fbpx
Wikipedia

Czech Republic

"Czechia" redirects here. For other uses, see Czechia (disambiguation) and Czech Republic (disambiguation).

Coordinates:49°45′N15°30′E /49.750°N 15.500°E /49.750; 15.500

The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the east. The Czech Republic has a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,871 square kilometers (30,452 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental and oceanic climate.

Czech Republic
Česká republika(Czech)
Motto: "Pravda vítězí"(Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Anthem:
Location of the Czech Republic (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green) – []

Capital
and largest city
Prague
50°05′N14°28′E /50.083°N 14.467°E /50.083; 14.467
Official languageCzech
Officially recognized languages
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)Czech
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
Miloš Zeman
Andrej Babiš
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
c. 870
1198
28 October 1918
1 January 1993
Area
• Total
78,871 km2 (30,452 sq mi) (115th)
• Water (%)
2.12 (as of 2020)
Population
• 2021 estimate
10,701,777 (86th)
• 2011 census
10,436,560
• Density
136/km2 (352.2/sq mi) (62th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$432.346 billion (36th)
• Per capita
$40,585 (34th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$261.732 billion (36th)
• Per capita
$24,569 (37th)
Gini (2019) 24.0
low · 5th
HDI (2019) 0.900
very high · 27th
CurrencyCzech koruna (CZK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatd. m. yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+420b
ISO 3166 codeCZ
Internet TLD.czc
  1. The question is rhetorical, implying "those places where my homeland lies".
  2. Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997.
  3. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

The Duchy of Bohemia was founded in the late 9th century under Great Moravia. It was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire in 1002 and became a kingdom in 1198. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule. With the dissolution of the Holy Empire in 1806, the Crown lands became part of the Austrian Empire.

In the 19th century, the Czech lands became more industrialized, and in 1918 most of it became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic following the collapse of Austria-Hungary after World War I. Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a parliamentary democracy during the entirety of the interwar period. After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Nazi Germany systematically took control over the Czech lands. Czechoslovakia was restored in 1945 and became an Eastern Bloc communist state following a coup d'état in 1948. Attempts at a liberalisation of the government and economy were suppressed by a Soviet-led invasion of the country during the Prague Spring in 1968. In November 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended communist rule in the country, and on 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia was dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced, high-income social market economy. It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care and tuition-free university education. It ranks 12th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 24th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of United States. It ranks as the 9th safest and most peaceful country and 31st in democratic governance. The Czech Republic is a member of NATO, the EU, OECD, OSCE, and the CoE.

Contents

The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii" (Gallic tribe). The current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which ultimately comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czech: Češi, Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk (a person).

The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (Čechy) in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the east, and Czech Silesia (Slezsko; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown, Czechia and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas. When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within one country.

After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended Czechia for the English short name.[citation needed] This form was not adopted at the time, leading to the long name Czech Republic being used in all circumstances. The Czech government approved Czechia as the official English short name in 2016. The short name has been listed by the United Nations and is used by other organisations such as the European Union, CIA, and Google Maps.

Topographic map

The Czech Republic lies mostly between latitudes 48° and 51° N and longitudes 12° and 19° E.

Bohemia, to the west, consists of a basin drained by the Elbe (Czech: Labe) and the Vltava rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains, such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. The highest point in the country, Sněžka at 1,603 m (5,259 ft), is located here. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder River (Czech: Odra).

Water from the Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen, a 30,000-square-meter (7.4-acre) lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles, to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships. The territory reverts to Germany in 2028.

Phytogeographically, the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region, within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Western European broadleaf forests, Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, and Carpathian montane conifer forests.

There are four national parks in the Czech Republic. The oldest is Krkonoše National Park (Biosphere Reserve), and the others are Šumava National Park (Biosphere Reserve), Podyjí National Park, Bohemian Switzerland.

The three historical lands of the Czech Republic (formerly some countries of the Bohemian Crown) correspond with the river basins of the Elbe and the Vltava basin for Bohemia, the Morava one for Moravia, and the Oder river basin for Czech Silesia (in terms of the Czech territory).

Climate

Köppen climate classification types of the Czech Republic using the 0 °C isotherm

The Czech Republic has a temperate climate, situated in the transition zone between the oceanic and continental climate types, with warm summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters. The temperature difference between summer and winter is due to the landlocked geographical position.

Temperatures vary depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes, the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. The wettest area in the Czech Republic is found around Bílý Potok in Jizera Mountains and the driest region is the Louny District to the northwest of Prague. Another factor is the distribution of the mountains.

At the highest peak of Sněžka (1,603 m or 5,259 ft), the average temperature is −0.4 °C (31 °F), whereas in the lowlands of the South Moravian Region, the average temperature is as high as 10 °C (50 °F). The country's capital, Prague, has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors.

The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. During these months, there is snow in the mountains and sometimes in the cities and lowlands. During March, April, and May, the temperature usually increases, especially during April, when the temperature and weather tends to vary during the day. Spring is also characterized by higher water levels in the rivers, due to melting snow with occasional flooding.

The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, summer temperatures are about 20–30 °C (36–54 °F) higher than during winter. Summer is also characterized by rain and storms.

Autumn generally begins in September, which is still warm and dry. During October, temperatures usually fall below 15 °C (59 °F) or 10 °C (50 °F) and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point.

Northern Czech landscape during a summer morning
Krkonoše mountains in winter

The coldest temperature ever measured was in Litvínovice near České Budějovice in 1929, at −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) and the hottest measured, was at 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) in Dobřichovice in 2012.

Most rain falls during the summer. Sporadic rainfall is throughout the year (in Prague, the average number of days per month experiencing at least 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) of rain varies from 12 in September and October to 16 in November) but concentrated rainfall (days with more than 10 mm (0.39 in) per day) are more frequent in the months of May to August (average around two such days per month). Severe thunderstorms, producing damaging straight-line winds, hail, and occasional tornadoes occur, especially during the summer period.

Environment

The Czech Republic ranks as the 27th most environmentally conscious country in the world in Environmental Performance Index. It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 1.71/10, ranking it 160th globally out of 172 countries. The Czech Republic has four National Parks (Šumava National Park, Krkonoše National Park, České Švýcarsko National Park, Podyjí National Park) and 25 Protected Landscape Areas.

Prehistory

Left: Venus of Dolní Věstonice dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE
Right: The stone head of a Celt is among the archaeological collections of the National Museum.

Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating back to the Paleolithic era.

In the classical era, as a result of the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations, Bohemia became associated with the Boii. The Boii founded an oppidum near the site of modern Prague. Later in the 1st century, the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi settled there.

Slavs from the Black SeaCarpathian region settled in the area (their migration was pushed by an invasion of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe into their area: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars). In the sixth century, the Huns had moved westwards into Bohemia, Moravia, and some of present-day Austria and Germany.

During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first documented Slavic state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. The principality of Great Moravia, controlled by Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century. It reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia), holding off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, with a role being played by the Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. They codified the Old Church Slavonic language, the first literary and liturgical language of the Slavs, and the Glagolitic alphabet.

Bohemia

Main article: Bohemia
The Crown of Bohemia within the Holy Roman Empire (1600). The Czech lands were part of the Empire in 1002–1806, and Prague was the imperial seat in 1346–1437 and 1583–1611.

The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty. Bohemia was from 1002 until 1806 an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1212, Přemysl Ottokar I extracted the Golden Bull of Sicily from the emperor, confirming Ottokar and his descendants' royal status; the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a Kingdom. German immigrants settled in the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. The Mongols in the invasion of Europe carried their raids into Moravia but were defensively defeated at Olomouc.

After a series of dynastic wars, the House of Luxembourg gained the Bohemian throne.

Efforts for a reform of the church in Bohemia started already in the late 14th century. Jan Hus's followers seceded from some practices of the Roman Church and in the Hussite Wars (1419–1434) defeated five crusades organized against them by Sigismund. During the next two centuries, 90% of the population in Bohemia and Moravia were considered Hussites. The pacifist thinker Petr Chelčický inspired the movement of the Bohemian Brethren (by the middle of the 15th century) that completely separated from the Roman Catholic Church.

Battle between Hussites and crusaders during the Hussite Wars; Jena Codex, 15th century

After 1526 Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then in 1627 the hereditary rulers of Bohemia. Between 1583 and 1611 Prague was the official seat of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II and his court.

The Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the start of the Thirty Years' War. In 1620, the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs' hereditary lands in Austria were strengthened. The leaders of the Bohemian Revolt were executed in 1621. The nobility and the middle class Protestants had to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country.

In the "Dark Age" of 1620 to the late 18th century, the population of the Czech lands declined by a third through the expulsion of Czech Protestants as well as due to the war, disease and famine. The Habsburgs prohibited all Christian confessions other than Catholicism. The flowering of Baroque culture shows the ambiguity of this historical period. Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded Moravia in 1663. In 1679–1680 the Czech lands faced the Great Plague of Vienna and an uprising of serfs.

The 1618 Defenestration of Prague marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt against the Habsburgs and therefore the first phase of the Thirty Years' War.

There were peasant uprisings influenced by famine. Serfdom was abolished between 1781 and 1848. Several battles of the Napoleonic Wars took place on the current territory of the Czech Republic.

The end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 led to degradation of the political status of Bohemia which lost its position of an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire as well as its own political representation in the Imperial Diet. Bohemian lands became part of the Austrian Empire. During the 18th and 19th century the Czech National Revival began its rise, with the purpose to revive Czech language, culture, and national identity. The Revolution of 1848 in Prague, striving for liberal reforms and autonomy of the Bohemian Crown within the Austrian Empire, was suppressed.

It seemed that some concessions would be made also to Bohemia, but in the end, the Emperor Franz Joseph I affected a compromise with Hungary only. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the never realized coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Bohemia led to a disappointment of some Czech politicians. The Bohemian Crown lands became part of the so-called Cisleithania.

The Czech Social Democratic and progressive politicians started the fight for universal suffrage. The first elections under universal male suffrage were held in 1907.

Czechoslovakia

The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised 27% of the population of the former Austria-Hungary and nearly 80% of the industry.

In 1918, during the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy at the end of World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia, which joined the winning Allied powers, was created, with Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in the lead. This new country incorporated the Bohemian Crown.

The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised only 27% of the population of the former Austria-Hungary, but nearly 80% of the industry, which enabled it to compete with Western industrial states. In 1929 compared to 1913, the gross domestic product increased by 52% and industrial production by 41%. In 1938 Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world industrial production. Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a democracy throughout the entire the interwar period. Although the First Czechoslovak Republic was a unitary state, it provided certain rights to its minorities, the largest being Germans (23.6% in 1921), Hungarians (5.6%) and Ukrainians (3.5%).

The Czech territory was occupied by Germany, which transformed it into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich, and the president and prime minister were subordinated to Nazi Germany's Reichsprotektor. One Nazi concentration camp was located within the Czech territory at Terezín, north of Prague. The Nazi Generalplan Ost called for the extermination, expulsion, Germanization or enslavement of most or all Czechs for the purpose of providing more living space for the German people. There was Czechoslovak resistance to Nazi occupation as well as reprisals against the Czechoslovaks for their anti-Nazi resistance. The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945, with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising.

In the 1946 elections, the Communist Party gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament, formed a coalition with other parties, and consolidated power. A coup d'état came in 1948 and a single-party government was formed. For the next 41 years, the Czechoslovak Communist state is characterized by certain Eastern Bloc's economic and political features. The Prague Spring political liberalization was stopped by the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Analysts believe that the invasion caused the communist movement to fracture, ultimately leading to the Revolutions of 1989.

Czech Republic

Václav Havel, playwright, former dissident, one of the most important figures in the history of the 20th century. Leader of the Velvet Revolution. The last president of Czechoslovakia and the first president of the Czech Republic.

In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the Velvet Revolution. However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened (Hyphen War) and on 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into the independent countries of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations, with the intention of creating a market economy. This process was largely successful; in 2006 the Czech Republic was recognized by the World Bank as a "developed country", and in 2009 the Human Development Index ranked it as a nation of "Very High Human Development".

From 1991, the Czech Republic, originally as part of Czechoslovakia and since 1993 in its own right, has been a member of the Visegrád Group and from 1995, the OECD. The Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999 and the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 21 December 2007 the Czech Republic joined the Schengen Area.

Until 2017, either the Czech Social Democratic Party or the Civic Democratic Party led the governments of the Czech Republic. In October 2017, populist movement ANO 2011, led by the country's second-richest man, Andrej Babiš, won the elections with three times more votes than its closest rival, the centre-right Civic Democrats. In December 2017, Czech President Miloš Zeman appointed Andrej Babiš as the new Prime Minister.

The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party semi-presidential representative democracy. The Parliament (Parlament České republiky) is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies (Czech: Poslanecká sněmovna, 200 members) and the Senate (Czech: Senát, 81 members). The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four-year term by proportional representation, with a 5% election threshold. There are 14 voting districts, identical to the country's administrative regions. The Chamber of Deputies, the successor to the Czech National Council, has the powers and responsibilities of the now defunct federal parliament of the former Czechoslovakia. The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn. This arrangement is modeled on the U.S. Senate, but each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two-round runoff.

The president is a formal head of state with limited and specific powers, who appoints the prime minister, as well the other members of the cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister. From 1993 until 2012, the President of the Czech Republic was selected by a joint session of the parliament for a five-year term, with no more than two consecutive terms (2x Václav Havel, 2x Václav Klaus). Since 2013 the presidential election is direct. Some commentators have argued that, with the introduction of direct election of the President, the Czech Republic has moved away from the parliamentary system and towards a semi-presidential one. The Government's exercise of executive power derives from the Constitution. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, Deputy prime ministers and other ministers. The Government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies. The Prime Minister is the head of government and wields powers such as the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy and choose government ministers.

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Miloš Zeman SPOZ 8 March 2013
President of the Senate Miloš Vystrčil ODS 19 February 2020
President of the Chamber of Deputies Radek Vondráček ANO 22 November 2017
Prime Minister Andrej Babiš ANO 6 December 2017

Law

The Czech Republic is a unitary state, with a civil law system based on the continental type, rooted in Germanic legal culture. The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic adopted in 1993. The Penal Code is effective from 2010. A new Civil code became effective in 2014. The court system includes district, county, and supreme courts and is divided into civil, criminal, and administrative branches. The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts. The Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution by either the legislature or by the government. The Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for most legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. The Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety. It also has jurisdiction over certain political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office. The Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court are both based in Brno, as is the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office.

Foreign relations

Visa-free entry countries for Czech citizens in green, EU in blue (see citizenship of the European Union)

The Czech Republic has ranked as one of the safest or most peaceful countries for the past few decades. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, OECD, Council of Europe and is an observer to the Organization of American States. The embassies of most countries with diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic are located in Prague, while consulates are located across the country.

The Czech passport is restricted by visas. According to the 2018 Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index, Czech citizens have visa-free access to 173 countries, which ranks them 7th along with Malta and New Zealand. The World Tourism Organization ranks the Czech passport 24th. The US Visa Waiver Program applies to Czech nationals.

The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy, although the President also has influence and represents the country abroad. Membership in the European Union and NATO is central to the Czech Republic's foreign policy. The Office for Foreign Relations and Information (ÚZSI) serves as the foreign intelligence agency responsible for espionage and foreign policy briefings, as well as protection of Czech Republic's embassies abroad.

The Czech Republic has ties with Slovakia, Poland and Hungary as a member of the Visegrad Group, as well as with Germany, Israel, the United States and the European Union and its members.

Czech officials have supported dissenters in Belarus, Moldova, Myanmar and Cuba.

Military

Army soldiers during an exercise

The Czech armed forces consist of the Czech Land Forces, the Czech Air Force and of specialized support units. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence. The President of the Czech Republic is Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In 2004 the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. The country has been a member of NATO since 12 March 1999. Defence spending is approximately 1.19% of the GDP (2019). The armed forces are charged with protecting the Czech Republic and its allies, promoting global security interests, and contributing to NATO.

Currently, as a member of NATO, the Czech military are participating in the Resolute Support and KFOR operations and have soldiers in Afghanistan, Mali, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Egypt, Israel and Somalia. The Czech Air Force also served in the Baltic states and Iceland. The main equipment of the Czech military includes JAS 39 Gripen multi-role fighters, Aero L-159 Alca combat aircraft, Mi-35 attack helicopters, armored vehicles (Pandur II, OT-64, OT-90, BVP-2) and tanks (T-72 and T-72M4CZ).

Administrative divisions

Since 2000, the Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions (Czech: kraje, singular kraj) and the capital city of Prague. Every region has its own elected regional assembly and a regional governor. In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor.

The older seventy-six districts (okresy, singular okres) including three "statutory cities" (without Prague, which had special status) lost most of their importance in 1999 in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration.

The smallest administrative units are obce (municipalities). As of 2021, the Czech Republic is divided into 6,254 municipalities. Cities and towns are also municipalities. The capital city of Prague is a region and municipality at the same time.

Map of the Czech Republic with traditional regions and current administrative regions
Map with districts
The Czech Republic is part of the European Single Market and the Schengen Area, but uses its own currency, the Czech koruna.

The Czech Republic has a developed, high-income export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a welfare state and the European social model. The Czech Republic participates in the European Single Market as a member of the European Union and is therefore a part of the economy of the European Union, but uses its own currency, the Czech koruna, instead of the euro. It has a per capita GDP rate that is 91% of the EU average and is a member of the OECD. Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bank, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution. The Czech Republic ranks 12th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in World Bank Human Capital Index. It was described by The Guardian as "one of Europe's most flourishing economies".

As of 2018[update], the country's GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is $37,370 and $22,850 at nominal value. According to Allianz A.G., in 2018 the country was an MWC (mean wealth country), ranking 26th in net financial assets. The country experienced a 4.5% GDP growth in 2017. The 2016 unemployment rate was the lowest in the EU at 2.4%, and the 2016 poverty rate was the second lowest of OECD members. Czech Republic ranks 24th in both the Index of Economic Freedom and the Global Innovation Index as of 2016[update], 29th in the Global Competitiveness Report, 30th in the ease of doing business index and 25th in the Global Enabling Trade Report. The Czech Republic has a diverse economy that ranks 7th in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index. The industrial sector accounts for 37.5% of the economy, while services account for 60% and agriculture for 2.5%. The largest trading partner for both export and import is Germany and the EU in general. Dividends worth CZK 270 billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in 2017, which has become a political issue. The country has been a member of the Schengen Area since 1 May 2004, having abolished border controls, completely opening its borders with all of its neighbors on 21 December 2007.

Industry

In 2018 the largest companies by revenue in the Czech Republic were: one of the car automobile manufacturers in Central Europe Škoda Auto, utility company ČEZ Group, conglomerate Agrofert, energy trading company EPH, oil processing company Unipetrol, electronics manufacturer Foxconn CZ and steel producer Moravia Steel. Other Czech transportation companies include: Škoda Transportation (tramways, trolleybuses, metro), Tatra (heavy trucks, the second oldest car maker in the world), Avia (medium trucks), Karosa and SOR Libchavy (buses), Aero Vodochody (military aircraft), Let Kunovice (civil aircraft), Zetor (tractors), Jawa Moto (motorcycles) and Čezeta (electric scooters).

Škoda Transportation is the fourth largest tram producer in the world; nearly one third of all trams in the world come from Czech factories. The Czech Republic is also the world's largest vinyl records manufacturer, with GZ Media producing about 6 million pieces annually in Loděnice. Česká zbrojovka is among the ten largest firearms producers in the world and five who produce automatic weapons.

In the food industry succeeded companies Agrofert, Kofola and Hamé.

Energy

Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 TWh per year, which are exported. Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40 percent. In 2005, 65.4 percent of electricity was produced by steam and combustion power plants (mostly coal); 30 percent by nuclear plants; and 4.6 percent from renewable sources, including hydropower. The largest Czech power resource is Temelín Nuclear Power Station, with another nuclear power plant in Dukovany.

The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy. Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom, roughly three-fourths of domestic consumption, and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth. Russian gas is imported via Ukraine, Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Gas consumption (approx. 100 TWh in 2003–2005) is almost double electricity consumption. South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits.

Transportation infrastructure

The road network in the Czech Republic is 55,653 km (34,581.17 mi) long. There are 1,232 km of motorways as of 2017. The speed limit is 50 km/h within towns, 90 km/h outside of towns and 130 km/h on motorways.

The Czech Republic has the densest rail network in the world with 9,505 km (5,906.13 mi) of tracks. Of that number, 2,926 km (1,818.13 mi) is electrified, 7,617 km (4,732.98 mi) are single-line tracks and 1,866 km (1,159.48 mi) are double and multiple-line tracks. České dráhy (the Czech Railways) is the main railway operator in the Czech Republic, with about 180 million passengers carried yearly. Maximum speed is limited to 160 km/h. In 2006 seven Italian tilting trainsets Pendolino ČD Class 680 entered service.

Václav Havel Airport in Prague is the main international airport in the country. In 2017, it handled 15 million passengers. In total, the Czech Republic has 46 airports with paved runways, six of which provide international air services in Brno, Karlovy Vary, Mošnov (near Ostrava), Pardubice, Prague and Kunovice (near Uherské Hradiště).

Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas.

Communications and IT

The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed. By the beginning of 2008, there were over 800 mostly local WISPs, with about 350,000 subscribers in 2007. Plans based on either GPRS, EDGE, UMTS or CDMA2000 are being offered by all three mobile phone operators (T-Mobile, O2, Vodafone) and internet provider U:fon. Government-owned Český Telecom slowed down broadband penetration. At the beginning of 2004, local-loop unbundling began and alternative operators started to offer ADSL and also SDSL. This and later privatisation of Český Telecom helped drive down prices.

On 1 July 2006, Český Telecom was acquired by globalized company (Spain-owned) Telefónica group and adopted the new name Telefónica O2 Czech Republic. As of 2017[update], VDSL and ADSL2+ are offered in variants, with download speeds of up to 50 Mbit/s and upload speeds of up to 5 Mbit/s. Cable internet is gaining more popularity with its higher download speeds ranging from 50 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s.

Two computer security companies, Avast and AVG, were founded in the Czech Republic. In 2016, Avast led by Pavel Baudiš bought rival AVG for US$1.3 billion, together at the time, these companies had a user base of about 400 million people and 40% of the consumer market outside of China. Avast is the leading provider of antivirus software, with a 20.5% market share.

Tourism

Medieval castle Karlštejn.

Prague is the fifth most visited city in Europe after London, Paris, Istanbul and Rome. In 2001, the total earnings from tourism reached 118 billion CZK, making up 5.5% of GNP and 9% of overall export earnings. The industry employs more than 110,000 people – over 1% of the population. Guidebooks and tourists reporting overcharging by taxi drivers and pickpocketing problems are mainly in Prague, though the situation has improved recently. Since 2005, Prague's mayor, Pavel Bém, has worked to improve this reputation by cracking down on petty crime and, aside from these problems, Prague is a "safe" city. The Czech Republic's crime rate is described as "low".

One of the tourist attractions in the Czech Republic is the Nether district Vítkovice in Ostrava.

The Czech Republic boasts 14 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. All of them are in the cultural category. As of 2018[update], further 18 sites are on the tentative list.

Architectural heritage is an object of interest to visitors – it includes castles and châteaux from different historical epoques, namely Karlštejn Castle, Český Krumlov and the Lednice–Valtice area. There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries.

Away from the towns, areas such as Český ráj, Šumava and the Krkonoše mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits. There is a number of beer festivals.

The country is also known for its various museums. Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country. Aquapalace Praha in Čestlice near Prague, is the biggest water park in central Europe.

Science

The Czech lands have a long and well-documented history of scientific innovation. Today, the Czech Republic has a highly sophisticated, developed, high-performing, innovation-oriented scientific community supported by the government, industry, and leading Czech Universities. Czech scientists are embedded members of the global scientific community. They contribute annually to multiple international academic journals and collaborate with their colleagues across boundaries and fields. The Czech Republic was ranked 24th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, up from 26th in 2019.

Historically, the Czech lands, especially Prague, have been the seat of scientific discovery going back to early modern times, including Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, and Johannes Kepler. In 1784 the scientific community was first formally organized under the charter of the Royal Czech Society of Sciences. Currently, this organization is known as the Czech Academy of Sciences. Similarly, the Czech lands have a well-established history of scientists, including Nobel laureates biochemists Gerty and Carl Ferdinand Cori, chemist Jaroslav Heyrovský and physicist Peter Grünberg. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was born in Příbor, Gregor Mendel, the founder of genetics, was born in Hynčice and has spent most of his life in Brno.

Most of the scientific research was recorded in Latin or in German and archived in libraries supported and managed by religious groups and other denominations as evidenced by historical locations of international renown and heritage such as the Strahov Monastery and the Clementinum in Prague. Increasingly, Czech scientists publish their work and that of their history in English.

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020 was estimated at 1.71 children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. The Czech Republic's population subsequently has an average age of 42.5 years. The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 77.56 years (74.29 years male, 81.01 years female). Immigration increased the population by almost 1% in 2007. About 77,000 people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually. Vietnamese immigrants began settling in the country during the Communist period, when they were invited as guest workers by the Czechoslovak government. In 2009, there were about 70,000 Vietnamese in the Czech Republic. Most decide to stay in the country permanently.

According to results of the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs (64.3%), followed by Moravians (5.0%), Slovaks (1.4%), Ukrainians (0.5%), Poles (0.4%), Viets (0.3%), Germans (0.2%) and Silesians (0.1%). As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a number of people left this field blank (25.3%). According to some estimates, there are about 250,000 Romani people in the Czech Republic. The Polish minority resides mainly in the Zaolzie region.

There were 496,413 (4.5% of population) foreigners residing in the country in 2016, according to the Czech Statistical Office, with the largest groups being Ukrainian (22%), Slovak (22%), Vietnamese (12%), Russian (7%) and German (4%). Most of the foreign population lives in Prague (37.3%) and Central Bohemia Region (13.2%).

The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, 118,000 according to the 1930 census, was nearly annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust. There were approximately 4,000 Jews in the Czech Republic in 2005. The former Czech prime minister, Jan Fischer, is of Jewish faith.

Religion

Religion in the Czech Republic (2011)
Undeclared
44.7%
Irreligion
34.5%
Catholicism
10.5%
Believers, not members of other religions
6.8%
Other Christian churches
1.1%
Protestantism
1%
Believers, members of other religions
0.7%
Other religions / Unknown
0.7%

The Czech Republic has 75% to 79% of people not declaring any religion or faith in polls and the percentage of convinced atheists being third highest (30%) behind China (47%) and Japan (31%). The Czech people have been historically characterized as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".

Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism. After the Bohemian Reformation, most Czechs became followers of Jan Hus, Petr Chelčický and other regional Protestant Reformers. Taborites and Utraquists were Hussite groups. During the Hussite Wars, Utraquists sided with the Catholic Church. Following the joint Utraquist—Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited. After the Reformation, some Bohemians went with the teachings of Martin Luther, especially Sudeten Germans. In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions were revived. After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism—even the Utraquist Hussites. Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. A history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed. It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in 1920, lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization. Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1620.

According to the 2011 census, 34% of the population stated they had no religion, 10.3% was Catholic, 0.8% was Protestant (0.5% Czech Brethren and 0.4% Hussite), and 9% followed other forms of religion both denominational or not (of which 863 people answered they are Pagan). 45% of the population did not answer the question about religion. From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Catholicism decreased from 39% to 27% and then to 10%; Protestantism similarly declined from 3.7% to 2% and then to 0.8%. The Muslim population is estimated to be 20,000 representing 0.2% of the population.

Welfare

Orbis Pictus, a children's textbook with illustrations published in 1658.

Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free university education, while the average number of years of education is 13.1. Additionally, the Czech Republic has a "relatively equal" educational system in comparison with other countries in Europe. Founded in 1348, Charles University was the first university in Central Europe. Other major universities in the country are Masaryk University, Czech Technical University, Palacký University, Academy of Performing Arts and University of Economics.

The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks the Czech education system as the 15th most successful in the world, higher than the OECD average. The UN Education Index ranks the Czech Republic 10th as of 2013[update] (positioned behind Denmark and ahead of South Korea).

Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations. The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model, with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans. According to the 2016 Euro health consumer index, a comparison of healthcare in Europe, the Czech healthcare is 13th, ranked behind Sweden and two positions ahead of the United Kingdom.

Art

Main article: Czech art
Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter (1896) by Art Nouveau artist Alphonse Mucha

Venus of Dolní Věstonice is the treasure of prehistoric art. Theodoric of Prague was a painter in the Gothic era who decorated the castle Karlstejn. In the Baroque era, there were Wenceslaus Hollar, Jan Kupecký, Karel Škréta, Anton Raphael Mengs or Petr Brandl, sculptors Matthias Braun and Ferdinand Brokoff. In the first half of the 19th century, Josef Mánes joined the romantic movement. In the second half of the 19th century had the main say the so-called "National Theatre generation": sculptor Josef Václav Myslbek and painters Mikoláš Aleš, Václav Brožík, Vojtěch Hynais or Julius Mařák. At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau. Alfons Mucha became the main representative. He is known for Art Nouveau posters and his cycle of 20 large canvases named the Slav Epic, which depicts the history of Czechs and other Slavs. As of 2012[update], the Slav Epic can be seen in the Veletržní Palace of the National Gallery in Prague, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic. Max Švabinský was another Art nouveau painter. The 20th century brought an avant-garde revolution. In the Czech lands mainly expressionist and cubist: Josef Čapek, Emil Filla, Bohumil Kubišta, Jan Zrzavý. Surrealism emerged particularly in the work of Toyen, Josef Šíma and Karel Teige. In the world, however, he pushed mainly František Kupka, a pioneer of abstract painting. As illustrators and cartoonists in the first half of the 20th century gained fame Josef Lada, Zdeněk Burian or Emil Orlík. Art photography has become a new field (František Drtikol, Josef Sudek, later Jan Saudek or Josef Koudelka).

The Czech Republic is known for its individually made, mouth-blown, and decorated Bohemian glass.

Architecture

Main article: Czech architecture

The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries. Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe. The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style. During the 13th century, it was replaced by the Gothic style. In the 14th century, Emperor Charles IV invited architects from France and Germany, Matthias of Arras and Peter Parler, to his court in Prague. During the Middle Ages, some fortified castles were built by the king and aristocracy, as well as some monasteries.

The Renaissance style penetrated the Bohemian Crown in the late 15th century when the older Gothic style started to be mixed with Renaissance elements. An example of pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palace, which was situated in the garden of Prague Castle. Evidence of the general reception of the Renaissance in Bohemia, involving an influx of Italian architects, can be found in spacious chateaus with arcade courtyards and geometrically arranged gardens. Emphasis was placed on comfort, and buildings that were built for entertainment purposes also appeared.

In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia.

In the 18th century, Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity – the Baroque Gothic style, a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles.

Czech artists developed a distinct cubist style in architecture and applied arts. It later evolved into national Czechoslovak style, rondocubism.

During the 19th century stands the revival architectural styles. Some churches were restored to their presumed medieval appearance and there were constructed buildings in the Neo-Romanesque, Neo-Gothic and Neo-Renaissance styles. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the new art style appeared in the Czech lands – Art Nouveau.

Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture.

Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism, with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style.

After World War II and the Communist coup in 1948, art in Czechoslovakia became Soviet-influenced. The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement is known as the Brussels style came up in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the 1960s. Brutalism dominated in the 1970s and 1980s.

The Czech Republic is not shying away from the more modern trends of international architecture.

Literature

Main article: Czech literature

The literature from the area of today's Czech Republic was mostly written in Czech, but also in Latin and German or even Old Church Slavonic. Franz Kafka, while bilingual in Czech and German, wrote his works (The Trial, The Castle) in German.

In the second half of the 13th century, the royal court in Prague became one of the centers of German Minnesang and courtly literature. The Czech German-language literature can be seen in the first half of the 20th century.

Bible translations played a role in the development of Czech literature. The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around 1360. The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in 1488. The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between 1579 and 1593. The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world.

Czech-language literature can be divided into several periods: the Middle Ages; the Hussite period; the Renaissance humanism; the Baroque period; the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the first half of the 19th century, modern literature in the second half of the 19th century; the avant-garde of the interwar period; the years under Communism; and the Czech Republic.

The antiwar comedy novel The Good Soldier Švejk is the most translated Czech book in history.

The international literary award the Franz Kafka Prize is awarded in the Czech Republic.

The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe.

Czech literature and culture played a role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed. On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the 1960s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.

Music

The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from the first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of the 10th and 11th centuries. Some pieces of Czech music include two chorales, which in their time performed the function of anthems: "Lord, Have Mercy on Us" and the hymn "Saint Wenceslas" or "Saint Wenceslas Chorale". The authorship of the anthem "Lord, Have Mercy on Us" is ascribed by some historians to Saint Adalbert of Prague (sv.Vojtěch), bishop of Prague, living between 956 and 997.

The wealth of musical culture lies in the classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the Baroque, Classicism, Romantic, modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have been influenced the folk music of the region and dance.

Czech music can be considered to have been "beneficial" in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art, above all of Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in Baroque, Romantic and modern classical music. Some Czech musical works are The Bartered Bride, New World Symphony, Sinfonietta and Jenůfa.

A music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.

Theatre

The National Theatre (left) and the Estates Theatre (right)

The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in the cultural life of gothic period. In the 19th century, the theatre played a role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century, it became a part of modern European theatre art. The original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the 1950s. This project called Laterna magika, resulting in productions that combined theater, dance, and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in an international context.

A drama is Karel Čapek's play R.U.R., which introduced the word "robot".

Film

American poster of Karel Zeman's 1958 film A Deadly Invention

The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the 1890s. Peaks of the production in the era of silent movies include the historical drama The Builder of the Temple and the social and erotic drama Erotikon directed by Gustav Machatý. The early Czech sound film era was productive, above all in mainstream genres, with the comedies of Martin Frič or Karel Lamač. There were dramatic movies sought internationally.

After the period of Nazi occupation and early communist official dramaturgy of socialist realism in movies at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s with a fewer exceptions such as Krakatit or Men without wings (awarded by Palme d'Or in 1946), an era of the Czech film began with animated films, performed in anglophone countries under the name "The Fabulous World of Jules Verne" from 1958, which combined acted drama with animation, and Jiří Trnka, the founder of the modern puppet film. This began a tradition of animated films (Mole etc.).

In the 1960s, the hallmark of Czechoslovak New Wave's films were improvised dialogues, black and absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors. Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes. A personality of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s with original manuscript and psychological impact is František Vláčil. Another international author is Jan Švankmajer, a filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media. He is a self-labeled surrealist known for animations and features.

The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios with film locations in the country. Filmmakers have come to Prague to shoot scenery no longer found in Berlin, Paris and Vienna. The city of Karlovy Vary was used as a location for the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale.

The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the film festivals that have been given competitive status by the FIAPF. Other film festivals held in the country include Febiofest, Jihlava International Documentary Film Festival, One World Film Festival, Zlín Film Festival and Fresh Film Festival.

Media

Journalists and media enjoy a degree of freedom. There are restrictions against writing in support of Nazism, racism or violating Czech law. The Czech press was ranked as the 23rd most free press in the World Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders in 2017. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty has its headquarters in Prague.

The most watched main news program is TV Nova. A news webpage in the Czech Republic is ct24.cz, which is owned by Czech Television – the only national public television service – and its 24-hour news channel ČT24. Other public services include the Czech Radio and the Czech News Agency (ČTK). For privately owned television services, there is TV Nova, the most popular channel in the Czech Republic.

The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk (average 1.15M daily readers), Mladá fronta DNES (average 752,000 daily readers), Právo (average 260,00 daily readers) and Deník (average 72,000 daily readers).

Cuisine

Main article: Czech cuisine
A mug of Pilsner Urquell, the first pilsner type of pale lager beer, brewed since 1842

Czech cuisine is marked by an emphasis on meat dishes with pork, beef, and chicken. Goose, duck, rabbit, and venison are served. Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp, which is served at Christmas.

Czech beer with the first brewery is known to have existed in 993 and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world. The "pilsner style beer" (pils) originated in Plzeň, where the world's first-ever blond lager Pilsner Urquell is still being produced, making it the inspiration for more than two-thirds of the beer produced in the world today. Further south the town of České Budějovice, lent its name to its beer, known as Budweiser Budvar.

Tourism around the Southern Moravian region has been producing wine since the Middle Ages; about 94% of vineyards in the Czech Republic are Moravian. Aside from slivovitz, Czech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two liquors, Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi.

There is also a variety of local sausages, wurst, pâtés, and smoked and cured meats. Czech desserts include a variety of whipped cream, chocolate, and fruit pastries and tarts, crêpes, creme desserts and cheese, poppy-seed-filled and other types of traditional cakes such as buchty, koláče and štrúdl.[citation needed]

Sport

The most watched events in the Czech Republic are Olympic Ice hockey tournaments and Ice Hockey Championships. The two leading sports are football and ice hockey. Other most popular sports according to the size of the membership base of sports clubs include tennis, volleyball, floorball, golf, ball hockey, athletics, basketball and skiing.

The country has won 15 gold medals in summer and 9 gold medals in winter Olympic history. The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships, including three straight from 1999 to 2001.

The Škoda Motorsport is engaged in competition racing since 1901 and has gained a number of titles with various vehicles around the world. MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since 1969.

A common sport is hiking. The word for 'tourist' in Czech, turista, also means 'trekker' or 'hiker'. For hikers, thanks to the more than 120-year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing, that has been adopted by countries worldwide. There is a network of around 40,000 km of marked short- and long-distance trails crossing the whole country and all the Czech mountains.

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Czech lands
  1. () ; Czech: Česká republika ()
  2. (); Czech: Česko ()

Citations

  1. "Czech language". Czech Republic – Official website. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved14 November 2011.
  2. Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on a long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic Archived 7 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Belarusian and Vietnamese since 4 July 2013, see Česko má nové oficiální národnostní menšiny. Vietnamce a Bělorusy Archived 8 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine). Article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures the right of the national and ethnic minorities to education and communication with the authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures that a citizen of the Czech Republic who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on a long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, has the right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. If the administrative agency has no employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (Concerning the Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same also applies to members of national minorities in the courts of law.
  3. The Slovak language may be considered an official language in the Czech Republic under certain circumstances, as defined by several laws – e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz Archived 10 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském ..." (§ 16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) "Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině ..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  4. "Public database: Census 2011". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved2 June 2021.
  5. "Public database: Land use (as at 31 December)". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved2 June 2021.
  6. "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2021.
  7. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved2 November 2019.
  8. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved3 July 2020.
  9. "Human Development Report 2020"(PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved10 December 2019.
  10. "Oxford English Dictionary". Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  11. "Publications Office — Interinstitutional style guide — 7.1. Countries — 7.1.1. Designations and abbreviations to use". Publications Office. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved31 January 2019.
  12. "the Czech Republic". The United Nations Terminology Database. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved2 September 2016.
  13. Šitler, Jiří (12 July 2016). "From Bohemia to Czechia". Czech Radio. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  14. "Information about the Czech Republic". Czech Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved25 March 2016.
  15. Mlsna, Petr; Šlehofer, F.; Urban, D. (2010). "The Path of Czech Constitutionality"(PDF). 1st edition (in Czech and English). Praha: Úřad Vlády České Republiky (The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic). pp. 10–11. Archived(PDF) from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved31 October 2012.
  16. Čumlivski, Denko (2012). "800 let Zlaté buly sicilské" (in Czech). National Archives of the Czech Republic (Národní Archiv České Republiky). Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved31 October 2012.
  17. Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (2013). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 76. ISBN 978-1135923112. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved13 December 2017.
  18. Timothy Garton Ash The Uses of Adversity Granta Books, 1991 ISBN 0-14-014038-7 p. 60
  19. "Czech definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Collins. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved19 November 2012. C19: from Polish, from Czech Čech
  20. "Czech". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved24 January 2018. [Polish, from Czech Čech.]
  21. "Czech - Definition in English". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved11 April 2018. Origin Polish spelling of Czech Čech.
  22. Spal, Jaromír. "Původ jména Čech". Naše řeč. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved10 December 2012.
  23. Sviták, Zbyněk (2014). "Úvod do historické topografie českých zemí: Územní vývoj českých zemí"(PDF). 1st edition (in Czech). Brno. pp. 75–80, 82, 92–96. Retrieved23 June 2021.
  24. "From Bohemia to Czechia - Radio Prague". Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved11 February 2018.
  25. Wayne C. Thompson (2012). Nordic, Central and Southeastern Europe 2012. Stryker Post. pp. 345–. ISBN 978-1-61048-892-1.
  26. "Vláda schválila doplnení jednoslovného názvu Cesko v cizích jazycích do databází OSN" [The government has approved the addition of one-word Czech name in foreign languages to UN databases]. Ministerstvo zahraničních věcí České republiky (in Czech). 5 May 2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved28 August 2018.
  27. UNGEGN. "UNGEGN List of Country Names"(PDF). p. 27.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  28. European Union (5 July 2016). "Czechia". European Union. Retrieved31 May 2021.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  29. "Czechia - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved31 May 2021.
  30. "Czechia: mapping progress one year on". Radio Prague International. 8 June 2017. Retrieved31 May 2021.
  31. Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hedao, Prashant; Noss, Reed; Hansen, Matt; Locke, Harvey; Ellis, Erle C; Jones, Benjamin; Barber, Charles Victor; Hayes, Randy; Kormos, Cyril; Martin, Vance; Crist, Eileen; Sechrest, Wes; Price, Lori; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Weeden, Don; Suckling, Kierán; Davis, Crystal; Sizer, Nigel; Moore, Rebecca; Thau, David; Birch, Tanya; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Tyukavina, Alexandra; de Souza, Nadia; Pintea, Lilian; Brito, José C.; Llewellyn, Othman A.; Miller, Anthony G.; Patzelt, Annette; Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Timberlake, Jonathan; Klöser, Heinz; Shennan-Farpón, Yara; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars; Voge, Maianna; Al-Shammari, Khalaf F.; Saleem, Muhammad (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC5451287. PMID 28608869.
  32. R. Tolasz, Climate Atlas of the Czech Republic, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Prague, 2007. ISBN 80-244-1626-3, graphs 1.5 and 1.6
  33. "Czech absolute record temperature registered near Prague". České noviny. ČTK. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved20 August 2012.
  34. R. Tolasz, Climate Atlas of the Czech Republic, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Prague, 2007. ISBN 80-244-1626-3, graph 2.9.
  35. Brázdil, Rudolf; et al. (2019). "Spatiotemporal variability of tornadoes in the Czech Lands, 1801–2017". Theor. Appl. Climatol. 136 (3–4): 1233–1248. Bibcode:2019ThApC.136.1233B. doi:10.1007/s00704-018-2553-y. S2CID 126348854.
  36. Antonescu, Bogdan; D. M. Schultz; F. Lomas (2016). "Tornadoes in Europe: Synthesis of the Observational Datasets". Mon. Wea. Rev. 144 (7): 2445–2480. Bibcode:2016MWRv..144.2445A. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-15-0298.1.
  37. "Country Rankings". Yale. 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved21 November 2016.
  38. Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC7723057. PMID 33293507.
  39. "Top items – Head of a Celt". Muzeum 3000.
  40. David Rankin (2002). Celts and the Classical World. Routledge. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-134-74722-1.
  41. Kartografie Praha (Firm) (1997). Praha, plán města. Kartografie Praha. p. 17. ISBN 978-80-7011-468-1.
  42. Vasco La Salvia (2007). Iron Making During the Migration Period: The Case of the Lombards. Archaeopress. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4073-0159-4.
  43. Hugh LeCaine Agnew (2004). The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Hoover Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8179-4492-6.
  44. Sylvia Hahn; Stanley Nadel (2014). Asian Migrants in Europe: Transcultural Connections. V&R unipress GmbH. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-3-8471-0254-0.
  45. Július Bartl; Dušan Škvarna (2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-86516-444-4.
  46. Tim Champion (2005). Centre and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology. Routledge. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-134-80679-9.
  47. Robert Benedetto; James O. Duke (2008). The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History: The early, medieval, and Reformation eras. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-664-22416-5.
  48. Jaroslav Pánek; Oldřich Tůma (2019). A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-80-246-2227-9.
  49. Jaroslav Pánek; Oldřich Tůma (2019). A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-80-246-2227-9.
  50. Jaroslav Pánek; Oldřich Tůma (2019). A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-80-246-2227-9.
  51. Grousset, René (1970).The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1. Retrieved26 August 2017.
  52. "Václav II. český král". panovnici.cz. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved31 October 2011.
  53. "Mentor and precursor of the Reformation". Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved29 April 2016.
  54. "Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic)". Virtual Museum of Protestantism. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved25 May 2015.
  55. Oskar Krejčí, Martin C. Styan, Ústav politických vied SAV. (2005). Geopolitics of the Central European region: the view from Prague and Bratislava. p.293. ISBN 80-224-0852-2
  56. "RP's History Online – Habsburgs". Archiv.radio.cz. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  57. "History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century. Part 2. The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia. Division 1". Henry Hoyle Howorth. p.557. ISBN 1-4021-7772-0
  58. "The new Cambridge modern history: The ascendancy of France, 1648–88". Francis Ludwig Carsten (1979). p.494. ISBN 0-521-04544-4
  59. "The Cambridge economic history of Europe: The economic organization of early modern Europe". E. E. Rich, C. H. Wilson, M. M. Postan (1977). p.614. ISBN 0-521-08710-4
  60. Hlavačka, Milan (2009). "Formování moderního českého národa 1815–1914". Historický Obzor (in Czech). 20 (9/10): 195.
  61. Cole, Laurence; Unowsky, David (eds.). The Limits of Loyalty: Imperial Symbolism, Popular Allegiances, and State Patriotism in the Late Habsburg Monarchy(PDF). New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books. Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 May 2015. Retrieved24 May 2015.
  62. "Františka Plamínková: the feminist suffragette who ensured Czechoslovakia's Constitution of 1920 lived up to the principle of equality". Radio Prague International. 29 February 2020. Retrieved5 January 2021.
  63. Stephen J. Lee. Aspects of European History 1789–1980. Page 107. Chapter "Austria-Hungary and the successor states". Routledge. 28 January 2008.
  64. Preclík, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha, 219 pages, first issue - vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karviná, Czech Republic) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk Democratic Movement, Prague), 2019, ISBN 978-80-87173-47-3, pages 22 - 81, 85-86, 111-112, 124–125, 128, 129, 132, 140–148, 184–209.
  65. "Tab. 3 Národnost československých státních příslušníků podle žup a zemí k 15 February 1921"(PDF) (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. Archived from the original(PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved2 June 2007.
  66. "Ekonomika ČSSR v letech padesátých a šedesátých". Blisty.cz. 21 August 1968. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved14 May 2014.
  67. Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (2013). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 76. ISBN 978-1135923112. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved13 December 2017.
  68. Rothenbacher, Franz (2002). The European Population 1850–1945. Palgrave Macmillan, London. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-349-65611-0.
  69. Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books. p. 160. ISBN 0465002390
  70. "A Companion to Russian History Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine". Abbott Gleason (2009). Wiley-Blackwell. p.409. ISBN 1-4051-3560-3
  71. F. Čapka: Dějiny zemí Koruny české v datech Archived 20 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. XII. Od lidově demokratického po socialistické Československo – pokračování. Libri.cz(in Czech)
  72. "Czech schools revisit communism". Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  73. Velinger, Jan (28 February 2006). "World Bank Marks Czech Republic's Graduation to 'Developed' Status". Radio Prague. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved22 January 2007.
  74. "Human Development Report 2009"(PDF). UNDP.org. Archived(PDF) from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  75. "EU, NATO, Schengen and Eurozone member states in Europe". 13 October 2018.
  76. "Czech election: Billionaire Babis wins by large margin". BBC News. 21 October 2017.
  77. "Czech billionaire Andrej Babis named new prime minister | DW | 06.12.2017".
  78. "The Constitution of the Czech Republic – Article 16". Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  79. "Klaus signs Czech direct presidential election implementing law". Czech Press Agency. 1 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved7 November 2012.
  80. Hloušek, Vít (11 March 2015). "Is the Czech Republic on its Way to Semi-Presidentialism?". Baltic Journal of Law & Politics. 7 (2): 95–118. doi:10.1515/bjlp-2015-0004.
  81. "Members of the Government". Government of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  82. "Prime Minister". Government of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  83. Ladislav Cabada; Šárka Waisová (2011). Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic in World Politics. Lexington Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7391-6733-5.
  84. Jan Kuklík (2015). Czech Law in Historical Contexts. Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press. pp. 221–234. ISBN 978-80-246-2860-8.
  85. "Global Peace Index 2020"(PDF). visionofhumanity.org. Institute for Economics and Peace.
  86. "The Czech Republic's Membership in International Organizations". United States State Department. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  87. "The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2018. Data accurate as of 16 January 2018"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved13 March 2018.
  88. "Visa Openness Report 2016"(PDF). World Tourism Organization. Archived from the original(PDF) on 23 January 2016. Retrieved17 January 2016.
  89. "About the Visegrad Group". Visegrad Group. 15 August 2006. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  90. "Společné prohlášení ke strategickému dialogu mezi Ministerstvem zahraničních věcí České republiky a Ministerstvem zahraničních věcí Spolkové republiky Německo jako novém rámci pro česko-německé vztahy"(PDF). German embassy in the Czech Republic. Archived from the original(PDF) on 3 September 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  91. "Czech Vote Against Palestine: Only European Nation At UN To Vote Against Palestinian State Was Czech Republic". The Huffington Post. 30 November 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  92. "Czech-U.S. Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  93. "Czechs with few mates". The Economist. 30 August 2007. Archived from the original on 25 September 2009. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  94. "Resortní rozpočet". Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 2 August 2015. Retrieved8 August 2015.
  95. "Foreign Operations". Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved25 March 2016.
  96. "The death of the districts". 3 January 2003. Archived from the original on 15 February 2010. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  97. www.mccanndigital.cz. "Getting to know Czech Republic". Archived from the original on 19 July 2014. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  98. "World Bank 2007". Web.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  99. Aspalter, Christian; Jinsoo, Kim; Sojeung, Park (2009). "Analysing the Welfare State in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia: An Ideal-Typical Perspective". Social Policy & Administration. 43 (2): 170–185. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.2009.00654.x.
  100. "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved16 June 2015.
  101. Robert Tait. Czech democracy ‘under threat’ from rising debt crisis. The Guardian. 6 January 2019.
  102. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved4 June 2019.
  103. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved24 April 2019.
  104. Brandmeir, Kathrin; Grimm, Michaela; Heise, Michael; Holzhausen, Arne. "Allianz Global Wealth Report 2018"(PDF). Retrieved25 January 2021.
  105. "Česká ekonomika na konci roku dál rostla, HDP loni stoupl o 4,5 procenta". iDNES.cz (in Czech). 16 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved14 March 2018.
  106. Unemployment rates, seasonally adjusted, September 2016 Archived 28 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Eurostat.
  107. Federica Cocco. Israel and the US have the highest poverty rates in the developed world Archived 28 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Financial Times. Published on 19 October 2016.
  108. "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". www.heritage.org. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved15 March 2018.
  109. "The Global Innovation Index 2016". The Global Innovation Index. 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved31 January 2019.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  110. "The Global Competitiveness Report 2018". Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved17 October 2018.
  111. "Enabling Trade rankings". Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved15 March 2018.
  112. Economic Complexity Rankings (ECI) Archived 14 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Access date 3 October 2017.
  113. LABOR FORCE - BY OCCUPATION Archived 22 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. The World Factbook.
  114. "Czech foreign owned companies take second biggest dividend yield in 2017:report". Radio Prague. 7 March 2018.
  115. "Czech Republic to join Schengen". The Prague Post. 13 December 2006. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved8 October 2007.
  116. "100 Nejvýznamnějších". CZECH TOP 100 (in Czech). Retrieved1 July 2019.
  117. "Tramvaje firmy Pragoimex: česká klasika v novém kabátě". Euro.cz (in Czech). 16 December 2008. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved13 April 2018.
  118. "Zlaté české ručičky. V tomhle jsme nejlepší, i když se o tom skoro neví". ČtiDoma.cz (in Czech). 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved13 April 2018.
  119. "Příběh firmy Česká zbrojovka: kde se rodí pistole". E15.cz.
  120. (in Czech) Roads and Motorways in the Czech Republic. RSD.cz (2009).
  121. "Délky a další data komunikací – dálnice". ŘSD.cz. 2017. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved11 December 2018.
  122. "Going abroad - Czech Republic". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved3 October 2018.
  123. "Rail network density in selected countries 2015". Statista. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved11 December 2018.
  124. "Transport infrastructure at regional level – Statistics explained". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 20 October 2009. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  125. "Railway Network in the Czech Republic". SZDC.cz. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved9 November 2010.
  126. Vlček, Pavel (14 November 2010). "Minister Kocourek launches the Gazela gas pipeline linking the Czech Republic to Nord Stream". www.mpo.cz. Retrieved15 January 2019.
  127. Lee Taylor (2 May 2012). "'State of the Internet' report reveals the fastest web speeds around the world". news.com.au. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved2 May 2012.
  128. "Wi-Fi: Poskytovatelé bezdrátového připojení". internetprovsechny.cz. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved17 March 2008.
  129. "Bezdrátové připojení k internetu". bezdratovepripojeni.cz. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. Retrieved18 May 2008.
  130. "Antivirus giant Avast is acquiring rival AVG for $1.3b". TNW. 7 July 2016. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved18 June 2018.
  131. "Avast not done with deal-making after AVG buy, but no rush". Reuters. 30 September 2016. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved2 July 2017.
  132. "Avast Buys Piriform, the Company Behind CCleaner and Recuva". BleepingComputer. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved5 March 2018.
  133. Bremner, Caroline (2015). "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved9 February 2015.
  134. "Promotion Strategy of the Czech Republic in 2004–2010". Czech Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved19 December 2006.
  135. "Prague sees significant dip in tourist numbers". Radio.cz. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  136. "Prague mayor goes undercover to expose the great taxi rip-off". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  137. "Tips on Staying Safe in Prague". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  138. "Czech Republic – Country Specific Information". Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  139. "Třetím nejoblíbenějším cílem turistů jsou industriální památky v Ostravě" (in Czech). iDNES.cz. 20 January 2016. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved12 May 2016.
  140. "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List and Sites on the Tentative List". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved29 March 2018.
  141. "Czech Republic Travel Guide - Tourist Information and Guide to Czech Republic". www.travelguidepro.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved10 January 2018.
  142. "Aquapalace Praha bude největším aquaparkem ve střední Evropě". Konstrukce.cz. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved27 May 2012.
  143. "Czech Science: Past, Present, and Future". connect.ceitec.cz/. Ceitec Connect. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  144. "Czech Footprint: Inventions and Inventors". www.skoda-storyboard.com/. 16 November 2018. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  145. "National Artificial Intelligence Strategy of the Czech Republic"(PDF). www.mpo.cz. Ministry of Industry and Trade. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  146. "Research and Development in the Czech Republic". www.czechinvest.org/en. Czech Invest. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  147. "Best Global Universities in the Czech Republic". www.usnews.com. US News & World Report. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  148. "Research News". gacr.cz/en. Grantova agentura Ceske republiky. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  149. "Exhibition traces Czech contribution to finding Amazon River source". www.czech.radio. Radio Prague International. 28 May 2021. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  150. "The Czech Republic, home of robotics". ec.europa.eu. 19 June 2012. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  151. "World success of Czech scientists: A breakthrough method can help in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease or cancer". imtm.cz. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  152. "Czech and Slovak Freedom Lecture: The Role of Czech and International Scientists in the Fight Against the Pandemic". www.wilsoncenter.org. The Wilson Center. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  153. "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved2 September 2021.
  154. "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved2 September 2021.
  155. "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved2 September 2021.
  156. "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Retrieved2 September 2021.
  157. "The Czech Academy of Sciences". www.avcr.cz. The Czech Academy of Sciences. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  158. "Czech Made". www.czech.radio. Radio Prague International. 19 January 2021. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  159. "Czechoslovak Society of Arts & Sciences". www.svu2000.org. Společnost pro vědy a umění. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  160. "All Nobel Prizes". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved2 June 2021.
  161. "Sigmund Freud | Biography, Theories, Works, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved2 June 2021.
  162. Solitude of a Humble Genius-- Gregor Johann Mendel. Volume 1, Formative years. Paul Klein. Berlin: Springer. 2013. ISBN 978-3-642-35254-6. OCLC 857364787.CS1 maint: others (link)
  163. Klicperová-Baker, M.; Hoskovcová, S.; Heller, D. (2020). "Psychology in the Czech lands: Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, and the Czech Republic". International Journal of Psychology. 55 (2): 133–143. doi:10.1002/ijop.12607. PMID 31304980. S2CID 196613980.
  164. "Research and Innovation Ranking". www.scimagoir.com. Scimago Institutions Rankings. Retrieved1 June 2021.
  165. "Population change - year 2015". Population change - year 2015.
  166. "The World FactBook - Czechia", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018
  167. "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved14 May 2014.
  168. "Press: Number of foreigners in ČR up ten times since 1989". Prague Monitor. 11 November 2009. Archived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  169. O'Connor, Coilin (29 May 2007). "Is the Czech Republic's Vietnamese community finally starting to feel at home?". Czech Radio. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved1 February 2008.
  170. "Crisis Strands Vietnamese Workers in a Czech Limbo". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  171. "Foreigners working in the Czech Republic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. July 2006. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved3 June 2009.
  172. "The History and Origin of the Roma". Romove.radio.cz. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  173. Green, Peter S. (5 August 2001). "British Immigration Aides Accused of Bias by Gypsies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  174. "Jarosław Jot-Drużycki: Poles living in Zaolzie identify themselves better with Czechs Archived 26 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine". European Foundation of Human Rights. 3 September 2014.
  175. Foreigners in the Czech Republic - 2017. Prague: Czech Statistical Office. 2017. ISBN 978-80-250-2781-3.
  176. "The Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia". Ushmm.org. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  177. "The Virtual Jewish Library". Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved13 September 2014.
  178. "PM Fischer visits Israel Archived 25 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine". Radio Prague. 22 July 2009.
  179. "Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups"(PDF). Czech Statistical Office. Archived from the original(PDF) on 21 February 2015. Retrieved23 April 2012.
  180. "End of year 2014 – Czech Republic"(PDF). Wingia.com. Archived from the original(PDF) on 9 March 2017. Retrieved5 January 2018.
  181. "NÁBOŽENSKÁ VÍRA OBYVATEL PODLE VÝSLEDKŮ SČÍTÁNÍ LIDU". Czech Statistical Office. 27 February 2014. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved27 December 2017. Chapter 1. "Změny struktury obyvatel podle náboženské víry v letech 1991, 2001 a 2011"; table "Struktura obyvatel podle náboženské víry (náboženského vyznání) v letech 1991 - 2011": believers 20,8%; non-believers 34,5%; no declared religion 44,7%
  182. Global Index of Religion and Atheism Archived 26 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Press Release Archived 21 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. 2012. secularpolicyinstitute.net
  183. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  184. The Czechoslovak Hussite Church contains mixed Protestant, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and national elements. Classifying it as either one is disputable. For more details and dispute about this, see Czechoslovak Hussite Church.
  185. "Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses"(PDF) (in Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Archived(PDF) from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved9 March 2010.
  186. Europe’s Growing Muslim Population [1], Pew Research Center, 2016.
  187. "Orbis Sensualium Pictus Lecture - Iconics - University of Minnesota". iconics.cehd.umn.edu. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved11 June 2017.
  188. Elena Meschi; Francesco Scervini (10 December 2013). "Expansion of schooling and educational inequality in Europe: the educational Kuznets curve revisited". Oxford Economic Papers. 66 (3): 660–680. doi:10.1093/oep/gpt036. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016.
  189. "Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale"(PDF). OECD.org. Archived(PDF) from the original on 29 December 2009. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  190. "Education index | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018.
  191. Holcik, J; Koupilova, I (2000). "Primary health care in the Czech Republic: brief history and current issues". Int J Integr Care. 1: e06. doi:10.5334/ijic.8. PMC1534002. PMID 16902697.
  192. "Euro Health Consumer Index 2016"(PDF). Health Consumer Powerhouse. Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 October 2017. Retrieved8 April 2017.
  193. "History of Czech Architecture". eu2009.cz. Czech Presidency of the European Union. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved20 July 2015.
  194. "The History of Architecture". www.czech.cz. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved18 August 2015.
  195. Kotalík, Jiří (2002). Architektura barokní (in Czech) (Deset století architektury ed.). Praha: Správa Pražského hradu a DaDa. p. 13. ISBN 978-80-86161-38-9.
  196. Hawes 2008, p. 29.
  197. Sayer 1996, pp. 164–210.
  198. "Codex Gigas: The Devil's Bible". Prague Post. 19 October 2005. Retrieved5 January 2021.
  199. "Společnost Franze Kafky – Cena Franze Kafky". www.franzkafka-soc.cz. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved9 February 2017.
  200. Patterson, Dave (21 July 2016). "The Czech Republic Has The Densest Library Network In The World". Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved9 February 2017.
  201. Abrams, Bradley F. (2005). The Struggle for the Soul of the Nation: Czech Culture and the Rise of Communism. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-3024-9.
  202. The chronicles of Beneš Krabice of Veitmil – the hymn "Svatý Václave" mentioned there as old and well-known at the end of the 13th century [2] Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  203. Dějiny české hudby v obrazech (History of Czech music in pictures); in Czech
  204. "Czech Music". 27 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved3 January 2016.
  205. "The Origin Of The Word 'Robot'". Science Friday. Retrieved5 January 2021.
  206. "Gustav Machatý's Erotikon (1929) & Ekstase (1933): Cinema's Earliest Explorations of Women's Sensuality". Open Culture. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved8 January 2016.
  207. "History of Czech cinematography". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved8 January 2016.
  208. Solomon, Charles (19 July 1991). "Brooding Cartoons From Jan Svankmajer". LA Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved24 August 2010.
  209. "KFTV". Wilmington Publishing and Information Ltd. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved26 October 2012.
  210. "Czech Film Commission – Karlovy Vary". Czech Film Commission. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved26 October 2012.
  211. "Czech Republic : Rise of the oligarchs". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved9 February 2018.
  212. "Zpravodajský trojboj: Hvězdná Nova oslabuje, Prima se tahala s Událostmi ČT o druhé místo". Ihned. 27 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved23 October 2016.
  213. "Nejserióznější zpravodajství hledejte na webu ct24.cz". Czech Television. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved17 July 2015.
  214. "Čechy nejvíce zajímá bulvár. Nejčtenější v zemi je deník Blesk". Czech News Agency. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved17 July 2015.
  215. "ČT sport vysílá deset let, nejsledovanější byl hokej". MediaGuru.cz (in Czech). Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved6 May 2018.
  216. "Prague's Most Popular Sports". Prague.fm. 21 October 2011. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved14 May 2014.
  217. "Golf, florbal a hokejbal pronikly mezi nejoblíbenější české sporty". iDNES.cz. 11 October 2009.
  218. "Hiking in the Czech Republic". Expats. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved23 October 2016.
  219. "Turistické značení KČT". KČT. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved23 October 2016.

General sources

Czech Republicat Wikipedia's sister projects

Czech Republic
Czech Republic Language Watch Edit Czechia redirects here For other uses see Czechia disambiguation and Czech Republic disambiguation Coordinates 49 45 N 15 30 E 49 750 N 15 500 E 49 750 15 500 The Czech Republic a 11 also known by its short form name Czechia b 12 and formerly known as Bohemia 13 is a landlocked country in Central Europe It is bordered by Austria to the south Germany to the west Poland to the northeast and Slovakia to the east 14 The Czech Republic has a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78 871 square kilometers 30 452 sq mi with a mostly temperate continental and oceanic climate Czech RepublicCeska republika Czech Flag Coat of armsMotto Pravda vitezi Czech Truth prevails Anthem Kde domov muj Czech Where is my home a source source track track track track track track track track track track track track track Location of the Czech Republic dark green in Europe green amp dark grey in the European Union green Legend Capitaland largest cityPrague 50 05 N 14 28 E 50 083 N 14 467 E 50 083 14 467Official languageCzech 1 Officially recognized languages 2 3 List BelarusianGermanGreekHungarianPolishRomaniRussianRusynSerbianSlovakUkrainianVietnameseEthnic groups 2011 4 64 3 Czechs5 0 Moravians1 4 Slovaks0 5 Ukrainians3 5 Others25 3 No answerReligion 2011 4 34 5 No religion11 6 Christianity 10 4 Catholicism 1 2 Other Christian2 5 Others44 7 No answerDemonym s CzechGovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic PresidentMilos Zeman Prime MinisterAndrej BabisLegislatureParliament Upper houseSenate Lower houseChamber of DeputiesEstablishment history Duchy of Bohemiac 870 Kingdom of Bohemia1198 Czechoslovakia28 October 1918 Czech Republic1 January 1993Area Total78 871 km2 30 452 sq mi 115th Water 2 12 as of 2020 5 Population 2021 estimate10 701 777 6 86th 2011 census10 436 560 4 Density136 km2 352 2 sq mi 62th GDP PPP 2020 estimate Total 432 346 billion 7 36th Per capita 40 585 7 34th GDP nominal 2020 estimate Total 261 732 billion 7 36th Per capita 24 569 7 37th Gini 2019 24 0 8 low 5thHDI 2019 0 900 9 very high 27thCurrencyCzech koruna CZK Time zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Date formatd m yyyyDriving siderightCalling code 420bISO 3166 codeCZInternet TLD czcThe question is rhetorical implying those places where my homeland lies Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997 Also eu shared with other European Union member states The Duchy of Bohemia was founded in the late 9th century under Great Moravia It was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire in 1002 and became a kingdom in 1198 15 16 Following the Battle of Mohacs in 1526 the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy The Protestant Bohemian Revolt led to the Thirty Years War After the Battle of the White Mountain the Habsburgs consolidated their rule With the dissolution of the Holy Empire in 1806 the Crown lands became part of the Austrian Empire In the 19th century the Czech lands became more industrialized and in 1918 most of it became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic following the collapse of Austria Hungary after World War I 17 Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a parliamentary democracy during the entirety of the interwar period 18 After the Munich Agreement in 1938 Nazi Germany systematically took control over the Czech lands Czechoslovakia was restored in 1945 and became an Eastern Bloc communist state following a coup d etat in 1948 Attempts at a liberalisation of the government and economy were suppressed by a Soviet led invasion of the country during the Prague Spring in 1968 In November 1989 the Velvet Revolution ended communist rule in the country and on 1 January 1993 Czechoslovakia was dissolved with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high income social market economy It is a welfare state with a European social model universal health care and tuition free university education It ranks 12th in the UN inequality adjusted human development and 24th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of United States It ranks as the 9th safest and most peaceful country and 31st in democratic governance The Czech Republic is a member of NATO the EU OECD OSCE and the CoE Contents 1 Name 2 Geography 2 1 Climate 2 2 Environment 3 History 3 1 Prehistory 3 2 Bohemia 3 3 Czechoslovakia 3 4 Czech Republic 4 Governance 4 1 Law 4 2 Foreign relations 4 3 Military 4 4 Administrative divisions 5 Economy 5 1 Industry 5 2 Energy 5 3 Transportation infrastructure 5 4 Communications and IT 5 5 Tourism 5 6 Science 6 Demographics 6 1 Religion 6 2 Welfare 7 Culture 7 1 Art 7 2 Architecture 7 3 Literature 7 4 Music 7 5 Theatre 7 6 Film 7 7 Media 7 8 Cuisine 7 9 Sport 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 10 1 Citations 10 2 General sources 11 Further reading 12 External linksName EditMain article Name of the Czech Republic The traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum which means home of the Boii Gallic tribe The current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area which ultimately comes from the Czech word Cech 19 20 21 The name comes from the Slavic tribe Czech Cesi Cechove and according to legend their leader Cech who brought them to Bohemia to settle on Rip Mountain The etymology of the word Cech can be traced back to the Proto Slavic root cel meaning member of the people kinsman thus making it cognate to the Czech word clovek a person 22 The country has been traditionally divided into three lands namely Bohemia Cechy in the west Moravia Morava in the east and Czech Silesia Slezsko the smaller south eastern part of historical Silesia most of which is located within modern Poland in the northeast 23 Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century a number of other names for the country have been used including Czech Bohemian lands Bohemian Crown Czechia 24 and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian empire in 1918 the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within one country 25 After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992 the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended Czechia for the English short name citation needed This form was not adopted at the time leading to the long name Czech Republic being used in all circumstances The Czech government approved Czechia as the official English short name in 2016 26 The short name has been listed by the United Nations 27 and is used by other organisations such as the European Union 28 CIA 29 and Google Maps 30 Geography EditMain article Geography of the Czech Republic Topographic map The Czech Republic lies mostly between latitudes 48 and 51 N and longitudes 12 and 19 E Bohemia to the west consists of a basin drained by the Elbe Czech Labe and the Vltava rivers surrounded by mostly low mountains such as the Krkonose range of the Sudetes The highest point in the country Snezka at 1 603 m 5 259 ft is located here Moravia the eastern part of the country is also hilly It is drained mainly by the Morava River but it also contains the source of the Oder River Czech Odra Water from the Czech Republic flows to three different seas the North Sea Baltic Sea and Black Sea The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen a 30 000 square meter 7 4 acre lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships The territory reverts to Germany in 2028 Phytogeographically the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom According to the World Wide Fund for Nature the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions the Western European broadleaf forests Central European mixed forests Pannonian mixed forests and Carpathian montane conifer forests 31 There are four national parks in the Czech Republic The oldest is Krkonose National Park Biosphere Reserve and the others are Sumava National Park Biosphere Reserve Podyji National Park Bohemian Switzerland The three historical lands of the Czech Republic formerly some countries of the Bohemian Crown correspond with the river basins of the Elbe and the Vltava basin for Bohemia the Morava one for Moravia and the Oder river basin for Czech Silesia in terms of the Czech territory Climate Edit Koppen climate classification types of the Czech Republic using the 0 C isotherm Humid continental climate Subarctic climate Koppen climate classification types of the Czech Republic using the 3 C isotherm Humid continental climate Oceanic climate Subarctic climate The Czech Republic has a temperate climate situated in the transition zone between the oceanic and continental climate types with warm summers and cold cloudy and snowy winters The temperature difference between summer and winter is due to the landlocked geographical position 32 Temperatures vary depending on the elevation In general at higher altitudes the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases The wettest area in the Czech Republic is found around Bily Potok in Jizera Mountains and the driest region is the Louny District to the northwest of Prague Another factor is the distribution of the mountains At the highest peak of Snezka 1 603 m or 5 259 ft the average temperature is 0 4 C 31 F whereas in the lowlands of the South Moravian Region the average temperature is as high as 10 C 50 F The country s capital Prague has a similar average temperature although this is influenced by urban factors The coldest month is usually January followed by February and December During these months there is snow in the mountains and sometimes in the cities and lowlands During March April and May the temperature usually increases especially during April when the temperature and weather tends to vary during the day Spring is also characterized by higher water levels in the rivers due to melting snow with occasional flooding The warmest month of the year is July followed by August and June On average summer temperatures are about 20 30 C 36 54 F higher than during winter Summer is also characterized by rain and storms Autumn generally begins in September which is still warm and dry During October temperatures usually fall below 15 C 59 F or 10 C 50 F and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves By the end of November temperatures usually range around the freezing point Northern Czech landscape during a summer morning Krkonose mountains in winter The coldest temperature ever measured was in Litvinovice near Ceske Budejovice in 1929 at 42 2 C 44 0 F and the hottest measured was at 40 4 C 104 7 F in Dobrichovice in 2012 33 Most rain falls during the summer Sporadic rainfall is throughout the year in Prague the average number of days per month experiencing at least 0 1 mm 0 0039 in of rain varies from 12 in September and October to 16 in November but concentrated rainfall days with more than 10 mm 0 39 in per day are more frequent in the months of May to August average around two such days per month 34 Severe thunderstorms producing damaging straight line winds hail and occasional tornadoes occur especially during the summer period 35 36 Environment Edit See also Protected areas of the Czech Republic and Fauna of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic ranks as the 27th most environmentally conscious country in the world in Environmental Performance Index 37 It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 1 71 10 ranking it 160th globally out of 172 countries 38 The Czech Republic has four National Parks Sumava National Park Krkonose National Park Ceske Svycarsko National Park Podyji National Park and 25 Protected Landscape Areas History EditMain article History of the Czech lands Prehistory Edit Left Venus of Dolni Vestonice dated to 29 000 25 000 BCE Right The stone head of a Celt is among the archaeological collections of the National Museum 39 Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area dating back to the Paleolithic era In the classical era as a result of the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations Bohemia became associated with the Boii 40 The Boii founded an oppidum near the site of modern Prague 41 Later in the 1st century the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi settled there 42 Slavs from the Black Sea Carpathian region settled in the area their migration was pushed by an invasion of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe into their area 43 Huns Avars Bulgars and Magyars 44 In the sixth century the Huns had moved westwards into Bohemia Moravia and some of present day Austria and Germany 44 During the 7th century the Frankish merchant Samo supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars 45 became the ruler of the first documented Slavic state in Central Europe Samo s Empire The principality of Great Moravia controlled by Moymir dynasty arose in the 8th century 46 It reached its zenith in the 9th during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia holding off the influence of the Franks Great Moravia was Christianized with a role being played by the Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius They codified the Old Church Slavonic language the first literary and liturgical language of the Slavs and the Glagolitic alphabet 47 Bohemia Edit Main article Bohemia The Crown of Bohemia within the Holy Roman Empire 1600 The Czech lands were part of the Empire in 1002 1806 and Prague was the imperial seat in 1346 1437 and 1583 1611 The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Premyslid dynasty Bohemia was from 1002 until 1806 an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire 48 In 1212 Premysl Ottokar I extracted the Golden Bull of Sicily from the emperor confirming Ottokar and his descendants royal status the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a Kingdom 49 German immigrants settled in the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century 50 The Mongols in the invasion of Europe carried their raids into Moravia but were defensively defeated at Olomouc 51 After a series of dynastic wars the House of Luxembourg gained the Bohemian throne 52 Efforts for a reform of the church in Bohemia started already in the late 14th century Jan Hus s followers seceded from some practices of the Roman Church and in the Hussite Wars 1419 1434 defeated five crusades organized against them by Sigismund During the next two centuries 90 of the population in Bohemia and Moravia were considered Hussites The pacifist thinker Petr Chelcicky inspired the movement of the Bohemian Brethren by the middle of the 15th century that completely separated from the Roman Catholic Church 53 Battle between Hussites and crusaders during the Hussite Wars Jena Codex 15th century After 1526 Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then in 1627 the hereditary rulers of Bohemia Between 1583 and 1611 Prague was the official seat of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II and his court The Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the start of the Thirty Years War In 1620 the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs hereditary lands in Austria were strengthened The leaders of the Bohemian Revolt were executed in 1621 The nobility and the middle class Protestants had to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country 54 In the Dark Age of 1620 to the late 18th century the population of the Czech lands declined by a third through the expulsion of Czech Protestants as well as due to the war disease and famine 55 The Habsburgs prohibited all Christian confessions other than Catholicism 56 The flowering of Baroque culture shows the ambiguity of this historical period Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded Moravia in 1663 57 In 1679 1680 the Czech lands faced the Great Plague of Vienna and an uprising of serfs 58 The 1618 Defenestration of Prague marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt against the Habsburgs and therefore the first phase of the Thirty Years War There were peasant uprisings influenced by famine 59 Serfdom was abolished between 1781 and 1848 Several battles of the Napoleonic Wars took place on the current territory of the Czech Republic The end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 led to degradation of the political status of Bohemia which lost its position of an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire as well as its own political representation in the Imperial Diet 60 Bohemian lands became part of the Austrian Empire During the 18th and 19th century the Czech National Revival began its rise with the purpose to revive Czech language culture and national identity The Revolution of 1848 in Prague striving for liberal reforms and autonomy of the Bohemian Crown within the Austrian Empire was suppressed 61 It seemed that some concessions would be made also to Bohemia but in the end the Emperor Franz Joseph I affected a compromise with Hungary only The Austro Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the never realized coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Bohemia led to a disappointment of some Czech politicians 61 The Bohemian Crown lands became part of the so called Cisleithania The Czech Social Democratic and progressive politicians started the fight for universal suffrage The first elections under universal male suffrage were held in 1907 62 Czechoslovakia Edit Main article History of Czechoslovakia The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised 27 of the population of the former Austria Hungary and nearly 80 of the industry 63 In 1918 during the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy at the end of World War I the independent republic of Czechoslovakia which joined the winning Allied powers was created with Tomas Garrigue Masaryk in the lead 64 This new country incorporated the Bohemian Crown 65 The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised only 27 of the population of the former Austria Hungary but nearly 80 of the industry which enabled it to compete with Western industrial states 63 In 1929 compared to 1913 the gross domestic product increased by 52 and industrial production by 41 In 1938 Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world industrial production 66 Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a democracy throughout the entire the interwar period 67 Although the First Czechoslovak Republic was a unitary state it provided certain rights to its minorities the largest being Germans 23 6 in 1921 Hungarians 5 6 and Ukrainians 3 5 68 Prague during the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia The Czech territory was occupied by Germany which transformed it into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia The protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich and the president and prime minister were subordinated to Nazi Germany s Reichsprotektor One Nazi concentration camp was located within the Czech territory at Terezin north of Prague The Nazi Generalplan Ost called for the extermination expulsion Germanization or enslavement of most or all Czechs for the purpose of providing more living space for the German people 69 There was Czechoslovak resistance to Nazi occupation as well as reprisals against the Czechoslovaks for their anti Nazi resistance The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945 with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising 70 In the 1946 elections the Communist Party gained 38 71 of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament formed a coalition with other parties and consolidated power A coup d etat came in 1948 and a single party government was formed For the next 41 years the Czechoslovak Communist state is characterized by certain Eastern Bloc s economic and political features 72 The Prague Spring political liberalization was stopped by the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Analysts believe that the invasion caused the communist movement to fracture ultimately leading to the Revolutions of 1989 Czech Republic Edit Main articles Velvet Revolution and Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Vaclav Havel playwright former dissident one of the most important figures in the history of the 20th century Leader of the Velvet Revolution The last president of Czechoslovakia and the first president of the Czech Republic In November 1989 Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the Velvet Revolution However Slovak national aspirations strengthened Hyphen War and on 1 January 1993 the country peacefully split into the independent countries of the Czech Republic and Slovakia Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations with the intention of creating a market economy This process was largely successful in 2006 the Czech Republic was recognized by the World Bank as a developed country 73 and in 2009 the Human Development Index ranked it as a nation of Very High Human Development 74 From 1991 the Czech Republic originally as part of Czechoslovakia and since 1993 in its own right has been a member of the Visegrad Group and from 1995 the OECD The Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999 and the European Union on 1 May 2004 On 21 December 2007 the Czech Republic joined the Schengen Area 75 Until 2017 either the Czech Social Democratic Party or the Civic Democratic Party led the governments of the Czech Republic In October 2017 populist movement ANO 2011 led by the country s second richest man Andrej Babis won the elections with three times more votes than its closest rival the centre right Civic Democrats 76 In December 2017 Czech President Milos Zeman appointed Andrej Babis as the new Prime Minister 77 Governance EditMain articles Government of the Czech Republic and Politics of the Czech Republic President Milos Zeman Prime Minister Andrej Babis The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi party semi presidential representative democracy The Parliament Parlament Ceske republiky is bicameral with the Chamber of Deputies Czech Poslanecka snemovna 200 members and the Senate Czech Senat 81 members 78 The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four year term by proportional representation with a 5 election threshold There are 14 voting districts identical to the country s administrative regions The Chamber of Deputies the successor to the Czech National Council has the powers and responsibilities of the now defunct federal parliament of the former Czechoslovakia The members of the Senate are elected in single seat constituencies by two round runoff voting for a six year term with one third elected every even year in the autumn This arrangement is modeled on the U S Senate but each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two round runoff The president is a formal head of state with limited and specific powers who appoints the prime minister as well the other members of the cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister From 1993 until 2012 the President of the Czech Republic was selected by a joint session of the parliament for a five year term with no more than two consecutive terms 2x Vaclav Havel 2x Vaclav Klaus Since 2013 the presidential election is direct 79 Some commentators have argued that with the introduction of direct election of the President the Czech Republic has moved away from the parliamentary system and towards a semi presidential one 80 The Government s exercise of executive power derives from the Constitution The members of the government are the Prime Minister Deputy prime ministers and other ministers The Government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies 81 The Prime Minister is the head of government and wields powers such as the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy and choose government ministers 82 Main office holders Office Name Party SincePresident Milos Zeman SPOZ 8 March 2013President of the Senate Milos Vystrcil ODS 19 February 2020President of the Chamber of Deputies Radek Vondracek ANO 22 November 2017Prime Minister Andrej Babis ANO 6 December 2017Law Edit Main articles Law of the Czech Republic Judiciary of the Czech Republic and Law enforcement in the Czech Republic See also Gun law in the Czech Republic and Self defence Czech Republic Seat of the Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic in Brno The Czech Republic is a unitary state 83 with a civil law system based on the continental type rooted in Germanic legal culture The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic adopted in 1993 84 The Penal Code is effective from 2010 A new Civil code became effective in 2014 The court system includes district county and supreme courts and is divided into civil criminal and administrative branches The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts The Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution by either the legislature or by the government 84 The Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for most legal cases heard in the Czech Republic The Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety It also has jurisdiction over certain political matters such as the formation and closure of political parties jurisdictional boundaries between government entities and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office 84 The Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court are both based in Brno as is the Supreme Public Prosecutor s Office 84 Foreign relations Edit Main article Foreign relations of the Czech Republic See also Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic Visa free entry countries for Czech citizens in green EU in blue see citizenship of the European Union The Czech Republic has ranked as one of the safest or most peaceful countries for the past few decades 85 It is a member of the United Nations the European Union NATO OECD Council of Europe and is an observer to the Organization of American States 86 The embassies of most countries with diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic are located in Prague while consulates are located across the country The Czech passport is restricted by visas According to the 2018 Henley amp Partners Visa Restrictions Index Czech citizens have visa free access to 173 countries which ranks them 7th along with Malta and New Zealand 87 The World Tourism Organization ranks the Czech passport 24th 88 The US Visa Waiver Program applies to Czech nationals The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy although the President also has influence and represents the country abroad Membership in the European Union and NATO is central to the Czech Republic s foreign policy The Office for Foreign Relations and Information UZSI serves as the foreign intelligence agency responsible for espionage and foreign policy briefings as well as protection of Czech Republic s embassies abroad The Czech Republic has ties with Slovakia Poland and Hungary as a member of the Visegrad Group 89 as well as with Germany 90 Israel 91 the United States 92 and the European Union and its members Czech officials have supported dissenters in Belarus Moldova Myanmar and Cuba 93 Military Edit Army soldiers during an exercise Main article Army of the Czech Republic The Czech armed forces consist of the Czech Land Forces the Czech Air Force and of specialized support units The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence The President of the Czech Republic is Commander in chief of the armed forces In 2004 the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished The country has been a member of NATO since 12 March 1999 Defence spending is approximately 1 19 of the GDP 2019 94 The armed forces are charged with protecting the Czech Republic and its allies promoting global security interests and contributing to NATO Currently as a member of NATO the Czech military are participating in the Resolute Support and KFOR operations and have soldiers in Afghanistan Mali Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo Egypt Israel and Somalia The Czech Air Force also served in the Baltic states and Iceland 95 The main equipment of the Czech military includes JAS 39 Gripen multi role fighters Aero L 159 Alca combat aircraft Mi 35 attack helicopters armored vehicles Pandur II OT 64 OT 90 BVP 2 and tanks T 72 and T 72M4CZ Administrative divisions Edit Main articles Regions of the Czech Republic Districts of the Czech Republic and Obec Since 2000 the Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions Czech kraje singular kraj and the capital city of Prague Every region has its own elected regional assembly and a regional governor In Prague the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor The older seventy six districts okresy singular okres including three statutory cities without Prague which had special status lost most of their importance in 1999 in an administrative reform they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration 96 The smallest administrative units are obce municipalities As of 2021 the Czech Republic is divided into 6 254 municipalities Cities and towns are also municipalities The capital city of Prague is a region and municipality at the same time Map of the Czech Republic with traditional regions and current administrative regions Map with districtsEconomy EditMain article Economy of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic is part of the European Single Market and the Schengen Area but uses its own currency the Czech koruna The Czech Republic has a developed 97 high income 98 export oriented social market economy based in services manufacturing and innovation that maintains a welfare state and the European social model 99 The Czech Republic participates in the European Single Market as a member of the European Union and is therefore a part of the economy of the European Union but uses its own currency the Czech koruna instead of the euro It has a per capita GDP rate that is 91 of the EU average 100 and is a member of the OECD Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bank whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution The Czech Republic ranks 12th in the UN inequality adjusted human development and 14th in World Bank Human Capital Index It was described by The Guardian as one of Europe s most flourishing economies 101 As of 2018 update the country s GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is 37 370 102 and 22 850 at nominal value 103 According to Allianz A G in 2018 the country was an MWC mean wealth country ranking 26th in net financial assets 104 The country experienced a 4 5 GDP growth in 2017 105 The 2016 unemployment rate was the lowest in the EU at 2 4 106 and the 2016 poverty rate was the second lowest of OECD members 107 Czech Republic ranks 24th in both the Index of Economic Freedom 108 and the Global Innovation Index as of 2016 update 109 29th in the Global Competitiveness Report 110 30th in the ease of doing business index and 25th in the Global Enabling Trade Report 111 The Czech Republic has a diverse economy that ranks 7th in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index 112 The industrial sector accounts for 37 5 of the economy while services account for 60 and agriculture for 2 5 113 The largest trading partner for both export and import is Germany and the EU in general Dividends worth CZK 270 billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in 2017 which has become a political issue 114 The country has been a member of the Schengen Area since 1 May 2004 having abolished border controls completely opening its borders with all of its neighbors on 21 December 2007 115 Industry Edit In 2018 the largest companies by revenue in the Czech Republic were one of the car automobile manufacturers in Central Europe Skoda Auto utility company CEZ Group conglomerate Agrofert energy trading company EPH oil processing company Unipetrol electronics manufacturer Foxconn CZ and steel producer Moravia Steel 116 Other Czech transportation companies include Skoda Transportation tramways trolleybuses metro Tatra heavy trucks the second oldest car maker in the world Avia medium trucks Karosa and SOR Libchavy buses Aero Vodochody military aircraft Let Kunovice civil aircraft Zetor tractors Jawa Moto motorcycles and Cezeta electric scooters Skoda Transportation is the fourth largest tram producer in the world nearly one third of all trams in the world come from Czech factories 117 The Czech Republic is also the world s largest vinyl records manufacturer with GZ Media producing about 6 million pieces annually in Lodenice 118 Ceska zbrojovka is among the ten largest firearms producers in the world and five who produce automatic weapons 119 In the food industry succeeded companies Agrofert Kofola and Hame Energy Edit Main article Energy in the Czech Republic Dukovany Nuclear Power Station Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 TWh per year which are exported Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs its share is projected to increase to 40 percent In 2005 65 4 percent of electricity was produced by steam and combustion power plants mostly coal 30 percent by nuclear plants and 4 6 percent from renewable sources including hydropower The largest Czech power resource is Temelin Nuclear Power Station with another nuclear power plant in Dukovany The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low grade brown coal as a source of energy Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom roughly three fourths of domestic consumption and from Norwegian companies which make up most of the remaining one fourth Russian gas is imported via Ukraine Norwegian gas is transported through Germany Gas consumption approx 100 TWh in 2003 2005 is almost double electricity consumption South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits Transportation infrastructure Edit Main article Transport in the Czech Republic The road network in the Czech Republic is 55 653 km 34 581 17 mi long 120 There are 1 232 km of motorways as of 2017 121 The speed limit is 50 km h within towns 90 km h outside of towns and 130 km h on motorways 122 The Czech Republic has the densest rail network in the world 123 with 9 505 km 5 906 13 mi of tracks 124 Of that number 2 926 km 1 818 13 mi is electrified 7 617 km 4 732 98 mi are single line tracks and 1 866 km 1 159 48 mi are double and multiple line tracks 125 Ceske drahy the Czech Railways is the main railway operator in the Czech Republic with about 180 million passengers carried yearly Maximum speed is limited to 160 km h In 2006 seven Italian tilting trainsets Pendolino CD Class 680 entered service Vaclav Havel Airport in Prague is the main international airport in the country In 2017 it handled 15 million passengers In total the Czech Republic has 46 airports with paved runways six of which provide international air services in Brno Karlovy Vary Mosnov near Ostrava Pardubice Prague and Kunovice near Uherske Hradiste Russia via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent Norway via pipelines through Germany supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas 126 Communications and IT Edit Main article Internet in the Czech Republic The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed 127 By the beginning of 2008 there were over 800 mostly local WISPs 128 129 with about 350 000 subscribers in 2007 Plans based on either GPRS EDGE UMTS or CDMA2000 are being offered by all three mobile phone operators T Mobile O2 Vodafone and internet provider U fon Government owned Cesky Telecom slowed down broadband penetration At the beginning of 2004 local loop unbundling began and alternative operators started to offer ADSL and also SDSL This and later privatisation of Cesky Telecom helped drive down prices On 1 July 2006 Cesky Telecom was acquired by globalized company Spain owned Telefonica group and adopted the new name Telefonica O2 Czech Republic As of 2017 update VDSL and ADSL2 are offered in variants with download speeds of up to 50 Mbit s and upload speeds of up to 5 Mbit s Cable internet is gaining more popularity with its higher download speeds ranging from 50 Mbit s to 1 Gbit s Two computer security companies Avast and AVG were founded in the Czech Republic In 2016 Avast led by Pavel Baudis bought rival AVG for US 1 3 billion together at the time these companies had a user base of about 400 million people and 40 of the consumer market outside of China 130 131 Avast is the leading provider of antivirus software with a 20 5 market share 132 Tourism Edit Main article Tourism in the Czech Republic Medieval castle Karlstejn Prague is the fifth most visited city in Europe after London Paris Istanbul and Rome 133 In 2001 the total earnings from tourism reached 118 billion CZK making up 5 5 of GNP and 9 of overall export earnings The industry employs more than 110 000 people over 1 of the population 134 Guidebooks and tourists reporting overcharging by taxi drivers and pickpocketing problems are mainly in Prague though the situation has improved recently 135 136 Since 2005 Prague s mayor Pavel Bem has worked to improve this reputation by cracking down on petty crime 136 and aside from these problems Prague is a safe city 137 The Czech Republic s crime rate is described as low 138 One of the tourist attractions in the Czech Republic 139 is the Nether district Vitkovice in Ostrava The Czech Republic boasts 14 UNESCO World Heritage Sites All of them are in the cultural category As of 2018 update further 18 sites are on the tentative list 140 Architectural heritage is an object of interest to visitors it includes castles and chateaux from different historical epoques namely Karlstejn Castle Cesky Krumlov and the Lednice Valtice area There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope calm monasteries Away from the towns areas such as Cesky raj Sumava and the Krkonose mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits There is a number of beer festivals The country is also known for its various museums Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country 141 Aquapalace Praha in Cestlice near Prague is the biggest water park in central Europe 142 Science Edit The Czech lands have a long and well documented history of scientific innovation 143 144 Today the Czech Republic has a highly sophisticated developed high performing innovation oriented scientific community supported by the government 145 industry 146 and leading Czech Universities 147 Czech scientists are embedded members of the global scientific community 148 They contribute annually to multiple international academic journals and collaborate with their colleagues across boundaries and fields 149 150 151 152 The Czech Republic was ranked 24th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020 up from 26th in 2019 153 154 155 156 Historically the Czech lands especially Prague have been the seat of scientific discovery going back to early modern times including Tycho Brahe Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler In 1784 the scientific community was first formally organized under the charter of the Royal Czech Society of Sciences Currently this organization is known as the Czech Academy of Sciences 157 Similarly the Czech lands have a well established history of scientists 158 159 including Nobel laureates biochemists Gerty and Carl Ferdinand Cori chemist Jaroslav Heyrovsky and physicist Peter Grunberg 160 Sigmund Freud the founder of psychoanalysis was born in Pribor 161 Gregor Mendel the founder of genetics was born in Hyncice and has spent most of his life in Brno 162 Most of the scientific research was recorded in Latin or in German and archived in libraries supported and managed by religious groups and other denominations as evidenced by historical locations of international renown and heritage such as the Strahov Monastery and the Clementinum in Prague Increasingly Czech scientists publish their work and that of their history in English 163 164 Demographics EditMain article Demographics of the Czech Republic The total fertility rate TFR in 2020 was estimated at 1 71 children born woman which is below the replacement rate of 2 1 165 The Czech Republic s population subsequently has an average age of 42 5 years 166 The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 77 56 years 74 29 years male 81 01 years female 167 Immigration increased the population by almost 1 in 2007 About 77 000 people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually 168 Vietnamese immigrants began settling in the country during the Communist period when they were invited as guest workers by the Czechoslovak government 169 In 2009 there were about 70 000 Vietnamese in the Czech Republic 170 Most decide to stay in the country permanently 171 According to results of the 2011 census the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs 64 3 followed by Moravians 5 0 Slovaks 1 4 Ukrainians 0 5 Poles 0 4 Viets 0 3 Germans 0 2 and Silesians 0 1 As the nationality was an optional item a number of people left this field blank 25 3 4 According to some estimates there are about 250 000 Romani people in the Czech Republic 172 173 The Polish minority resides mainly in the Zaolzie region 174 There were 496 413 4 5 of population foreigners residing in the country in 2016 according to the Czech Statistical Office with the largest groups being Ukrainian 22 Slovak 22 Vietnamese 12 Russian 7 and German 4 Most of the foreign population lives in Prague 37 3 and Central Bohemia Region 13 2 175 The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia 118 000 according to the 1930 census was nearly annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust 176 There were approximately 4 000 Jews in the Czech Republic in 2005 177 The former Czech prime minister Jan Fischer is of Jewish faith 178 Religion Edit Main articles Religion in the Czech Republic and Religion in the European Union Religion in the Czech Republic 2011 179 Undeclared 44 7 Irreligion 34 5 Catholicism 10 5 Believers not members of other religions 6 8 Other Christian churches 1 1 Protestantism 1 Believers members of other religions 0 7 Other religions Unknown 0 7 The Czech Republic has 75 180 to 79 181 of people not declaring any religion or faith in polls and the percentage of convinced atheists being third highest 30 behind China 47 and Japan 31 182 The Czech people have been historically characterized as tolerant and even indifferent towards religion 183 Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism After the Bohemian Reformation most Czechs became followers of Jan Hus Petr Chelcicky and other regional Protestant Reformers Taborites and Utraquists were Hussite groups During the Hussite Wars Utraquists sided with the Catholic Church Following the joint Utraquist Catholic victory Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited After the Reformation some Bohemians went with the teachings of Martin Luther especially Sudeten Germans In the wake of the Reformation Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti Catholic stance while some of the defeated Hussite factions were revived After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism even the Utraquist Hussites Going forward Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such A history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed It suffered a schism with the neo Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in 1920 lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern ongoing secularization Protestantism never recovered after the Counter Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1620 According to the 2011 census 34 of the population stated they had no religion 10 3 was Catholic 0 8 was Protestant 0 5 Czech Brethren and 0 4 Hussite 184 and 9 followed other forms of religion both denominational or not of which 863 people answered they are Pagan 45 of the population did not answer the question about religion 179 From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Catholicism decreased from 39 to 27 and then to 10 Protestantism similarly declined from 3 7 to 2 and then to 0 8 185 The Muslim population is estimated to be 20 000 representing 0 2 of the population 186 Welfare Edit Main articles Education in the Czech Republic and Healthcare in the Czech Republic Orbis Pictus a children s textbook with illustrations 187 published in 1658 Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition free university education while the average number of years of education is 13 1 188 Additionally the Czech Republic has a relatively equal educational system in comparison with other countries in Europe 188 Founded in 1348 Charles University was the first university in Central Europe Other major universities in the country are Masaryk University Czech Technical University Palacky University Academy of Performing Arts and University of Economics The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the Czech education system as the 15th most successful in the world higher than the OECD average 189 The UN Education Index ranks the Czech Republic 10th as of 2013 update positioned behind Denmark and ahead of South Korea 190 Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model with fee for service care funded by mandatory employment related insurance plans 191 According to the 2016 Euro health consumer index a comparison of healthcare in Europe the Czech healthcare is 13th ranked behind Sweden and two positions ahead of the United Kingdom 192 Culture EditMain article Culture of the Czech Republic Art Edit Main article Czech art Spring Summer Autumn and Winter 1896 by Art Nouveau artist Alphonse Mucha Venus of Dolni Vestonice is the treasure of prehistoric art Theodoric of Prague was a painter in the Gothic era who decorated the castle Karlstejn In the Baroque era there were Wenceslaus Hollar Jan Kupecky Karel Skreta Anton Raphael Mengs or Petr Brandl sculptors Matthias Braun and Ferdinand Brokoff In the first half of the 19th century Josef Manes joined the romantic movement In the second half of the 19th century had the main say the so called National Theatre generation sculptor Josef Vaclav Myslbek and painters Mikolas Ales Vaclav Brozik Vojtech Hynais or Julius Marak At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau Alfons Mucha became the main representative He is known for Art Nouveau posters and his cycle of 20 large canvases named the Slav Epic which depicts the history of Czechs and other Slavs As of 2012 update the Slav Epic can be seen in the Veletrzni Palace of the National Gallery in Prague which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic Max Svabinsky was another Art nouveau painter The 20th century brought an avant garde revolution In the Czech lands mainly expressionist and cubist Josef Capek Emil Filla Bohumil Kubista Jan Zrzavy Surrealism emerged particularly in the work of Toyen Josef Sima and Karel Teige In the world however he pushed mainly Frantisek Kupka a pioneer of abstract painting As illustrators and cartoonists in the first half of the 20th century gained fame Josef Lada Zdenek Burian or Emil Orlik Art photography has become a new field Frantisek Drtikol Josef Sudek later Jan Saudek or Josef Koudelka The Czech Republic is known for its individually made mouth blown and decorated Bohemian glass Architecture Edit Main article Czech architecture Historic center of Prague The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries Since the Middle Ages the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style During the 13th century it was replaced by the Gothic style In the 14th century Emperor Charles IV invited architects from France and Germany Matthias of Arras and Peter Parler to his court in Prague During the Middle Ages some fortified castles were built by the king and aristocracy as well as some monasteries The Renaissance style penetrated the Bohemian Crown in the late 15th century when the older Gothic style started to be mixed with Renaissance elements An example of pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne s Summer Palace which was situated in the garden of Prague Castle Evidence of the general reception of the Renaissance in Bohemia involving an influx of Italian architects can be found in spacious chateaus with arcade courtyards and geometrically arranged gardens 193 Emphasis was placed on comfort and buildings that were built for entertainment purposes also appeared 194 In the 17th century the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia 195 In the 18th century Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity the Baroque Gothic style a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles 193 Czech artists developed a distinct cubist style in architecture and applied arts It later evolved into national Czechoslovak style rondocubism During the 19th century stands the revival architectural styles Some churches were restored to their presumed medieval appearance and there were constructed buildings in the Neo Romanesque Neo Gothic and Neo Renaissance styles At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the new art style appeared in the Czech lands Art Nouveau Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world s architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture Between World Wars I and II Functionalism with its sober progressive forms took over as the main architectural style 193 After World War II and the Communist coup in 1948 art in Czechoslovakia became Soviet influenced The Czechoslovak avant garde artistic movement is known as the Brussels style came up in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the 1960s Brutalism dominated in the 1970s and 1980s The Czech Republic is not shying away from the more modern trends of international architecture 193 Literature Edit Main article Czech literature The literature from the area of today s Czech Republic was mostly written in Czech but also in Latin and German or even Old Church Slavonic Franz Kafka while bilingual in Czech and German 196 197 wrote his works The Trial The Castle in German Franz Kafka In the second half of the 13th century the royal court in Prague became one of the centers of German Minnesang and courtly literature The Czech German language literature can be seen in the first half of the 20th century Bible translations played a role in the development of Czech literature The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around 1360 The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in 1488 The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between 1579 and 1593 The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world 198 Czech language literature can be divided into several periods the Middle Ages the Hussite period the Renaissance humanism the Baroque period the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the first half of the 19th century modern literature in the second half of the 19th century the avant garde of the interwar period the years under Communism and the Czech Republic The antiwar comedy novel The Good Soldier Svejk is the most translated Czech book in history The international literary award the Franz Kafka Prize is awarded in the Czech Republic 199 The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe 200 Czech literature and culture played a role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed On both of these occasions in the early 19th century and then again in the 1960s the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom establishing a confident politically aware nation 201 Music Edit Main articles Music of the Czech Lands and Moravian traditional music Bedrich Smetana on the painting of Frantisek Dvorak The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from the first church hymns whose first evidence is suggested at the break of the 10th and 11th centuries Some pieces of Czech music include two chorales which in their time performed the function of anthems Lord Have Mercy on Us and the hymn Saint Wenceslas or Saint Wenceslas Chorale 202 The authorship of the anthem Lord Have Mercy on Us is ascribed by some historians to Saint Adalbert of Prague sv Vojtech bishop of Prague living between 956 and 997 203 The wealth of musical culture lies in the classical music tradition during all historical periods especially in the Baroque Classicism Romantic modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia Moravia and Silesia Since the early era of artificial music Czech musicians and composers have been influenced the folk music of the region and dance Czech music can be considered to have been beneficial in both the European and worldwide context several times co determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art 204 above all of Classical era as well as by original attitudes in Baroque Romantic and modern classical music Some Czech musical works are The Bartered Bride New World Symphony Sinfonietta and Jenufa A music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music a permanent showcase for performing artists symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world Theatre Edit The National Theatre left and the Estates Theatre right Main article Theatre of the Czech Republic The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages especially in the cultural life of gothic period In the 19th century the theatre played a role in the national awakening movement and later in the 20th century it became a part of modern European theatre art The original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the 1950s This project called Laterna magika resulting in productions that combined theater dance and film in a poetic manner considered the first multimedia art project in an international context A drama is Karel Capek s play R U R which introduced the word robot 205 Film Edit Main article Cinema of the Czech Republic American poster of Karel Zeman s 1958 film A Deadly Invention The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the 1890s Peaks of the production in the era of silent movies include the historical drama The Builder of the Temple and the social and erotic drama Erotikon directed by Gustav Machaty 206 The early Czech sound film era was productive above all in mainstream genres with the comedies of Martin Fric or Karel Lamac There were dramatic movies sought internationally After the period of Nazi occupation and early communist official dramaturgy of socialist realism in movies at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s with a fewer exceptions such as Krakatit or Men without wings awarded by Palme d Or in 1946 an era of the Czech film began with animated films performed in anglophone countries under the name The Fabulous World of Jules Verne from 1958 which combined acted drama with animation and Jiri Trnka the founder of the modern puppet film 207 This began a tradition of animated films Mole etc In the 1960s the hallmark of Czechoslovak New Wave s films were improvised dialogues black and absurd humor and the occupation of non actors Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes A personality of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s with original manuscript and psychological impact is Frantisek Vlacil Another international author is Jan Svankmajer a filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media He is a self labeled surrealist known for animations and features 208 The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios with film locations in the country 209 Filmmakers have come to Prague to shoot scenery no longer found in Berlin Paris and Vienna The city of Karlovy Vary was used as a location for the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale 210 The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the film festivals that have been given competitive status by the FIAPF Other film festivals held in the country include Febiofest Jihlava International Documentary Film Festival One World Film Festival Zlin Film Festival and Fresh Film Festival Media Edit Journalists and media enjoy a degree of freedom There are restrictions against writing in support of Nazism racism or violating Czech law The Czech press was ranked as the 23rd most free press in the World Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders in 2017 211 Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty has its headquarters in Prague The most watched main news program is TV Nova 212 A news webpage in the Czech Republic is ct24 cz which is owned by Czech Television the only national public television service and its 24 hour news channel CT24 213 Other public services include the Czech Radio and the Czech News Agency CTK For privately owned television services there is TV Nova the most popular channel in the Czech Republic The best selling daily national newspapers are Blesk average 1 15M daily readers Mlada fronta DNES average 752 000 daily readers Pravo average 260 00 daily readers and Denik average 72 000 daily readers 214 Cuisine Edit Main article Czech cuisine A mug of Pilsner Urquell the first pilsner type of pale lager beer brewed since 1842 Czech cuisine is marked by an emphasis on meat dishes with pork beef and chicken Goose duck rabbit and venison are served Fish is less common with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp which is served at Christmas Czech beer with the first brewery is known to have existed in 993 and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world The pilsner style beer pils originated in Plzen where the world s first ever blond lager Pilsner Urquell is still being produced making it the inspiration for more than two thirds of the beer produced in the world today Further south the town of Ceske Budejovice lent its name to its beer known as Budweiser Budvar Tourism around the Southern Moravian region has been producing wine since the Middle Ages about 94 of vineyards in the Czech Republic are Moravian Aside from slivovitz Czech beer and wine the Czechs also produce two liquors Fernet Stock and Becherovka Kofola is a non alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca Cola and Pepsi There is also a variety of local sausages wurst pates and smoked and cured meats Czech desserts include a variety of whipped cream chocolate and fruit pastries and tarts crepes creme desserts and cheese poppy seed filled and other types of traditional cakes such as buchty kolace and strudl citation needed Sport Edit Main article Sport in the Czech Republic O2 Arena in Prague is the second largest ice hockey arena in Europe The most watched events in the Czech Republic are Olympic Ice hockey tournaments and Ice Hockey Championships 215 216 The two leading sports are football and ice hockey Other most popular sports according to the size of the membership base of sports clubs include tennis volleyball floorball golf ball hockey athletics basketball and skiing 217 The country has won 15 gold medals in summer and 9 gold medals in winter Olympic history The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships including three straight from 1999 to 2001 The Skoda Motorsport is engaged in competition racing since 1901 and has gained a number of titles with various vehicles around the world MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since 1969 A common sport is hiking The word for tourist in Czech turista also means trekker or hiker For hikers thanks to the more than 120 year old tradition there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing that has been adopted by countries worldwide There is a network of around 40 000 km of marked short and long distance trails crossing the whole country and all the Czech mountains 218 219 See also Edit Czech Republic portal Wikisource has original works on the topic Czech landsList of Czech Republic related topics Outline of the Czech RepublicNotes Edit ˈ tʃ ɛ k listen CHEK 10 Czech Ceska republika ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka listen ˈ tʃ ɛ k i e listen Czech Cesko ˈtʃɛsko listen References EditCitations Edit Czech language Czech Republic Official website Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 6 November 2011 Retrieved 14 November 2011 Citizens belonging to minorities which traditionally and on a long term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in courts of law for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic Archived 7 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Belarusian and Vietnamese since 4 July 2013 see Cesko ma nove oficialni narodnostni mensiny Vietnamce a Belorusy Archived 8 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures the right of the national and ethnic minorities to education and communication with the authorities in their own language Act No 500 2004 Coll The Administrative Rule in its paragraph 16 4 Procedural Language ensures that a citizen of the Czech Republic who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority which traditionally and on a long term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic has the right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority If the administrative agency has no employee with knowledge of the language the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency s own expense According to Act No 273 2001 Concerning the Rights of Members of Minorities paragraph 9 The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law the same also applies to members of national minorities in the courts of law The Slovak language may be considered an official language in the Czech Republic under certain circumstances as defined by several laws e g law 500 2004 337 1992 Source http portal gov cz Archived 10 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine Cited Napriklad Spravni rad zakon c 500 2004 Sb stanovuje V rizeni se jedna a pisemnosti se vyhotovuji v ceskem jazyce Ucastnici rizeni mohou jednat a pisemnosti mohou byt predkladany i v jazyce slovenskem 16 odstavec 1 Zakon o sprave dani a poplatku 337 1992 Sb Uredni jazyk Pred spravcem dane se jedna v jazyce ceskem nebo slovenskem Veskera pisemna podani se predkladaji v cestine nebo slovenstine 3 odstavec 1 http portal gov cz a b c d Public database Census 2011 Czech Statistical Office Retrieved 2 June 2021 Public database Land use as at 31 December Czech Statistical Office Retrieved 2 June 2021 Population of Municipalities 1 January 2021 Czech Statistical Office 30 April 2021 a b c d World Economic Outlook Database October 2019 IMF org International Monetary Fund Retrieved 2 November 2019 Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income EU SILC survey ec europa eu Eurostat Archived from the original on 20 March 2019 Retrieved 3 July 2020 Human Development Report 2020 PDF United Nations Development Programme 10 December 2019 Retrieved 10 December 2019 Oxford English Dictionary Archived from the original on 11 January 2008 Retrieved 13 September 2014 Publications Office Interinstitutional style guide 7 1 Countries 7 1 1 Designations and abbreviations to use Publications Office Archived from the original on 20 October 2007 Retrieved 31 January 2019 the Czech Republic The United Nations Terminology Database Archived from the original on 15 September 2016 Retrieved 2 September 2016 Sitler Jiri 12 July 2016 From Bohemia to Czechia Czech Radio Retrieved 1 June 2021 Information about the Czech Republic Czech Foreign Ministry Archived from the original on 3 April 2016 Retrieved 25 March 2016 Mlsna Petr Slehofer F Urban D 2010 The Path of Czech Constitutionality PDF 1st edition in Czech and English Praha Urad Vlady Ceske Republiky The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic pp 10 11 Archived PDF from the original on 16 January 2013 Retrieved 31 October 2012 Cumlivski Denko 2012 800 let Zlate buly sicilske in Czech National Archives of the Czech Republic Narodni Archiv Ceske Republiky Archived from the original on 28 November 2012 Retrieved 31 October 2012 Dijk Ruud van Gray William Glenn Savranskaya Svetlana Suri Jeremi Zhai Qiang 2013 Encyclopedia of the Cold War Routledge p 76 ISBN 978 1135923112 Archived from the original on 22 November 2018 Retrieved 13 December 2017 Timothy Garton Ash The Uses of Adversity Granta Books 1991 ISBN 0 14 014038 7 p 60 Czech definition and meaning Collins English Dictionary Collins Archived from the original on 16 January 2013 Retrieved 19 November 2012 C19 from Polish from Czech Cech Czech American Heritage Dictionary Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Retrieved 24 January 2018 Polish from Czech Cech Czech Definition in English Oxford English Dictionary Oxford University Press Archived from the original on 12 April 2018 Retrieved 11 April 2018 Origin Polish spelling of Czech Cech Spal Jaromir Puvod jmena Cech Nase rec Archived from the original on 9 December 2012 Retrieved 10 December 2012 Svitak Zbynek 2014 Uvod do historicke topografie ceskych zemi Uzemni vyvoj ceskych zemi PDF 1st edition in Czech Brno pp 75 80 82 92 96 Retrieved 23 June 2021 From Bohemia to Czechia Radio Prague Archived from the original on 9 March 2018 Retrieved 11 February 2018 Wayne C Thompson 2012 Nordic Central and Southeastern Europe 2012 Stryker Post pp 345 ISBN 978 1 61048 892 1 Vlada schvalila doplneni jednoslovneho nazvu Cesko v cizich jazycich do databazi OSN The government has approved the addition of one word Czech name in foreign languages to UN databases Ministerstvo zahranicnich veci Ceske republiky in Czech 5 May 2016 Archived from the original on 28 August 2018 Retrieved 28 August 2018 UNGEGN UNGEGN List of Country Names PDF p 27 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link European Union 5 July 2016 Czechia European Union Retrieved 31 May 2021 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Czechia The World Factbook www cia gov Retrieved 31 May 2021 Czechia mapping progress one year on Radio Prague International 8 June 2017 Retrieved 31 May 2021 Dinerstein Eric Olson David Joshi Anup Vynne Carly Burgess Neil D Wikramanayake Eric Hahn Nathan Palminteri Suzanne Hedao Prashant Noss Reed Hansen Matt Locke Harvey Ellis Erle C Jones Benjamin Barber Charles Victor Hayes Randy Kormos Cyril Martin Vance Crist Eileen Sechrest Wes Price Lori Baillie Jonathan E M Weeden Don Suckling Kieran Davis Crystal Sizer Nigel Moore Rebecca Thau David Birch Tanya Potapov Peter Turubanova Svetlana Tyukavina Alexandra de Souza Nadia Pintea Lilian Brito Jose C Llewellyn Othman A Miller Anthony G Patzelt Annette Ghazanfar Shahina A Timberlake Jonathan Kloser Heinz Shennan Farpon Yara Kindt Roeland Lilleso Jens Peter Barnekow van Breugel Paulo Graudal Lars Voge Maianna Al Shammari Khalaf F Saleem Muhammad 2017 An Ecoregion Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm BioScience 67 6 534 545 doi 10 1093 biosci bix014 ISSN 0006 3568 PMC 5451287 PMID 28608869 R Tolasz Climate Atlas of the Czech Republic Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Prague 2007 ISBN 80 244 1626 3 graphs 1 5 and 1 6 Czech absolute record temperature registered near Prague Ceske noviny CTK Archived from the original on 25 October 2012 Retrieved 20 August 2012 R Tolasz Climate Atlas of the Czech Republic Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Prague 2007 ISBN 80 244 1626 3 graph 2 9 Brazdil Rudolf et al 2019 Spatiotemporal variability of tornadoes in the Czech Lands 1801 2017 Theor Appl Climatol 136 3 4 1233 1248 Bibcode 2019ThApC 136 1233B doi 10 1007 s00704 018 2553 y S2CID 126348854 Antonescu Bogdan D M Schultz F Lomas 2016 Tornadoes in Europe Synthesis of the Observational Datasets Mon Wea Rev 144 7 2445 2480 Bibcode 2016MWRv 144 2445A doi 10 1175 MWR D 15 0298 1 Country Rankings Yale 2016 Archived from the original on 2 February 2016 Retrieved 21 November 2016 Grantham H S Duncan A Evans T D Jones K R Beyer H L Schuster R Walston J Ray J C Robinson J G Callow M Clements T Costa H M DeGemmis A Elsen P R Ervin J Franco P Goldman E Goetz S Hansen A Hofsvang E Jantz P Jupiter S Kang A Langhammer P Laurance W F Lieberman S Linkie M Malhi Y Maxwell S Mendez M Mittermeier R Murray N J Possingham H Radachowsky J Saatchi S Samper C Silverman J Shapiro A Strassburg B Stevens T Stokes E Taylor R Tear T Tizard R Venter O Visconti P Wang S Watson J E M 2020 Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40 of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity Supplementary Material Nature Communications 11 1 5978 doi 10 1038 s41467 020 19493 3 ISSN 2041 1723 PMC 7723057 PMID 33293507 Top items Head of a Celt Muzeum 3000 David Rankin 2002 Celts and the Classical World Routledge p 16 ISBN 978 1 134 74722 1 Kartografie Praha Firm 1997 Praha plan mesta Kartografie Praha p 17 ISBN 978 80 7011 468 1 Vasco La Salvia 2007 Iron Making During the Migration Period The Case of the Lombards Archaeopress p 43 ISBN 978 1 4073 0159 4 Hugh LeCaine Agnew 2004 The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown Hoover Press p 37 ISBN 978 0 8179 4492 6 a b Sylvia Hahn Stanley Nadel 2014 Asian Migrants in Europe Transcultural Connections V amp R unipress GmbH pp 7 8 ISBN 978 3 8471 0254 0 Julius Bartl Dusan Skvarna 2002 Slovak History Chronology amp Lexicon Bolchazy Carducci Publishers p 18 ISBN 978 0 86516 444 4 Tim Champion 2005 Centre and Periphery Comparative Studies in Archaeology Routledge p 233 ISBN 978 1 134 80679 9 Robert Benedetto James O Duke 2008 The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History The early medieval and Reformation eras Westminster John Knox Press p 474 ISBN 978 0 664 22416 5 Jaroslav Panek Oldrich Tuma 2019 A History of the Czech Lands Charles University in Prague Karolinum Press p 76 ISBN 978 80 246 2227 9 Jaroslav Panek Oldrich Tuma 2019 A History of the Czech Lands Charles University in Prague Karolinum Press p 111 ISBN 978 80 246 2227 9 Jaroslav Panek Oldrich Tuma 2019 A History of the Czech Lands Charles University in Prague Karolinum Press p 237 ISBN 978 80 246 2227 9 Grousset Rene 1970 The Empire of the Steppes Rutgers University Press p 266 ISBN 978 0 8135 1304 1 Retrieved 26 August 2017 Vaclav II cesky kral panovnici cz Archived from the original on 7 September 2011 Retrieved 31 October 2011 Mentor and precursor of the Reformation Archived from the original on 4 April 2016 Retrieved 29 April 2016 Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia Czech Republic Virtual Museum of Protestantism Archived from the original on 15 October 2015 Retrieved 25 May 2015 Oskar Krejci Martin C Styan Ustav politickych vied SAV 2005 Geopolitics of the Central European region the view from Prague and Bratislava p 293 ISBN 80 224 0852 2 RP s History Online Habsburgs Archiv radio cz Archived from the original on 17 July 2011 Retrieved 25 April 2010 History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century Part 2 The So Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia Division 1 Henry Hoyle Howorth p 557 ISBN 1 4021 7772 0 The new Cambridge modern history The ascendancy of France 1648 88 Francis Ludwig Carsten 1979 p 494 ISBN 0 521 04544 4 The Cambridge economic history of Europe The economic organization of early modern Europe E E Rich C H Wilson M M Postan 1977 p 614 ISBN 0 521 08710 4 Hlavacka Milan 2009 Formovani moderniho ceskeho naroda 1815 1914 Historicky Obzor in Czech 20 9 10 195 a b Cole Laurence Unowsky David eds The Limits of Loyalty Imperial Symbolism Popular Allegiances and State Patriotism in the Late Habsburg Monarchy PDF New York Oxford Berghahn Books Archived from the original PDF on 25 May 2015 Retrieved 24 May 2015 Frantiska Plaminkova the feminist suffragette who ensured Czechoslovakia s Constitution of 1920 lived up to the principle of equality Radio Prague International 29 February 2020 Retrieved 5 January 2021 a b Stephen J Lee Aspects of European History 1789 1980 Page 107 Chapter Austria Hungary and the successor states Routledge 28 January 2008 Preclik Vratislav Masaryk a legie Masaryk and legions vaz kniha 219 pages first issue vydalo nakladatelstvi Paris Karvina Zizkova 2379 734 01 Karvina Czech Republic ve spolupraci s Masarykovym demokratickym hnutim Masaryk Democratic Movement Prague 2019 ISBN 978 80 87173 47 3 pages 22 81 85 86 111 112 124 125 128 129 132 140 148 184 209 Tab 3 Narodnost ceskoslovenskych statnich prislusniku podle zup a zemi k 15 February 1921 PDF in Czech Czech Statistical Office Archived from the original PDF on 5 June 2007 Retrieved 2 June 2007 Ekonomika CSSR v letech padesatych a sedesatych Blisty cz 21 August 1968 Archived from the original on 7 July 2014 Retrieved 14 May 2014 Dijk Ruud van Gray William Glenn Savranskaya Svetlana Suri Jeremi Zhai Qiang 2013 Encyclopedia of the Cold War Routledge p 76 ISBN 978 1135923112 Archived from the original on 22 November 2018 Retrieved 13 December 2017 Rothenbacher Franz 2002 The European Population 1850 1945 Palgrave Macmillan London p 145 ISBN 978 1 349 65611 0 Snyder Timothy 2010 Bloodlands Europe Between Hitler and Stalin Basic Books p 160 ISBN 0465002390 A Companion to Russian History Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Abbott Gleason 2009 Wiley Blackwell p 409 ISBN 1 4051 3560 3 F Capka Dejiny zemi Koruny ceske v datech Archived 20 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine XII Od lidove demokratickeho po socialisticke Ceskoslovensko pokracovani Libri cz in Czech Czech schools revisit communism Archived from the original on 4 August 2014 Retrieved 13 September 2014 Velinger Jan 28 February 2006 World Bank Marks Czech Republic s Graduation to Developed Status Radio Prague Archived from the original on 12 January 2008 Retrieved 22 January 2007 Human Development Report 2009 PDF UNDP org Archived PDF from the original on 22 November 2009 Retrieved 25 April 2010 EU NATO Schengen and Eurozone member states in Europe 13 October 2018 Czech election Billionaire Babis wins by large margin BBC News 21 October 2017 Czech billionaire Andrej Babis named new prime minister DW 06 12 2017 The Constitution of the Czech Republic Article 16 Czech Republic Archived from the original on 3 September 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Klaus signs Czech direct presidential election implementing law Czech Press Agency 1 August 2012 Archived from the original on 16 January 2013 Retrieved 7 November 2012 Hlousek Vit 11 March 2015 Is the Czech Republic on its Way to Semi Presidentialism Baltic Journal of Law amp Politics 7 2 95 118 doi 10 1515 bjlp 2015 0004 Members of the Government Government of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 31 August 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Prime Minister Government of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Ladislav Cabada Sarka Waisova 2011 Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic in World Politics Lexington Books p 18 ISBN 978 0 7391 6733 5 a b c d Jan Kuklik 2015 Czech Law in Historical Contexts Charles University in Prague Karolinum Press pp 221 234 ISBN 978 80 246 2860 8 Global Peace Index 2020 PDF visionofhumanity org Institute for Economics and Peace The Czech Republic s Membership in International Organizations United States State Department Retrieved 8 August 2015 The Henley amp Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2018 Data accurate as of 16 January 2018 PDF Archived PDF from the original on 9 May 2018 Retrieved 13 March 2018 Visa Openness Report 2016 PDF World Tourism Organization Archived from the original PDF on 23 January 2016 Retrieved 17 January 2016 About the Visegrad Group Visegrad Group 15 August 2006 Archived from the original on 17 July 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Spolecne prohlaseni ke strategickemu dialogu mezi Ministerstvem zahranicnich veci Ceske republiky a Ministerstvem zahranicnich veci Spolkove republiky Nemecko jako novem ramci pro cesko nemecke vztahy PDF German embassy in the Czech Republic Archived from the original PDF on 3 September 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Czech Vote Against Palestine Only European Nation At UN To Vote Against Palestinian State Was Czech Republic The Huffington Post 30 November 2012 Archived from the original on 24 September 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Czech U S Relations Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 15 October 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Czechs with few mates The Economist 30 August 2007 Archived from the original on 25 September 2009 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Resortni rozpocet Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 2 August 2015 Retrieved 8 August 2015 Foreign Operations Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 6 March 2016 Retrieved 25 March 2016 The death of the districts 3 January 2003 Archived from the original on 15 February 2010 Retrieved 13 September 2014 www mccanndigital cz Getting to know Czech Republic Archived from the original on 19 July 2014 Retrieved 13 September 2014 World Bank 2007 Web worldbank org Archived from the original on 24 May 2008 Retrieved 25 April 2010 Aspalter Christian Jinsoo Kim Sojeung Park 2009 Analysing the Welfare State in Poland the Czech Republic Hungary and Slovenia An Ideal Typical Perspective Social Policy amp Administration 43 2 170 185 doi 10 1111 j 1467 9515 2009 00654 x GDP per capita in PPS Eurostat Archived from the original on 24 May 2015 Retrieved 16 June 2015 Robert Tait Czech democracy under threat from rising debt crisis The Guardian 6 January 2019 World Economic Outlook Database April 2019 IMF org International Monetary Fund Retrieved 4 June 2019 World Economic Outlook Database April 2019 IMF org International Monetary Fund Retrieved 24 April 2019 Brandmeir Kathrin Grimm Michaela Heise Michael Holzhausen Arne Allianz Global Wealth Report 2018 PDF Retrieved 25 January 2021 Ceska ekonomika na konci roku dal rostla HDP loni stoupl o 4 5 procenta iDNES cz in Czech 16 February 2018 Archived from the original on 15 March 2018 Retrieved 14 March 2018 Unemployment rates seasonally adjusted September 2016 Archived 28 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Eurostat Federica Cocco Israel and the US have the highest poverty rates in the developed world Archived 28 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Financial Times Published on 19 October 2016 Country Rankings World amp Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom www heritage org Archived from the original on 24 November 2018 Retrieved 15 March 2018 The Global Innovation Index 2016 The Global Innovation Index 2016 Archived from the original on 2 February 2017 Retrieved 31 January 2019 Cite journal requires journal help The Global Competitiveness Report 2018 Archived from the original on 17 October 2018 Retrieved 17 October 2018 Enabling Trade rankings Archived from the original on 21 March 2018 Retrieved 15 March 2018 Economic Complexity Rankings ECI Archived 14 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine The Atlas of Economic Complexity Access date 3 October 2017 LABOR FORCE BY OCCUPATION Archived 22 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine The World Factbook Czech foreign owned companies take second biggest dividend yield in 2017 report Radio Prague 7 March 2018 Czech Republic to join Schengen The Prague Post 13 December 2006 Archived from the original on 25 February 2008 Retrieved 8 October 2007 100 Nejvyznamnejsich CZECH TOP 100 in Czech Retrieved 1 July 2019 Tramvaje firmy Pragoimex ceska klasika v novem kabate Euro cz in Czech 16 December 2008 Archived from the original on 14 April 2018 Retrieved 13 April 2018 Zlate ceske rucicky V tomhle jsme nejlepsi i kdyz se o tom skoro nevi CtiDoma cz in Czech 11 April 2018 Archived from the original on 13 April 2018 Retrieved 13 April 2018 Pribeh firmy Ceska zbrojovka kde se rodi pistole E15 cz in Czech Roads and Motorways in the Czech Republic RSD cz 2009 Delky a dalsi data komunikaci dalnice RSD cz 2017 Archived from the original on 12 December 2018 Retrieved 11 December 2018 Going abroad Czech Republic ec europa eu Archived from the original on 3 October 2018 Retrieved 3 October 2018 Rail network density in selected countries 2015 Statista Archived from the original on 15 December 2018 Retrieved 11 December 2018 Transport infrastructure at regional level Statistics explained Epp eurostat ec europa eu Archived from the original on 20 October 2009 Retrieved 25 April 2010 Railway Network in the Czech Republic SZDC cz Archived from the original on 15 May 2011 Retrieved 9 November 2010 Vlcek Pavel 14 November 2010 Minister Kocourek launches the Gazela gas pipeline linking the Czech Republic to Nord Stream www mpo cz Retrieved 15 January 2019 Lee Taylor 2 May 2012 State of the Internet report reveals the fastest web speeds around the world news com au Archived from the original on 2 May 2012 Retrieved 2 May 2012 Wi Fi Poskytovatele bezdratoveho pripojeni internetprovsechny cz Archived from the original on 8 March 2008 Retrieved 17 March 2008 Bezdratove pripojeni k internetu bezdratovepripojeni cz Archived from the original on 23 June 2008 Retrieved 18 May 2008 Antivirus giant Avast is acquiring rival AVG for 1 3b TNW 7 July 2016 Archived from the original on 12 June 2018 Retrieved 18 June 2018 Avast not done with deal making after AVG buy but no rush Reuters 30 September 2016 Archived from the original on 16 October 2017 Retrieved 2 July 2017 Avast Buys Piriform the Company Behind CCleaner and Recuva BleepingComputer Archived from the original on 20 July 2017 Retrieved 5 March 2018 Bremner Caroline 2015 Top 100 City Destinations Ranking Euromonitor International Archived from the original on 28 June 2015 Retrieved 9 February 2015 Promotion Strategy of the Czech Republic in 2004 2010 Czech Tourism Archived from the original on 28 March 2007 Retrieved 19 December 2006 Prague sees significant dip in tourist numbers Radio cz 21 April 2010 Archived from the original on 3 April 2009 Retrieved 25 April 2010 a b Prague mayor goes undercover to expose the great taxi rip off The Independent Archived from the original on 5 September 2011 Retrieved 13 September 2014 Tips on Staying Safe in Prague Archived from the original on 23 September 2014 Retrieved 13 September 2014 Czech Republic Country Specific Information Archived from the original on 17 December 2013 Retrieved 13 September 2014 Tretim nejoblibenejsim cilem turistu jsou industrialni pamatky v Ostrave in Czech iDNES cz 20 January 2016 Archived from the original on 13 May 2016 Retrieved 12 May 2016 Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List and Sites on the Tentative List UNESCO Archived from the original on 29 March 2018 Retrieved 29 March 2018 Czech Republic Travel Guide Tourist Information and Guide to Czech Republic www travelguidepro com Archived from the original on 23 August 2018 Retrieved 10 January 2018 Aquapalace Praha bude nejvetsim aquaparkem ve stredni Evrope Konstrukce cz Archived from the original on 16 January 2013 Retrieved 27 May 2012 Czech Science Past Present and Future connect ceitec cz Ceitec Connect Retrieved 1 June 2021 Czech Footprint Inventions and Inventors www skoda storyboard com 16 November 2018 Retrieved 1 June 2021 National Artificial Intelligence Strategy of the Czech Republic PDF www mpo cz Ministry of Industry and Trade Retrieved 1 June 2021 Research and Development in the Czech Republic www czechinvest org en Czech Invest Retrieved 1 June 2021 Best Global Universities in the Czech Republic www usnews com US News amp World Report Retrieved 1 June 2021 Research News gacr cz en Grantova agentura Ceske republiky Retrieved 1 June 2021 Exhibition traces Czech contribution to finding Amazon River source www czech radio Radio Prague International 28 May 2021 Retrieved 1 June 2021 The Czech Republic home of robotics ec europa eu 19 June 2012 Retrieved 1 June 2021 World success of Czech scientists A breakthrough method can help in the treatment of Alzheimer s disease or cancer imtm cz Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine Retrieved 1 June 2021 Czech and Slovak Freedom Lecture The Role of Czech and International Scientists in the Fight Against the Pandemic www wilsoncenter org The Wilson Center Retrieved 1 June 2021 Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020 Who Will Finance Innovation www wipo int Retrieved 2 September 2021 Global Innovation Index 2019 www wipo int Retrieved 2 September 2021 RTD Item ec europa eu Retrieved 2 September 2021 Global Innovation Index INSEAD Knowledge 28 October 2013 Retrieved 2 September 2021 The Czech Academy of Sciences www avcr cz The Czech Academy of Sciences Retrieved 1 June 2021 Czech Made www czech radio Radio Prague International 19 January 2021 Retrieved 1 June 2021 Czechoslovak Society of Arts amp Sciences www svu2000 org Spolecnost pro vedy a umeni Retrieved 1 June 2021 All Nobel Prizes NobelPrize org Retrieved 2 June 2021 Sigmund Freud Biography Theories Works amp Facts Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 2 June 2021 Solitude of a Humble Genius Gregor Johann Mendel Volume 1 Formative years Paul Klein Berlin Springer 2013 ISBN 978 3 642 35254 6 OCLC 857364787 CS1 maint others link Klicperova Baker M Hoskovcova S Heller D 2020 Psychology in the Czech lands Bohemia Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic International Journal of Psychology 55 2 133 143 doi 10 1002 ijop 12607 PMID 31304980 S2CID 196613980 Research and Innovation Ranking www scimagoir com Scimago Institutions Rankings Retrieved 1 June 2021 Population change year 2015 Population change year 2015 The World FactBook Czechia The World Factbook 12 July 2018 The World Factbook Cia gov Retrieved 14 May 2014 Press Number of foreigners in CR up ten times since 1989 Prague Monitor 11 November 2009 Archived 28 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine O Connor Coilin 29 May 2007 Is the Czech Republic s Vietnamese community finally starting to feel at home Czech Radio Archived from the original on 13 January 2008 Retrieved 1 February 2008 Crisis Strands Vietnamese Workers in a Czech Limbo Archived from the original on 25 March 2014 Retrieved 13 September 2014 Foreigners working in the Czech Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs July 2006 Archived from the original on 3 June 2009 Retrieved 3 June 2009 The History and Origin of the Roma Romove radio cz Archived from the original on 25 April 2010 Retrieved 25 April 2010 Green Peter S 5 August 2001 British Immigration Aides Accused of Bias by Gypsies The New York Times Archived from the original on 11 November 2012 Retrieved 25 April 2010 Jaroslaw Jot Druzycki Poles living in Zaolzie identify themselves better with Czechs Archived 26 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine European Foundation of Human Rights 3 September 2014 Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2017 Prague Czech Statistical Office 2017 ISBN 978 80 250 2781 3 The Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia Ushmm org Archived from the original on 5 August 2009 Retrieved 25 April 2010 The Virtual Jewish Library Archived from the original on 21 June 2010 Retrieved 13 September 2014 PM Fischer visits Israel Archived 25 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine Radio Prague 22 July 2009 a b Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups PDF Czech Statistical Office Archived from the original PDF on 21 February 2015 Retrieved 23 April 2012 End of year 2014 Czech Republic PDF Wingia com Archived from the original PDF on 9 March 2017 Retrieved 5 January 2018 NABOZENSKA VIRA OBYVATEL PODLE VYSLEDKU SCITANI LIDU Czech Statistical Office 27 February 2014 Archived from the original on 13 May 2018 Retrieved 27 December 2017 Chapter 1 Zmeny struktury obyvatel podle nabozenske viry v letech 1991 2001 a 2011 table Struktura obyvatel podle nabozenske viry nabozenskeho vyznani v letech 1991 2011 believers 20 8 non believers 34 5 no declared religion 44 7 Global Index of Religion and Atheism Archived 26 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Press Release Archived 21 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine 2012 secularpolicyinstitute net Richard Felix Staar Communist regimes in Eastern Europe Issue 269 p 90 The Czechoslovak Hussite Church contains mixed Protestant Catholic Eastern Orthodox and national elements Classifying it as either one is disputable For more details and dispute about this see Czechoslovak Hussite Church Population by denomination and sex as measured by 1921 1930 1950 1991 and 2001 censuses PDF in Czech and English Czech Statistical Office Archived PDF from the original on 21 February 2011 Retrieved 9 March 2010 Europe s Growing Muslim Population 1 Pew Research Center 2016 Orbis Sensualium Pictus Lecture Iconics University of Minnesota iconics cehd umn edu Archived from the original on 8 October 2017 Retrieved 11 June 2017 a b Elena Meschi Francesco Scervini 10 December 2013 Expansion of schooling and educational inequality in Europe the educational Kuznets curve revisited Oxford Economic Papers 66 3 660 680 doi 10 1093 oep gpt036 Archived from the original on 24 November 2016 Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale PDF OECD org Archived PDF from the original on 29 December 2009 Retrieved 25 April 2010 Education index Human Development Reports hdr undp org Archived from the original on 4 January 2018 Holcik J Koupilova I 2000 Primary health care in the Czech Republic brief history and current issues Int J Integr Care 1 e06 doi 10 5334 ijic 8 PMC 1534002 PMID 16902697 Euro Health Consumer Index 2016 PDF Health Consumer Powerhouse Archived from the original PDF on 14 October 2017 Retrieved 8 April 2017 a b c d History of Czech Architecture eu2009 cz Czech Presidency of the European Union Archived from the original on 15 October 2015 Retrieved 20 July 2015 The History of Architecture www czech cz Archived from the original on 23 September 2015 Retrieved 18 August 2015 Kotalik Jiri 2002 Architektura barokni in Czech Deset stoleti architektury ed Praha Sprava Prazskeho hradu a DaDa p 13 ISBN 978 80 86161 38 9 Hawes 2008 p 29 Sayer 1996 pp 164 210 Codex Gigas The Devil s Bible Prague Post 19 October 2005 Retrieved 5 January 2021 Spolecnost Franze Kafky Cena Franze Kafky www franzkafka soc cz Archived from the original on 13 January 2017 Retrieved 9 February 2017 Patterson Dave 21 July 2016 The Czech Republic Has The Densest Library Network In The World Archived from the original on 11 February 2017 Retrieved 9 February 2017 Abrams Bradley F 2005 The Struggle for the Soul of the Nation Czech Culture and the Rise of Communism Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 978 0 7425 3024 9 The chronicles of Benes Krabice of Veitmil the hymn Svaty Vaclave mentioned there as old and well known at the end of the 13th century 2 Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Dejiny ceske hudby v obrazech History of Czech music in pictures in Czech Czech Music 27 June 2007 Archived from the original on 2 January 2016 Retrieved 3 January 2016 The Origin Of The Word Robot Science Friday Retrieved 5 January 2021 Gustav Machaty s Erotikon 1929 amp Ekstase 1933 Cinema s Earliest Explorations of Women s Sensuality Open Culture Archived from the original on 25 January 2016 Retrieved 8 January 2016 History of Czech cinematography Archived from the original on 28 January 2016 Retrieved 8 January 2016 Solomon Charles 19 July 1991 Brooding Cartoons From Jan Svankmajer LA Times Archived from the original on 15 July 2012 Retrieved 24 August 2010 KFTV Wilmington Publishing and Information Ltd Archived from the original on 16 January 2013 Retrieved 26 October 2012 Czech Film Commission Karlovy Vary Czech Film Commission Archived from the original on 16 January 2013 Retrieved 26 October 2012 Czech Republic Rise of the oligarchs Reporters Without Borders Archived from the original on 10 February 2018 Retrieved 9 February 2018 Zpravodajsky trojboj Hvezdna Nova oslabuje Prima se tahala s Udalostmi CT o druhe misto Ihned 27 August 2014 Archived from the original on 23 October 2016 Retrieved 23 October 2016 Nejserioznejsi zpravodajstvi hledejte na webu ct24 cz Czech Television Archived from the original on 18 July 2015 Retrieved 17 July 2015 Cechy nejvice zajima bulvar Nejctenejsi v zemi je denik Blesk Czech News Agency Archived from the original on 23 July 2015 Retrieved 17 July 2015 CT sport vysila deset let nejsledovanejsi byl hokej MediaGuru cz in Czech Archived from the original on 7 May 2018 Retrieved 6 May 2018 Prague s Most Popular Sports Prague fm 21 October 2011 Archived from the original on 13 April 2014 Retrieved 14 May 2014 Golf florbal a hokejbal pronikly mezi nejoblibenejsi ceske sporty iDNES cz 11 October 2009 Hiking in the Czech Republic Expats 16 June 2011 Archived from the original on 23 October 2016 Retrieved 23 October 2016 Turisticke znaceni KCT KCT Archived from the original on 15 February 2017 Retrieved 23 October 2016 General sources Edit Angi Janos 1997 A nyugati szlav allamok Western Slavic states In Posan Laszlo Papp Imre Barany Attila Orosz Istvan Angi Janos eds Europa a korai kozepkorban Europe in the Early Middle Ages in Hungarian Multiplex Media Debrecen University Press pp 358 365 ISBN 978 963 04 9196 9 Hawes James 2008 Why You Should Read Kafka Before You Waste Your Life New York St Martin s Press ISBN 978 0 312 37651 2 Sayer Derek 1996 The Language of Nationality and the Nationality of Language Prague 1780 1920 Past and Present Oxford 153 1 164 doi 10 1093 past 153 1 164 OCLC 394557 Further reading EditHochman Jiri 1998 Historical dictionary of the Czech State Scarecrow Press ISBN 0810833387External links EditCzech Republicat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Governmental website Presidential website Senate Portal of the Public Administration Czech Tourism official tourism site of the Czech Republic Czechia The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Wikimedia Atlas of the Czech Republic Geographic data related to Czech Republic at OpenStreetMap Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Czech Republic amp oldid 1054067052, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.