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Greek language

For the Greek language used during particular eras, see Proto-Greek language, Mycenaean Greek, Ancient Greek, Koine Greek, Medieval Greek, and Modern Greek.

Greek (Modern Greek:Ελληνικά, romanized: Elliniká; Ancient Greek:Ἑλληνική, romanized: Hellēnikḗ) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, and the other parts of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, and the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,400 years of written records. Its writing system is the Greek alphabet, which has been used for approximately 2,800 years; previously, Greek was recorded in writing systems such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Greek
ελληνικά
Pronunciation
Native to
EthnicityGreeks
Native speakers
13.5 million (2012)
Early form
Dialects
Greek alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1el
ISO 639-2gre (B)
ell (T)
ISO 639-3Variously:
ellModern Greek
grcAncient Greek
cpgCappadocian Greek
gmyMycenaean Greek
pntPontic
tsdTsakonian
yejYevanic
Glottologgree1276
Linguasphere
  • 56-AAA-a
  • 56-AAA-aato -am(varieties)
Areas where Modern Greek is spoken (in dark blue those areas where it is the official language).(The map does not indicate where the language is majority or minority.)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see .

The Greek language holds an important place in the history of the Western world. Beginning with the epics of Homer, ancient Greek literature includes many works of lasting importance in the European canon. Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science and philosophy were originally composed. The New Testament of the Christian Bible was also originally written in Greek. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the Greek texts and Greek societies of antiquity constitute the objects of study of the discipline of Classics.

During antiquity, Greek was by far the most widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world. It eventually became the official language of the Byzantine Empire and developed into Medieval Greek. In its modern form, Greek is the official language of Greece and Cyprus and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. It is spoken by at least 13.5 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the many other countries of the Greek diaspora.

Greek roots have been widely used for centuries and continue to be widely used to coin new words in other languages; Greek and Latin are the predominant sources of international scientific vocabulary.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Contents

Main article: History of Greek

Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or possibly earlier. The earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages.

Periods

Proto-Greek-speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev

The Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods:

Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages.
  • Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine.
  • Modern Greek (Neo-Hellenic): Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it.

Diglossia

In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, which was developed in the early 19th century, and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, which is used today for all official purposes and in education.

Historical unity

The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas

The historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language are often emphasized. Although Greek has undergone morphological and phonological changes comparable to those seen in other languages, never since classical antiquity has its cultural, literary, and orthographic tradition been interrupted to the extent that one can speak of a new language emerging. Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language. It is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages. According to one estimation, "Homeric Greek is probably closer to Demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English".

Further information: Greeks and Greek diaspora
Geographic distribution of Greek language in the Russian Empire (1897 census)

Greek is spoken today by at least 13 million people, principally in Greece and Cyprus along with a sizable Greek-speaking minority in Albania near the Greek-Albanian border. A significant percentage of Albania's population has some basic knowledge of the Greek language due in part to the Albanian wave of immigration to Greece in the 1980s and '90s. Prior to the Greco-Turkish War and the resulting population exchange in 1923 a very large population of Greek-speakers also existed in Turkey, though very few remain today. A small Greek-speaking community is also found in Bulgaria near the Greek-Bulgarian border. Greek is also spoken worldwide by the sizable Greek diaspora which has notable communities in the United States, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and throughout the European Union, especially in Germany.

Historically, significant Greek-speaking communities and regions were found throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, in what are today Southern Italy, Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, and Libya; in the area of the Black Sea, in what are today Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Mediterranean in and around colonies such as Massalia, Monoikos, and Mainake. It was also used as a liturgical language in Christian Nubian kingdom of Makuria which was in modern day Sudan.

Official status

Greek, in its modern form, is the official language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population. It is also the official language of Cyprus (nominally alongside Turkish). Because of the membership of Greece and Cyprus in the European Union, Greek is one of the organization's 24 official languages. Furthermore, Greek is officially recognized as official in Dropull and Himara (Albania), and as a minority language all over Albania. It is also recognized as an official minority language in the regions of Apulia and Calabria in Italy. In the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Greek is protected and promoted officially as a regional and minority language in Armenia, Hungary, Romania, and Ukraine.

The phonology, morphology, syntax, and vocabulary of the language show both conservative and innovative tendencies across the entire attestation of the language from the ancient to the modern period. The division into conventional periods is, as with all such periodizations, relatively arbitrary, especially because at all periods, Ancient Greek has enjoyed high prestige, and the literate borrowed heavily from it.

Phonology

Across its history, the syllabic structure of Greek has varied little: Greek shows a mixed syllable structure, permitting complex syllabic onsets but very restricted codas. It has only oral vowels and a fairly stable set of consonantal contrasts. The main phonological changes occurred during the Hellenistic and Roman period (see Koine Greek phonology for details):

  • replacement of the pitch accent with a stress accent.
  • simplification of the system of vowels and diphthongs: loss of vowel length distinction, monophthongisation of most diphthongs and several steps in a chain shift of vowels towards/i/ (iotacism).
  • development of the voiceless aspirated plosives/pʰ/ and/tʰ/ to the voiceless fricatives/f/ and/θ/, respectively; the similar development of/kʰ/ to/x/ may have taken place later (the phonological changes are not reflected in the orthography, and both earlier and later phonemes are written with φ, θ, and χ).
  • development of the voiced plosives/b/,/d/, and/ɡ/ to their voiced fricative counterparts/β/ (later/v/),/ð/, and/ɣ/.

Morphology

In all its stages, the morphology of Greek shows an extensive set of productive derivational affixes, a limited but productive system of compounding and a rich inflectional system. Although its morphological categories have been fairly stable over time, morphological changes are present throughout, particularly in the nominal and verbal systems. The major change in the nominal morphology since the classical stage was the disuse of the dative case (its functions being largely taken over by the genitive). The verbal system has lost the infinitive, the synthetically-formed future, and perfect tenses and the optative mood. Many have been replaced by periphrastic (analytical) forms.

Nouns and adjectives

Pronouns show distinctions in person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (singular, dual, and plural in the ancient language; singular and plural alone in later stages), and gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter), and decline for case (from six cases in the earliest forms attested to four in the modern language). Nouns, articles, and adjectives show all the distinctions except for a person. Both attributive and predicative adjectives agree with the noun.

Verbs

The inflectional categories of the Greek verb have likewise remained largely the same over the course of the language's history but with significant changes in the number of distinctions within each category and their morphological expression. Greek verbs have synthetic inflectional forms for:

Ancient Greek Modern Greek
Person first, second and third also second person formal
Number singular, dual and plural singular and plural
tense present, past and future past and non-past (future is expressed by a periphrastic construction)
aspect imperfective, perfective (traditionally called aorist) and perfect (sometimes also called perfective; see note about terminology) imperfective and perfective/aorist (perfect is expressed by a periphrastic construction)
mood indicative, subjunctive, imperative and optative indicative, subjunctive, and imperative (other modal functions are expressed by periphrastic constructions)
Voice active, medio-passive, and passive active and medio-passive

Syntax

Many aspects of the syntax of Greek have remained constant: verbs agree with their subject only, the use of the surviving cases is largely intact (nominative for subjects and predicates, accusative for objects of most verbs and many prepositions, genitive for possessors), articles precede nouns, adpositions are largely prepositional, relative clauses follow the noun they modify and relative pronouns are clause-initial. However, the morphological changes also have their counterparts in the syntax, and there are also significant differences between the syntax of the ancient and that of the modern form of the language. Ancient Greek made great use of participial constructions and of constructions involving the infinitive, and the modern variety lacks the infinitive entirely (employing a raft of new periphrastic constructions instead) and uses participles more restrictively. The loss of the dative led to a rise of prepositional indirect objects (and the use of the genitive to directly mark these as well). Ancient Greek tended to be verb-final, but neutral word order in the modern language is VSO or SVO.

Vocabulary

Modern Greek inherits most of its vocabulary from Ancient Greek, which in turn is an Indo-European language, but also includes a number of borrowings from the languages of the populations that inhabited Greece before the arrival of Proto-Greeks, some documented in Mycenaean texts; they include a large number of Greek toponyms. The form and meaning of many words have evolved. Loanwords (words of foreign origin) have entered the language, mainly from Latin, Venetian, and Turkish. During the older periods of Greek, loanwords into Greek acquired Greek inflections, thus leaving only a foreign root word. Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected; other modern borrowings are derived from South Slavic (Macedonian/Bulgarian) and Eastern Romance languages (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian).

Greek loanwords in other languages

Further information: English words of Greek origin

Greek words have been widely borrowed into other languages, including English. Example words include: mathematics, physics, astronomy, democracy, philosophy, athletics, theatre, rhetoric, baptism, evangelist, etc. Moreover, Greek words and word elements continue to be productive as a basis for coinages: anthropology, photography, telephony, isomer, biomechanics, cinematography, etc. Together with Latin words, they form the foundation of international scientific and technical vocabulary. For example, all words ending in –logy ("discourse"). There are many English words of Greek origin.

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European language family. The ancient language most closely related to it may be ancient Macedonian, which most scholars suggest may have been a dialect of Greek itself, but it is poorly attested and it is difficult to conclude. Independently of the Macedonian question, some scholars have grouped Greek into Graeco-Phrygian, as Greek and the extinct Phrygian share features that are not found in other Indo-European languages. Among living languages, some Indo-Europeanists suggest that Greek may be most closely related to Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) or the Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan), but little definitive evidence has been found for grouping the living branches of the family. In addition, Albanian has also been considered somewhat related to Greek and Armenian by some linguists. If proven and recognized, the three languages would form a new Balkan sub-branch with other dead European languages.

See also: Greek Braille

Linear B

Main article: Linear B

Linear B, attested as early as the late 15th century BC, was the first script used to write Greek. It is basically a syllabary, which was finally deciphered by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick in the 1950s (its precursor, Linear A, has not been deciphered and most likely encodes a non-Greek language). The language of the Linear B texts, Mycenaean Greek, is the earliest known form of Greek.

Cypriot syllabary

Main article: Cypriot syllabary
Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script

Another similar system used to write the Greek language was the Cypriot syllabary (also a descendant of Linear A via the intermediate Cypro-Minoan syllabary), which is closely related to Linear B but uses somewhat different syllabic conventions to represent phoneme sequences. The Cypriot syllabary is attested in Cyprus from the 11th century BC until its gradual abandonment in the late Classical period, in favor of the standard Greek alphabet.

Greek alphabet

Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet from Euboea, Ionia, Athens, and Corinth comparing to modern Greek

Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet since approximately the 9th century BC. It was created by modifying the Phoenician alphabet, with the innovation of adopting certain letters to represent the vowels. The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The lower-case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster, more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill.

The Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters, each with an uppercase (majuscule) and lowercase (minuscule) form. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in the final position:

upper case
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
lower case
α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ
ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Diacritics

Main article: Greek diacritics

In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave, and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (rough and smooth breathing), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark the full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting saw a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it has only been retained in typography.

After the writing reform of 1982, most diacritics are no longer used. Since then, Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography (or monotonic system), which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek.

Punctuation

In Greek, the question mark is written as the English semicolon, while the functions of the colon and semicolon are performed by a raised point (•), known as the ano teleia (άνω τελεία). In Greek the comma also functions as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishingό,τι (ó,ti, 'whatever') fromότι (óti, 'that').

Ancient Greek texts often used scriptio continua ('continuous writing'), which means that ancient authors and scribes would write word after word with no spaces or punctuation between words to differentiate or mark boundaries. Boustrophedon, or bi-directional text, was also used in Ancient Greek.

Latin alphabet

Greek has occasionally been written in the Latin script, especially in areas under Venetian rule or by Greek Catholics. The term Frankolevantinika /Φραγκολεβαντίνικα applies when the Latin script is used to write Greek in the cultural ambit of Catholicism (because Frankos /Φράγκος is an older Greek term for West-European dating to when most of (Roman Catholic Christian) West Europe was under the control of the Frankish Empire). Frankochiotika /Φραγκοχιώτικα (meaning 'Catholic Chiot') alludes to the significant presence of Catholic missionaries based on the island of Chios. Additionally, the term Greeklish is often used when the Greek language is written in a Latin script in online communications.

The Latin script is nowadays used by the Greek-speaking communities of Southern Italy.

Hebrew alphabet

The Yevanic dialect was written by Romaniote and Constantinopolitan Karaite Jews using the Hebrew Alphabet.

Arabic alphabet

Some Greek Muslims from Crete wrote their Cretan Greek in the Arabic alphabet. The same happened among Epirote Muslims in Ioannina. This usage is sometimes called aljamiado as when Romance languages are written in the Arabic alphabet.

  1. A comprehensive overview in J.T. Hooker's Mycenaean Greece (Hooker 1976, Chapter 2: "Before the Mycenaean Age", pp. 11–33 and passim); for a different hypothesis excluding massive migrations and favoring an autochthonous scenario, see Colin Renfrew's "Problems in the General Correlation of Archaeological and Linguistic Strata in Prehistoric Greece: The Model of Autochthonous Origin" (Renfrew 1973, pp. 263–276, especially p. 267) in Bronze Age Migrations by R.A. Crossland and A. Birchall, eds. (1973).
  2. The four cases that are found in all stages of Greek are the nominative, genitive, accusative, and vocative. The dative/locative of Ancient Greek disappeared in the late Hellenistic period, and the instrumental case of Mycenaean Greek disappeared in the Archaic period.
  3. There is no particular morphological form that can be identified as 'subjunctive' in the modern language, but the term is sometimes encountered in descriptions even if the most complete modern grammar (Holton et al. 1997) does not use it and calls certain traditionally-'subjunctive' forms 'dependent'. Most Greek linguists advocate abandoning the traditional terminology (Anna Roussou and Tasos Tsangalidis 2009, in Meletes gia tin Elliniki Glossa, Thessaloniki, Anastasia Giannakidou 2009 "Temporal semantics and polarity: The dependency of the subjunctive revisited", Lingua); see Modern Greek grammar for explanation.

Citations

  1. Greek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ancient Greek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Cappadocian Greek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Mycenaean Greek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Pontic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Tsakonian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box)
  2. "Greek language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved29 April 2014.
  3. Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2013). "Chapter 15: Language and Communication". Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Cengage Learning. p. 394. ISBN 978-1-285-67758-3. Most of the alphabets used today descended from the Phoenician one. The Greeks adopted it about 2,800 years ago, modifying the characters to suit sounds in their own language.
  4. Comrie, Bernard (1987). The World's Major Languages. Routledge (published 2018). ISBN 978-1-317-29049-0. ... the Greek alphabet has served the Greek language well for some 2,800 years since its introduction into Greece in the tenth or ninth century BC.
  5. 1922-, Adrados, Francisco Rodríguez (2005). A history of the Greek language : from its origins to the present. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12835-4. OCLC 59712402.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. A history of ancient Greek by Maria Chritē, Maria Arapopoulou, Centre for the Greek Language (Thessalonikē, Greece) pg 436 ISBN 0-521-83307-8
  7. Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland The text of the New Testament: an introduction to the critical 1995 p52
  8. Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testament 1972 p9
  9. Manuel, Germaine Catherine (1989). A study of the preservation of the classical tradition in the education, language, and literature of the Byzantine Empire. HVD ALEPH.
  10. Renfrew 2003, p. 35; Georgiev 1981, p. 192.
  11. Gray & Atkinson 2003, pp. 437–438; Atkinson & Gray 2006, p. 102.
  12. "Ancient Tablet Found: Oldest Readable Writing in Europe". National Geographic Society. 30 March 2011. Retrieved22 November 2013.
  13. Dawkins & Halliday 1916.
  14. "Greek". Ethnologue. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  15. Peter, Mackridge (1985). The modern Greek language : a descriptive analysis of standard modern Greek. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-815770-0. OCLC 11134463.
  16. Browning 1983.
  17. Alexiou 1982, p. 161.
  18. Welsby 2002, p. 239. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWelsby2002 (help)
  19. "Greece". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved23 January 2010.
  20. "The Constitution of Cyprus, App. D., Part 1, Art. 3". Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. states that The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish. However, the official status of Turkish is only nominal in the Greek-dominated Republic of Cyprus; in practice, outside Turkish-dominated Northern Cyprus, Turkish is little used; see A. Arvaniti (2006): Erasure as a Means of Maintaining Diglossia in Cyprus, San Diego Linguistics Papers 2: pp. 25–38 [27].
  21. "The EU at a Glance – Languages in the EU". Europa. European Union. Retrieved30 July 2010.
  22. "Greek". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved8 December 2008.
  23. "List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 148". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved8 December 2008.
  24. Ralli 2001, pp. 164–203.
  25. Beekes 2009.
  26. Scheler 1977.
  27. "Πόσο "ελληνικές" είναι οι ξένες γλώσσες". NewsIt. 18 November 2019.
  28. Hamp 2013, pp. 8–10, 13.
  29. Crespo, Emilio (2018). "The Softening of Obstruent Consonants in the Macedonian Dialect". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 329. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
  30. Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. (2018). "Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect: Consolidation and New Perspectives". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 299. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
  31. Babiniotis 1992, pp. 29–40; Dosuna 2012, pp. 65–78.
  32. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Graeco-Phrygian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  33. Renfrew 1990; Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1990, pp. 110–116; Renfrew 2003, pp. 17–48; Gray & Atkinson 2003, pp. 435–439.
  34. Holm 2008, pp. 628–636.
  35. T., Hooker, J. (1980). Linear B : an introduction. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 978-0-906515-69-3. OCLC 7326206.
  36. "Cypriot syllabary". Britannica Academic. Retrieved1 August 2017.
  37. Nicolas, Nick (2005). "Greek Unicode Issues: Punctuation". Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved7 October 2014.
  38. Hugoe, Matthews Peter (March 2014). The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics. Oxford University Press. (Third ed.). Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-967512-8. OCLC 881847972.
  39. Androutsopoulos 2009, pp. 221–249.
  40. "Yevanic alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved18 April 2020.
  41. Kotzageorgis, Phokion (2010). Gruber, Christiane J.; Colby, Frederick Stephen (eds.). The Prophet's Ascension: Cross-cultural Encounters with the Islamic Mi'rāj Tales. Indiana University Press. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-253-35361-0. The element that makes this text a unicum is that it is written in Greek script. In the Ottoman Empire, the primary criterion for the selection of an alphabet in which to write was religion. Thus, people who did not speak—or even know—the official language of their religion used to write their religious texts in the languages that they knew, though in the alphabet where the sacred texts of that religion were written. Thus, the Grecophone Catholics of Chios wrote using the Latin alphabet, but in the Greek language (frangochiotika); the Turcophone Orthodox Christians of Cappadocia wrote their Turkish texts using the Greek alphabet (karamanlidika); and the Grecophone Muslims of the Greek peninsula wrote in Greek language using the Arabic alphabet (tourkogianniotika, tourkokretika). Our case is much stranger, since it is a quite early example for that kind of literature and because it is largely concerned with religious themes."; p. 306. The audience for the Greek Mi'rājnāma was most certainly Greek-speaking Muslims, in particular the so-called Tourkogianniotes (literally, the Turks of Jannina). Although few examples have been discovered as yet, it seems that these people developed a religious literature mainly composed in verse form. This literary form constituted the mainstream of Greek Aljamiado literature from the middle of the seventeenth century until the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. Tourkogianniotes were probably of Christian origin and were Islamized sometime during the seventeenth century. They did not speak any language other than Greek. Thus, even their frequency in attending mosque services did not provide them with the necessary knowledge about their faith. Given their low level of literacy, one important way that they could learn about their faith was to listen to religiously edifying texts such as the Greek Mi'rājnāma.

Sources

Standard Greek edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pontic Greek edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Greek language
For a list of words relating to Greek language, see the Greek language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toGreek language.
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Greek.
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Greek language
Greek language Language Watch Edit For the Greek language used during particular eras see Proto Greek language Mycenaean Greek Ancient Greek Koine Greek Medieval Greek and Modern Greek Greek Modern Greek Ellhnika romanized Ellinika Ancient Greek Ἑllhnikh romanized Hellenikḗ is an independent branch of the Indo European family of languages native to Greece Cyprus Albania and the other parts of the Balkans the Black Sea coast and the Eastern Mediterranean It has the longest documented history of any Indo European language spanning at least 3 400 years of written records 2 Its writing system is the Greek alphabet which has been used for approximately 2 800 years 3 4 previously Greek was recorded in writing systems such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary 5 The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin Cyrillic Armenian Coptic Gothic and many other writing systems GreekellhnikaPronunciation eliniˈka Native toGreece official Cyprus official Italy Egypt Turkey southern AlbaniaEthnicityGreeksNative speakers13 5 million 2012 1 Language familyIndo European HellenicGreekEarly formProto GreekDialectsAncient dialects Modern dialectsWriting systemGreek alphabetLanguage codesISO 639 1 span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php iso 639 1 el el a span ISO 639 2 span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php code ID 175 gre a span B span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php code ID 175 ell a span T ISO 639 3Variously a href https iso639 3 sil org code ell class extiw title iso639 3 ell ell a Modern Greek a href https iso639 3 sil org code grc class extiw title iso639 3 grc grc a Ancient Greek a href https iso639 3 sil org code cpg class extiw title iso639 3 cpg cpg a Cappadocian Greek a href https iso639 3 sil org code gmy class extiw title iso639 3 gmy gmy a Mycenaean Greek a href https iso639 3 sil org code pnt class extiw title iso639 3 pnt pnt a Pontic a href https iso639 3 sil org code tsd class extiw title iso639 3 tsd tsd a Tsakonian a href https iso639 3 sil org code yej class extiw title iso639 3 yej yej a YevanicGlottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id gree1276 gree1276 a Linguasphere div class plainlist nowrap ul li 56 AAA a li li 56 AAA aa span style font size 85 to span am span style font size 85 varieties span li ul div Areas where Modern Greek is spoken in dark blue those areas where it is the official language The map does not indicate where the language is majority or minority This article contains IPA phonetic symbols Without proper rendering support you may see question marks boxes or other symbols instead of Unicode characters For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA The Greek language holds an important place in the history of the Western world 6 Beginning with the epics of Homer ancient Greek literature includes many works of lasting importance in the European canon Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science and philosophy were originally composed The New Testament of the Christian Bible was also originally written in Greek 7 8 Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world the Greek texts and Greek societies of antiquity constitute the objects of study of the discipline of Classics During antiquity Greek was by far the most widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world It eventually became the official language of the Byzantine Empire and developed into Medieval Greek 9 In its modern form Greek is the official language of Greece and Cyprus and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union It is spoken by at least 13 5 million people today in Greece Cyprus Italy Albania Turkey and the many other countries of the Greek diaspora Greek roots have been widely used for centuries and continue to be widely used to coin new words in other languages Greek and Latin are the predominant sources of international scientific vocabulary Idealised portrayal of the author Homer Contents 1 History 1 1 Periods 1 2 Diglossia 1 3 Historical unity 2 Geographic distribution 2 1 Official status 3 Characteristics 3 1 Phonology 3 2 Morphology 3 2 1 Nouns and adjectives 3 2 2 Verbs 3 3 Syntax 3 4 Vocabulary 3 5 Greek loanwords in other languages 4 Classification 5 Writing system 5 1 Linear B 5 2 Cypriot syllabary 5 3 Greek alphabet 5 3 1 Diacritics 5 3 2 Punctuation 5 4 Latin alphabet 5 5 Hebrew alphabet 5 6 Arabic alphabet 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 8 1 Citations 8 2 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory EditMain article History of Greek Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC 10 or possibly earlier 11 The earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC 12 making Greek the world s oldest recorded living language Among the Indo European languages its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages Periods Edit Proto Greek speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I Georgiev The Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods Proto Greek the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek The unity of Proto Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age note 1 Mycenaean Greek the language of the Mycenaean civilization It is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards Ancient Greek in its various dialects the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilization It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire Ancient Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages but remained officially in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to western Europe Koine Greek The fusion of Ionian with Attic the dialect of Athens began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East Koine Greek can be initially traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great and after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India After the Roman conquest of Greece an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire The origin of Christianity can also be traced through Koine Greek because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity It is also known as Hellenistic Greek New Testament Greek and sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia 1910 Demotic in yellow Pontic in orange Cappadocian Greek in green with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages 13 Medieval Greek also known as Byzantine Greek the continuation of Koine Greek up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek in many respects to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine Modern Greek Neo Hellenic 14 Stemming from Medieval Greek Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period as early as the 11th century It is the language used by the modern Greeks and apart from Standard Modern Greek there are several dialects of it Diglossia Edit Main article Greek language question In the modern era the Greek language entered a state of diglossia the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek Dimotiki the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper and Katharevousa meaning purified a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek which was developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state In 1976 Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek which is used today for all official purposes and in education 15 Historical unity Edit The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas The historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language are often emphasized Although Greek has undergone morphological and phonological changes comparable to those seen in other languages never since classical antiquity has its cultural literary and orthographic tradition been interrupted to the extent that one can speak of a new language emerging Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language 16 It is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages According to one estimation Homeric Greek is probably closer to Demotic than 12 century Middle English is to modern spoken English 17 Geographic distribution EditFurther information Greeks and Greek diaspora Geographic distribution of Greek language in the Russian Empire 1897 census Greek is spoken today by at least 13 million people principally in Greece and Cyprus along with a sizable Greek speaking minority in Albania near the Greek Albanian border 14 A significant percentage of Albania s population has some basic knowledge of the Greek language due in part to the Albanian wave of immigration to Greece in the 1980s and 90s Prior to the Greco Turkish War and the resulting population exchange in 1923 a very large population of Greek speakers also existed in Turkey though very few remain today 2 A small Greek speaking community is also found in Bulgaria near the Greek Bulgarian border Greek is also spoken worldwide by the sizable Greek diaspora which has notable communities in the United States Australia Canada South Africa Chile Brazil Argentina Russia Ukraine the United Kingdom and throughout the European Union especially in Germany Historically significant Greek speaking communities and regions were found throughout the Eastern Mediterranean in what are today Southern Italy Turkey Cyprus Syria Lebanon Israel Egypt and Libya in the area of the Black Sea in what are today Turkey Bulgaria Romania Ukraine Russia Georgia Armenia and Azerbaijan and to a lesser extent in the Western Mediterranean in and around colonies such as Massalia Monoikos and Mainake It was also used as a liturgical language in Christian Nubian kingdom of Makuria which was in modern day Sudan 18 Official status Edit Greek in its modern form is the official language of Greece where it is spoken by almost the entire population 19 It is also the official language of Cyprus nominally alongside Turkish 20 Because of the membership of Greece and Cyprus in the European Union Greek is one of the organization s 24 official languages 21 Furthermore Greek is officially recognized as official in Dropull and Himara Albania and as a minority language all over Albania 22 It is also recognized as an official minority language in the regions of Apulia and Calabria in Italy In the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Greek is protected and promoted officially as a regional and minority language in Armenia Hungary Romania and Ukraine 23 Characteristics EditSee also Ancient Greek grammar Koine Greek grammar and Modern Greek grammar The phonology morphology syntax and vocabulary of the language show both conservative and innovative tendencies across the entire attestation of the language from the ancient to the modern period The division into conventional periods is as with all such periodizations relatively arbitrary especially because at all periods Ancient Greek has enjoyed high prestige and the literate borrowed heavily from it Phonology Edit Main articles Modern Greek phonology Koine Greek phonology and Ancient Greek phonology source source Spoken Modern Greek Across its history the syllabic structure of Greek has varied little Greek shows a mixed syllable structure permitting complex syllabic onsets but very restricted codas It has only oral vowels and a fairly stable set of consonantal contrasts The main phonological changes occurred during the Hellenistic and Roman period see Koine Greek phonology for details replacement of the pitch accent with a stress accent simplification of the system of vowels and diphthongs loss of vowel length distinction monophthongisation of most diphthongs and several steps in a chain shift of vowels towards i iotacism development of the voiceless aspirated plosives pʰ and tʰ to the voiceless fricatives f and 8 respectively the similar development of kʰ to x may have taken place later the phonological changes are not reflected in the orthography and both earlier and later phonemes are written with f 8 and x development of the voiced plosives b d and ɡ to their voiced fricative counterparts b later v d and ɣ Morphology Edit In all its stages the morphology of Greek shows an extensive set of productive derivational affixes a limited but productive system of compounding 24 and a rich inflectional system Although its morphological categories have been fairly stable over time morphological changes are present throughout particularly in the nominal and verbal systems The major change in the nominal morphology since the classical stage was the disuse of the dative case its functions being largely taken over by the genitive The verbal system has lost the infinitive the synthetically formed future and perfect tenses and the optative mood Many have been replaced by periphrastic analytical forms Nouns and adjectives Edit Pronouns show distinctions in person 1st 2nd and 3rd number singular dual and plural in the ancient language singular and plural alone in later stages and gender masculine feminine and neuter and decline for case from six cases in the earliest forms attested to four in the modern language note 2 Nouns articles and adjectives show all the distinctions except for a person Both attributive and predicative adjectives agree with the noun Verbs Edit The inflectional categories of the Greek verb have likewise remained largely the same over the course of the language s history but with significant changes in the number of distinctions within each category and their morphological expression Greek verbs have synthetic inflectional forms for Ancient Greek Modern GreekPerson first second and third also second person formalNumber singular dual and plural singular and pluraltense present past and future past and non past future is expressed by a periphrastic construction aspect imperfective perfective traditionally called aorist and perfect sometimes also called perfective see note about terminology imperfective and perfective aorist perfect is expressed by a periphrastic construction mood indicative subjunctive imperative and optative indicative subjunctive note 3 and imperative other modal functions are expressed by periphrastic constructions Voice active medio passive and passive active and medio passiveSyntax Edit Many aspects of the syntax of Greek have remained constant verbs agree with their subject only the use of the surviving cases is largely intact nominative for subjects and predicates accusative for objects of most verbs and many prepositions genitive for possessors articles precede nouns adpositions are largely prepositional relative clauses follow the noun they modify and relative pronouns are clause initial However the morphological changes also have their counterparts in the syntax and there are also significant differences between the syntax of the ancient and that of the modern form of the language Ancient Greek made great use of participial constructions and of constructions involving the infinitive and the modern variety lacks the infinitive entirely employing a raft of new periphrastic constructions instead and uses participles more restrictively The loss of the dative led to a rise of prepositional indirect objects and the use of the genitive to directly mark these as well Ancient Greek tended to be verb final but neutral word order in the modern language is VSO or SVO Vocabulary Edit Modern Greek inherits most of its vocabulary from Ancient Greek which in turn is an Indo European language but also includes a number of borrowings from the languages of the populations that inhabited Greece before the arrival of Proto Greeks 25 some documented in Mycenaean texts they include a large number of Greek toponyms The form and meaning of many words have evolved Loanwords words of foreign origin have entered the language mainly from Latin Venetian and Turkish During the older periods of Greek loanwords into Greek acquired Greek inflections thus leaving only a foreign root word Modern borrowings from the 20th century on especially from French and English are typically not inflected other modern borrowings are derived from South Slavic Macedonian Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages Aromanian and Megleno Romanian Greek loanwords in other languages Edit Further information English words of Greek origin Further information Greek and Latin roots in English Greek words have been widely borrowed into other languages including English Example words include mathematics physics astronomy democracy philosophy athletics theatre rhetoric baptism evangelist etc Moreover Greek words and word elements continue to be productive as a basis for coinages anthropology photography telephony isomer biomechanics cinematography etc Together with Latin words they form the foundation of international scientific and technical vocabulary For example all words ending in logy discourse There are many English words of Greek origin 26 27 Classification EditGreek is an independent branch of the Indo European language family The ancient language most closely related to it may be ancient Macedonian 28 which most scholars suggest may have been a dialect of Greek itself 29 30 31 but it is poorly attested and it is difficult to conclude Independently of the Macedonian question some scholars have grouped Greek into Graeco Phrygian as Greek and the extinct Phrygian share features that are not found in other Indo European languages 32 Among living languages some Indo Europeanists suggest that Greek may be most closely related to Armenian see Graeco Armenian or the Indo Iranian languages see Graeco Aryan but little definitive evidence has been found for grouping the living branches of the family 33 In addition Albanian has also been considered somewhat related to Greek and Armenian by some linguists If proven and recognized the three languages would form a new Balkan sub branch with other dead European languages 34 Writing system EditSee also Greek Braille Linear B Edit Main article Linear B Linear B attested as early as the late 15th century BC was the first script used to write Greek 35 It is basically a syllabary which was finally deciphered by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick in the 1950s its precursor Linear A has not been deciphered and most likely encodes a non Greek language 35 The language of the Linear B texts Mycenaean Greek is the earliest known form of Greek 35 Cypriot syllabary Edit Main article Cypriot syllabary Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script Another similar system used to write the Greek language was the Cypriot syllabary also a descendant of Linear A via the intermediate Cypro Minoan syllabary which is closely related to Linear B but uses somewhat different syllabic conventions to represent phoneme sequences The Cypriot syllabary is attested in Cyprus from the 11th century BC until its gradual abandonment in the late Classical period in favor of the standard Greek alphabet 36 Greek alphabet Edit Main articles Greek alphabet and Greek orthography Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet from Euboea Ionia Athens and Corinth comparing to modern Greek Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet since approximately the 9th century BC It was created by modifying the Phoenician alphabet with the innovation of adopting certain letters to represent the vowels The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC In classical Greek as in classical Latin only upper case letters existed The lower case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill The Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters each with an uppercase majuscule and lowercase minuscule form The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form s used in the final position upper caseA B G D E Z H 8 I K L M N 3 O P R S T Y F X PS Wlower casea b g d e z h 8 i k l m n 3 o p r s s t y f x ps wDiacritics Edit Main article Greek diacritics In addition to the letters the Greek alphabet features a number of diacritical signs three different accent marks acute grave and circumflex originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel the so called breathing marks rough and smooth breathing originally used to signal presence or absence of word initial h and the diaeresis used to mark the full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period Actual usage of the grave in handwriting saw a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century and it has only been retained in typography After the writing reform of 1982 most diacritics are no longer used Since then Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography or monotonic system which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis The traditional system now called the polytonic orthography or polytonic system is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek Punctuation Edit In Greek the question mark is written as the English semicolon while the functions of the colon and semicolon are performed by a raised point known as the ano teleia anw teleia In Greek the comma also functions as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words principally distinguishing o ti o ti whatever from oti oti that 37 Ancient Greek texts often used scriptio continua continuous writing which means that ancient authors and scribes would write word after word with no spaces or punctuation between words to differentiate or mark boundaries 38 Boustrophedon or bi directional text was also used in Ancient Greek Latin alphabet Edit Greek has occasionally been written in the Latin script especially in areas under Venetian rule or by Greek Catholics The term Frankolevantinika Fragkolebantinika applies when the Latin script is used to write Greek in the cultural ambit of Catholicism because Frankos Fragkos is an older Greek term for West European dating to when most of Roman Catholic Christian West Europe was under the control of the Frankish Empire Frankochiotika Fragkoxiwtika meaning Catholic Chiot alludes to the significant presence of Catholic missionaries based on the island of Chios Additionally the term Greeklish is often used when the Greek language is written in a Latin script in online communications 39 The Latin script is nowadays used by the Greek speaking communities of Southern Italy Hebrew alphabet Edit The Yevanic dialect was written by Romaniote and Constantinopolitan Karaite Jews using the Hebrew Alphabet 40 Arabic alphabet Edit Some Greek Muslims from Crete wrote their Cretan Greek in the Arabic alphabet The same happened among Epirote Muslims in Ioannina This usage is sometimes called aljamiado as when Romance languages are written in the Arabic alphabet 41 See also Edit Greece portal Language portal Modern Greek Varieties of Modern Greek Medieval Greek Ancient Greek Ancient Greek dialects Hellenic languages List of Greek and Latin roots in English List of medical roots suffixes and prefixesNotes Edit A comprehensive overview in J T Hooker s Mycenaean Greece Hooker 1976 Chapter 2 Before the Mycenaean Age pp 11 33 and passim for a different hypothesis excluding massive migrations and favoring an autochthonous scenario see Colin Renfrew s Problems in the General Correlation of Archaeological and Linguistic Strata in Prehistoric Greece The Model of Autochthonous Origin Renfrew 1973 pp 263 276 especially p 267 in Bronze Age Migrations by R A Crossland and A Birchall eds 1973 The four cases that are found in all stages of Greek are the nominative genitive accusative and vocative The dative locative of Ancient Greek disappeared in the late Hellenistic period and the instrumental case of Mycenaean Greek disappeared in the Archaic period There is no particular morphological form that can be identified as subjunctive in the modern language but the term is sometimes encountered in descriptions even if the most complete modern grammar Holton et al 1997 does not use it and calls certain traditionally subjunctive forms dependent Most Greek linguists advocate abandoning the traditional terminology Anna Roussou and Tasos Tsangalidis 2009 in Meletes gia tin Elliniki Glossa Thessaloniki Anastasia Giannakidou 2009 Temporal semantics and polarity The dependency of the subjunctive revisited Lingua see Modern Greek grammar for explanation References EditCitations Edit Greek at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Ancient Greek at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Cappadocian Greek at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Mycenaean Greek at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Pontic at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Tsakonian at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Additional references under Language codes in the information box a b Greek language Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc Retrieved 29 April 2014 Haviland William A Prins Harald E L Walrath Dana McBride Bunny 2013 Chapter 15 Language and Communication Anthropology The Human Challenge Cengage Learning p 394 ISBN 978 1 285 67758 3 Most of the alphabets used today descended from the Phoenician one The Greeks adopted it about 2 800 years ago modifying the characters to suit sounds in their own language Comrie Bernard 1987 The World s Major Languages Routledge published 2018 ISBN 978 1 317 29049 0 the Greek alphabet has served the Greek language well for some 2 800 years since its introduction into Greece in the tenth or ninth century BC 1922 Adrados Francisco Rodriguez 2005 A history of the Greek language from its origins to the present Leiden Brill ISBN 978 90 04 12835 4 OCLC 59712402 CS1 maint numeric names authors list link A history of ancient Greek by Maria Chrite Maria Arapopoulou Centre for the Greek Language Thessalonike Greece pg 436 ISBN 0 521 83307 8 Kurt Aland Barbara Aland The text of the New Testament an introduction to the critical 1995 p52 Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testament 1972 p9 Manuel Germaine Catherine 1989 A study of the preservation of the classical tradition in the education language and literature of the Byzantine Empire HVD ALEPH Renfrew 2003 p 35 Georgiev 1981 p 192 Gray amp Atkinson 2003 pp 437 438 Atkinson amp Gray 2006 p 102 Ancient Tablet Found Oldest Readable Writing in Europe National Geographic Society 30 March 2011 Retrieved 22 November 2013 Dawkins amp Halliday 1916 a b Greek Ethnologue Retrieved 12 April 2020 Peter Mackridge 1985 The modern Greek language a descriptive analysis of standard modern Greek Oxford Oxfordshire Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 815770 0 OCLC 11134463 Browning 1983 Alexiou 1982 p 161 Welsby 2002 p 239 sfn error no target CITEREFWelsby2002 help Greece The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Retrieved 23 January 2010 The Constitution of Cyprus App D Part 1 Art 3 Archived from the original on 7 April 2012 states that The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish However the official status of Turkish is only nominal in the Greek dominated Republic of Cyprus in practice outside Turkish dominated Northern Cyprus Turkish is little used see A Arvaniti 2006 Erasure as a Means of Maintaining Diglossia in Cyprus San Diego Linguistics Papers 2 pp 25 38 27 The EU at a Glance Languages in the EU Europa European Union Retrieved 30 July 2010 Greek Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Archived from the original on 18 November 2008 Retrieved 8 December 2008 List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No 148 Council of Europe Archived from the original on 10 April 2020 Retrieved 8 December 2008 Ralli 2001 pp 164 203 Beekes 2009 Scheler 1977 Poso ellhnikes einai oi 3enes glwsses NewsIt 18 November 2019 Hamp 2013 pp 8 10 13 Crespo Emilio 2018 The Softening of Obstruent Consonants in the Macedonian Dialect In Giannakis Georgios K Crespo Emilio Filos Panagiotis eds Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects From Central Greece to the Black Sea Walter de Gruyter p 329 ISBN 978 3 11 053081 0 Hatzopoulos Miltiades B 2018 Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect Consolidation and New Perspectives In Giannakis Georgios K Crespo Emilio Filos Panagiotis eds Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects From Central Greece to the Black Sea Walter de Gruyter p 299 ISBN 978 3 11 053081 0 Babiniotis 1992 pp 29 40 Dosuna 2012 pp 65 78 Hammarstrom Harald Forkel Robert Haspelmath Martin eds 2017 Graeco Phrygian Glottolog 3 0 Jena Germany Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History Renfrew 1990 Gamkrelidze amp Ivanov 1990 pp 110 116 Renfrew 2003 pp 17 48 Gray amp Atkinson 2003 pp 435 439 Holm 2008 pp 628 636 a b c T Hooker J 1980 Linear B an introduction Bristol Bristol Classical Press ISBN 978 0 906515 69 3 OCLC 7326206 Cypriot syllabary Britannica Academic Retrieved 1 August 2017 Nicolas Nick 2005 Greek Unicode Issues Punctuation Archived from the original on 6 August 2012 Retrieved 7 October 2014 Hugoe Matthews Peter March 2014 The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics Oxford University Press Third ed Oxford ISBN 978 0 19 967512 8 OCLC 881847972 Androutsopoulos 2009 pp 221 249 Yevanic alphabet pronunciation and language www omniglot com Retrieved 18 April 2020 Kotzageorgis Phokion 2010 Gruber Christiane J Colby Frederick Stephen eds The Prophet s Ascension Cross cultural Encounters with the Islamic Mi raj Tales Indiana University Press p 297 ISBN 978 0 253 35361 0 The element that makes this text a unicum is that it is written in Greek script In the Ottoman Empire the primary criterion for the selection of an alphabet in which to write was religion Thus people who did not speak or even know the official language of their religion used to write their religious texts in the languages that they knew though in the alphabet where the sacred texts of that religion were written Thus the Grecophone Catholics of Chios wrote using the Latin alphabet but in the Greek language frangochiotika the Turcophone Orthodox Christians of Cappadocia wrote their Turkish texts using the Greek alphabet karamanlidika and the Grecophone Muslims of the Greek peninsula wrote in Greek language using the Arabic alphabet tourkogianniotika tourkokretika Our case is much stranger since it is a quite early example for that kind of literature and because it is largely concerned with religious themes p 306 The audience for the Greek Mi rajnama was most certainly Greek speaking Muslims in particular the so called Tourkogianniotes literally the Turks of Jannina Although few examples have been discovered as yet it seems that these people developed a religious literature mainly composed in verse form This literary form constituted the mainstream of Greek Aljamiado literature from the middle of the seventeenth century until the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923 Tourkogianniotes were probably of Christian origin and were Islamized sometime during the seventeenth century They did not speak any language other than Greek Thus even their frequency in attending mosque services did not provide them with the necessary knowledge about their faith Given their low level of literacy one important way that they could learn about their faith was to listen to religiously edifying texts such as the Greek Mi rajnama Sources Edit Alexiou Margaret 1982 Diglossia in Greece In Haas William ed Standard Languages Spoken and Written Manchester Manchester University Press pp 156 192 ISBN 978 0 389 20291 2 Androutsopoulos Jannis 2009 Greeklish Transliteration Practice and Discourse in a Setting of Computer Mediated Digraphia PDF In Georgakopoulou Alexandra Silk Michael eds Standard Languages and Language Standards Greek Past and Present Aldershot Ashgate Publishing Limited pp 221 249 permanent dead link Atkinson Quentin D Gray Russel D 2006 Chapter 8 How Old is the Indo European Language Family Illumination or More Moths to the Flame In Forster Peter Renfrew Colin eds Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages Cambridge England McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research pp 91 109 ISBN 978 1 902937 33 5 Babiniotis George 1992 The Question of Mediae in Ancient Macedonian Greek Reconsidered In Brogyanyi Bela Lipp Reiner eds Historical Philology Greek Latin and Romance Amsterdam and Philadelphia John Benjamins Publishing Company pp 29 40 ISBN 9789027277473 Beekes Robert Stephen Paul 2009 Etymological Dictionary of Greek Leiden and Boston Brill ISBN 978 90 04 17418 4 Browning Robert 1983 1969 Medieval and Modern Greek Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 23488 7 Dawkins Richard McGillivray Halliday William Reginald 1916 Modern Greek in Asia Minor A Study of Dialect of Silly Cappadocia and Pharasa with Grammar Texts Translations and Glossary Cambridge England Cambridge University Press Dosuna Julian Victor Mendez 2012 Ancient Macedonian as a Greek Dialect A Critical Survey on Recent Work In Giannakis Georgios K ed Ancient Macedonia Language History and Culture in Greek Thessaloniki Centre for the Greek Language pp 65 78 Gamkrelidze Tamaz V Ivanov Vyacheslav March 1990 The Early History of Indo European Languages Scientific American 262 3 110 116 Bibcode 1990SciAm 262c 110G doi 10 1038 scientificamerican0390 110 Archived from the original on 6 January 2014 Georgiev Vladimir Ivanov 1981 Introduction to the History of the Indo European Languages Sofia Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ISBN 9789535172611 Gray Russel D Atkinson Quentin D 2003 Language tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo European Origin Nature 426 6965 435 439 Bibcode 2003Natur 426 435G doi 10 1038 nature02029 PMID 14647380 S2CID 42340 Hamp Eric P August 2013 The Expansion of the Indo European Languages An Indo Europeanist s Evolving View PDF Sino Platonic Papers 239 Holm Hans J 2008 The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages In Preisach Christine Burkhardt Hans Schmidt Thieme Lars Decker Reinhold eds Data Analysis Machine Learning and Applications Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Gesellschaft fur Klassifikation e V Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg March 7 9 2007 Berlin Heidelberg Springer Verlag pp 628 636 ISBN 978 3 540 78246 9 Hooker J T 1976 Mycenaean Greece London Routledge amp Kegan Paul ISBN 9780710083791 Jeffries Ian 2002 Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty First Century A Guide to the Economies in Transition London and New York Routledge Taylor amp Francis ISBN 978 0 415 23671 3 Ralli Angeliki 2001 Morfologia Morphology in Greek Athens Ekdoseis Pataki Renfrew Colin 1973 Problems in the General Correlation of Archaeological and Linguistic Strata in Prehistoric Greece The Model of Autochthonous Origin In Crossland R A Birchall Ann eds Bronze Age Migrations in the Aegean Archaeological and Linguistic Problems in Greek Prehistory Proceedings of the first International Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory Sheffield London Gerald Duckworth and Company Limited pp 263 276 ISBN 978 0 7156 0580 6 Renfrew Colin 2003 Time Depth Convergence Theory and Innovation in Proto Indo European Old Europe as a PIE Linguistic Area In Bammesberger Alfred Vennemann Theo eds Languages in Prehistoric Europe Heidelberg Universitatsverlag Winter GmBH pp 17 48 ISBN 978 3 8253 1449 1 Renfrew Colin 1990 1987 Archaeology and Language The Puzzle of Indo European Origins Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 38675 3 Scheler Manfred 1977 Der englische Wortschatz English Vocabulary in German Berlin E Schmidt ISBN 978 3 503 01250 3 Tsitselikis Konstantinos 2013 A Surviving Treaty The Lausanne Minority Protection in Greece and Turkey In Henrard Kristin ed The Interrelation between the Right to Identity of Minorities and their Socio economic Participation Leiden and Boston Martinus Nijhoff Publishers pp 287 315 ISBN 9789004244740 Further reading EditAllen W Sidney 1968 Vox Graeca A Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Greek Cambridge England Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 20626 6 Crosby Henry Lamar Schaeffer John Nevin 1928 An Introduction to Greek Boston MA New York NY Allyn and Bacon Inc Dionysius of Thrace Bibliotheca Augustana Texnh Grammatikh Art of Grammar in Greek Holton David Mackridge Peter Philippaki Warburton Irene 1997 Greek A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language London and New York Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 10002 1 Horrocks Geoffrey 1997 Greek A History of the Language and Its Speakers London and New York Longman Linguistics Library Addison Wesley Longman Limited ISBN 978 0 582 30709 4 Krill Richard M 1990 Greek and Latin in English Today Wauconda IL Bolchazy Carducci Publishers ISBN 978 0 86516 241 9 Mallory James P 1997 Greek Language In Mallory James P Adams Douglas Q eds Encyclopedia of Indo European Culture Chicago IL Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers pp 240 246 ISBN 9781884964985 Newton Brian 1972 The Generative Interpretation of Dialect A Study of Modern Greek Phonology Cambridge England Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 08497 0 Sihler Andrew L 1995 New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin New York NY Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 508345 3 Smyth Herbert Weir Messing Gordon 1956 1920 Greek Grammar Cambridge MA Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 36250 5 External links EditStandard Greek edition of Wikipedia the free encyclopediaPontic Greek edition of Wikipedia the free encyclopediaWikibooks has more on the topic of Greek languageFor a list of words relating to Greek language see the Greek language category of words in Wiktionary the free dictionary Ancient Greek test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia IncubatorWikimedia Commons has media related to Greek language Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Greek General backgroundGreek Language Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia The Greek Language and Linguistics Gateway useful information on the history of the Greek language application of modern Linguistics to the study of Greek and tools for learning Greek Aristotle University of Thessaloniki The Greek Language Portal a portal for Greek language and linguistic education The Perseus Project has many useful pages for the study of classical languages and literatures including dictionaries Ancient Greek Tutorials Berkeley Language Center of the University of California BerkeleyLanguage learningWikiquote has quotations related to Greek languageHellenistic Greek Lessons Greek Language com provides a free online grammar of Hellenistic Greek komvos edu gr a website for the support of people who are being taught the Greek language New Testament Greek Three graduated courses designed to help students learn to read the Greek New Testament Books on Greek language that are taught at schools in Greece page in Greek Greek Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words from Wiktionary s Swadesh list appendix USA Foreign Service Institute Modern Greek basic course Aversa Alan Greek Inflector University of Arizona Identifies the grammatical functions of all the words in sentences entered using Perseus DictionariesGreek Lexical Aids descriptions of both online lexicons with appropriate links and Greek Lexicons in Print The Greek Language Portal dictionaries of all forms of Greek Ancient Hellenistic Medieval Modern scanned images from S C Woodhouse s English Greek dictionary 1910LiteratureCenter for Neo Hellenic Studies a non profit organization that promotes modern Greek literature and culture Research lab of modern Greek philosophy a large e library of modern Greek texts books Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Greek language amp oldid 1053832588, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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