fbpx
Wikipedia

IMDb

For the database system, see In-memory database. For the Malaysian sovereign wealth fund, see 1MDB.

IMDb (an acronym for Internet Movie Database) is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos, video games, and streaming content online – including cast, production crew and personal biographies, plot summaries, trivia, ratings, and fan and critical reviews. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. Originally a fan-operated website, the database is now owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc., a subsidiary of Amazon.

IMDb
Screenshot
IMDb homepage as of March 2021
Type of site
Online database for movies, television, and video games
Available inEnglish
OwnerAmazon
SubsidiariesBox Office Mojo
URLwww.imdb.com
CommercialYes
RegistrationOptional registration; registered members can write reviews, edit the site, vote on ratings
LaunchedOctober 17, 1990; 31 years ago (1990-10-17)
Current statusActive

As of June 2021[update], IMDb has approximately 8 million titles (including episodes) and 10.4 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users.

IMDb began as a movie database on the Usenet group "rec.arts.movies" in 1990 and moved to the web in 1993.

Contents

The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site.

Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors. The site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast, credits, and other demographics of media product and personalities. However, image, name, character name, plot summaries, and title changes are supposedly screened before publication, and usually take between 24 and 72 hours to appear.

All registered users can choose their own site name, and most operate anonymously. They have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings (should the user decide to display them) and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, trivia, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page, then that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, and (except for plot synopses and biographies) no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages.

Users are also invited to rate any film or TV series on a scale of 1 to 10, and the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating that is displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.

In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. Subsequently, in June 2019, Freedive was rebranded as IMDbTV, during the launch of which, the amount of content contained on the platform was tripled.

History before website

IMDb originated in 1990 with a Usenet posting entitled "Those Eyes", by the English film fan and computer programmer Col Needham, about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", and Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would later be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was then (but did not remain) a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists. When these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.

By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 films and television series, correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts that could be used to search the four lists, and thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database".

On the web

The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia, biographies, and plot summaries. The movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. Later, in 1993, it moved onto the fledgling World Wide Web under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database. The database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates. However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth.

As an independent company

In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. Founder Col Needham became the primary owner. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising, licensing and partnerships.

As Amazon.com subsidiary (1998–present)

In 1998, Jeff Bezos, founder, owner, and CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright; Amazon paid $55 million for IMDb and two other companies. Bezos attached it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work. In the process of expanding its product line, Amazon.com intended to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes.

IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals. IMDbPro was announced and launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, a company directory, and the ability of subscribers to add personal information pages with details at variance.

As an additional incentive for users, as of 2003[update], users identified as one of "the top 100 contributors" of hard data received complimentary free access to IMDbPro for the following calendar year; for 2006 this was increased to the top 150 contributors, and for 2010 to the top 250. In 2008, IMDb launched their first official foreign-language version with the German IMDb.de. Also in 2008, IMDb acquired two other companies: Withoutabox and Box Office Mojo.

The website was originally Perl-based, but IMDb no longer discloses what software it uses for reasons of security. In 2010, the site was filtered in China.

In 2016, The IMDb Studio at Sundance was launched, a talk show that is presented on IMDb and YouTube.

In April 2017, IMDb celebrated its 25th anniversary. As of that year, Needham was still managing IMDb from its main office in Bristol in the Castlemead office tower.

Actors, crew, and industry executives can post their own resume and upload photos of themselves for a yearly membership fee to IMDbPro. IMDbPro can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is US$19.99 per month, or if paid annually, US$149.99. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, producer, director etc. that has an IMDb page. IMDbPro also allows existing actors to claim their name page. Enrolling in IMDbPro enables members who are industry personnel to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as an IMDb user and contribute to the site as well as view its content; however, those users enrolled in IMDbPro have greater access and privileges.

On October 2, 2007,[citation needed] the characters' filmography was added. Character entries are created from character listings in the main filmography database, and as such do not need any additional verification by IMDb staff. They have already been verified when they are added to the main filmography.

Main article: IMDb TV

On January 10, 2019, IMDb launched Freedive, a streaming service that offers certain films free with advertisements. Due to international licensing restrictions, the service currently is only available in the United States as of 2019[update].

Freedive was the company's second attempt at a streaming service. IMDb had previously launched a similar feature in 2008 that was later discontinued.[citation needed]

In June 2019, IMDb announced that its streaming service would be renamed IMDb TV, with a planned launch in Europe later that year. The service has licensed films and TV series from Warner Bros., Sony Pictures Entertainment and MGM. In February 2020, the service licensed 21 television series from Disney–ABC Domestic Television.

IMDb TV has also bought the streaming rights to the Alex Rider TV series in the U.S that has been streaming on Amazon Prime Video in the UK, Latin America, Germany and Austria.

Data provided by subjects

In 2006, IMDb introduced its "Résumé Subscription Service", where actors and crew can post their own résumé and upload photos of themselves for a yearly fee. The base annual charge for including a photo with an account was US$39.95 until 2010, when it was increased to US$54.95. IMDb résumé pages are kept on a sub-page of the regular entry about that person, with a regular entry automatically created for each résumé subscriber who does not already have one.

As of 2012[update], Resume Services is now included as part of an IMDbPro subscription and is no longer offered as a separate subscription service.

Copyright, vandalism and error issues

All volunteers who contribute content to the database technically retain copyright on their contributions, but the compilation of the content becomes the exclusive property of IMDb with the full right to copy, modify, and sublicense it, and they are verified before posting. Credit is not given on specific title or filmography pages to the contributor(s) who have provided information. Conversely, a credited text entry, such as a plot summary, may be corrected for content, grammar, sentence structure, perceived omission or error, by other contributors without having to add their names as co-authors. Due to the time required for processing submitted data or text before it is displayed, IMDb is different from user-contributed projects like Discogs, or OpenStreetMap, or Wikipedia, in that contributors cannot add, delete, or modify the data or text on impulse, and the manipulation of data is controlled by IMDb technology and salaried staff.

IMDb has been subject to deliberate additions of false information; in 2012 a spokesperson said: "We make it easy for users and professionals to update much of our content, which is why we have an 'edit page.' The data that is submitted goes through a series of consistency checks before it goes live. Given the sheer volume of the information, occasional mistakes are inevitable, and, when reported, they are promptly fixed. We always welcome corrections."

The Java Movie Database (JMDB) is reportedly creating an IMDb_Error.log file that lists all the errors found while processing the IMDb plain text files. A Wiki alternative to IMDb is Open Media Database whose content is also contributed by users but licensed under CC-by and the GFDL. Since 2007, IMDb has been experimenting with wiki-programmed sections for complete film synopses, parental guides, and FAQs about titles as determined by (and answered by) individual contributors.

Data format and access

IMDb does not provide an API for automated queries. However, most of the data can be downloaded as compressed plain text files and the information can be extracted using the command-line interface tools provided. There is also a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI) application available that is able to process the compressed plain text files, which allows a search and a display of the information. This GUI application supports different languages, but the movie related data are in English, as made available by IMDb. A Python package called IMDbPY can also be used to process the compressed plain text files into a number of different SQL databases, enabling easier access to the entire dataset for searching or data mining.

Film titles

The IMDb has sites in English as well as versions translated completely or in part into other languages (Danish, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish and Romanian). The non-English language sites display film titles in the specified language. Originally, IMDb's English language sites displayed titles according to their original country-of-origin language, however, in 2010 IMDb began allowing individual users in the UK and USA to choose primary title display by either the original-language titles, or the US or UK release title (normally, in English).

User ratings of films

As one adjunct to data, the IMDb offers a rating scale that allows users to rate films on a scale of one to ten.

IMDb indicates that submitted ratings are filtered and weighted in various ways to produce a weighted mean that is displayed for each film, series, and so on. It states that filters are used to avoid ballot stuffing; the method is not described in detail to avoid attempts to circumvent it. In fact, it sometimes produces an extreme difference between the weighted average and the arithmetic mean.

Rankings

The IMDb Top 250 is a list of the top rated 250 films, based on ratings by the registered users of the website using the methods described. As of 8 June 2021[update], The Shawshank Redemption is No. 1 on the list. The "Top 250" rating is based on only the ratings of "regular voters". The number of votes a registered user would have to make to be considered as a user who votes regularly has been kept secret. IMDb has stated that to maintain the effectiveness of the Top 250 list they "deliberately do not disclose the criteria used for a person to be counted as a regular voter". In addition to other weightings, the Top 250 films are also based on a weighted rating formula referred to in actuarial science as a credibility formula. This label arises because a statistic is taken to be more credible the greater the number of individual pieces of information; in this case from eligible users who submit ratings. Although the current formula is not disclosed, IMDb originally used the following formula to calculate their weighted rating:

W = R v + C m v + m {\displaystyle W={\frac {\ R\cdot v+C\cdot m\ }{v+m}}}
where:
  • W {\displaystyle W\ } = weighted rating
  • R {\displaystyle R\ } = average for the movie as a number from 1 to 10 (mean) = (Rating)
  • v {\displaystyle v\ } = number of votes for the movie = (votes)
  • m {\displaystyle m\ } = minimum votes required to be listed in the Top 250 (currently 25,000)
  • C {\displaystyle C\ } = the mean vote across the whole report (currently 7.0)

The W {\displaystyle W\ } in this formula is equivalent to a Bayesian posterior mean (see Bayesian statistics).

The IMDb also has a Bottom 100 feature which is assembled through a similar process although only 10,000 votes must be received to qualify for the list.

The Top 250 list comprises a wide range of feature films, including major releases, cult films, independent films, critically acclaimed films, silent films, and non-English-language films. Documentaries, short films and TV episodes are not currently included.

Since 2015, there has been a Top 250 list devoted to ranking television shows.

Message boards

Beginning in 2001, the Internet Movie Database also maintained message boards for every title (excepting, as of 2013[update], TV episodes) and name entry, along with over 140 main boards. To post on the message boards a user needed to "authenticate" their account via cell phone, credit card, or by having been a recent customer of the parent company Amazon.com. Message boards expanded in recent years. The Soapbox started in 1999 as a general message board meant for debates on any subjects. The Politics board started in 2007 was a message board to discuss politics, news events, and current affairs, as well as history and economics.[citation needed]

By February 20, 2017, all the message boards and their content were permanently removed. According to the website, the decision was made because the boards were "no longer providing a positive, useful experience for the vast majority of our more than 250 million monthly users worldwide", and others have mentioned its susceptibility to trolling and disagreeable behavior. Col Needham also mentioned in a post some months earlier that the boards received less income from ads, and that their members only made up a very small part of the website's visitors. The boards were costly to run due to the system's age and dated design, which did not make business sense. The decision to remove the message boards was met with outspoken backlash from some of its users, and sparked an online petition garnering over 8,000 signatures. In the days leading up to February 20, 2017, both Archive.org and MovieChat.org preserved the entire contents of the IMDb message boards using web scraping. Archive.org and MovieChat.org have published IMDb message board archives, which is legal under the fair use doctrine, because it has no effect on IMDb's potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

As of June 2021[update], IMDb has the following statistics:

Type Titles
Feature film 580,890
Short film 818,520
TV series 209,880
TV episode 5,884,536
TV movie 132,040
TV special 33,183
TV mini-series 38,108
TV short 9,949
Video 312,751
Video game 28,467

In 2011, in the case of Hoang v. Amazon.com, Inc., IMDb was sued by an anonymous actress for more than US$1,000,000 due to IMDb's revealing her age (40, at the time). The actress claimed that revealing her age could cause her to lose acting opportunities. Judge Marsha J. Pechman, a U.S. district judge in Seattle, dismissed the lawsuit, saying the actress had no grounds to proceed with an anonymous complaint. The actress re-filed and so revealed that she was Huong Hoang of Texas, who uses the stage name Junie Hoang. In 2013, Pechman dismissed all causes of action except for a breach of contract claim against IMDb; a jury then sided with IMDb on that claim. The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court judgment in March 2015.

Also in 2011, in the case of United Video Properties Inc., et al. v. Amazon.Com Inc. et al., IMDb and Amazon were sued by Rovi Corporation and others for patent infringement over their various program listing offerings. The patent claims were ultimately construed in a way favorable to IMDb, and Rovi / United Video Properties lost the case. In April 2014, the decision was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals.

On January 1, 2017, the State of California implemented state bill AB-1687, a SAG-AFTRA-backed anti-ageism statute which requires "commercial online entertainment employment services" to honor requests by their subscribers for their ages and birthdays to be hidden. By the beginning of 2017, IMDb had received more than 2,300 requests from individuals to remove their date of birth from the site. Included in this group were 10 Academy Award winners and another 71 nominated for Oscars, Emmys, or Golden Globes. On February 23, 2017, Judge Vince Girdhari Chhabria issued a stay on the bill pending a further trial, claiming that it possibly violated the First Amendment because it inhibited the public consumption of information. He also questioned the intent of the bill, as it was ostensibly meant to target IMDb.

IMDb had long maintained that it would keep all valid information, but changed that policy related to birth names on August 12, 2019. IMDb will now remove birth names that are not widely and publicly known, of persons who no longer use their birth names. This was done in response to pressure from LGBTQ groups against the publication of transgender birth names without their consent, which is called "dead-naming". Any name a person had previously been credited under, however, continues to be maintained in the credits section.

  1. "IMDb | History, Features, & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. RetrievedOctober 27, 2020.
  2. "Press Room". IMDb. RetrievedAugust 1, 2021.
  3. "Submission guide for users". Help Center. IMDb.
  4. Mehta, Ivan (January 11, 2019). "Amazon's new IMDb Freedive service streams ad-supported movies and TV shows in the US". The Next Web. RetrievedJanuary 11, 2019.
  5. "Amazon Rebrands IMDb Freedive as IMDb TV, Triples Content". PC Magazine.
  6. Dalton, Jeff (March 1, 1990). "Re: Frequently Asked Questions List (2/28/90)". Newsgroup: rec.arts.movies. Usenet: [email protected]. RetrievedAugust 13, 2019.
  7. Chmielewski, Dawn C. (January 19, 2013). "Col Needham created IMDb". Los Angeles Times.
  8. "Historical Internet Movie Database Site". Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Archived from the original on March 24, 2013. RetrievedMarch 21, 2013.
  9. "IMDB History". IMDb.
  10. "IMDb | Help". IMDb.
  11. "Amazon Com Inc – '8-K' for 4/27/98 – EX-99.2". SEC Info. April 27, 1998. RetrievedMarch 23, 2017.
  12. "Internet bookseller Amazon.com announces acquisition of United Kingdom company The Internet Movie Database Ltd" (Press release). IMDb. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 18, 2020 – via PR Newswire Europe.
  13. Needham, Col (January 1, 2011). "Top 250 contributors for 2010". IMD; announcement. IMDb. RetrievedAugust 25, 2011.
  14. Ng, David (October 19, 2018). "Amazon-owned IMDb ending film festival submission platform Withoutabox". Los Angeles Times. RetrievedJune 13, 2019.
  15. "Amazon's IMDB Acquires Box Office Mojo; Will Add Box Office Data To Service". CBS News. RetrievedJune 13, 2019.
  16. "What software are you using to run IMDb?". IMDb. 2017. RetrievedNovember 16, 2017.
  17. Chacksfield, Marc (January 14, 2010). "China blocks number-one movie site IMDb". TechRadar. 2012 Future US, Inc.
  18. "The IMDb Studio at Sundance". IMDb. January 22, 2016. RetrievedDecember 25, 2020.
  19. Sundance 2020(video). IMDb (YouTube).
  20. Jones, Craig (April 13, 2017). "The story behind Bristol-based IMDb as they celebrate their 25th anniversary". The Bristol Post. RetrievedMay 9, 2021.
  21. "IMDbPro signup". IMDb.
  22. "Amazon's IMDb launches Freedive, a free movie and TV streaming service — with ads". GeekWire. January 10, 2019. RetrievedJune 20, 2019.
  23. Hoffman, Harrison (September 15, 2008). "IMDb now serves full-length videos". CNET. RetrievedSeptember 17, 2008.
  24. Modine, Austin (September 16, 2008). "IMDb adds full-length streaming movies (Show your US ID card at the door)". The Register. UK. RetrievedSeptember 17, 2008.
  25. Spangler, Todd (June 17, 2019). "IMDb Scraps Freedive Name, Will Triple 'IMDb TV' Free Streaming Lineup With Movies From Warner Bros., Sony, MGM". Variety. RetrievedJune 20, 2019.
  26. Spangler, Todd (February 5, 2020). "Amazon's IMDb TV Inks Disney Pact for Free Streaming of 'Lost,' 'Desperate Housewives,' More". Variety. RetrievedFebruary 18, 2020.
  27. Kanter, Jake (July 14, 2020). "'Alex Rider': Amazon Streamer IMDb TV Takes U.S. Rights To Sony Spy Series". Deadline Hollywood. RetrievedAugust 22, 2020.
  28. "Lycos Europe and IMDb sign sales agreement for 9 European markets". Lycos Europe. press release. July 10, 2006. Archived from the original on October 23, 2006.
  29. "Can I subscribe only for one month or one year?". Resume FAQ. IMDb. RetrievedJanuary 22, 2008.
  30. "Is there any difference between a regular IMDb name page and an IMDb name page created via IMDb Resume?". Resume FAQ. IMDb. RetrievedJanuary 22, 2008.
  31. "Copyright and Conditions of Use". IMDb.
  32. "The plain text data files". Alternate Interfaces. IMDb.
  33. "Which A-list star is hacking IMDb pages?". The Hollywood Reporter. November 14, 2012. RetrievedFebruary 25, 2013.
  34. "Java Movie Database (JMDB)". Jmdb.de. RetrievedOctober 27, 2010.
  35. "Open Media Database". omdb.org. RetrievedDecember 3, 2015.
  36. "Alternate Interfaces". IMDb. RetrievedJanuary 15, 2007.
  37. "IMDbPY". IMDbPY. sourceforge.net. RetrievedFebruary 14, 2011.
  38. "Top 250 movies as voted by our users". IMDb. RetrievedJune 10, 2015.
  39. "The user votes average on film or show X is 9.4, so it should appear in your Top 250 Movies or TV list, yet it doesn't. Why?". IMDb.
  40. Norberg, Ragnar (2006). "Credibility Theory"(PDF). Encyclopedia of Actuarial Science. doi:10.1002/9780470012505.tac068. ISBN 0470846763. Archived from the original(PDF) on May 15, 2004.
  41. "IMDB Vote FAQ". IMDb. RetrievedFebruary 6, 2015.
  42. "Bottom 100". IMDb. RetrievedMarch 19, 2020.
  43. "Top 250 TV". IMDb. RetrievedMarch 16, 2016.
  44. Each TV episode uses the same message board for the whole series
  45. "IMDb is closing its message boards". February 3, 2017.
  46. "One of the worst comment sections on the Internet is shutting down".
  47. "Should IMDB have preserved its comment boards – flame wars and all?". The Boston Globe.
  48. "Not Even IMDB Is Safe From Trolls". February 21, 2017.
  49. "Can someone on the inside explain to me". IMDb.com Customer Community. July 26, 2016. RetrievedMarch 23, 2017.
  50. "How some users are trying to save IMDB's message board". Vice.com. RetrievedSeptember 9, 2017.
  51. "The Archiveteam IMDb message board archive (raw data)". RetrievedSeptember 9, 2017.
  52. "The MovieChat IMDb Message Board Archive (web-based)". MovieChat.org. RetrievedSeptember 9, 2017.
  53. "17 U.S. Code § 107 – Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use". Cornell Law School. RetrievedOctober 8, 2018.
  54. "Movie & TV Forums: IMDb Message Board Archives: Are They Legal?". MovieTVForums.com. RetrievedOctober 8, 2018.
  55. Bahr, Lindsey (October 18, 2011). "Lawsuit against IMDb revealing private information". Entertainment Weekly. RetrievedApril 25, 2013.
  56. "Acting unions criticise IMDb in age row". BBC News. BBC. October 29, 2011. RetrievedOctober 29, 2011.
  57. "Actress sued Amazon for revealing age 40 identified as Huong (Junie) Hoang". Sky News. January 7, 2012. RetrievedApril 21, 2012.
  58. "Actress age claim against IMDb rejected". BBC News. BBC. RetrievedApril 12, 2013.
  59. Gardner, Eriq (March 27, 2015). "IMDb preserves legal win over revelation of actress' age". The Hollywood Reporter.
  60. "Case Docket: United Video Properties Inc., et al v. Amazon.Com Inc. et al.". gov.uscourts.ded.45528. RECAP. RetrievedNovember 5, 2013.
  61. Masnick, Mike (January 12, 2011). "Rovi sues Amazon for not licensing its Electronic TV Guide patent". Techdirt. RetrievedNovember 5, 2013.
  62. Mullin, Joe (November 4, 2013). "Netflix roasts Rovi's 'Interactive TV guide' patents at ITC". Ars Technica. RetrievedNovember 5, 2013.
  63. United Video Properties v. Amazon.com. law.justia.com. April 8, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 28, 2019.
  64. "California enacts law requiring IMDb to remove actor ages on request". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedNovember 15, 2016.
  65. Bray, Hiawatha (March 23, 2017). "Internet censorship, Hollywood style". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. RetrievedMarch 23, 2017.
  66. "Judge pauses enforcement of IMDb Age Censorship law". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedFebruary 23, 2017.
  67. McNary, Dave (August 13, 2019). "IMDb Alters Policy on Publication of Birth Names". Variety. RetrievedMarch 7, 2020.
Wikidata has the property:
  • IMDb – official site

IMDb
IMDb Language Watch Edit For the database system see In memory database For the Malaysian sovereign wealth fund see 1MDB IMDb an acronym for Internet Movie Database 1 is an online database of information related to films television programs home videos video games and streaming content online including cast production crew and personal biographies plot summaries trivia ratings and fan and critical reviews An additional fan feature message boards was abandoned in February 2017 Originally a fan operated website the database is now owned and operated by IMDb com Inc a subsidiary of Amazon IMDbScreenshotIMDb homepage as of March 2021Type of siteOnline database for movies television and video gamesAvailable inEnglishOwnerAmazonSubsidiariesBox Office MojoURLwww wbr imdb wbr comCommercialYesRegistrationOptional registration registered members can write reviews edit the site vote on ratingsLaunchedOctober 17 1990 31 years ago 1990 10 17 Current statusActive As of June 2021 update IMDb has approximately 8 million titles including episodes and 10 4 million personalities in its database 2 as well as 83 million registered users IMDb began as a movie database on the Usenet group rec arts movies in 1990 and moved to the web in 1993 Contents 1 Features 2 History 2 1 History before website 2 2 On the web 2 3 As an independent company 2 4 As Amazon com subsidiary 1998 present 3 IMDbPro 4 Characters filmography 5 IMDb TV 6 Content and format 6 1 Data provided by subjects 6 2 Copyright vandalism and error issues 6 3 Data format and access 6 4 Film titles 7 Ancillary features 7 1 User ratings of films 7 1 1 Rankings 7 2 Message boards 8 Statistics 9 Litigation 10 Birth names publication policy 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksFeatures EditThe movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors The site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries Users with a proven track record of submitting data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast credits and other demographics of media product and personalities However image name character name plot summaries and title changes are supposedly screened before publication and usually take between 24 and 72 hours to appear All registered users can choose their own site name and most operate anonymously They have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member as well as personal movie ratings should the user decide to display them and since 2015 badges are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos trivia bios etc If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page then that user visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO 3 There is no single index of contributors no index on each profile page of the items contributed and except for plot synopses and biographies no identification of contributors to each product s or person s data pages Users are also invited to rate any film or TV series on a scale of 1 to 10 and the totals are converted into a weighted mean rating that is displayed beside each title with online filters employed to deter ballot stuffing In January 2019 IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive an ad supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures 4 Subsequently in June 2019 Freedive was rebranded as IMDbTV during the launch of which the amount of content contained on the platform was tripled 5 History EditHistory before website Edit IMDb originated in 1990 with a Usenet posting entitled Those Eyes by the English film fan and computer programmer Col Needham 6 about actresses with beautiful eyes Others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own Needham subsequently started an Actors List while Dave Knight began a Directors List and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill which would later be renamed the Actress List Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working but soon retired people were added so Needham started what was then but did not remain a separate Dead Actors Actresses List Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists When these achieved popularity they were merged back into the lists themselves The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible By late 1990 the lists included almost 10 000 films and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein On October 17 1990 Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts that could be used to search the four lists and thus the database that would become the IMDb was born 7 At the time it was known as the rec arts movies movie database On the web Edit The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia biographies and plot summaries The movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay Later in 1993 it moved onto the fledgling World Wide Web under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database 8 The database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales Rob Hartill was the original web interface author In 1994 the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates However the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein Over the next few years the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth 9 As an independent company Edit In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd Founder Col Needham became the primary owner General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising licensing and partnerships 10 As Amazon com subsidiary 1998 present Edit In 1998 Jeff Bezos founder owner and CEO of Amazon com struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright Amazon paid 55 million for IMDb and two other companies 11 Bezos attached it to Amazon as a subsidiary private company 12 This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work In the process of expanding its product line Amazon com intended to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes IMDb continued to expand its functionality On January 15 2002 it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro aimed at entertainment professionals IMDbPro was announced and launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details a company directory and the ability of subscribers to add personal information pages with details at variance As an additional incentive for users as of 2003 update users identified as one of the top 100 contributors of hard data received complimentary free access to IMDbPro for the following calendar year for 2006 this was increased to the top 150 contributors and for 2010 to the top 250 13 In 2008 IMDb launched their first official foreign language version with the German IMDb de Also in 2008 IMDb acquired two other companies Withoutabox 14 and Box Office Mojo 15 The website was originally Perl based but IMDb no longer discloses what software it uses for reasons of security 16 In 2010 the site was filtered in China 17 In 2016 The IMDb Studio at Sundance was launched a talk show that is presented on IMDb and YouTube 18 19 In April 2017 IMDb celebrated its 25th anniversary As of that year Needham was still managing IMDb from its main office in Bristol in the Castlemead office tower 20 IMDbPro EditActors crew and industry executives can post their own resume and upload photos of themselves for a yearly membership fee to IMDbPro IMDbPro can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee which is US 19 99 per month or if paid annually US 149 99 Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality as well as agent contact information for any actor producer director etc that has an IMDb page IMDbPro also allows existing actors to claim their name page Enrolling in IMDbPro enables members who are industry personnel to upload a head shot to open their page as well as to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page Anyone can register as an IMDb user and contribute to the site as well as view its content however those users enrolled in IMDbPro have greater access and privileges 21 Characters filmography EditOn October 2 2007 citation needed the characters filmography was added Character entries are created from character listings in the main filmography database and as such do not need any additional verification by IMDb staff They have already been verified when they are added to the main filmography IMDb TV EditMain article IMDb TV On January 10 2019 IMDb launched Freedive a streaming service that offers certain films free with advertisements Due to international licensing restrictions the service currently is only available in the United States as of 2019 update 22 Freedive was the company s second attempt at a streaming service IMDb had previously launched a similar feature in 2008 23 24 that was later discontinued citation needed In June 2019 IMDb announced that its streaming service would be renamed IMDb TV with a planned launch in Europe later that year The service has licensed films and TV series from Warner Bros Sony Pictures Entertainment and MGM 25 In February 2020 the service licensed 21 television series from Disney ABC Domestic Television 26 IMDb TV has also bought the streaming rights to the Alex Rider TV series in the U S that has been streaming on Amazon Prime Video in the UK Latin America Germany and Austria 27 Content and format EditData provided by subjects Edit In 2006 IMDb introduced its Resume Subscription Service where actors and crew can post their own resume and upload photos of themselves 28 for a yearly fee 29 The base annual charge for including a photo with an account was US 39 95 until 2010 when it was increased to US 54 95 IMDb resume pages are kept on a sub page of the regular entry about that person with a regular entry automatically created for each resume subscriber who does not already have one 30 As of 2012 update Resume Services is now included as part of an IMDbPro subscription and is no longer offered as a separate subscription service Copyright vandalism and error issues Edit All volunteers who contribute content to the database technically retain copyright on their contributions but the compilation of the content becomes the exclusive property of IMDb with the full right to copy modify and sublicense it and they are verified before posting 31 Credit is not given on specific title or filmography pages to the contributor s who have provided information Conversely a credited text entry such as a plot summary may be corrected for content grammar sentence structure perceived omission or error by other contributors without having to add their names as co authors Due to the time required for processing submitted data or text before it is displayed IMDb is different from user contributed projects like Discogs or OpenStreetMap or Wikipedia in that contributors cannot add delete or modify the data or text on impulse and the manipulation of data is controlled by IMDb technology and salaried staff 32 IMDb has been subject to deliberate additions of false information in 2012 a spokesperson said We make it easy for users and professionals to update much of our content which is why we have an edit page The data that is submitted goes through a series of consistency checks before it goes live Given the sheer volume of the information occasional mistakes are inevitable and when reported they are promptly fixed We always welcome corrections 33 The Java Movie Database JMDB 34 is reportedly creating an IMDb Error log file that lists all the errors found while processing the IMDb plain text files A Wiki alternative to IMDb is Open Media Database 35 whose content is also contributed by users but licensed under CC by and the GFDL Since 2007 IMDb has been experimenting with wiki programmed sections for complete film synopses parental guides and FAQs about titles as determined by and answered by individual contributors Data format and access Edit IMDb does not provide an API for automated queries However most of the data can be downloaded as compressed plain text files and the information can be extracted using the command line interface tools provided 36 There is also a Java based graphical user interface GUI application available that is able to process the compressed plain text files which allows a search and a display of the information 34 This GUI application supports different languages but the movie related data are in English as made available by IMDb A Python package called IMDbPY can also be used to process the compressed plain text files into a number of different SQL databases enabling easier access to the entire dataset for searching or data mining 37 Film titles Edit The IMDb has sites in English as well as versions translated completely or in part into other languages Danish Finnish French German Hungarian Italian Polish Portuguese Spanish and Romanian The non English language sites display film titles in the specified language Originally IMDb s English language sites displayed titles according to their original country of origin language however in 2010 IMDb began allowing individual users in the UK and USA to choose primary title display by either the original language titles or the US or UK release title normally in English Ancillary features EditUser ratings of films Edit As one adjunct to data the IMDb offers a rating scale that allows users to rate films on a scale of one to ten IMDb indicates that submitted ratings are filtered and weighted in various ways to produce a weighted mean that is displayed for each film series and so on It states that filters are used to avoid ballot stuffing the method is not described in detail to avoid attempts to circumvent it In fact it sometimes produces an extreme difference between the weighted average and the arithmetic mean Rankings Edit The IMDb Top 250 is a list of the top rated 250 films based on ratings by the registered users of the website using the methods described As of 8 June 2021 update The Shawshank Redemption is No 1 on the list 38 The Top 250 rating is based on only the ratings of regular voters The number of votes a registered user would have to make to be considered as a user who votes regularly has been kept secret IMDb has stated that to maintain the effectiveness of the Top 250 list they deliberately do not disclose the criteria used for a person to be counted as a regular voter 39 In addition to other weightings the Top 250 films are also based on a weighted rating formula referred to in actuarial science as a credibility formula 40 This label arises because a statistic is taken to be more credible the greater the number of individual pieces of information in this case from eligible users who submit ratings Although the current formula is not disclosed IMDb originally used the following formula to calculate their weighted rating 41 W R v C m v m displaystyle W frac R cdot v C cdot m v m where W displaystyle W weighted rating R displaystyle R average for the movie as a number from 1 to 10 mean Rating v displaystyle v number of votes for the movie votes m displaystyle m minimum votes required to be listed in the Top 250 currently 25 000 C displaystyle C the mean vote across the whole report currently 7 0 The W displaystyle W in this formula is equivalent to a Bayesian posterior mean see Bayesian statistics The IMDb also has a Bottom 100 feature which is assembled through a similar process although only 10 000 votes must be received to qualify for the list 42 The Top 250 list comprises a wide range of feature films including major releases cult films independent films critically acclaimed films silent films and non English language films Documentaries short films and TV episodes are not currently included Since 2015 there has been a Top 250 list devoted to ranking television shows 43 Message boards Edit Beginning in 2001 the Internet Movie Database also maintained message boards for every title excepting as of 2013 update TV episodes 44 and name entry along with over 140 main boards To post on the message boards a user needed to authenticate their account via cell phone credit card or by having been a recent customer of the parent company Amazon com Message boards expanded in recent years The Soapbox started in 1999 as a general message board meant for debates on any subjects The Politics board started in 2007 was a message board to discuss politics news events and current affairs as well as history and economics citation needed By February 20 2017 all the message boards and their content were permanently removed According to the website the decision was made because the boards were no longer providing a positive useful experience for the vast majority of our more than 250 million monthly users worldwide 45 and others have mentioned its susceptibility to trolling and disagreeable behavior 46 47 48 Col Needham also mentioned in a post some months earlier that the boards received less income from ads and that their members only made up a very small part of the website s visitors The boards were costly to run due to the system s age and dated design which did not make business sense 49 The decision to remove the message boards was met with outspoken backlash from some of its users and sparked an online petition garnering over 8 000 signatures 50 In the days leading up to February 20 2017 both Archive org 51 and MovieChat org 52 preserved the entire contents of the IMDb message boards using web scraping Archive org and MovieChat org have published IMDb message board archives which is legal under the fair use doctrine because it has no effect on IMDb s potential market for or value of the copyrighted work 53 54 Statistics EditAs of June 2021 update IMDb has the following statistics 2 Type TitlesFeature film 580 890Short film 818 520TV series 209 880TV episode 5 884 536TV movie 132 040TV special 33 183TV mini series 38 108TV short 9 949Video 312 751Video game 28 467Litigation EditIn 2011 in the case of Hoang v Amazon com Inc IMDb was sued by an anonymous actress for more than US 1 000 000 due to IMDb s revealing her age 40 at the time 55 The actress claimed that revealing her age could cause her to lose acting opportunities 56 Judge Marsha J Pechman a U S district judge in Seattle dismissed the lawsuit saying the actress had no grounds to proceed with an anonymous complaint The actress re filed and so revealed that she was Huong Hoang of Texas who uses the stage name Junie Hoang 57 In 2013 Pechman dismissed all causes of action except for a breach of contract claim against IMDb a jury then sided with IMDb on that claim 58 The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court judgment in March 2015 59 Also in 2011 in the case of United Video Properties Inc et al v Amazon Com Inc et al 60 IMDb and Amazon were sued by Rovi Corporation and others for patent infringement over their various program listing offerings 61 The patent claims were ultimately construed in a way favorable to IMDb and Rovi United Video Properties lost the case 62 In April 2014 the decision was affirmed by the U S Court of Appeals 63 On January 1 2017 the State of California implemented state bill AB 1687 a SAG AFTRA backed anti ageism statute which requires commercial online entertainment employment services to honor requests by their subscribers for their ages and birthdays to be hidden 64 By the beginning of 2017 IMDb had received more than 2 300 requests from individuals to remove their date of birth from the site Included in this group were 10 Academy Award winners and another 71 nominated for Oscars Emmys or Golden Globes 65 On February 23 2017 Judge Vince Girdhari Chhabria issued a stay on the bill pending a further trial claiming that it possibly violated the First Amendment because it inhibited the public consumption of information He also questioned the intent of the bill as it was ostensibly meant to target IMDb 66 Birth names publication policy EditIMDb had long maintained that it would keep all valid information but changed that policy related to birth names on August 12 2019 IMDb will now remove birth names that are not widely and publicly known of persons who no longer use their birth names 67 This was done in response to pressure from LGBTQ groups against the publication of transgender birth names without their consent which is called dead naming Any name a person had previously been credited under however continues to be maintained in the credits section 67 See also EditAll Media Network a commercial database combining information from the older AllMovie and AllMusic sites Animator ru Bibliographic database Internet Book Database IBookDb Big Cartoon DataBase DBCult Film Institute Discogs music release reference guide and auction site largely dedicated to vinyl records singles Douban Filmweb FindAnyFilm Flickchart Goodreads Grand Comics Database Internet Adult Film Database Internet Movie Cars Database IMCDb Internet Movie Firearms Database IMFDb Internet Broadway Database IBDb Internet Off Broadway Database IOBDb Internet Speculative Fiction Database ISFDb Internet Theatre Database ITDb LetterboxdMetacritic Rotten Tomatoes The Numbers TheTVDBReferences Edit IMDb History Features amp Facts Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved October 27 2020 a b Press Room IMDb Retrieved August 1 2021 Submission guide for users Help Center IMDb Mehta Ivan January 11 2019 Amazon s new IMDb Freedive service streams ad supported movies and TV shows in the US The Next Web Retrieved January 11 2019 Amazon Rebrands IMDb Freedive as IMDb TV Triples Content PC Magazine Dalton Jeff March 1 1990 Re Frequently Asked Questions List 2 28 90 Newsgroup rec arts movies Usenet 1892 skye ed ac uk Retrieved August 13 2019 Chmielewski Dawn C January 19 2013 Col Needham created IMDb Los Angeles Times Historical Internet Movie Database Site Cardiff School of Computer Science amp Informatics Archived from the original on March 24 2013 Retrieved March 21 2013 IMDB History IMDb IMDb Help IMDb Amazon Com Inc 8 K for 4 27 98 EX 99 2 SEC Info April 27 1998 Retrieved March 23 2017 Internet bookseller Amazon com announces acquisition of United Kingdom company The Internet Movie Database Ltd Press release IMDb Archived from the original on June 3 2012 Retrieved September 18 2020 via PR Newswire Europe Needham Col January 1 2011 Top 250 contributors for 2010 IMD announcement IMDb Retrieved August 25 2011 Ng David October 19 2018 Amazon owned IMDb ending film festival submission platform Withoutabox Los Angeles Times Retrieved June 13 2019 Amazon s IMDB Acquires Box Office Mojo Will Add Box Office Data To Service CBS News Retrieved June 13 2019 What software are you using to run IMDb IMDb 2017 Retrieved November 16 2017 Chacksfield Marc January 14 2010 China blocks number one movie site IMDb TechRadar 2012 Future US Inc The IMDb Studio at Sundance IMDb January 22 2016 Retrieved December 25 2020 Sundance 2020 video IMDb YouTube Jones Craig April 13 2017 The story behind Bristol based IMDb as they celebrate their 25th anniversary The Bristol Post Retrieved May 9 2021 IMDbPro signup IMDb Amazon s IMDb launches Freedive a free movie and TV streaming service with ads GeekWire January 10 2019 Retrieved June 20 2019 Hoffman Harrison September 15 2008 IMDb now serves full length videos CNET Retrieved September 17 2008 Modine Austin September 16 2008 IMDb adds full length streaming movies Show your US ID card at the door The Register UK Retrieved September 17 2008 Spangler Todd June 17 2019 IMDb Scraps Freedive Name Will Triple IMDb TV Free Streaming Lineup With Movies From Warner Bros Sony MGM Variety Retrieved June 20 2019 Spangler Todd February 5 2020 Amazon s IMDb TV Inks Disney Pact for Free Streaming of Lost Desperate Housewives More Variety Retrieved February 18 2020 Kanter Jake July 14 2020 Alex Rider Amazon Streamer IMDb TV Takes U S Rights To Sony Spy Series Deadline Hollywood Retrieved August 22 2020 Lycos Europe and IMDb sign sales agreement for 9 European markets Lycos Europe press release July 10 2006 Archived from the original on October 23 2006 Can I subscribe only for one month or one year Resume FAQ IMDb Retrieved January 22 2008 Is there any difference between a regular IMDb name page and an IMDb name page created via IMDb Resume Resume FAQ IMDb Retrieved January 22 2008 Copyright and Conditions of Use IMDb The plain text data files Alternate Interfaces IMDb Which A list star is hacking IMDb pages The Hollywood Reporter November 14 2012 Retrieved February 25 2013 a b Java Movie Database JMDB Jmdb de Retrieved October 27 2010 Open Media Database omdb org Retrieved December 3 2015 Alternate Interfaces IMDb Retrieved January 15 2007 IMDbPY IMDbPY sourceforge net Retrieved February 14 2011 Top 250 movies as voted by our users IMDb Retrieved June 10 2015 The user votes average on film or show X is 9 4 so it should appear in your Top 250 Movies or TV list yet it doesn t Why IMDb Norberg Ragnar 2006 Credibility Theory PDF Encyclopedia of Actuarial Science doi 10 1002 9780470012505 tac068 ISBN 0470846763 Archived from the original PDF on May 15 2004 IMDB Vote FAQ IMDb Retrieved February 6 2015 Bottom 100 IMDb Retrieved March 19 2020 Top 250 TV IMDb Retrieved March 16 2016 Each TV episode uses the same message board for the whole series IMDb is closing its message boards February 3 2017 One of the worst comment sections on the Internet is shutting down Should IMDB have preserved its comment boards flame wars and all The Boston Globe Not Even IMDB Is Safe From Trolls February 21 2017 Can someone on the inside explain to me IMDb com Customer Community July 26 2016 Retrieved March 23 2017 How some users are trying to save IMDB s message board Vice com Retrieved September 9 2017 The Archiveteam IMDb message board archive raw data Retrieved September 9 2017 The MovieChat IMDb Message Board Archive web based MovieChat org Retrieved September 9 2017 17 U S Code 107 Limitations on exclusive rights Fair use Cornell Law School Retrieved October 8 2018 Movie amp TV Forums IMDb Message Board Archives Are They Legal MovieTVForums com Retrieved October 8 2018 Bahr Lindsey October 18 2011 Lawsuit against IMDb revealing private information Entertainment Weekly Retrieved April 25 2013 Acting unions criticise IMDb in age row BBC News BBC October 29 2011 Retrieved October 29 2011 Actress sued Amazon for revealing age 40 identified as Huong Junie Hoang Sky News January 7 2012 Retrieved April 21 2012 Actress age claim against IMDb rejected BBC News BBC Retrieved April 12 2013 Gardner Eriq March 27 2015 IMDb preserves legal win over revelation of actress age The Hollywood Reporter Case Docket United Video Properties Inc et al v Amazon Com Inc et al gov uscourts ded 45528 RECAP Retrieved November 5 2013 Masnick Mike January 12 2011 Rovi sues Amazon for not licensing its Electronic TV Guide patent Techdirt Retrieved November 5 2013 Mullin Joe November 4 2013 Netflix roasts Rovi s Interactive TV guide patents at ITC Ars Technica Retrieved November 5 2013 United Video Properties v Amazon com law justia com April 8 2014 Retrieved February 28 2019 California enacts law requiring IMDb to remove actor ages on request The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved November 15 2016 Bray Hiawatha March 23 2017 Internet censorship Hollywood style The Boston Globe Archived from the original on May 16 2017 Retrieved March 23 2017 Judge pauses enforcement of IMDb Age Censorship law The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved February 23 2017 a b McNary Dave August 13 2019 IMDb Alters Policy on Publication of Birth Names Variety Retrieved March 7 2020 External links EditWikidata has the property IMDb ID P345 see uses IMDb official site Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title IMDb amp oldid 1053562390, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.