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Staff (military)

"Staff officer" redirects here. For officers in a staff corps, see United States Navy staff corps.
"Staff office" redirects here. For the ceremonial weapon, see staff of office.
"General staff" redirects here. For general staff within academic institutions, see Academic administration.
"General Staff" redirects here. For specific General Staff of a country, see General Staff (disambiguation).

A military staff or general staff (also referred to as army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian staff who serve the commander of a division or other large military unit in his command and control role through planning, analysis, and information gathering, as well as by relaying, coordinating, and supervising the execution of his plans and orders, especially in case of multiple simultaneous and rapidly changing complex operations. They are organised into functional groups such as administration, logistics, operations, intelligence, training, etc. They provide multi-directional flow of information between a commanding officer, subordinate military units and other stakeholders. A centralised general staff results in tighter top-down control but requires larger staff at HQ and reduces accuracy of orientation[disambiguation needed] of field operations, whereas a decentralised general staff results in enhanced situational focus, personal initiative, speed of localised action, OODA loop, and improved accuracy of orientation.

Staff meeting of the U.S. 112th Regimental Combat Team in Arawe with General Julian Cunningham (seated), standing left to right: unidentified, Lieutenant Colonel C. E. Grant, Major D. M. McMains, Colonel A. M. Miller and Lieutenant Colonel P. L. Hooper

A commander "commands" through his personal authority, decision-making and leadership, and he uses general staff to exercise the "control" on his behalf in a large unit. The traditional role of the general staff in control role has evolved from the simpler "C2" (command and control) to "C3" (C2 with addition of "communication", such as PsyOps) to "C4" (C3 with addition of "computers", such as IT and networks) to C4I2 (C4 with addition of "intelligence" and "interoperability") to "C5I" (C4 with addition of "collaboration" and "intelligence") to "C6ISR" (subsumes C4I2 and C5I by combining C4 element of "command, control, communications and computers" with addition of 2C "cyber-defense and combat systems" (e.g. aegis) and ISR elements of "intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance").

Most NATO nations, including USA and European nations, use the Continental Staff System which has origin in Napoleon's military. Commonwealth Staff System, used by the most of Commonwealth Nations, has its origin in the British Military.

Contents

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Information management

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One of the key purposes of a military staff is to provide accurate, timely information (which includes the results of contingency planning) on which command decisions are based. A goal is being able to suggest approaches or help produce well-informed decisions that will effectively manage and conserve unit resources.

In addition to generating information, the staff also manages the flow of communication within the unit and around it. While controlled information flow toward the commander is a priority, those useful or contingent in nature are communicated to lower-level units and/or through their respective staffs. If the information is not pertinent to the unit, it is redirected to the command level which can best utilize the condition or information.

Staffs are generally the first to know of issues that affect its group. Issues that require major decisions affecting the unit's operational capability are communicated to the commanding officer. However, not all issues will be handled by the commander. Smaller matters that arise are given to a more appropriate tasker within the unit to be handled and resolved, which would otherwise be an unnecessary distraction for the Commanding Officer who already makes numerous decisions every day.

In addition, a staff aims to carefully craft any useful situations and utilize that information.

Staff structure

In a generic command staff, more seasoned and senior officers oversee staff sections of groups organized by the needs of the unit. Senior Enlisted Personnel task personnel in the maintenance of tactical equipment and vehicles. Senior Analysts are tasked with the finalizing of reports, and their enlisted personnel participate in the acquisition of information from subordinate staffs and units. This hierarchy places decision making and reporting under the auspices of the most experienced personnel and maximizes information flow of pertinent information sent out of the command overall, clarifying matters overall. This frees up the most senior members of the command at each level for decision making and issuing direction for further research or information gathering (perhaps requiring men to put their lives at risk to gather additional intelligence).

Operations staff officers also are tasked with battle planning both for offensive and defensive conditions, and issuing contingency plans for handling situations anticipated during the foreseeable future.

Prior to the late 18th century, there was generally no organizational support for staff functions such as military intelligence, logistics, planning or personnel. Unit commanders handled such functions for their units, with informal help from subordinates who were usually not trained for or assigned to a specific task.

Austria

Count Leopold Joseph von Daun, in a letter to Empress Maria Theresa in January 1758, pressed for a more important role for the Generalquartiermeister (Chief of Staff). The failures in the army, especially at the Battle of Leuthen made it clear that Austria had no "great brain" and the command needed to spread the workload to allow the Commander-in-chief the time to consider the strategic picture. The 1757 regulations had created the Grosse Feldgeneralstab and Kleine Generalstab (large and small general staff) and after changes in 1769, a permanent staff of 30 officers was established under the direction of Franz Moritz von Lacy, which would be expanded in wartime with junior officers. The Grosse staff was divided into three: First, the Intrinsecum, which handled internal administration and directing operations; secondly, external activities, including the Pioneers; thirdly, the Inspection Service, which handled the issuing of orders and prisoners of war. Alongside the General Staff was the General Adjutant, who led a group of Adjutant staff selected by the army commanders to handle the details of internal administration and collating intelligence, and answered to the Commander-in-chief. The Chief of Staff became the chief adviser to the Commander-in-chief and, in a fundamental move away from the previous administrative role, the Chief of Staff now undertook operational planning, while delegating the routine work to his senior staff officers. Staff officers were drawn from line units and would later return to them, the intention being that they would prove themselves as leaders during their time with the staff. In a battle or when the army had detached corps, a small number of staff would be allocated to the column commander as a smaller version of headquarters. The senior man, usually a Major, would be the chief of the column staff and his principal task would be to help the commander to understand what was intended.

When Karl Mack von Leiberich became chief of staff of the army under Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in the Netherlands, he issued the Instruktionspunkte für gesammte Herren Generals, the last of 19 points setting out the roles of staff officers, dealing with offensive and defensive operations, while helping the Commander-in-chief. In 1796, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen augmented these with his own Observationspunkte, writing of the Chief of Staff: "he is duty bound to consider all possibilities related to operations and not view himself as merely carrying out those instructions". On 20 March 1801, Feldmarschalleutnant Duka became the world's first peacetime Generalquartiermeister at the head of the staff and the wartime role of the Chief of Staff was now focused on planning and operations to assist the Commander. Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen himself produced a new Dienstvorschrift on 1 September 1805, which divided the staff into three: 1) Political Correspondence; 2) the Operations Directorate, dealing with planning and intelligence; 3) the Service Directorate, dealing with administration, supply and military justice. The Archduke set out the position of a modern Chief of Staff: "The Chief of Staff stands at the side of the Commander-in-Chief and is completely at his disposal. His sphere of work connects him with no specific unit". "The Commander-in-Chief decides what should happen and how; his chief assistant works out these decisions, so that each subordinate understands his allotted task". With the creation of the Korps in 1809, each had a staff, whose chief was responsible for directing operations and executing the overall headquarters plan. The staff on the outbreak of war in 1809 numbered over 170. Finally in 1811, Joseph Radetzky von Radetz produced his Über die bessere Einrichtung des Generalstabs, which prioritised the Chief of Staff's managerial and supervisory role with the departments (Political Correspondence, Operations and Service) under their own directors, effectively merging the Adjutants and General Staff officers. In this system lay the beginnings of a formal staff corps, whose members could specialise in operations, intelligence and logistics.

France

Despite a short lived permanent staff under St-Cyr (1783–90), the French reverted to the old system in 1790, when the Revolutionary Government abolished the staff corps. When General Louis Alexandre Berthier was appointed Chief of Staff to the French Army of Italy in 1795, his was the old administrative role, accurately described by Jomini and Vachee as "the chief clerk" and "of limited competence". His manual is merely a reporting system as a kind of office manual. Staff officers were rotated out of the line on the Austrian model, but received no training and merely became efficient in the administrative tasks, especially the rapid issuance of orders. It suited Napoleon Bonaparte from the moment he took over the army the following year and he would use Berthier's system throughout his wars. Crucially, Napoleon remained his own intelligence chief and operational planner, a workload which, ultimately, not even he could cope with.

Prussia

Prussia adopted Austria's approach in the following years, especially when Gerhard von Scharnhorst, who as a Hanoverian staff officer had worked with the Austrian army in the Austrian Netherlands in the early 1790s, took charge. Initially, the Prussian Army assigned a limited number of technical expert officers to support field commanders. Before 1746, however, reforms had added management of intelligence and contingency planning to the staff's duties. Later, the practice was initiated of rotating officers from command to staff assignments and back to familiarize them with both aspects of military operations, a practice that, with the addition of enlisted personnel, continues to be used. After 1806, Prussia's military academies trained mid-level officers in specialist staff skills. In 1814, Prussia formally established by law a central military command—Prussian General Staff—and a separate staff for each division and corps. Despite some professional and political issues with the Prussian system, especially when viewed through the prism of the 20th century World Wars, their General Staff concept has been adopted by many large armies in existence today.[citation needed]

United Kingdom

Before the Crimean War staff work was looked at "with great disdain" in the British Army; the hardships of that war caused by disorganization led to a change in attitude. The General Staff in Britain was formed in 1905, and reorganized again in 1908. Unlike the Prussian staff system, the British Army was thought too small to support separate staff and command career streams. Officers would typically alternate between staff and command. Beevor, Inside the British Army, says instead that the terrible cleavages between staff and line units caused by the enormous losses during the trench warfare of the First World War meant that senior British officers decided that from thenceforth all officers would rotate between staff and line responsibilities, preventing the development of a separate general staff corps.

United States

The National Security Act of 1947 instead created a Joint Staff populated by military service members who, rather than becoming career staff officers on the German general staff model, rotate into (and back out of) joint staff positions. Following the major revision of Title 10 of the United States Code by the Goldwater–Nichols Act in 1986, the Joint Staff of today works directly for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff rather than the corporate Joint Chiefs of Staff, as they did from 1947 to 1986. Under this scheme, operational command and control of military forces are not the province of the Joint Staff, but that of combatant commanders, who report through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff unless otherwise directed, to the Secretary of Defense.


The "Continental Staff System" (ContStaff), also known as the "General Staff System" (GSS), is used by most NATO countries in structuring their militaries' staff functions. In this system, which is based on one originally employed by the French Army in the 19th century, each staff position in a headquarters or unit is assigned a letter-prefix corresponding to the formation's element and one or more numbers specifying a role.

The staff numbers are assigned according to custom, not hierarchy, traceable back to French practice; i.e., 1 is not "higher ranking" than 2. This list reflects the SHAPE structure:

Since the original continental staff system only covered branches 1 through 6, it is not uncommon to see 7 through 9 omitted or having various meanings. Common variation include merging of 3 and 5 to 3, Operations and Plans; omitting the training branch and utilizing 7 for engineering (as seen in US Military Sealift Command and Multinational Forces-Iraq (MNF-I)) and replacing 9 with a legal branch (making CIMIC a part of another branch, i.e. 2 or 4) as seen with the UK Permanent Joint Headquarters.

Derived from the Prussian Große Generalstab (Great General Staff), traditionally these staff functions were prefixed by the simple G, which is retained in place for modern army usage. But the increasing complexity of modern armies, not to speak of the spread of the staff concept to naval, air and other elements, has demanded the addition of new prefixes. These element prefixes are:

  • A, for air force headquarters;
  • C, for combined headquarters (multiple nations) headquarters;
  • F, for certain forward or deployable headquarters;
  • G, for army or marine general staff sections within headquarters of organizations commanded by a general officer and having a chief of staff to coordinate the actions of the general staff, such as divisions or equivalent organizations (e.g., USMC Marine Aircraft Wing and Marine Logistics Group) and separate (i.e., non-divisional) brigade level (USMC MEB) and above;
  • J, for joint (multiple services) headquarters, including the Joint Chiefs of Staff);
  • N, for navy headquarters;
  • S, for army or marines executive staff sections within headquarters of organizations commanded by a field grade officer (i.e., major through colonel) and having an executive officer to coordinate the actions of the executive staff (e.g., divisional brigades, regiments, groups, battalions, and squadrons; not used by all countries); S is also used in the Naval Mobile Construction Battalions (SeaBees) and in the Air Force Security Forces Squadron.
  • U, is used for United Nations military operations mission headquarters.

On some occasions the letter E can also be observed, though it is not an official term. In that case it is for element and it will be used to identify a small independent element, that is a part of a non-staff organization; i.e., an E3 is an operational element on a logistics site or an E4 is a logistics element on a forward medical support site.

Thus, the personnel officer of a naval headquarters would be referred to as N1. In reality, in large organizations each of these staff functions will require the support of its own large staff, so N1 refers both to the office and the officer in charge of it. The continental staff system can be carried down to the next level: J1.3 (or J13, sometimes the dot-separator is omitted) is thus the operations officer of the personnel office of a joint headquarters, but the exact definition of the roles at this level may vary. Below this, numbers can be attached following a hyphen, but these are usually only positional numbers assigned arbitrarily to identify individuals (G2.3-2 could be the budget officer in the operations section of the intelligence department; A1.1-1-1 might simply be a receptionist).

Manpower or personnel

The manpower or personnel officer supervises personnel and administration systems. This department functions as the essential administrative liaison between the subordinate units and the headquarters, handling personnel actions coming from the bottom up (such as a request for an award to be given to a particular soldier) or from the top down (such as orders being received from the army level directing that a particular soldier be reassigned to a new unit outside the command). In army units, this person is often called the Adjutant. The S-1 also works with the postal mailing office, and deals with awards and ranks as well.

Intelligence, security, and information operations

The intelligence section is responsible for collecting and analyzing intelligence information about the enemy to determine what the enemy is doing or might do, to prevent the accomplishment of the enemy's mission. This office may also control maps and geographical information systems and data. At the unit level, the S-2 is the unit's security officer, and the S-2 section manages all security clearance issues for the unit's personnel. Other duties of the S-2 often include intelligence oversight and physical security.

Operations

The operations office may include plans and training. The operations office plans and coordinates operations, and all things necessary to enable the formation to operate and accomplish its mission. In most units, the operations office is the largest of the staff sections and considered the most important. All aspects of sustaining the unit's operations, planning future operations, and additionally planning and executing all unit training, fall under the responsibility of operations. The operations office is also tasked with keeping track of the weekly training schedules. In most military units (i.e., battalion, regiment, and brigade), the operations officer carries the same rank as the executive officer (XO), but ranks third in the unit's chain of command while the other staff officers are one rank lower. For example, in a battalion, the S-3 would hold the rank of major (like the battalion XO), while the remaining staff officers are captains or lieutenants.

Logistics

Main article: Military logistics

The logistics office is responsible for managing the wide scope of materiel, transport, facilities, services and medical/health support:

  • Design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel.
  • Transport of personnel and materiel.
  • Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities.
  • Acquisition or furnishing of services.
  • Medical and health service support.

By NATO doctrine, the logistic staff is tasked with overseeing logistic aspects and principles, where the focus is that "logistic support must be focused towards ensuring the success of the operation" and prescriptions of elements such as responsibility and authority. A logistic staff may be divided into sections based on branch or geographic area. Each section may in turn also be divided into tasks and roles. The size of the logistic staff can vary greatly, depending on the environment and complexity of operations. NATO in example work with a "Multinational Joint Logistic Centre", which exists outside of the force commander's staff, but runs as a separate entity/unit, with only a few logistic personnel in the commander's staff who act as liaisons.

Plans and strategy

The plans and strategy office is responsible for civil military operations (CMO) strategy planning. At the unit level, the S-5 is the primary adviser to the commander on the civilian-to-military and military-to-civilian impact of the mission/operation within the host nation's (HN) area of interest (AOI), area of operations (AO), or the target area of interest (TAOI). The G5 serves as the mission support office (MSO) at the division level and HHC for civil military plans and strategy.

Signal (communications and IT)

The signal office directs all communications and is the point of contact for the issue of communications instructions and protocol during operations as well as for communications troubleshooting, issue, and preventative maintenance. Communications at this level is paired with digital as well as voice (radio, computer, etc.). At the unit level, S-6 is also usually responsible for all electronic systems within a unit to include computers, faxes, copy machines, and phone systems.

Training

The training branch will organize and coordinate training activity conducted by a Headquarters and also supervise and support subordinate units.

Finance

The finance branch, not to be confused with Administration from which it has split, sets the finance policy for the operation. Operationally, the Administration and Finance may be interlinked, but have separate reporting chains.

CIMIC: Civil-Military Co-operation

Civil-Military Co-operation or civil affairs are the activities that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between the military forces, the government or non-government civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate and achieve mission objectives.

The "Commonwealth staff system ", used by most Commonwealth Nations, is largely based on the British military's staff system with nation-specific variations.

Army staff

Until 1984, when it began to use the continental or NATO system, the United Kingdom operated its own system, as follows:

  • 3 branches:
    • G branch: The general branch, responsible for operations, intelligence and training.
    • A branch: The administration branch, responsible for all aspects of personnel management.
    • Q branch: The quartermaster branch, responsible for logistic and equipment support.
  • Positions: positions were labelled as follows, may also be styled GSO I, GSO II, GSO III:
    • GSO1, General Staff Officer (Grade 1): The chief of staff, ranked a lieutenant colonel or colonel. He was in charge of the general staff branch, responsible for training, intelligence, planning operations and directing the battle as it progressed. Most orders from the general officer commanding (GOC) were actually written up and signed by the GSO1.
    • GSO2, General Staff Officer (Grade 2): Ranked a major.
    • GSO3, General Staff Officer (Grade 3): Ranked a captain.

In the British system, staff are outranked by command officers. The staff cannot in theory (and largely in practice) say "no" to a subordinate unit; only the commander has that ability. This ensured a clear chain of command, and reinforced the idea that staff do not command, but exercise control on behalf of their commander. By contrast, in the American system, commanders are frequently outranked by staff officers. For example, within a battalion, the S-3 is a major while company commanders are captains. The principal staff officers at any HQ were always outranked by the subordinate commanders:

  • Lieutenant colonels commanding battalions or units in a brigade outrank the brigade major and the deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster general
  • Brigadiers commanding brigades in a division outrank the colonel GS and colonel AQ
  • Major generals commanding divisions outrank the brigadier GS and assistant adjutant general and assistant quartermaster general at a corps HQ

Brigade level

Branches as brigade were as follows. A and Q branches might be combined under a deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster general, rank major (DAA&QMG).

  • G branch (operations) plans and executes operations.
    The senior staff officer in brigade HQ held the appointment of brigade major (BM) with rank of captain or major, who coordinated the HQ. While the BM was responsible for the entire HQ, he concentrated mainly on "G" operational matters. A deputy BM GSO III generally looked after non-operational matters. Under the BM were several GSO III (rank captain) officers:
    • Operations (the senior captain)
    • Intelligence
    • Liaison. The Liaison section often had several lieutenants attached from the brigade's combat units.
    • Air
  • A branch:
    It handled all personnel matters such as awards, postings, promotions, medical, chaplains, military police and so forth. There were usually one or two GSO III officers in A branch.
  • Q Branch:
    It handled logistics, supply, transport, clothing, maintenance. There was usually one GSO III officer, with a learner captain or lieutenant, and several advisors, all captains:

Division level

G branch was under the colonel GS (a lieutenant-colonel).

The combined "A" and "Q" staffs was headed by a colonel AQ, who was assisted by an assistant adjutant and quartermaster general (AA&QMG, rank lieutenant-colonel).

Members of the G staff:

  • A GSO II, acting as deputy to the GSO I. He was responsible for the preparation of orders and instructions as directed by the GSO I; the general organization and working of the "G" office; detailing of duty officers at the Div HQ; coordinating arrangements for moving the Main HQ; details of movement by road in consultation with the DAAG and DAQMG; and general policy regarding HQ defence and the preparation and promulgation of HQ standing orders. (In an armoured division headquarters, the GSO II was responsible for the division tactical HQ and the above duties were done by the GSO III (Operations).)
  • The GSO III (Operations) was the understudy to the GSO II; he maintained the situation map; prepared situation reports; supervised the acknowledgement register; maintained the command matrix; prepared orders for the move of the orders group; and prepared orders for the move of the division's main HQ.
  • The GSO III (Operations)(Chemical Warfare) was responsible for all matters dealing with chemical warfare that affected the division; coordinated courses; was responsible for the camouflage policy; maintained the war diary; prepared and maintained location statements; received and distributed codes, call sign lists and other signals information from the divisional signals; coordinated traffic control and organization of routes in the divisional forward area under the GSO II and APM; was understudy to the GSO III (Operations) on all matters less CW.
  • The GSO III (Intelligence) coordinated all intelligence training and work in the division; coordinated the collection and collation of information about enemy dispositions, methods and intentions; prepared daily intelligence summaries; coordinated interpretation of air photographs with the Army Photographic Interpretation Section (APIS); effected liaison with the APIS, the field security office and the Intelligence Officer, Royal Artillery (at CRA); and was responsible for briefing and handling of press correspondents.
  • The GSO III (Liaison) coordinated the work of the liaison officers, was responsible for the division information room and served as an understudy to the GSO III (Operations).

Corps level

G branch was headed by the brigadier general staff (BGS, rank brigadier). The BGS was usually superior to the AAG and AQMG, despite all three having the same rank.

A branch was headed by the Assistant adjutant general (AAG, rank brigadier). He was assisted by the deputy assistant adjutant general (DAAG, rank lieutenant-colonel).

Q branch was headed by the assistant quartermaster general (AQMG rank brigadier).

The G staff for a corps might appear as below:

  • Operations and staff duties:
    • GSO I
    • GSO II (Ops)
    • GSO II (Ops)(CW)
    • GSO II (SD)—Staff Duties
    • 2 × GSO III (SD)
  • Air:
    • GSO II (Air)
  • Intelligence:
    • GSO II (Int)
    • 2 × GSO III (Int)
  • Liaison:
    • GSO II (L)
    • 3 × GSO III (L)
  • Royal Artillery:
    • GSO II (RA)
    • GSO II (AA)
    • GSO III (RA)

Naval staff

The Admiralty War Staff was a former senior command, operational planning department within the Admiralty during World War I. It was instituted on 8 January 1912 and was in effect a war council whose head reported directly to the First Sea Lord. It existed until 1917. After the war ended, it was replaced by the Admiralty Naval Staff department.

The Admiralty Naval Staff was the senior command, operational planning, policy and strategy department within the British Admiralty. It was established in 1917 and existed until 1964 when the department of the Admiralty was abolished and was replaced by the Naval Staff, Navy Department (Ministry of Defence).

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Staff (military)
Staff military Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from General staff Staff officer redirects here For officers in a staff corps see United States Navy staff corps Staff office redirects here For the ceremonial weapon see staff of office General staff redirects here For general staff within academic institutions see Academic administration General Staff redirects here For specific General Staff of a country see General Staff disambiguation A military staff or general staff also referred to as army staff navy staff or air staff within the individual services is a group of officers enlisted and civilian staff who serve the commander of a division or other large military unit in his command and control role through planning analysis and information gathering as well as by relaying coordinating and supervising the execution of his plans and orders especially in case of multiple simultaneous and rapidly changing complex operations They are organised into functional groups such as administration logistics operations intelligence training etc They provide multi directional flow of information between a commanding officer subordinate military units and other stakeholders 1 2 A centralised general staff results in tighter top down control but requires larger staff at HQ and reduces accuracy of orientation disambiguation needed of field operations whereas a decentralised general staff results in enhanced situational focus personal initiative speed of localised action OODA loop and improved accuracy of orientation 2 Staff meeting of the U S 112th Regimental Combat Team in Arawe with General Julian Cunningham seated standing left to right unidentified Lieutenant Colonel C E Grant Major D M McMains Colonel A M Miller and Lieutenant Colonel P L Hooper A commander commands through his personal authority decision making and leadership and he uses general staff to exercise the control on his behalf in a large unit The traditional role of the general staff in control role has evolved from the simpler C2 command and control to C3 C2 with addition of communication such as PsyOps to C4 C3 with addition of computers such as IT and networks to C4I2 C4 with addition of intelligence and interoperability to C5I C4 with addition of collaboration and intelligence to C6ISR subsumes C4I2 and C5I by combining C4 element of command control communications and computers with addition of 2C cyber defense and combat systems e g aegis and ISR elements of intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance 2 Most NATO nations including USA and European nations use the Continental Staff System which has origin in Napoleon s military Commonwealth Staff System used by the most of Commonwealth Nations has its origin in the British Military 2 Contents 1 Military staff functions 1 1 Information management 1 2 Staff structure 2 History 2 1 Austria 2 2 France 2 3 Prussia 2 4 United Kingdom 2 5 United States 3 Continental Staff System ContStaff 3 1 Manpower or personnel 3 2 Intelligence security and information operations 3 3 Operations 3 4 Logistics 3 5 Plans and strategy 3 6 Signal communications and IT 3 7 Training 3 8 Finance 3 9 CIMIC Civil Military Co operation 4 Commonwealth staff system 4 1 Army staff 4 1 1 Brigade level 4 1 2 Division level 4 1 3 Corps level 4 2 Naval staff 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksMilitary staff functions EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed October 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message Information management Edit This section may be too technical for most readers to understand Please help improve it to make it understandable to non experts without removing the technical details November 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message One of the key purposes of a military staff is to provide accurate timely information which includes the results of contingency planning on which command decisions are based A goal is being able to suggest approaches or help produce well informed decisions that will effectively manage and conserve unit resources In addition to generating information the staff also manages the flow of communication within the unit and around it While controlled information flow toward the commander is a priority those useful or contingent in nature are communicated to lower level units and or through their respective staffs If the information is not pertinent to the unit it is redirected to the command level which can best utilize the condition or information Staffs are generally the first to know of issues that affect its group Issues that require major decisions affecting the unit s operational capability are communicated to the commanding officer However not all issues will be handled by the commander Smaller matters that arise are given to a more appropriate tasker within the unit to be handled and resolved which would otherwise be an unnecessary distraction for the Commanding Officer who already makes numerous decisions every day In addition a staff aims to carefully craft any useful situations and utilize that information Staff structure Edit In a generic command staff more seasoned and senior officers oversee staff sections of groups organized by the needs of the unit Senior Enlisted Personnel task personnel in the maintenance of tactical equipment and vehicles Senior Analysts are tasked with the finalizing of reports and their enlisted personnel participate in the acquisition of information from subordinate staffs and units This hierarchy places decision making and reporting under the auspices of the most experienced personnel and maximizes information flow of pertinent information sent out of the command overall clarifying matters overall This frees up the most senior members of the command at each level for decision making and issuing direction for further research or information gathering perhaps requiring men to put their lives at risk to gather additional intelligence Operations staff officers also are tasked with battle planning both for offensive and defensive conditions and issuing contingency plans for handling situations anticipated during the foreseeable future History EditPrior to the late 18th century there was generally no organizational support for staff functions such as military intelligence logistics planning or personnel Unit commanders handled such functions for their units with informal help from subordinates who were usually not trained for or assigned to a specific task Austria Edit Count Leopold Joseph von Daun in a letter to Empress Maria Theresa in January 1758 pressed for a more important role for the Generalquartiermeister Chief of Staff 3 The failures in the army especially at the Battle of Leuthen made it clear that Austria had no great brain and the command needed to spread the workload to allow the Commander in chief the time to consider the strategic picture The 1757 regulations had created the Grosse Feldgeneralstab and Kleine Generalstab large and small general staff and after changes in 1769 a permanent staff of 30 officers was established under the direction of Franz Moritz von Lacy which would be expanded in wartime with junior officers 4 The Grosse staff was divided into three First the Intrinsecum which handled internal administration and directing operations secondly external activities including the Pioneers thirdly the Inspection Service which handled the issuing of orders and prisoners of war Alongside the General Staff was the General Adjutant who led a group of Adjutant staff selected by the army commanders to handle the details of internal administration and collating intelligence and answered to the Commander in chief The Chief of Staff became the chief adviser to the Commander in chief and in a fundamental move away from the previous administrative role the Chief of Staff now undertook operational planning while delegating the routine work to his senior staff officers Staff officers were drawn from line units and would later return to them the intention being that they would prove themselves as leaders during their time with the staff In a battle or when the army had detached corps a small number of staff would be allocated to the column commander as a smaller version of headquarters The senior man usually a Major would be the chief of the column staff and his principal task would be to help the commander to understand what was intended When Karl Mack von Leiberich became chief of staff of the army under Prince Josias of Saxe Coburg Saalfeld in the Netherlands he issued the Instruktionspunkte fur gesammte Herren Generals the last of 19 points setting out the roles of staff officers dealing with offensive and defensive operations while helping the Commander in chief In 1796 Archduke Charles Duke of Teschen augmented these with his own Observationspunkte writing of the Chief of Staff he is duty bound to consider all possibilities related to operations and not view himself as merely carrying out those instructions 5 On 20 March 1801 Feldmarschalleutnant Duka became the world s first peacetime Generalquartiermeister at the head of the staff and the wartime role of the Chief of Staff was now focused on planning and operations to assist the Commander Archduke Charles Duke of Teschen himself produced a new Dienstvorschrift on 1 September 1805 6 which divided the staff into three 1 Political Correspondence 2 the Operations Directorate dealing with planning and intelligence 3 the Service Directorate dealing with administration supply and military justice The Archduke set out the position of a modern Chief of Staff The Chief of Staff stands at the side of the Commander in Chief and is completely at his disposal His sphere of work connects him with no specific unit The Commander in Chief decides what should happen and how his chief assistant works out these decisions so that each subordinate understands his allotted task With the creation of the Korps in 1809 each had a staff whose chief was responsible for directing operations and executing the overall headquarters plan The staff on the outbreak of war in 1809 numbered over 170 Finally in 1811 Joseph Radetzky von Radetz produced his Uber die bessere Einrichtung des Generalstabs 7 which prioritised the Chief of Staff s managerial and supervisory role with the departments Political Correspondence Operations and Service under their own directors effectively merging the Adjutants and General Staff officers In this system lay the beginnings of a formal staff corps whose members could specialise in operations intelligence and logistics 8 France Edit Despite a short lived permanent staff under St Cyr 1783 90 the French reverted to the old system in 1790 when the Revolutionary Government abolished the staff corps When General Louis Alexandre Berthier was appointed Chief of Staff to the French Army of Italy in 1795 his was the old administrative role accurately described by Jomini and Vachee as the chief clerk and of limited competence 9 His manual is merely a reporting system as a kind of office manual 10 Staff officers were rotated out of the line on the Austrian model but received no training and merely became efficient in the administrative tasks especially the rapid issuance of orders It suited Napoleon Bonaparte from the moment he took over the army the following year and he would use Berthier s system throughout his wars Crucially Napoleon remained his own intelligence chief and operational planner a workload which ultimately not even he could cope with Prussia Edit Prussia adopted Austria s approach in the following years especially when Gerhard von Scharnhorst who as a Hanoverian staff officer had worked with the Austrian army in the Austrian Netherlands in the early 1790s took charge Initially the Prussian Army assigned a limited number of technical expert officers to support field commanders Before 1746 however reforms had added management of intelligence and contingency planning to the staff s duties Later the practice was initiated of rotating officers from command to staff assignments and back to familiarize them with both aspects of military operations a practice that with the addition of enlisted personnel continues to be used After 1806 Prussia s military academies trained mid level officers in specialist staff skills In 1814 Prussia formally established by law a central military command Prussian General Staff and a separate staff for each division and corps Despite some professional and political issues with the Prussian system especially when viewed through the prism of the 20th century World Wars their General Staff concept has been adopted by many large armies in existence today citation needed United Kingdom Edit Before the Crimean War staff work was looked at with great disdain in the British Army the hardships of that war caused by disorganization led to a change in attitude 11 The General Staff in Britain was formed in 1905 and reorganized again in 1908 Unlike the Prussian staff system the British Army was thought too small to support separate staff and command career streams Officers would typically alternate between staff and command 11 Beevor Inside the British Army says instead that the terrible cleavages between staff and line units caused by the enormous losses during the trench warfare of the First World War meant that senior British officers decided that from thenceforth all officers would rotate between staff and line responsibilities preventing the development of a separate general staff corps United States Edit The National Security Act of 1947 instead created a Joint Staff populated by military service members who rather than becoming career staff officers on the German general staff model rotate into and back out of joint staff positions Following the major revision of Title 10 of the United States Code by the Goldwater Nichols Act in 1986 the Joint Staff of today works directly for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff rather than the corporate Joint Chiefs of Staff as they did from 1947 to 1986 Under this scheme operational command and control of military forces are not the province of the Joint Staff but that of combatant commanders who report through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff unless otherwise directed to the Secretary of Defense Continental Staff System ContStaff EditThe Continental Staff System ContStaff also known as the General Staff System GSS is used by most NATO countries in structuring their militaries staff functions In this system which is based on one originally employed by the French Army in the 19th century each staff position in a headquarters or unit is assigned a letter prefix corresponding to the formation s element and one or more numbers specifying a role The staff numbers are assigned according to custom not hierarchy traceable back to French practice i e 1 is not higher ranking than 2 This list reflects the SHAPE structure 12 1 for manpower or personnel 2 for intelligence and security 3 for operations 4 for logistics 5 for plans 6 for signals i e communications or IT 13 7 for military education and training also the joint engineer 8 for finance and contracts Also known as resource management 9 for Civil Military Co operation CIMIC or civil affairs Since the original continental staff system only covered branches 1 through 6 it is not uncommon to see 7 through 9 omitted or having various meanings 14 Common variation include merging of 3 and 5 to 3 Operations and Plans omitting the training branch and utilizing 7 for engineering as seen in US Military Sealift Command 15 and Multinational Forces Iraq MNF I 16 and replacing 9 with a legal branch making CIMIC a part of another branch i e 2 or 4 as seen with the UK Permanent Joint Headquarters 17 Derived from the Prussian Grosse Generalstab Great General Staff traditionally these staff functions were prefixed by the simple G which is retained in place for modern army usage But the increasing complexity of modern armies not to speak of the spread of the staff concept to naval air and other elements has demanded the addition of new prefixes These element prefixes are A for air force headquarters C for combined headquarters multiple nations headquarters F for certain forward or deployable headquarters G for army or marine general staff sections within headquarters of organizations commanded by a general officer and having a chief of staff to coordinate the actions of the general staff such as divisions or equivalent organizations e g USMC Marine Aircraft Wing and Marine Logistics Group and separate i e non divisional brigade level USMC MEB and above 18 J for joint multiple services headquarters including the Joint Chiefs of Staff 19 N for navy headquarters S for army or marines executive staff sections within headquarters of organizations commanded by a field grade officer i e major through colonel and having an executive officer to coordinate the actions of the executive staff e g divisional brigades regiments groups battalions and squadrons not used by all countries 18 S is also used in the Naval Mobile Construction Battalions SeaBees 20 and in the Air Force Security Forces Squadron 21 U is used for United Nations military operations mission headquarters On some occasions the letter E can also be observed though it is not an official term In that case it is for element and it will be used to identify a small independent element that is a part of a non staff organization i e an E3 is an operational element on a logistics site or an E4 is a logistics element on a forward medical support site Thus the personnel officer of a naval headquarters would be referred to as N1 In reality in large organizations each of these staff functions will require the support of its own large staff so N1 refers both to the office and the officer in charge of it The continental staff system can be carried down to the next level J1 3 or J13 sometimes the dot separator is omitted is thus the operations officer of the personnel office of a joint headquarters but the exact definition of the roles at this level may vary Below this numbers can be attached following a hyphen but these are usually only positional numbers assigned arbitrarily to identify individuals G2 3 2 could be the budget officer in the operations section of the intelligence department A1 1 1 1 might simply be a receptionist Manpower or personnel Edit The manpower or personnel officer supervises personnel and administration systems This department functions as the essential administrative liaison between the subordinate units and the headquarters handling personnel actions coming from the bottom up such as a request for an award to be given to a particular soldier or from the top down such as orders being received from the army level directing that a particular soldier be reassigned to a new unit outside the command In army units this person is often called the Adjutant The S 1 also works with the postal mailing office and deals with awards and ranks as well Intelligence security and information operations Edit The intelligence section is responsible for collecting and analyzing intelligence information about the enemy to determine what the enemy is doing or might do to prevent the accomplishment of the enemy s mission This office may also control maps and geographical information systems and data At the unit level the S 2 is the unit s security officer and the S 2 section manages all security clearance issues for the unit s personnel Other duties of the S 2 often include intelligence oversight and physical security Operations Edit Main article Operations military staff The operations office may include plans and training The operations office plans and coordinates operations and all things necessary to enable the formation to operate and accomplish its mission In most units the operations office is the largest of the staff sections and considered the most important All aspects of sustaining the unit s operations planning future operations and additionally planning and executing all unit training fall under the responsibility of operations The operations office is also tasked with keeping track of the weekly training schedules In most military units i e battalion regiment and brigade the operations officer carries the same rank as the executive officer XO but ranks third in the unit s chain of command while the other staff officers are one rank lower For example in a battalion the S 3 would hold the rank of major like the battalion XO while the remaining staff officers are captains or lieutenants Logistics Edit Main article Military logistics The logistics office is responsible for managing the wide scope of materiel transport facilities services and medical health support Design development acquisition storage distribution maintenance evacuation and disposition of materiel Transport of personnel and materiel Acquisition or construction maintenance operation and disposition of facilities Acquisition or furnishing of services Medical and health service support By NATO doctrine the logistic staff is tasked with overseeing logistic aspects and principles where the focus is that logistic support must be focused towards ensuring the success of the operation and prescriptions of elements such as responsibility and authority 22 A logistic staff may be divided into sections based on branch or geographic area Each section may in turn also be divided into tasks and roles The size of the logistic staff can vary greatly depending on the environment and complexity of operations NATO in example work with a Multinational Joint Logistic Centre 23 which exists outside of the force commander s staff but runs as a separate entity unit with only a few logistic personnel in the commander s staff who act as liaisons Plans and strategy Edit The plans and strategy office is responsible for civil military operations CMO strategy planning At the unit level the S 5 is the primary adviser to the commander on the civilian to military and military to civilian impact of the mission operation within the host nation s HN area of interest AOI area of operations AO or the target area of interest TAOI The G5 serves as the mission support office MSO at the division level and HHC for civil military plans and strategy Signal communications and IT Edit The signal office directs all communications and is the point of contact for the issue of communications instructions and protocol during operations as well as for communications troubleshooting issue and preventative maintenance Communications at this level is paired with digital as well as voice radio computer etc At the unit level S 6 is also usually responsible for all electronic systems within a unit to include computers faxes copy machines and phone systems Training Edit The training branch will organize and coordinate training activity conducted by a Headquarters and also supervise and support subordinate units Finance Edit The finance branch not to be confused with Administration from which it has split sets the finance policy for the operation Operationally the Administration and Finance may be interlinked but have separate reporting chains CIMIC Civil Military Co operation Edit Civil Military Co operation or civil affairs are the activities that establish maintain influence or exploit relations between the military forces the government or non government civilian organizations and authorities and the civilian populace in a friendly neutral or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate and achieve mission objectives 24 Commonwealth staff system EditThe Commonwealth staff system used by most Commonwealth Nations is largely based on the British military s staff system with nation specific variations 2 Army staff Edit Until 1984 when it began to use the continental or NATO system the United Kingdom operated its own system as follows 3 branches G branch The general branch responsible for operations intelligence and training A branch The administration branch responsible for all aspects of personnel management Q branch The quartermaster branch responsible for logistic and equipment support Positions positions were labelled as follows may also be styled GSO I GSO II GSO III GSO1 General Staff Officer Grade 1 The chief of staff ranked a lieutenant colonel or colonel He was in charge of the general staff branch responsible for training intelligence planning operations and directing the battle as it progressed Most orders from the general officer commanding GOC were actually written up and signed by the GSO1 25 GSO2 General Staff Officer Grade 2 Ranked a major GSO3 General Staff Officer Grade 3 Ranked a captain In the British system staff are outranked by command officers The staff cannot in theory and largely in practice say no to a subordinate unit only the commander has that ability This ensured a clear chain of command and reinforced the idea that staff do not command but exercise control on behalf of their commander By contrast in the American system commanders are frequently outranked by staff officers For example within a battalion the S 3 is a major while company commanders are captains The principal staff officers at any HQ were always outranked by the subordinate commanders Lieutenant colonels commanding battalions or units in a brigade outrank the brigade major and the deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster general Brigadiers commanding brigades in a division outrank the colonel GS and colonel AQ Major generals commanding divisions outrank the brigadier GS and assistant adjutant general and assistant quartermaster general at a corps HQBrigade level Edit Branches as brigade were as follows A and Q branches might be combined under a deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster general rank major DAA amp QMG 11 G branch operations plans and executes operations The senior staff officer in brigade HQ held the appointment of brigade major BM with rank of captain or major who coordinated the HQ While the BM was responsible for the entire HQ he concentrated mainly on G operational matters A deputy BM GSO III generally looked after non operational matters Under the BM were several GSO III rank captain officers Operations the senior captain Intelligence Liaison The Liaison section often had several lieutenants attached from the brigade s combat units AirA branch It handled all personnel matters such as awards postings promotions medical chaplains military police and so forth There were usually one or two GSO III officers in A branch Q Branch It handled logistics supply transport clothing maintenance There was usually one GSO III officer with a learner captain or lieutenant and several advisors all captains Brigade Royal Army Service Corps Officer BRASCO Brigade Ordnance Officer BOO Brigade Electrical and Mechanical Engineer Officer BEME Division level Edit G branch was under the colonel GS a lieutenant colonel The combined A and Q staffs was headed by a colonel AQ who was assisted by an assistant adjutant and quartermaster general AA amp QMG rank lieutenant colonel Members of the G staff A GSO II acting as deputy to the GSO I He was responsible for the preparation of orders and instructions as directed by the GSO I the general organization and working of the G office detailing of duty officers at the Div HQ coordinating arrangements for moving the Main HQ details of movement by road in consultation with the DAAG and DAQMG and general policy regarding HQ defence and the preparation and promulgation of HQ standing orders In an armoured division headquarters the GSO II was responsible for the division tactical HQ and the above duties were done by the GSO III Operations The GSO III Operations was the understudy to the GSO II he maintained the situation map prepared situation reports supervised the acknowledgement register maintained the command matrix prepared orders for the move of the orders group and prepared orders for the move of the division s main HQ The GSO III Operations Chemical Warfare was responsible for all matters dealing with chemical warfare that affected the division coordinated courses was responsible for the camouflage policy maintained the war diary prepared and maintained location statements received and distributed codes call sign lists and other signals information from the divisional signals coordinated traffic control and organization of routes in the divisional forward area under the GSO II and APM was understudy to the GSO III Operations on all matters less CW The GSO III Intelligence coordinated all intelligence training and work in the division coordinated the collection and collation of information about enemy dispositions methods and intentions prepared daily intelligence summaries coordinated interpretation of air photographs with the Army Photographic Interpretation Section APIS effected liaison with the APIS the field security office and the Intelligence Officer Royal Artillery at CRA and was responsible for briefing and handling of press correspondents The GSO III Liaison coordinated the work of the liaison officers was responsible for the division information room and served as an understudy to the GSO III Operations Corps level Edit G branch was headed by the brigadier general staff BGS rank brigadier The BGS was usually superior to the AAG and AQMG despite all three having the same rank A branch was headed by the Assistant adjutant general AAG rank brigadier He was assisted by the deputy assistant adjutant general DAAG rank lieutenant colonel Q branch was headed by the assistant quartermaster general AQMG rank brigadier The G staff for a corps might appear as below Operations and staff duties GSO I GSO II Ops GSO II Ops CW GSO II SD Staff Duties 2 GSO III SD Air GSO II Air Intelligence GSO II Int 2 GSO III Int Liaison GSO II L 3 GSO III L Royal Artillery GSO II RA GSO II AA GSO III RA Naval staff Edit The Admiralty War Staff 26 was a former senior command operational planning department within the Admiralty during World War I It was instituted on 8 January 1912 and was in effect a war council whose head reported directly to the First Sea Lord It existed until 1917 After the war ended it was replaced by the Admiralty Naval Staff department 27 28 The Admiralty Naval Staff 29 was the senior command operational planning policy and strategy department within the British Admiralty It was established in 1917 and existed until 1964 when the department of the Admiralty was abolished and was replaced by the Naval Staff Navy Department Ministry of Defence See also EditStaff collegeReferences Edit General staff definition Encyclopaedia Britannica a b c d e PK Mallick 2011 Staff System in the Indian Army Time for Change Centre for Land Warfare Studies New Delhi vol 31 Duffy C Instrument of War p 381 Desfourt Francois 1769 VIII Generalreglement oder Verhaltungen fur die kaiserliche konigliche Generalitat General Regulations or Behaviors for the Imperial Royal Generals in German vol 1 part 2 p 145f Archived from the original on 21 September 2016 Retrieved 2 December 2018 volume has extra text help Osterreichische Militarische Zeitschrift Streffleur Vienna 1860 III 229 233 Regele O Generalstabschefs aus vier Jahrhunderten Vienna 1966 p 55 Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung des k u k Kriegsarchivs Befreiungskriege Kriegsarchiv Vienna 1913 Vol V Leipzig Fremont Barnes G editor Armies of the Napoleonic Wars 2011 Kriegsarchiv Vienna Nachlasse Wolf Schneider B 197 6 IX Vachee Napoleon at Work 1914 p 29ff Lamarque Jean Maximilien Fririon Franciois Nicolas baron 11 May 2018 Le Spectateur militaire Recueil de science d art et d histoire militaires Bureau de Spectateur militaire Archived from the original on 23 September 2016 via Google Books a b c www canadiansoldiers com www canadiansoldiers com Archived from the original on 23 September 2015 NATO SHAPE structure nato int Archived from the original on 9 January 2010 Department of the Army 1997 Staff organization and Operations FM 101 5 PDF pp 4 16 Archived from the original PDF on 22 November 2011 Retrieved 6 September 2010 The Command and Staff System in the Information Age Is the Continental Staff System Dead Archived 10 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine MSC N7 Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine MNF I J7 Directorate PDF army mil Archived PDF from the original on 6 December 2010 Armed Forces m06 Permanent Joint Headquarters PJHQ Overview of International Operations Headquarters Structure PJHQ Headquarters Structure Lt General J N Houghton www armedforces co uk Archived from the original on 2 July 2014 a b Joint Doctrine Library www dtic mil Archived from the original on 10 October 2016 Example of a JCS J 8 Directorate http navyadministration tpub com 14326 Figure 12 3 Naval Mobile Construction Battalion Nmcb Organization 277 html https static e publishing af mil production 1 af a1 publication afi38 101 afi38 101 pdf AJP 4 Allied Joint Logistic Doctrine Archived 7 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine NATO Logistics Handbook Chapter 13 Multinational Logistics nato int Archived from the original on 24 June 2013 See Army FM 41 10 Division Headquarters 29 May 2002 Archived from the original on 29 May 2002 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Black Nicholas 2011 British naval staff in the First World War Woodbridge Boydell Press pp 15 52 ISBN 978 1843836551 Moretz Joseph 6 December 2012 The Royal Navy and the Capital Ship in the Interwar Period An Operational Perspective Routledge p 247 ISBN 9781136340369 Archives The National The Discovery Service discovery nationalarchives gov uk National Archives Archived from the original on 31 January 2017 Retrieved 19 January 2017 Moretz Joseph 2001 The Royal Navy and the capital ship in the interwar period an operational perspective London Frank Cass p 246 ISBN 9781136340369 Further reading EditBartholomees J Boone Buff Facings and Gilt Buttons Staff and Headquarters Operations in the Army of Northern Virginia 1861 1865 University of South Carolina Press 1998 ISBN 1 57003 220 3 Crosswell D K R The Chief of Staff The Military Career of General Walter Bedell Smith Greenwood Press 1991 ISBN 0 313 27480 0 Fremont Barnes G editor Armies of the Napoleonic Wars 2011 Goerlitz Walter History of the German General Staff 1657 1945 Praeger 1954 Hittle James Donald The Military Staff Its History and Development Military Service Publishing 1944 Jones R Steven J The Right Hand of Command Use and Disuse of Personal Staffs in the American Civil War Stackpole Books 2000 ISBN 0 8117 1451 9 Koch Oscar W G 2 Intelligence for Patton Intelligence for Patton Schiffer Aviation History 1999 ISBN 0 7643 0800 9 Pigman Robyn All Systems Green A Concise History of Chicken Bak Bak and the S 6 Offensive Nelson Ltd ISBN 978 9948150510 Regele O Generalstabschefs aus vier Jahrhunderten Vienna 1966 Watson S J By Command of the Emperor A Life of Marshal Berthier Ken Trotman Ltd ISBN 0 946879 46 X Irvine D D The French and Prussian Staff Systems Before 1870 in The Journal of the American Military Foundation Vol 2 No 4 Winter 1938 pp 192 203 https www jstor org stable 3038792 seq 1 fndtn page scan tab contents External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Military staff Changes needed in the General Staff system research paper History of General Staff system Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Staff military amp oldid 1054253942, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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