disciples Ānanda and Mahākāśyapa. In Burma, Śāriputra is believed to grant wisdom to worshippers, and is one of eight arhats commonly shown devotion to in protective rituals.

Śāriputra is notable for being representative of scholarship and settled monasticism, rather than the forest Buddhism that most of the Buddha's principal disciples are associated with. Ray describes Śāriputra as the "prototypical" Buddhist saint who embodied the ideal of the Southern Buddhism that developed in ancient Kosambi. However, Ray points out that some Pali texts, such as the Udana and Theragatha, portray Śāriputra as a forest saint. He concludes that there are at least two traditions linked to him in Pali texts, forest and scholarly. Migot identifies texts that exclude Śāriputra's scholastic character as the earliest sources, and goes on to argue that the historic Śāriputra was different from the person preserved in the Pali Canon. He argues that Śāriputra was venerated as a saint in the ancient Kosambi region and that the early Sthavira school of Buddhism developed his scholarly side in accordance to the tradition's values in the region at the time, indicating that Śāriputra may originally have been a forest saint. Ray states that while it is possible Śāriputra's scholastic character was the result of texts that were added later, there is insufficient evidence to conclude to this.

  1. Some Pali texts contradict this however and state his birth village as Nālaka, although this may be an alternative name for Upatissa.
  2. In one version of the Chinese Buddhist canon, Śāriputra first went to the Buddha alone after being converted by Aśvajit, and then asked the Buddha for permission to go find his friend.
  3. American scholar monk Thanissaro Bhikkhu notes that it may seem strange Śāriputra had what appears to have been a lower job than Maudgalyāyana, but states it is actually harder to train an unenlightened person to become a sotapanna than to train a sotapanna to become an arhat.
  4. This version conflicts with some texts that state that Anathapindika died first.
  5. Some Buddhist schools classify the Abhidharma into six or eight parts, rather than seven.
  1. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 31-32.
  2. Mahathera 1998, p. 235.
  3. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 376-377.
  4. Shaw 2013, p. 455.
  5. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 67.
  6. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 58-61.
  7. Malalasekera 2007, p. 542.
  8. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 49.
  9. Silk 2019, p. 410.
  10. Sayadaw 1990.
  11. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 521.
  12. Sankalia, Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal (1972). The University of Nalanda. Oriental Publishers.
  13. Xuanzang (1958). Si-yu-ki: Ta-Tʻang-si-yu-ki. Books 6-9. Susil Gupta.
  14. Purātattva. Indian Archaological Society. 2006.
  15. East and West. Instituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. 1988.
  16. Prasad, Chandra Shekhar (1988). "Nalanda vis-à-vis the Birthplace of Śāriputra". East and West. 38 (1/4): 175–188. ISSN 0012-8376.
  17. The Maha Bodhi. Maha-Bodhi Society. 1981.
  18. Shaw 2013, p. 458.
  19. Shaw 2006, p. 36.
  20. Silk 2019, p. 411.
  21. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 87.
  22. "Sharadvatiputra, aka: Śāradvatīputra". Wisdom Library. 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-12-25. Retrieved2019-12-24.
  23. Buswell & Lopez 2013, p. 1902.
  24. Thakur 1996, p. 66.
  25. Daulton 1999, p. 102.
  26. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 49-50.
  27. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 50.
  28. Harvey 2013, p. 14.
  29. Lamotte, E. (1947). "La légende du Buddha" [The legend of the Buddha]. Revue de l'histoire des religions (in French). 134 (1–3): 65–6. doi:10.3406/rhr.1947.5599.
  30. Migot 1954, pp. 430–2, 440, 448.
  31. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 51.
  32. Buswell & Lopez 2013, p. 1903.
  33. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 51-53.
  34. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 53.
  35. Carus 1905, p. 180.
  36. Carus 1905, p. 180-181.
  37. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 54.
  38. Migot 1954, p. 450.
  39. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 55-56.
  40. Migot 1954, p. 451.
  41. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 56.
  42. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 31-32,57.
  43. Daulton 1999, p. 104.
  44. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 57-58.
  45. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 56-57.
  46. Migot 1954, p. 452.
  47. Krey 2010, p. 19.
  48. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 65.
  49. Migot 1954, p. 416.
  50. Silk 2019, p. 413.
  51. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 47.
  52. Cunningham 1854, p. 299-300.
  53. Migot 1954, p. 407,462-463.
  54. Krey 2010, p. 23.
  55. Malalasekera 1937.
  56. Migot 1954, p. 408,467.
  57. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 69-70.
  58. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 74-75.
  59. Migot 1954, p. 471.
  60. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 68-69.
  61. Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Saccavibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Truths". www.accesstoinsight.org. Access to Insight. Retrieved3 March 2020.
  62. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 69.
  63. Ray 1994, p. 134.
  64. Silk 2019, p. 413-414.
  65. Silk 2019, p. 414.
  66. Silk 2019, p. 415-416.
  67. Migot 1954, p. 506.
  68. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 91-92.
  69. Silk 2019, p. 412.
  70. Migot 1954, p. 507-508.
  71. Migot 1954, p. 508.
  72. Migot 1954, p. 473-474.
  73. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 106-107.
  74. Migot 1954, p. 475.
  75. Migot 1954, p. 476.
  76. Hecker & Nyanaponika Thera 2003, p. 112-114.
  77. Cunningham 1854, p. 303-304.
  78. Silk 2019, p. 414-415.
  79. Migot 1954, p. 484.
  80. Silk 2019, p. 415.
  81. Silk 2019, p. 416.
  82. Bodhi & Dhamma 1993, p. 2.
  83. Migot 1954, p. 521.
  84. Migot 1954, p. 520.
  85. Migot 1954, p. 408.
  86. Migot 1954, p. 523.
  87. Thomas 1953, p. 158.
  88. Migot 1954, p. 524.
  89. Migot 1954, p. 524-524,537-540.
  90. Thomas 1953, p. 159-160.
  91. Lopez 1988, p. 51.
  92. Migot 1954, p. 537.
  93. Migot 1954, p. 538.
  94. Silk 2019, p. 416-417.
  95. Irons 2007, p. 428.
  96. Buswell & Lopez 2013, p. 1904.
  97. Berger 1994, p. 350-352.
  98. Black & Patton 2015, p. 126.
  99. Conze 1983, p. 5.
  100. Conze 1975, p. 17,25,28,29.
  101. Conze 1975, p. 56.
  102. Lopez 1988, p. 52.
  103. Lopez 1988, p. 49.
  104. Lopez 1988, p. 121.
  105. Lopez 2016, p. 12-13.
  106. Hanh 2008, p. 38.
  107. Hanh 2008, p. 46.
  108. Hanh 2008, p. 47.
  109. Migot 1954, p. 491.
  110. Higham 2004, p. 215.
  111. Daulton 1999, p. 104-105.
  112. Daulton 1999, p. 106-107.
  113. Le 2010, p. 148.
  114. Brekke 2007, p. 274.
  115. Cunningham 1854, p. 297.
  116. Thera, Nyanaponika. "The Life of Sariputta, compiled and translated from the Pali texts by Nyanaponika Thera". www.accesstoinsight.org. Retrieved2020-04-26.
  117. Brekke 2007, p. 275.
  118. Daulton 1999, p. 105-106.
  119. Daulton 1999, p. 108.
  120. Brekke 2007, p. 277.
  121. Brekke 2007, p. 277-278.
  122. Daulton 1999, p. 109.
  123. Brekke 2007, p. 279-284.
  124. Maha Thera Tripitakavagisvaracarya 1892, p. 118.
  125. Daulton 1999, p. 111-121.
  126. Akkara, Anto. "Buddhist center breaks tradition, shows pope revered relic". Catholic Philly. Retrieved2020-03-29.
  127. Daulton 1999, p. 110-111.
  128. Ray 1994, p. 131-133.
  129. Migot 1954, p. 412, 500-501.
  130. Wayman 1997, p. 212.
  131. Buswell & Lopez 2013, p. 731.
  132. Buswell 2004, p. 750.
  133. Ray 1994, p. 138.
  134. Ray 1994, p. 135-136.
  135. Findly 2003, p. 398.
  136. Ray 1994, p. 134-135.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toŚāriputra.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Śāriputra
Look up śāriputra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Śāriputra
Sariputra Language Watch Edit Sariputra Sanskrit श र प त र Tibetan ཤ ར འ བ Pali Sariputta lit the son of Sari born Upatiṣya Pali Upatissa was one of the top disciples of the Buddha He is considered the first of the Buddha s two chief male disciples together with Maudgalyayana Pali Moggallana Sariputra had a key leadership role in the ministry of the Buddha and is considered in many Buddhist schools to have been important in the development of the Buddhist Abhidharma He frequently appears in Mahayana sutras and in some sutras is used as a counterpoint to represent the Hinayana school of Buddhism SariputraStatue of Sariputra depicting his golden complexion TitleFirst chief disciple Paṭhamasavaka right hand side chief disciple Dakkhinasavaka foremost of the wisePersonalBornUpatiṣya Pali Upatissa Nalaka or Upatiṣya Village Rajgir MagadhaDiedNalaka or Upatiṣya Village Rajgir MagadhaReligionBuddhismParentsVaṇganta or Tisya father Sari mother SchoolallSenior postingTeacherGautama BuddhaTranslations of SariputraSanskritश र प त र SariputraPaliSariputtaBurmeseရ င သ ရ ပ တ တရ Shin Sariputtara MLCTS ʃɪ ɴ8aɹḭpoʊʔteɹa Chinese舎利弗 Pinyin Shelifu 舎利子 Pinyin Shelizi Japanese舎利弗 しゃりほつ Rōmaji Sharihotsu 舎利子 しゃりし romaji Sharishi Khmerស រ ប ត រ UNGEGN sareibŏt Korean사리불 RR Saribul 사리자 RR Sarija Sinhalaස ර ප ත තTibetanཤ ར འ བ Wylie shA ri i bu THL sha ri bu Thaisaributr RTGS Saribut VietnameseXa Lợi Phất Xa Lợi TửGlossary of Buddhism Buddhist texts relate that Sariputra and Maudgalyayana were childhood friends who became spiritual wanderers in their youth After having searched for spiritual truth with other contemporary teachers they came into contact with the teachings of the Buddha and ordained as monks under him after which the Buddha declared the friends his two chief disciples Sariputra was said to have attained enlightenment as an arhat two weeks after ordination As chief disciple Sariputra assumed a leadership role in the Sangha doing tasks like looking after monks assigning them objects of meditation and clarifying points of doctrine He was the first disciple the Buddha allowed to ordain other monks Sariputra died shortly before the Buddha in his hometown and was cremated According to Buddhist texts his relics were then enshrined at Jetavana Monastery Archaeological findings from the 1800s suggest his relics may have been redistributed across the Indian subcontinent by subsequent kings Sariputra is regarded as an important and wise disciple of the Buddha particularly in Theravada Buddhism where he is given a status close to a second Buddha In Buddhist art he is often depicted alongside the Buddha usually to his right Sariputra was known for his strict adherence to the Buddhist monastic rules as well as for his wisdom and teaching ability giving him the title General of the Dharma Sanskrit Dharmasenapati Pali Dhammasenapati Sariputra is considered the disciple of the Buddha who was foremost in wisdom His female counterpart was Kṣema Pali Khema Contents 1 Background 2 Biography 2 1 Early life 2 2 Meeting the Buddha 2 3 Chief disciple 2 4 Person 2 5 Death 3 Abhidharma 4 In Mahayana sutras 4 1 The Vimalakirti Sutra 4 2 Prajnaparamita sutras 4 3 Other Mahayana Sutras 5 Relics 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Citations 10 References 11 External linksBackground EditAccording to Buddhist texts when a fully enlightened Buddha appears in the world he always has a set of chief disciples 1 For the current Buddha Gautama his chief male disciples were Sariputra and Maudgalyayana while his chief female disciples were Kṣema and Utpalavarṇa 2 3 According to the Buddhavaṃsa all Buddhas of the past followed this pattern of selecting two chief male disciples and two chief female disciples 4 German Buddhist scholar and monk Nyanaponika Thera states that the reason Buddhas always select two chief disciples is to balance responsibilities according to each disciple s specific skills 5 According to the Pali Canon in the distant past Sariputra was born a wealthy brahmin named Sarada who gave away his wealth to become an ascetic who developed a large following At that time Sarada and his followers were visited by the past Buddha Anomadassi and were given a sermon by Anomadassi Buddha and his chief disciples Upon hearing the sermon from Anomadassi Buddha s first chief disciple Nisabha Sarada became inspired and resolved to become the first chief disciple of a future Buddha He then made this wish in front of Anomadassi Buddha who looked into the future and then declared that his aspiration would come true Upon hearing the prediction Sarada went to his close friend Sirivaddhana and asked him to resolve to become the second chief disciple of the same Buddha Sirivaddhana then made a large offering to Anomadassi Buddha and his following and made the wish as suggested Anomadassi Buddha looked into the future and declared that Sirivaddhana s aspiration would also come true 6 The two friends then spent the rest of their lives and many future lives doing good deeds 7 According to Buddhist legend the aspiration came true in the time of Gautama Buddha with Sarada being reborn as Sariputra and Sirivaddhana being reborn as Maudgalyayana 6 7 Biography EditEarly life Edit Buddhist texts describe that Sariputra was born with the birth name Upatiṣya Pali Upatissa to a wealthy brahmin family in a village near Rajagaha in the ancient Indian kingdom of Magadha 8 9 10 Texts from the Mulasarvastivada tradition state he was named after his father while the Pali commentaries of the Theravada tradition state he was named after his birth village 9 note 1 Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian refers to Sariputra s birth village as Nala Nalaka 12 while Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang refers to the village as Kalapinaka 13 The village has been variously identified as being either modern day Sarichak 14 Chandiman Chandimau 15 or Nanan considered most likely to be the correct location 16 17 Upatiṣya is described as having had a golden complexion 18 19 He had six siblings three brothers named Upasena Cunda and Revata and three sisters named Cala Upacala and Sisupacala Each of his siblings would grow up to become arhat disciples of the Buddha 20 21 According to the Pali tradition Upatiṣya s father was named Vangunta while according to Mulasarvastivada tradition his father was named Tiṣya Pali Tissa 9 Upatiṣya s mother was named Sari alternatively called Rupasari Sarika or Saradvati because she had eyes like a sarika bird His mother was the reason Upatiṣya later became known as Sariputra son of Sari and sometimes Saradvatiputra son of Saradvati 22 23 A stupa dedicated to Sariputra at the ancient Nalanda monastery Nyanaponika Thera states that Nalanda was probably close to where Sariputra was born and died 11 Upatiṣya was born the same day as Kolita who would later be known as Maudgalyayana a boy from a neighboring village whose family had been friends with Upatiṣya s family for seven generations and became friends with him as a child 24 8 25 Upatiṣya and Kolita both became masters of the Vedas through their education and each developed a large following of brahmin youths One day the realization that life is impermanent overtook the two friends during a festival in Rajagaha and they developed a sense of spiritual urgency 20 26 Realizing the pointlessness of the impermanent material world the two friends set out as ascetics to search for an end to rebirth In Mulasarvastivada texts the two friends visited all six major teachers of India at the time before realizing none of them had the right path 20 According to Pali texts the two friends and their following of brahmin youths became students under only one of the teachers the ascetic Sanjaya Vairatiputra Pali Sanjaya Belaṭṭhaputta who was staying nearby 20 27 Pali texts describe Sanjaya as a teacher in the Indian Sceptic tradition with Upatiṣya and Kolita eventually becoming dissatisfied with his teachings and leaving 20 28 In Mulasarvastivada texts the Chinese Buddhist Canon and in Tibetan accounts however he is depicted as a wise teacher with meditative vision who becomes ill and dies In some accounts he predicts the coming of the Buddha through his visions 29 30 After being unable to find what they were looking for the two friends went their separate ways but made a pact that if one was to find the path to Nirvana he would tell the other 20 31 32 Meeting the Buddha Edit Ivory relief depicting Sariputra and Maudgalyayana becoming disciples of the Buddha After leaving Sanjaya Upatiṣya encountered the monk Asvajit Pali Assaji one of the Buddha s first five arhat disciples Upatiṣya noticed how serene the monk appeared and approached him to ask for a teaching 33 Asvajit said he was still newly ordained but would teach what he can and proceeded to teach the famous Ye Dharma Hetu stanza 34 Of all those things that from a cause arise Tathagata the cause thereof has told And how they cease to be that too he tells This is the doctrine of the Great Recluse Translated by Nyanaponika Thera This stanza has become particularly famous in the Buddhist world having been inscribed onto many Buddhist statues 35 According to philosopher Paul Carus the stanza breaks away from the idea of divine intervention prevalent in ancient Brahmanism at the time and instead teaches that the origin and end of all things depends on its causation 36 Following the teaching Upatiṣya attained sotapanna the first stage of enlightenment 34 Upatiṣya then went to Kolita to tell him about the incident and after reciting the stanza for him Kolita also attained sotapanna 32 37 note 2 The two friends along with a large chunk of Sanjaya s disciples then ordained as monks under the Buddha with everybody in the group becoming arhats that day except for Upatiṣya and Kolita 32 39 40 Nyanaponika Thera states that the friends required longer preparatory periods before enlightening in order to fulfill their roles as chief disciples 41 Several texts describe the ordination with miraculous elements such as the disciples clothes suddenly being replaced with Buddhist robes and their hair falling out on its own 40 After ordaining Upatiṣya started being called Sariputra Pali Sariputta and Kolita started being called Maudgalyayana Pali Moggallana 41 After Sariputra and Maudgalyayana ordained the Buddha declared them his two chief disciples Pali aggasavaka following the tradition of appointing a pair of chief disciples as the past Buddhas did according to Buddhist belief 32 42 43 Since they were newly ordained some of the monks in the assembly felt offended but the Buddha explained that he gave them the roles because they had made the resolve to become the chief disciples many lifetimes ago 7 44 Maudgalyayana attained arhatship seven days after ordaining following intense meditation training Sariputra attained arhatship two weeks after ordaining while fanning the Buddha as the Buddha was delivering the Vedanapariggaha Sutta to a wandering ascetic 32 45 Pali texts state that the ascetic was Sariputra s nephew but Chinese Tibetan and Sanskrit texts state he was Sariputra s uncle According to commentaries such as the Atthakatha Sariputra took longer to achieve enlightenment than Maudgalyayana because his knowledge had to be more thorough as first chief disciple and thus required more preparation time 46 Chief disciple Edit A statue of Sariputra at Bodh Gaya Sariputra is considered to have been the Buddha s first chief disciple foremost in wisdom a title he shared with the nun Kṣema Pali Khema 47 He shared the title of chief male disciple with Maudgalyayana together described in the Mahapadana Sutta as the chief pair of disciples the excellent pair Pali savakayugaṁ aggaṁ bhaddayugaṁ 48 In the Mahavagga the Buddha declared his two chief male disciples as being foremost in wisdom and foremost in psychic powers referencing Sariputra and Maudgalyayana respectively 49 Texts describe that none of the Buddha s other disciples could answer questions that Maudgalyayana was able to answer while Maudgalyayana was unable to answer questions Sariputra was able to answer 50 Buddhist tradition maintains that the first chief disciple Sariputra customarily sat to the Buddha s right hand side while the second chief disciple Maudgalyayana sat to the left 5 The disciples have thus been stylized as the right hand and left hand disciples of the Buddha in Buddhist tradition and art accordingly 51 52 As the first chief disciple Sariputra s role was the systematization and analysis of the Buddha s teachings 5 The Buddhist canon often shows Sariputra asking the Buddha questions and entreating the Buddha to teach as well as himself clarifying points and questioning disciples in some cases seemingly to test the knowledge of fellow disciples 53 54 The Buddha would often suggest a topic and have Sariputra elaborate and deliver a sermon on it 55 In two discourses recorded in the Tripitaka the Dasuttara Sutta and the Saṅgiti Sutta the Buddha declared he needed to rest his back and had Sariputra teach in his place while the Buddha listened in the audience 32 50 56 His ability to teach the Dharma earned him the title of General of the Dharma Sanskrit Dharmasenapati 32 50 55 Buddhist texts indicate that Sariputra still had some flaws however In the Catuma Sutta when a group of young monks made noise and were ordered by the Buddha to leave the Buddha reprimanded Sariputra for not concluding that it was the chief disciples responsibility to look after the monks something Maudgalyayana was able to conclude 57 On another occasion the Buddha reprimanded Sariputra for teaching the dying brahmin Dhananjani in a way that led him to rebirth in the Brahma realm rather than teaching in a way that led to enlightenment 50 58 Sariputra assumed a leadership role in the Buddha s monastic community or Sangha Buddhist texts describe that Sariputra routinely took charge of monastic affairs usually handled by the Buddha himself such as attending to sick monks or visiting lay followers before their deaths 50 In one instance when a group of monks planned to travel elsewhere the Buddha told them to ask Sariputra for permission first 50 Sariputra was the first disciple of the Buddha who was asked to ordain monks in his place with the Buddha giving him the ordination procedure He was also entrusted to ordain the Buddha s son Rahula 59 When Sariputra trained pupils he gave them material and spiritual help and assigned them an object of meditation 60 In the Saccavibhanga Sutta the Buddha compared Sariputra to a mother who gives birth to a child while comparing Maudgalyayana to a nurse who raises a child Sariputra would train students to sotapanna the first stage of enlightenment and Maudgalyayana would train students to arhatship the highest stage of enlightenment 55 60 note 3 However Nyanaponika Thera notes that there are several individual cases where Sariputra guided monks to the higher stages of enlightenment as well 62 Person Edit Buddhist texts portray Sariputra as someone who took an active role in debating and converting heretics considered to have been one of his great prerogatives 63 In the Mulasarvastivada tradition when the six heretical teachers of the time challenged the Buddhists to a contest the Buddha had Sariputra contend against them Mulasarvastivada texts state that Sariputra used psychic powers to create a huge storm and transform himself into various forms subduing the rival teachers and converting the residents of Savatthi 64 When the monk Devadatta created a schism in the Buddha s monastic community and led some of the Buddha s disciples away Sariputra played a key role in restoring the community According to texts upon hearing about the schism Sariputra and Maudgalyayana pretended to join Devadatta s community After the chief disciples joined Devadatta claimed to have had a backache and had Sariputra preach in his place but Devadatta fell asleep and Sariputra and Maudgalyayana used the opportunity to get the following to return to the Buddha 65 59 Gilded statue of Sariputra from Burma Buddhist texts generally credit the establishment of the monastic rules to Sariputra with Sariputra being the one to ask the Buddha to create the rules When Sariputra asked the Buddha he said he would lay them down at the right time 50 Sariputra was known for his conscientiousness and meticulous adherence to monastic rules In one story Sariputra became ill with an ailment that could be treated with garlic but refused it because the Buddha had previously laid down a rule forbidding monks to eat garlic with Sariputra only taking it after the Buddha rescinded the rule 50 55 In another story Sariputra found that meal cakes tended to make him greedy and then made a vow to abstain from them 55 A Buddhist commentary describes that one time when the other monks had left to collect alms Sariputra meticulously cleaned and organized the monastery to keep heretics from criticizing the disciples 55 Several Buddhist texts relate that Sariputra was reborn as a snake in a previous life and that this was the reason for some of his stubbornness In a Mahasaṃghika text the Buddha punished Sariputra by making him stand in the sun for failing to prevent some monks from making incorrect remarks When the other monks later asked the Buddha to stop the punishment the Buddha said that Sariputra s decision to receive the punishment could not be changed just as he was unwilling to change his mind when he was a snake In a Mahisasaka text Sariputra refused to take a type of fruit even when prescribed as medicine after another monk suspected him of sneaking delicious food the Buddha likewise references Sariputra s life as a snake to explain his stubbornness 66 Although Maudgalyayana is described as having been foremost in psychic powers Buddhist texts state that Sariputra also exhibited such powers himself In various texts Sariputra is reported to have exhibited several psychic abilities such as levitation and the ability to visit other realms of existence as well as abilities common among arhats such as recalling past lives and clairvoyance 67 In one story a yaksha or spirit hit Sariputra in the head while he was meditating When Maudgalyayana saw the incident and came to ask Sariputra if he was okay Sariputra stated he didn t even notice the blow and suffered only a minor headache 55 Maudgalyayana then praised Sariputra for his psychic abilities by being able to sustain a blow with little notice described in the Patisambhidamagga text as an example of the power of intervention by concentration Pali samadhivipphara iddhi 68 In Mulasarvastivada texts Sariputra and Maudgalyayana descended to hell to give Devadatta the prophecy that he will become a pratyekabuddha in the future 69 During the visit it is said that Maudgalyayana attempted to relieve the suffering of those in hell by creating rain but the rain dispersed After Sariputra saw this he created a rain that did relieve the suffering of those in hell using a wisdom based meditation 70 In another Mulasarvastivada text the Buddha sent Maudgalyayana to retrieve Sariputra who was doing sewing work When Sariputra stated he would go after his sewing work was complete Maudgalyayana attempted to force him to come by using his psychic powers to shake the ground but Sariputra was unaffected When Sariputra told him to return first Maudgalyayana went back to the Buddha and found that Sariputra had already arrived 69 When Maudgalyayana saw this he stated that the power of psychic abilities was no match for the power of wisdom 71 Painting depicting the death of Sariputra at the Bangkok National Museum Death Edit Buddhist texts all state that Sariputra died shortly before the Buddha with texts generally indicating he died in his hometown 65 72 According to Pali commentaries Sariputra arose from meditation one day and realized through his meditative insight that the chief disciples were supposed to achieve parinirvana before the Buddha and that he had seven more days to live 65 73 Sariputra then traveled to his hometown to teach his mother who was yet to be converted to Buddhism After he converted his mother Sariputra died peacefully on the full moon day of Kartika a few months before the Buddha 65 According to Mulasarvastivada texts however it is said that Sariputra achieved paranirvana voluntarily because he didn t want to witness the Buddha s death in some accounts he was also motivated by Maudgalyayana intending to achieve paranirvana after being beaten and mortally injured by a rival religious group 65 74 In the Sarvastivada account Sariputra and Maudgalyayana both achieved paranirvana voluntarily on the same day because they didn t want to witness the Buddha s death 75 In several versions of the story various heavenly beings from Buddhist cosmology are said to have come to pay respect to Sariputra near his time of death 76 77 A funeral was held for Sariputra in the city of Rajgir where his remains were cremated His relics were then brought by Sariputra s assistant Cunda to the Buddha in Sravasti 78 In the Anupada Sutta the Buddha gave a eulogy of Sariputra praising his intellect and virtue 55 79 According to a Dighanikaya commentary the Buddha enshrined Sariputra s relics in a cetiya at Jetavana In Mulasarvastivada texts the relics were given to the lay disciple Anathapindika and it is him who builds a stupa and enshrines the relics at Jetavana 78 note 4 Abhidharma EditMain article Abhidharma According to Theravada tradition the Buddha taught the Abhidharma in Tavatimsa heaven and returned to earth daily to give Sariputra a summary 81 Sariputra is said to have played a key role in the development of the Abhidharma texts of the Buddhist Tripitaka Buddhist scholar monks Rewata Dhamma and Bhikkhu Bodhi describe the Abhidharma as an abstract and highly technical systemization of the doctrine 82 According to Theravada tradition the Abhidharma or Higher Dharma is said to have been preached by the Buddha to devas while he was spending the rainy season in Tavatimsa Heaven It is said that the Buddha returned to earth daily to give a summary to Sariputra who classified and reordered the teachings and relayed it to his disciples in what would become the Abhidharma Pitaka 81 Various sets of the Sarvastivada school of Buddhism however attribute each of the seven books note 5 of the Abhidharma to different authors with Sariputra being attributed as the author of just the Sangitiparyaya in the Chinese Sarvastivada tradition and as the author of the Dharmaskandha in the Sanskrit and Tibetan Sarvastivada traditions 84 In the Vatsiputriya tradition a subset of the Sarvastivada school Sariputra is said to have transmitted the Abhidharma to Rahula who later transmitted it to the school s founder Vatsiputra 81 As the author of the Abhidharma in Buddhist tradition Sariputra is considered to be the patron saint of the Abhidharmists 85 French religion writer Andre Migot argues that the Abhidharma was formulated no earlier than the time of Emperor Asoka and thus cannot really be attributed to the historic Sariputra at least not the version known by modern scholars 86 English historian Edward J Thomas dates the development of the Abhidharma as being sometime between the third century BCE and the first century CE 87 However Migot states that a simpler version of the Abhidharma likely existed in early Buddhism before it evolved and was written down in its current form 88 Migot points to the mention of the Matrka Pitaka in Cullavagga texts as the precursor to the Abhidharma Pitaka Migot argues that the Matrka Pitaka recited by Mahakasyapa at the First Buddhist Council according to Ashokavadana texts likely began as a condensed version of Buddhist doctrine that developed over time with metaphysical aspects to become the Abhidharma 89 Thomas also states that the Abhidharma had earlier roots and was developed based on existing material likely a method of discussing the principles of the Buddha s teachings According to Thomas different Buddhist schools compiled their own Abhidharma works separately but based it on common existing material 90 In Mahayana sutras Edit A Chinese painting depicting the events of the Vimalakirti sutra Sariputra frequently appears in Mahayana sutras often asking the Buddha to teach or engaging in the dialogue himself 91 Migot states that it is significant that Sariputra has a continuity in Mahayana texts as most of the Buddha s great disciples are usually absent from Mahayana literature 92 Migot credits the importance of Sariputra in the early Vatsiputriya Buddhist school with why Sariputra often appeared in Mahayana texts 93 While depictions of Sariputra in the Pali Canon generally portray him as a wise and powerful arhat second only to the Buddha Mahayana texts give him a wider range of depictions Some Mahayana sutras portray him as a great Buddhist disciple while others portray him as a counterpoint with insufficient understanding of Mahayana doctrine representative of the Hinayana tradition 94 95 96 Buddhist studies scholar Donald S Lopez Jr describes the latter as intentional irony aimed at depicting how profound Mahayana doctrine is by showing that even the wisest Hinayana disciple had difficulty understanding it 91 The Vimalakirti Sutra Edit In the Vimalakirti Sutra Sariputra is depicted as being unable to grasp Mahayana doctrines such as non duality and emptiness 94 In the sutra a goddess listening to Vimalakirti scatters flowers which fall onto Sariputra s robes 97 Not wanting to break the monastic rules which forbid decorating oneself with flowers he tries to remove them but is unable to 94 The goddess then accuses Sariputra of being attached to the duality of what is proper and improper 94 97 Later in the sutra Sariputra asks that if the goddess is so spiritually advanced why doesn t she transform out of her female state indicative of cultural sexism 97 The goddess responds by using her powers to switch bodies with Sariputra to demonstrate that male and female is just an illusion because according to Mahayana doctrine all things are empty and so male and female don t really exist 94 97 Prajnaparamita sutras Edit In prajnaparamita sutras Sariputra is often depicted as the counterpoint to the true meaning of prajnaparamita 98 In the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra Sariputra is portrayed as being unable to understand the ultimate meaning of prajnaparamita and instead must be instructed by the disciple Subhuti 94 According to Buddhist scholar Edward Conze the sutra depicts Sariputra as being preoccupied with dualities making him unable to grasp the true meaning of prajnaparamita 99 In the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra Sariputra is one of the principal interlocutors asking questions and being instructed 100 Conze states that Sariputra has to be instructed in this sutra because despite his great wisdom prajnaparamita doctrine was too advanced for his comprehension 101 The Da zhidu lun commentary to the sutra describes Sariputra as someone who pursued the bodhisattva path in a past life but gave up and turned to the Sravaka path after donating his eye to a beggar who threw the eye on the ground 94 Religious studies scholar Douglas Osto argues that Sariputra is portrayed as such in Prajnaparamita sutras due to his association with the Abhidharma which teaches that dharmas are the final reality This is in contrast to the core teachings of Prajnaparamita sutras which teach that all dharmas are empty thus making Sariputra the ideal counterpoint 98 Other Mahayana Sutras Edit Japanese depiction of the Lotus Sutra where Sariputra prompts the Buddha to preach Sariputra plays a major role in the Heart Sutra where the teaching is directed at him Sariputra prompts the teaching of the sutra by asking the Mahayana bodhisattva Avalokitesvara how to practice wisdom 102 Avalokitesvara s response to Sariputra then makes up the body of the sutra 103 When Avalokitesvara finishes the sutra the Buddha shows approval of the teaching and Sariputra Avalokitesvara and the audience then rejoice 104 In the Lotus Sutra the Buddha starts talking about the higher wisdom of buddhas and his use of skillful means Sanskrit upaya to teach the Dharma which leaves the arhats in the assembly confused 105 Sariputra then asks the Buddha to explain his teachings for the benefit of other beings prompting the Buddha to teach the Lotus Sutra 106 Later in the sutra the Buddha explains that Sariputra had followed the bodhisattva path in past lives but had forgotten and followed the Sravaka path in this life 107 The Buddha then assures Sariputra that he will also achieve buddhahood and declares that Sariputra will become the future Buddha Padmaprabha 94 108 In the listing of the great arhats in the assembly at the beginning of the Longer Sukhavativyuha Sutra Sariputra is mentioned as the fifteenth of the great arhats while in the Shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutra he is placed as the first 109 Relics EditMain article Relics of Sariputta and Moggallana One of the Sanchi stupas where relics of Sariputra were excavated According to accounts from the 7th century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang Sariputra s as well as Maudgalyayana s relics could be found in the Indian city of Mathura in stupas built by King Asoka 110 However as of 1999 no archaeological reports had confirmed such findings at the sites mentioned by either Chinese pilgrims or Buddhist texts although findings were made at other sites 111 In 1851 archaeologists Alexander Cunningham and Lieutenant Fred C Maisey discovered a pair of sandstone boxes with encased bone fragments inside during an excavation of one of the stupas in the city of Sanchi with Sariputra s and Maudgalyayana s names inscribed on them in Brahmi text 112 113 Sariputra s casket contained pieces of sandalwood which Cunningham believed was part of Sariputra s funeral pyre 114 Sariputra s box was positioned at the south while Maudgalyayana s was positioned at the north 115 According to Cunningham people in ancient India sat facing the east during religious ceremonies and even used the word east para for front as well as the word south dakshina for right and the word north vami for left meaning the positioning of the caskets symbolized each disciple s relative positions as right and left hand disciple respectively 52 This positioning has also been explained by the fact that the Buddha traditionally sat facing the east which would make the south his right hand side and the north his left hand side 116 Another excavation by Cunningham and Maisey at stupas in the nearby town of Satdhara found another pair of caskets with encased bone fragments with the two chief disciples names inscribed 112 Cunningham concluded that the relics were enshrined in stupas near Rajagaha after the disciples deaths until the time of King Asoka who then redistributed them in stupas throughout India 117 Scholars have also theorized that a Sunga king may have also have done a similar redistribution of the relics of the Buddha and his leading disciples and built stupas such as the one in Sanchi to enshrine them 118 Sketch made by Cunningham of the Sanchi relic caskets attributed to the chief disciples Cunningham and Maisey later divided their findings among each other with Maisey bringing the Satdhara relics to Britain and eventually loaning them to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 1866 119 120 The relics were eventually purchased by the Museum in 1921 from Maisley s son 119 Cunningham brought his findings to Britain on two ships one of which sank thus the Sanchi relics are believed to have been lost 119 121 However historian Torkel Brekke argues that Maisey took all the relics with him and thus the Sanchi relics went to Britain along with the Satdhara ones 120 In the early 20th century Buddhist organizations in India and Burma began pressuring the British government to return the relics to India where they can be properly venerated 122 Although the Victoria and Albert Museum initially resisted the British government eventually ordered them to return the relics for diplomatic reasons 123 The relics were transferred to predominantly Buddhist Sri Lanka in 1947 in accordance with an agreement made with Buddhist organizations where they were put on temporary display at the Colombo Museum 116 124 In 1949 the relics were sent to India where they were put on tour around northern India and various parts of Asia 124 In 1950 the relics were sent on tour to Burma with Burmese Prime Minister U Nu later asking India for a portion of the relics Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru agreed to make a permanent loan of a portion of the relics to Burma where they were enshrined in the Kaba Aye Pagoda in 1952 125 Sri Lanka also obtained a portion of the relics which were brought from Sanchi in 1952 and kept at the Maha Bodhi Society in Sri Lanka 126 The portion of the relics that remained in India were enshrined at the Chethiyagiri Vihara in Sanchi also in 1952 127 Legacy Edit Image of the Buddha with his chief disciples at Bangkok Art and Culture Centre Sariputra is traditionally depicted on the right side of the Buddha while Maudgalyayana is traditionally depicted on the left 9 As the chief disciple of the Buddha Sariputra is considered to be a particularly important figure in Buddhism especially in the Theravada tradition According to Buddhist academic Reginald Ray Sariputra was the greatest arhat in the Pali Canon and is ranked in the canon as being close to a second Buddha 128 In one text he is referred to as King of the Dharma Sanskrit Dharmaraja a title generally reserved for the Buddha and is described in several texts as one who spins the wheel of the Dharma a prerogative generally associated with Buddhas 129 In the Pali Canon Sariputra is credited as the main expounder of several suttas due to the Buddha trusting in his profound teaching ability 130 Indologist Alex Wayman describes Sariputra as being exemplary of the four brahma viharas and credits these virtues with why the Buddha entrusted him with leadership of the Sangha 130 In Buddhist art he is often depicted alongside the Buddha and Maudgalyayana with Sariputra usually depicted on the Buddha s right hand side and Maudgalyayana usually depicted on the Buddha s left hand side 9 According to Nyanaponika Thera this imagery symbolizes the relative positions they held in life with Sariputra being the Buddha s right hand monk 51 In Mahayana Buddhism this iconography of flanking the Buddha on his right and left is sometimes used for other figures as well such as the Mahayana bodhisattvas Samantabhadra and Manjusri or the disciples Ananda and Mahakasyapa 131 In Burma Sariputra is believed to grant wisdom to worshippers and is one of eight arhats commonly shown devotion to in protective rituals 132 Sariputra is notable for being representative of scholarship and settled monasticism rather than the forest Buddhism that most of the Buddha s principal disciples are associated with 128 Ray describes Sariputra as the prototypical Buddhist saint who embodied the ideal of the Southern Buddhism that developed in ancient Kosambi 133 However Ray points out that some Pali texts such as the Udana and Theragatha portray Sariputra as a forest saint He concludes that there are at least two traditions linked to him in Pali texts forest and scholarly 134 Migot identifies texts that exclude Sariputra s scholastic character as the earliest sources and goes on to argue that the historic Sariputra was different from the person preserved in the Pali Canon 63 135 He argues that Sariputra was venerated as a saint in the ancient Kosambi region and that the early Sthavira school of Buddhism developed his scholarly side in accordance to the tradition s values in the region at the time indicating that Sariputra may originally have been a forest saint 133 Ray states that while it is possible Sariputra s scholastic character was the result of texts that were added later there is insufficient evidence to conclude to this 136 See also EditBhadda Kundalakesa a former Jain ascetic converted to Buddhism by Sariputta Sammaditthi Sutta a Pali Canon discourse attributed to Sariputta Sariputra in the Jatakas Citta Hatthaka of AlaviNotes Edit Some Pali texts contradict this however and state his birth village as Nalaka 9 although this may be an alternative name for Upatissa 11 In one version of the Chinese Buddhist canon Sariputra first went to the Buddha alone after being converted by Asvajit and then asked the Buddha for permission to go find his friend 38 American scholar monk Thanissaro Bhikkhu notes that it may seem strange Sariputra had what appears to have been a lower job than Maudgalyayana but states it is actually harder to train an unenlightened person to become a sotapanna than to train a sotapanna to become an arhat 61 This version conflicts with some texts that state that Anathapindika died first 80 Some Buddhist schools classify the Abhidharma into six or eight parts rather than seven 83 Citations Edit Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 31 32 Mahathera 1998 p 235 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 376 377 Shaw 2013 p 455 a b c Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 67 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 58 61 a b c Malalasekera 2007 p 542 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 49 a b c d e f Silk 2019 p 410 Sayadaw 1990 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 521 Sankalia Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal 1972 The University of Nalanda Oriental Publishers Xuanzang 1958 Si yu ki Ta Tʻang si yu ki Books 6 9 Susil Gupta Puratattva Indian Archaological Society 2006 East and West Instituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente 1988 Prasad Chandra Shekhar 1988 Nalanda vis a vis the Birthplace of Sariputra East and West 38 1 4 175 188 ISSN 0012 8376 The Maha Bodhi Maha Bodhi Society 1981 Shaw 2013 p 458 Shaw 2006 p 36 a b c d e f Silk 2019 p 411 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 87 Sharadvatiputra aka Saradvatiputra Wisdom Library 2019 Archived from the original on 2019 12 25 Retrieved 2019 12 24 Buswell amp Lopez 2013 p 1902 Thakur 1996 p 66 Daulton 1999 p 102 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 49 50 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 50 Harvey 2013 p 14 Lamotte E 1947 La legende du Buddha The legend of the Buddha Revue de l histoire des religions in French 134 1 3 65 6 doi 10 3406 rhr 1947 5599 Migot 1954 pp 430 2 440 448 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 51 a b c d e f g Buswell amp Lopez 2013 p 1903 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 51 53 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 53 Carus 1905 p 180 Carus 1905 p 180 181 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 54 Migot 1954 p 450 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 55 56 a b Migot 1954 p 451 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 56 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 31 32 57 Daulton 1999 p 104 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 57 58 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 56 57 Migot 1954 p 452 Krey 2010 p 19 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 65 Migot 1954 p 416 a b c d e f g h Silk 2019 p 413 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 47 a b Cunningham 1854 p 299 300 Migot 1954 p 407 462 463 Krey 2010 p 23 a b c d e f g h Malalasekera 1937 Migot 1954 p 408 467 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 69 70 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 74 75 a b Migot 1954 p 471 a b Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 68 69 Bhikkhu Thanissaro Saccavibhanga Sutta An Analysis of the Truths www accesstoinsight org Access to Insight Retrieved 3 March 2020 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 69 a b Ray 1994 p 134 Silk 2019 p 413 414 a b c d e Silk 2019 p 414 Silk 2019 p 415 416 Migot 1954 p 506 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 91 92 a b Silk 2019 p 412 Migot 1954 p 507 508 Migot 1954 p 508 Migot 1954 p 473 474 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 106 107 Migot 1954 p 475 Migot 1954 p 476 Hecker amp Nyanaponika Thera 2003 p 112 114 Cunningham 1854 p 303 304 a b Silk 2019 p 414 415 Migot 1954 p 484 Silk 2019 p 415 a b c Silk 2019 p 416 Bodhi amp Dhamma 1993 p 2 Migot 1954 p 521 Migot 1954 p 520 Migot 1954 p 408 Migot 1954 p 523 Thomas 1953 p 158 Migot 1954 p 524 Migot 1954 p 524 524 537 540 Thomas 1953 p 159 160 a b Lopez 1988 p 51 Migot 1954 p 537 Migot 1954 p 538 a b c d e f g h Silk 2019 p 416 417 Irons 2007 p 428 Buswell amp Lopez 2013 p 1904 a b c d Berger 1994 p 350 352 a b Black amp Patton 2015 p 126 Conze 1983 p 5 Conze 1975 p 17 25 28 29 Conze 1975 p 56 Lopez 1988 p 52 Lopez 1988 p 49 Lopez 1988 p 121 Lopez 2016 p 12 13 Hanh 2008 p 38 Hanh 2008 p 46 Hanh 2008 p 47 Migot 1954 p 491 Higham 2004 p 215 Daulton 1999 p 104 105 a b Daulton 1999 p 106 107 Le 2010 p 148 Brekke 2007 p 274 Cunningham 1854 p 297 a b Thera Nyanaponika The Life of Sariputta compiled and translated from the Pali texts by Nyanaponika Thera www accesstoinsight org Retrieved 2020 04 26 Brekke 2007 p 275 Daulton 1999 p 105 106 a b c Daulton 1999 p 108 a b Brekke 2007 p 277 Brekke 2007 p 277 278 Daulton 1999 p 109 Brekke 2007 p 279 284 a b Maha Thera Tripitakavagisvaracarya 1892 p 118 Daulton 1999 p 111 121 Akkara Anto Buddhist center breaks tradition shows pope revered relic Catholic Philly Retrieved 2020 03 29 Daulton 1999 p 110 111 a b Ray 1994 p 131 133 Migot 1954 p 412 500 501 a b Wayman 1997 p 212 Buswell amp Lopez 2013 p 731 Buswell 2004 p 750 a b Ray 1994 p 138 Ray 1994 p 135 136 Findly 2003 p 398 Ray 1994 p 134 135 References EditBrekke Torkel 2007 01 01 Bones of Contention Buddhist Relics Nationalism and the Politics of Archaeology Numen 54 3 270 303 doi 10 1163 156852707X211564 ISSN 1568 5276 Berger Patricia Ann 1994 Latter Days of the Law Images of Chinese Buddhism 850 1850 exhibition August 27 October 9 1994 University of Hawaii Press ISBN 978 0 8248 1662 9 Black Dr Brian Patton Dean Laurie 2015 Dialogue in Early South Asian Religions Hindu Buddhist and Jain Traditions Ashgate Publishing Ltd ISBN 978 1 4094 4012 3 Bodhi Bhikkhu Dhamma Rewata 1993 A comprehensive manual of Abhidhamma the Abhidhammattha sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha 1st BPS Pariyatti ed BPS Pariyatti Edition ISBN 978 1 928706 02 1 Buswell Robert E Jr 2004 Encyclopedia of Buddhism PDF New York NY Macmillan Reference USA ISBN 0 02 865718 7 Buswell Robert E Jr Lopez Donald S Jr 2013 Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism PDF Princeton NJ Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 15786 3 Carus Paul 1905 Ashvajit s Stanza and Its Significance Open Court 3 6 Conze Edward 1983 The perfection of wisdom in eight thousand lines amp its verse summary PDF Third printing 1983 ed Four Seasons Foundation ISBN 978 0877040484 Conze Edward 1975 The large sutra on perfect wisdom with the divisions of the Abhisamayalaṅkara University of California Press ISBN 0 520 05321 4 Cunningham Alexander 1854 The Bhilsa Topes Or Buddhist Monuments of Central India A Brief Historical Sketch of the Rise Progress and Decline of Buddhism Etc Smith Daulton J 1999 Sariputta and Moggallana in the Golden Land The Relics of the Buddha s Chief Disciples at the Kaba Aye Pagoda PDF Journal of Burma Studies 4 1 101 128 doi 10 1353 jbs 1999 0002 S2CID 161183926 Findly Ellison Banks 2003 Dana Giving and Getting in Pali Buddhism Motilal Banarsidass Publ ISBN 978 81 208 1956 6 Hanh Thich Nhat 2008 Peaceful Action Open Heart Lessons from the Lotus Sutra Parallax Press ISBN 978 1 888375 93 0 Harvey Peter 2013 An introduction to Buddhism teachings history and practices PDF second ed New York Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 85942 4 Hecker Hellmuth Nyanaponika Thera 2003 Great Disciples of the Buddha Their Lives Their Works Their Legacy PDF Simon and Schuster ISBN 978 0 86171 381 3 archived from the original PDF on 2017 09 24 Higham Charles 2004 Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations New York Facts On File ISBN 0 8160 4640 9 OCLC 51978070 Irons Edward 2007 Encyclopedia of Buddhism PDF New York Facts on File ISBN 978 0 8160 5459 6 Krey Gisela 2010 09 04 On Women as Teachers in Early Buddhism Dhammadinna and Khema Buddhist Studies Review 27 1 17 40 doi 10 1558 bsrv v27i1 17 ISSN 0265 2897 Le Huu Phuoc 2010 Buddhist Architecture Grafikol ISBN 978 0 9844043 0 8 Lopez Donald S 1988 The Heart Sutra explained Indian and Tibetan commentaries State University of New York Press ISBN 9780887065897 Lopez Donald S 2016 The Lotus Sutra a biography Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 15220 2 Mahathera Naranda 1998 The Buddha and His Teachings PDF Taiwan Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc archived PDF from the original on 26 August 2018 retrieved 26 September 2019 Maha Thera Tripitakavagisvaracarya Walpola Sri Rahula 1892 The Maha Bodhi Maha Bodhi Society Malalasekera G P 1937 Dictionary of Pali proper names 2 1st Indian ed Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers ISBN 81 208 3022 9 Malalasekera Gunapala Piyasena 2007 Dictionary of Pali Proper Names N H Motilal Banarsidass Publishe ISBN 978 81 208 3022 6 Migot Andre 1954 Un grand disciple du Buddha Sariputra Son role dans l histoire du bouddhisme et dans le developpement de l Abhidharma A great disciple of the Buddha Sariputra his role in Buddhist history and in the development of Abhidharma PDF Bulletin de l Ecole francaise d Extreme Orient in French 46 2 doi 10 3406 befeo 1954 5607 Ray Reginald A 1994 Buddhist Saints in India A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 535061 6 Sayadaw Ven Mingun 1990 The story of Upatissa Sariputta and Kolita Maha Moggallana Part 1 www wisdomlib org retrieved 2020 01 17 Shaw Sarah 2013 Character Disposition and the Qualities of the Arahats as a Means of Communicating Buddhist Philosophy in the Suttas PDF in Emmanuel Steven M ed A companion to Buddhist philosophy first ed Chichester West Sussex Wiley Blackwell ISBN 978 0 470 65877 2 Shaw Sarah 2006 Buddhist meditation an anthology of texts from the Pali canon PDF London Routledge ISBN 0 203 00731 X OCLC 70199246 Silk Jonathan A 2019 Brill s encyclopedia of Buddhism Vol Two Hinuber Oskar von Eltschinger Vincent Bowring Richard 1947 Radich Michael Leiden ISBN 978 90 04 29937 5 OCLC 909251257 Thakur Amarnath 1996 Buddha and Buddhist synods in India and abroad Abhinav Publications ISBN 9788170173175 archived from the original on 2019 12 15 retrieved 2019 10 31 Thomas Edward J 1953 The History of Buddhist Thought PDF History of Civilization 2nd ed London Routledge and Kegan Paul Wayman Alex 1997 Untying the Knots in Buddhism Selected Essays Motilal Banarsidass Publ ISBN 978 81 208 1321 2External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sariputra Wikiquote has quotations related to SariputraLook up sariputra in Wiktionary the free dictionary GREAT MALE DISCIPLES Part A Upatissa Sariputta and Kolita Moggallana by Radhika Abeysekera Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sariputra amp oldid 1047533781, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.