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Generalitat de Catalunya

Not to be confused with the Executive Council of Catalonia, the Generalitat's executive branch, which is also referred to as "Government of Catalonia" due to literal translation of Catalan word govern. Also not to be confused with the equivalent and homonymous institution from Valencian Country, the Generalitat Valenciana.

The Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan pronunciation: ; Aranese: Generalitat de Catalonha; Spanish: Generalidad de Cataluña), or the Government of Catalonia, is the institutional system by which Catalonia politically organizes its self-government. It is formed by the Parliament of Catalonia, the Presidency of the Generalitat de Catalunya, and the Executive Council of Catalonia (also very often referred to as Govern, "Government").

Generalitat de Catalunya
Logo of the Generalitat de Catalunya
Government of Catalonia overview
Formed1359 (first inception)
1931 (established by the Second Spanish Republic)
1977 (reestablished from exile)
Dissolved11 September 1714 (Nueva Planta Decrees)
5 February 1939 (Francoist occupation during Spanish Civil War)
JurisdictionCatalonia
HeadquartersPalau de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Employees240,000
Annual budget€34.03 billion (2017)
Government of Catalonia executives
Websitegencat.cat

Its origins are in the 13th century when permanent councils of deputies (deputations) were created to rule administration of the Courts of the different realms that formed the Crown of Aragon which gave birth to the Deputation of the General of the Principality of Catalonia (1359), the Deputation of the General of the Kingdom of Aragon (1362) and the Deputation of the General of the Kingdom of Valencia (1412). The modern Generalitat was established in 1931, as the institution of self-government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic. Remaining in exile after the end of the Civil War in 1939, it was reestablished in 1977.

Its headquarters are at the Palau de la Generalitat, in the city of Barcelona.

Contents

Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, seat of the Government and the Presidency of Catalonia

Catalonia's political past as a territorially differentiated community with its own representative and separated institutions, materialized in the institutional systems of the combined Catalan counties (9th-12th centuries), the Principality of Catalonia within the Crown of Aragon (1164-1714) and the Monarchy of Spain (1516-1714/1833), as well the establishment of Catalan self government from 1931 onwards, can be divided into different stages, separated by ruptures in the legal/public order.

The Generalitat of Catalonia can trace its origins in the Catalan Courts, as during the reign of James I the Conqueror (1208-1276) they reunited and were convoked by the king, as representatives of the social statements of the time. Under the reign of Peter the Great (1276-1285), the Catalan Courts gained institutional status, after the king obliged himself to celebrate an annual "General Court". The Catalan Courts exercised as Council and had legislative functions through its three branches (braços): the ecclesiastical (clergy), the military (nobility) and the popular (villages and towns submitted to direct rule of the king). This union of the tree branches was named "Lo General de Cathalunya", where "General" means the political community of the Catalans as a whole.

Is in 1289 when the first step into becoming an institution happens during the Courts celebrated in the castle of Montsó (located in the Kingdom of Aragon, ruled by Count of Barcelona, since the year 1151 AD when Count Ramon Berenguer IV married Princess Petronilla of Aragon). A commission was then designed as "Diputació del General" (Deputation of the General), as to temporarily collect the "services" or tributes that the "branches" granted the king on his demand. This tax was popularly known as "Drets Generals" (General Rights) or "generalitats" (generalities), finding its counterpart in the French "Généralités", which were also founded as taxing districts.

Medieval origins

Old emblem of the Generalitat

The Pau i Treva de Déu ("Peace and Truce of God") was a social movement born in the eleventh century promoted by the Church, united with the peasantry as the response to the violence perpetrated by feudal nobles. The hometowns, then, delimited a space protected of feudal violence. However, to ensure a coexistence climate, it was necessary to go further, establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory. This was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God, the first of which, in the Catalan counties, took place in Toluges (Roussillon), in 1027, under the presidency of Abbot Oliba, on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d'Elna, absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage. The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God.

The Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled, in the name of the King as Count of Barcelona, some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia. The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a polity and approved the Catalan constitutions. The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283.

The Medieval precedent of the Generalitat, the Diputació del General de Catalunya ("Deputation of the General of Catalonia") was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new "tax of the General" in 1359, and gained an important political power during the next centuries, assuming tasks of prosecutor. It was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self-government.

First abolition

Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is currently known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia, one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century, which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty.

Then, by the early 18th century, as the "Nueva Planta Decrees" were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, the institution, as well as the other political institutions of the Principality, was abolished in the Spanish territory as well.

First restoration

Left: Francesc Macià, first President of the restored Generalitat of Catalonia (1931-1933). Right: Lluís Companys, second President of the Generalitat (1933-1940), executed by Franco's regime.
Bank note from the Generalitat de Catalunya, 1936

The Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macià, leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), declared the Catalan Republic within an Iberian Federation on 14 April but later reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia (Catalan: Generalitat de Catalunya) and given its modern political and representative function as the institution of self-government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic. The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes in 1932 and included a parliament, a presidency, a government and a court of appeal. It was presided by Francesc Macià (1931-1933) and Lluís Companys (1933-1940). The governments of Macià and Companys enacted a progressive agenda, despite the internal difficulties, while fought to demand the complete transfer of the powers estipulated in the Statute.

After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1933, the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of 1934 against the Spanish authorities, and it was temporarily suspended from 1934 to 1936. After the victory of the left in the Spanish elections of February 1936 the new Spanish government pardoned the Catalan government and the self-government was fully restored.

Throughout the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) the Generalitat remained loyal to the Republic, assuming powers in areas belonging to the State in Catalonia, such as border controls, coinage, justice and defense. However, due to the revolutionary situation created after the coup d'etat, the Generalitat lost most of the effective power over the territory, largely controlled by local committees under the command of the Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia. As the weeks passed, the Catalan government progressively recovered somewhat control until May 1937.

Second abolition

In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side, the Generalitat of Catalonia as an institution was abolished and remained so during the Francoist dictatorship until 1975. The president of the Generalitat at the time, Lluís Companys, was tortured and executed on 15 October 1940 for the crime of 'military rebellion'. Nonetheless, the Generalitat maintained its official existence in exile, led by presidents Josep Irla (1940-1954) and Josep Tarradellas (1954-1980).

Second restoration

The succession of presidents of the Generalitat was maintained in exile from 1939 to 1977, when Josep Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized as the legitimate president by the Spanish government. Tarradellas, when he returned to Catalonia, made his often quoted remark "Ciutadans de Catalunya: ja sóc aquí" ("Citizens of Catalonia: I am back!"), reassuming the autonomous powers of Catalonia, one of the historic nationalities of present-day Spain.

After this, the powers given to the autonomous Catalan government according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978 were transferred and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (Estatut d'Autonomia) was passed after being approved both by referendum in Catalonia and by the Spanish parliament.

Governance since 2006

José Montilla, leader of the Catalan Socialist Party, had been the president of the Generalitat until November 2010, he was backed up by a tripartite coalition of left-wing and Catalan nationalist political parties. His party actually won fewer seats in parliament than the main opposition party, Convergence and Union, in the 2006 election, but as he gathered more support from MPs from other parties in the parliament, he was able to repeat the same coalition government that his predecessor (Pasqual Maragall) had formed in order to send CiU to the opposition for the first time after 23 years of Jordi Pujol's government.

On 18 June 2006, a reformed version was approved of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia and went into effect in August. In its inception, the reform was promoted by both the leftist parties in the government and by the main opposition party (CiU), which were united in pushing for increased devolution of powers from the Spanish government level, enhanced fiscal autonomy and finances, and explicit recognition of Catalonia's national identity; however the details of its final redaction were harshly fought and the subject became a controversial issue in the Catalan politics, with ERC, themselves members of the Tripartite, finally opposing it. In 2010, the Spanish Constitutional Court reduced the Statute voted in a referendum, eliminating or reinterpreting more than 200 articles, due to a signature collection promoted by then the Spanish opposition leader, Mariano Rajoy. This event is considered one of the main reasons for the independence boom that happened from 2010 with 8% support to 2018 with 52.4% of support.

Artur Mas held the office of President of the Generalitat from December 2010 until his resignation in January 2016, leading a minority government dependent on pacts with other parties including the Socialists' Party of Catalonia following the 2010 election and the 2015 election.

Former president Artur Mas was recently charged by the Spanish government for civil disobedience, after he organised and staged a referendum on independence in 2014.

Current status

In 2016, Carles Puigdemont, member of the Catalan European Democratic Party, successor formation to the defunct Convergence and Union alliance. was elected President of the Generalitat of Catalonia. He was suspended from office on 27 October 2017, by the Spanish government.

After a number of attempts to invest a new president, Quim Torra became president on 17 May 2018, with Together for Catalonia and Republican Left of Catalonia votes in favor.

On 22 May 2021, Pere Aragonès was elected the 132nd president of the Generalitat.

The autonomous government consists of the Executive Council, the President and the Parliament. Some people wrongly apply this name only to the executive council (the cabinet of the autonomous government); however, Generalitat de Catalunya is the system of Catalan autonomous government as a whole.

The region has gradually achieved a greater degree of autonomy since 1979. After Navarre and the Basque Country regions, Catalonia has the greatest level of self-government in Spain. When it is fully instated, the Generalitat holds exclusive and wide jurisdiction in various matters of culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local governments. In many aspects relating to education, health and justice, the region shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government.

One of the examples of Catalonia's degree of autonomy is its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra ("Auxiliary Force"), which has taken over most of the police functions in Catalonia which used to be served by the Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) and the Spanish National Police Corps.

With few exceptions, most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions. The legal system is uniform throughout the Spanish state, with the exception of some parts of civil law – especially family, inheritance, and real estate law – that have traditionally been ruled by so-called foral law. The fields of civil law that are subject to autonomous legislation have been codified in the Civil Code of Catalonia (Codi civil de Catalunya) consisting of six books that have successively entered into force since 2003.

Another institution stemming from the Catalan autonomy statute, but independent from the Generalitat in its check and balance functions, is the Síndic de Greuges (ombudsman) to address problems that may arise between private citizens or organizations and the Generalitat or local governments.

Legislature

The Parliament of Catalonia (in Catalan: Parlament de Catalunya) is the legislative body of the Generalitat and represents the citizens of Catalonia. It is elected every four years by universal suffrage, and it has powers to legislate in different matters such as education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election and control of the president of the Generalitat and the Government, budget and others, according with the Statute of Autonomy. The last Catalan election was held on 21 December 2017, and its current president is Roger Torrent, incumbent since January 2018.

Presidency

The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: president de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is the highest representative of Catalonia, and is also responsible of leading the government's action. Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia have been Josep Tarradellas (1977–1980, president in exile since 1954), Jordi Pujol (1980–2003), Pasqual Maragall (2003–2006), José Montilla (2006–2010), Artur Mas (2010–2016), Carles Puigdemont (2016–2017) and, after the imposition of direct rule from Madrid, Quim Torra (2018–).

Executive

Executive Council of Catalonia (2018–). Quim Torra, President of the Generalitat, is located at the centre

The Executive Council (in Catalan: Consell Executiu) or Government (Govern), is the body responsible of the government of the Generalitat, it holds executive and regulatory power. It comprises the president of the Generalitat, the First Minister (or the Vice President) and the Ministers (consellers). Its seat is the Palau de la Generalitat, in Barcelona.

As an autonomous community of Spain, Catalonia is not recognized as a sovereign state by any sovereign state. However, as Catalonia has progressively gained a greater degree of self-government in recent years, the Catalan Government has established nearly bilateral relationships with foreign bodies. For the most part, these relationships are with the governments of other powerful subnational entities such as Quebec or California. In addition, like most Spanish autonomous communities, Catalonia has permanent delegations before international organizations, such as the European Union.

More recently, Catalonia has embarked upon an expansion process of its international representation by opening a number of delegations worldwide. As of 2017, these exceeded 40. Most of these offices are located in major world cities like London, New York City, Los Angeles, Paris, Tokyo and others. Each office has specific duties assigned by their ministry or department agency. Generally, the functions of these are the representation of specific interests of the Government of Catalonia, trade and foreign investment, Catalan culture and language support, tourist promotion, and international cooperation activities.

There are no specific Catalan political institutions in Northern Catalonia, other than the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. However, since 5 September 2003, there has been a Casa de la Generalitat in Perpignan, which aims to promote the Catalan culture and facilitate exchanges between each side of the FrancoSpanish border.

Under application of article 155 of the Constitution following the constitutional crisis of 2017 Catalonia only had 1 delegation abroad, after the rest were closed, this delegation was the one of Brussels, Belgium. The Catalan Government elected after 21 December election is in process to restore the closed delegations.

This is the list of the current delegations of the Generalitat of Catalonia abroad:

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Media related to Generalitat de Catalunya at Wikimedia Commons

Generalitat de Catalunya
Generalitat de Catalunya Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with the Executive Council of Catalonia the Generalitat s executive branch which is also referred to as Government of Catalonia due to literal translation of Catalan word govern Also not to be confused with the equivalent and homonymous institution from Valencian Country the Generalitat Valenciana The Generalitat de Catalunya Catalan pronunciation ʒeneɾeliˈtad de keteˈluɲe Aranese Generalitat de Catalonha Spanish Generalidad de Cataluna or the Government of Catalonia is the institutional system by which Catalonia politically organizes its self government It is formed by the Parliament of Catalonia the Presidency of the Generalitat de Catalunya and the Executive Council of Catalonia also very often referred to as Govern Government Generalitat de CatalunyaSeal of the Generalitat de CatalunyaLogo of the Generalitat de CatalunyaGovernment of Catalonia overviewFormed1359 first inception 1931 established by the Second Spanish Republic 1977 reestablished from exile Dissolved11 September 1714 Nueva Planta Decrees 5 February 1939 Francoist occupation during Spanish Civil War Jurisdiction CataloniaHeadquartersPalau de la Generalitat de CatalunyaEmployees240 000 1 Annual budget 34 03 billion 2017 2 Government of Catalonia executivesPere Aragones President of the Government of CataloniaDamia Calvet Vice PresidentLaura Borras President of Parliament of Catalonia13 ministers Executive Council of CataloniaWebsitegencat cat Its origins are in the 13th century when permanent councils of deputies deputations were created to rule administration of the Courts of the different realms that formed the Crown of Aragon which gave birth to the Deputation of the General of the Principality of Catalonia 1359 the Deputation of the General of the Kingdom of Aragon 1362 and the Deputation of the General of the Kingdom of Valencia 1412 The modern Generalitat was established in 1931 as the institution of self government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic Remaining in exile after the end of the Civil War in 1939 it was reestablished in 1977 Its headquarters are at the Palau de la Generalitat in the city of Barcelona Contents 1 History 1 1 Medieval origins 1 2 First abolition 1 3 First restoration 1 4 Second abolition 1 5 Second restoration 2 Recent history 2 1 Governance since 2006 2 2 Current status 3 Autonomous system of government 3 1 Legislature 3 2 Presidency 3 3 Executive 4 International presence 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory Edit Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya Barcelona seat of the Government and the Presidency of Catalonia Catalonia s political past as a territorially differentiated community with its own representative and separated institutions materialized in the institutional systems of the combined Catalan counties 9th 12th centuries the Principality of Catalonia within the Crown of Aragon 1164 1714 and the Monarchy of Spain 1516 1714 1833 as well the establishment of Catalan self government from 1931 onwards can be divided into different stages separated by ruptures in the legal public order The Generalitat of Catalonia can trace its origins in the Catalan Courts as during the reign of James I the Conqueror 1208 1276 they reunited and were convoked by the king as representatives of the social statements of the time Under the reign of Peter the Great 1276 1285 the Catalan Courts gained institutional status after the king obliged himself to celebrate an annual General Court The Catalan Courts exercised as Council and had legislative functions through its three branches bracos the ecclesiastical clergy the military nobility and the popular villages and towns submitted to direct rule of the king This union of the tree branches was named Lo General de Cathalunya where General means the political community of the Catalans as a whole Is in 1289 when the first step into becoming an institution happens during the Courts celebrated in the castle of Montso located in the Kingdom of Aragon ruled by Count of Barcelona since the year 1151 AD when Count Ramon Berenguer IV married Princess Petronilla of Aragon A commission was then designed as Diputacio del General Deputation of the General 3 4 as to temporarily collect the services or tributes that the branches granted the king on his demand This tax was popularly known as Drets Generals General Rights or generalitats generalities finding its counterpart in the French Generalites which were also founded as taxing districts Medieval origins Edit Old emblem of the Generalitat The Pau i Treva de Deu Peace and Truce of God was a social movement born in the eleventh century promoted by the Church united with the peasantry as the response to the violence perpetrated by feudal nobles The hometowns then delimited a space protected of feudal violence However to ensure a coexistence climate it was necessary to go further establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory This was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God the first of which in the Catalan counties took place in Toluges Roussillon in 1027 under the presidency of Abbot Oliba on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d Elna absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God The Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled in the name of the King as Count of Barcelona some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a polity and approved the Catalan constitutions The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283 5 The Medieval precedent of the Generalitat the Diputacio del General de Catalunya Deputation of the General of Catalonia was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new tax of the General in 1359 and gained an important political power during the next centuries assuming tasks of prosecutor It was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self government First abolition Edit Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is currently known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty Then by the early 18th century as the Nueva Planta Decrees were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession the institution as well as the other political institutions of the Principality was abolished in the Spanish territory as well First restoration Edit Left Francesc Macia first President of the restored Generalitat of Catalonia 1931 1933 Right Lluis Companys second President of the Generalitat 1933 1940 executed by Franco s regime Bank note from the Generalitat de Catalunya 1936 The Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macia leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia ERC declared the Catalan Republic within an Iberian Federation on 14 April but later reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia Catalan Generalitat de Catalunya and given its modern political and representative function as the institution of self government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic 6 The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes in 1932 and included a parliament a presidency a government and a court of appeal It was presided by Francesc Macia 1931 1933 and Lluis Companys 1933 1940 The governments of Macia and Companys enacted a progressive agenda despite the internal difficulties while fought to demand the complete transfer of the powers estipulated in the Statute After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1933 the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of 1934 against the Spanish authorities and it was temporarily suspended from 1934 to 1936 After the victory of the left in the Spanish elections of February 1936 the new Spanish government pardoned the Catalan government and the self government was fully restored Throughout the Spanish Civil War 1936 1939 the Generalitat remained loyal to the Republic assuming powers in areas belonging to the State in Catalonia such as border controls coinage justice and defense However due to the revolutionary situation created after the coup d etat the Generalitat lost most of the effective power over the territory largely controlled by local committees under the command of the Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia As the weeks passed the Catalan government progressively recovered somewhat control until May 1937 Second abolition Edit In 1939 as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side the Generalitat of Catalonia as an institution was abolished and remained so during the Francoist dictatorship until 1975 The president of the Generalitat at the time Lluis Companys was tortured and executed on 15 October 1940 for the crime of military rebellion Nonetheless the Generalitat maintained its official existence in exile led by presidents Josep Irla 1940 1954 and Josep Tarradellas 1954 1980 Second restoration Edit The succession of presidents of the Generalitat was maintained in exile from 1939 to 1977 when Josep Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized as the legitimate president by the Spanish government Tarradellas when he returned to Catalonia made his often quoted remark Ciutadans de Catalunya ja soc aqui Citizens of Catalonia I am back reassuming the autonomous powers of Catalonia one of the historic nationalities of present day Spain After this the powers given to the autonomous Catalan government according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978 were transferred and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia Estatut d Autonomia was passed after being approved both by referendum in Catalonia and by the Spanish parliament Recent history EditGovernance since 2006 Edit Jose Montilla leader of the Catalan Socialist Party had been the president of the Generalitat until November 2010 he was backed up by a tripartite coalition of left wing and Catalan nationalist political parties His party actually won fewer seats in parliament than the main opposition party Convergence and Union in the 2006 election but as he gathered more support from MPs from other parties in the parliament he was able to repeat the same coalition government that his predecessor Pasqual Maragall had formed in order to send CiU to the opposition for the first time after 23 years of Jordi Pujol s government On 18 June 2006 a reformed version was approved of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia and went into effect in August In its inception the reform was promoted by both the leftist parties in the government and by the main opposition party CiU which were united in pushing for increased devolution of powers from the Spanish government level enhanced fiscal autonomy and finances and explicit recognition of Catalonia s national identity however the details of its final redaction were harshly fought and the subject became a controversial issue in the Catalan politics with ERC themselves members of the Tripartite finally opposing it In 2010 the Spanish Constitutional Court reduced the Statute voted in a referendum eliminating or reinterpreting more than 200 articles due to a signature collection promoted by then the Spanish opposition leader Mariano Rajoy This event is considered one of the main reasons for the independence boom that happened from 2010 with 8 support to 2018 with 52 4 of support Artur Mas held the office of President of the Generalitat from December 2010 7 until his resignation in January 2016 8 leading a minority government dependent on pacts with other parties including the Socialists Party of Catalonia following the 2010 election and the 2015 election Former president Artur Mas was recently charged by the Spanish government for civil disobedience after he organised and staged a referendum on independence in 2014 9 Current status Edit In 2016 Carles Puigdemont member of the Catalan European Democratic Party 10 successor formation to the defunct Convergence and Union alliance 11 was elected President of the Generalitat of Catalonia He was suspended from office on 27 October 2017 by the Spanish government 12 13 After a number of attempts to invest a new president Quim Torra became president on 17 May 2018 with Together for Catalonia and Republican Left of Catalonia votes in favor On 22 May 2021 Pere Aragones was elected the 132nd president of the Generalitat Autonomous system of government EditThe autonomous government consists of the Executive Council the President and the Parliament Some people wrongly apply this name only to the executive council the cabinet of the autonomous government however Generalitat de Catalunya is the system of Catalan autonomous government as a whole The region has gradually achieved a greater degree of autonomy since 1979 After Navarre and the Basque Country regions Catalonia has the greatest level of self government in Spain When it is fully instated the Generalitat holds exclusive and wide jurisdiction in various matters of culture environment communications transportation commerce public safety and local governments 14 In many aspects relating to education health and justice the region shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government 15 One of the examples of Catalonia s degree of autonomy is its own police force the Mossos d Esquadra Auxiliary Force which has taken over most of the police functions in Catalonia which used to be served by the Civil Guard Guardia Civil and the Spanish National Police Corps With few exceptions most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions The legal system is uniform throughout the Spanish state with the exception of some parts of civil law especially family inheritance and real estate law that have traditionally been ruled by so called foral law 16 The fields of civil law that are subject to autonomous legislation have been codified in the Civil Code of Catalonia Codi civil de Catalunya consisting of six books that have successively entered into force since 2003 17 Another institution stemming from the Catalan autonomy statute but independent from the Generalitat in its check and balance functions is the Sindic de Greuges ombudsman 18 to address problems that may arise between private citizens or organizations and the Generalitat or local governments Legislature Edit Parliament of Catalonia located in Ciutadella park Barcelona The Parliament of Catalonia in Catalan Parlament de Catalunya is the legislative body of the Generalitat and represents the citizens of Catalonia It is elected every four years by universal suffrage and it has powers to legislate in different matters such as education health culture internal institutional and territorial organization election and control of the president of the Generalitat and the Government budget and others according with the Statute of Autonomy The last Catalan election was held on 21 December 2017 and its current president is Roger Torrent incumbent since January 2018 Presidency Edit The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in Catalan president de la Generalitat de Catalunya is the highest representative of Catalonia and is also responsible of leading the government s action Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain the presidents of Catalonia have been Josep Tarradellas 1977 1980 president in exile since 1954 Jordi Pujol 1980 2003 Pasqual Maragall 2003 2006 Jose Montilla 2006 2010 Artur Mas 2010 2016 Carles Puigdemont 2016 2017 and after the imposition of direct rule from Madrid Quim Torra 2018 Executive Edit Executive Council of Catalonia 2018 Quim Torra President of the Generalitat is located at the centre The Executive Council in Catalan Consell Executiu or Government Govern is the body responsible of the government of the Generalitat it holds executive and regulatory power It comprises the president of the Generalitat the First Minister or the Vice President and the Ministers consellers Its seat is the Palau de la Generalitat in Barcelona International presence EditAs an autonomous community of Spain Catalonia is not recognized as a sovereign state by any sovereign state However as Catalonia has progressively gained a greater degree of self government in recent years the Catalan Government has established nearly bilateral relationships with foreign bodies For the most part these relationships are with the governments of other powerful subnational entities such as Quebec 19 or California 20 In addition like most Spanish autonomous communities Catalonia has permanent delegations before international organizations such as the European Union 21 More recently Catalonia has embarked upon an expansion process of its international representation by opening a number of delegations worldwide As of 2017 these exceeded 40 22 23 Most of these offices are located in major world cities like London New York City Los Angeles Paris Tokyo and others Each office has specific duties assigned by their ministry or department agency Generally the functions of these are the representation of specific interests of the Government of Catalonia trade and foreign investment Catalan culture and language support tourist promotion and international cooperation activities 23 24 There are no specific Catalan political institutions in Northern Catalonia other than the French departement of Pyrenees Orientales However since 5 September 2003 there has been a Casa de la Generalitat in Perpignan which aims to promote the Catalan culture and facilitate exchanges between each side of the Franco Spanish border 25 Under application of article 155 of the Constitution following the constitutional crisis of 2017 Catalonia only had 1 delegation abroad after the rest were closed this delegation was the one of Brussels Belgium The Catalan Government elected after 21 December election is in process to restore the closed delegations This is the list of the current delegations of the Generalitat of Catalonia abroad 26 Brussels Belgium delegation before the European Union Buenos Aires Argentina Vienna Austria Zagreb Croatia Paris France Berlin Germany Rome Italy Riga Latvia Mexico D F Mexico Lisbon Portugal Stockholm Sweden Geneva Switzerland Tunis Tunisia London United Kingdom Washington D C United StatesSee also Edit2017 18 Spanish constitutional crisis Catalonia Government 2006 2010 term of office Commonwealth of Catalonia List of Presidents of the Generalitat de Catalunya Politics of CataloniaNotes Edit Statistical Bulletin of public administrations P 32 Archived 26 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine http aplicacions economia gencat cat wpres AppPHP 2017 pdf VOL L EID pdf Constitutions y altres drets de Cathalunya compilats en virtut del cap de Cort XXIIII de las Corts per la S C y reyal maiestat del rey don Philip nostre senyor celebradas en la villa de Montso any MDLXXXV volum primer in Catalan en casa de Hubert Gotart 1588 Diputacio del General de Catalunya Viquipedia l enciclopedia lliure in Catalan 2019 11 06 retrieved 2020 01 05 Google Translate translate google com Retrieved 2019 07 11 Carr Raymond Modern Spain 1975 1980 Oxford University Press 1980 p xvi Real Decreto 1777 2010 PDF Boletin Oficial del Estado BOE es Documento BOE A 2016 276 www boe es in Spanish Retrieved 2017 09 08 SOCIALISTS LEFTISTS RECONSTITUTE THREE PARTY COALITION OUTLINE NEW CATALAN GOVERNMENT 2010 12 16 Archived from the original on 2013 05 11 Retrieved 2010 12 18 Comite Nacional Partit Democrata in Catalan Archived from the original on 2017 09 09 Retrieved 2017 09 08 Transparencia Partit Democrata in Catalan Archived from the original on 2017 09 09 Retrieved 2017 09 08 Real Decreto 942 2017 de 27 de octubre por el que se dispone en virtud de las medidas autorizadas con fecha 27 de octubre de 2017 por el Pleno del Senado respecto de la Generalitat de Cataluna en aplicacion del articulo 155 de la Constitucion el cese del M H Sr Presidente de la Generalitat de Cataluna don Carles Puigdemont i Casamajo Boletin Oficial del Estado num 261 de 28 de octubre de 2017 paginas 103562 a 103563 BOE es Documento BOE A 2016 277 www boe es in Spanish Retrieved 2017 09 08 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2005 12 16 Retrieved 2006 06 19 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 2005 12 30 Retrieved 2006 06 19 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Garcia Cantero Gabriel 2013 Is It Possible for a Minor Code of the Nineteenth Century to Serve as a Model in the Twenty First Century The Scope and Structure of Civil Codes Springer p 372 de Gispert i Catala Nuria 2003 The codification of Catalan civil law Regional Private Laws and Codification in Europe Cambridge University Press pp 164 171 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2006 04 08 Retrieved 2019 12 25 CS1 maint archived copy as title link http www mdeie gouv qc ca index php id 4201 permanent dead link Senate Concurrent Resolution No 71 Senate Office of International Relations http www copca cat infoglueDeliverLive ViewPage action siteNodeId 247 amp languageId 1 amp contentId 1 permanent dead link Archived copy Archived from the original on 2011 07 25 Retrieved 2009 08 25 CS1 maint archived copy as title link a b Archived copy Archived from the original on 2009 05 18 Retrieved 2009 08 25 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 2011 07 25 Retrieved 2009 08 25 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 2011 09 28 Retrieved 2009 08 25 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Delegations of the Generalitat abroad exteriors gencat cat Retrieved 21 October 2020 References EditParty Urging More Autonomy From Spain Seems to Win in Catalonia Article on New York Times 2 November 2006 Courage in Catalonia Article on New York Times 22 June 2006 Voters in Catalonia Approve A Plan for Greater Autonomy Article on New York Times 19 June 2006 Spain Moves On Law to Give Broad Powers To Catalonia Article on New York Times 31 March 2006External links Edit Media related to Generalitat de Catalunya at Wikimedia Commons Official website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Generalitat de Catalunya amp oldid 1050727274, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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