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International Standard Book Number

Not to be confused with ICCU SBN.

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

International Standard Book Number
A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code
AcronymISBN
OrganisationInternational ISBN Agency
Introduced1970; 51 years ago (1970)
No. of digits13 (formerly 10)
Check digitWeighted sum
Example978-3-16-148410-0
Websiteisbn-international.org

An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the 9-digit SBN code can be converted to a 10-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit '0').

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN Agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.

Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.

Contents

The Standard Book Number (SBN) is a commercial system using nine-digit code numbers to identify books. It was created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker (regarded as the "Father of the ISBN") and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay (who later became director of the U.S. ISBN agency R. R. Bowker).

The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the nine-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.

An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has"SBN 340 01381 8", where "340" indicates the publisher, "01381" is the serial number assigned by the publisher, and "8" is the check digit. By prefixing a zero, this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8; the check digit does not need to be re-calculated. Some publishers, such as Ballantine Books, would sometimes use 12-digit SBNs where the last three digits indicated the price of the book; for example, Woodstock Handmade Houses had a 12-digit Standard Book Number of 345-24223-8-595 (valid SBN: 345-24223-8, ISBN: 0-345-24223-8), and it costUS$5.95.

Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained thirteen digits, a format that is compatible with "Bookland" European Article Numbers, which have 13 digits.

A separate ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an ebook, audiobook, paperback, and hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN assigned to it.: 12 The ISBN is thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and ten digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of four parts (if it is a 10-digit ISBN) or five parts (for a 13-digit ISBN).

Section 5 of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual: 11 describes the structure of the 13-digit ISBN, as follows:

The parts of a 10-digit ISBN and the corresponding EAN‑13 and barcode. Note the different check digits in each. The part of the EAN‑13 labeled "EAN" is the Bookland country code.
  1. for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1,
  2. the registration group element (language-sharing country group, individual country or territory),
  3. the registrant element,
  4. the publication element, and
  5. a checksum character or check digit.

A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts (prefix element, registration group, registrant, publication and check digit), and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts (registration group, registrant, publication and check digit) of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits.

How ISBNs are issued

ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language. The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number, type, and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.

A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. A list for a few countries is given below:

Registration group element

The ISBN registration group element is a 1- to 5-digit number that is valid within a single prefix element (i.e. one of 978 or 979),: 11 and can be separated between hyphens, such as"978-1-...". Registration groups have primarily been allocated within the 978 prefix element. The single-digit registration groups within the 978-prefix element are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries; and 7 for People's Republic of China. An example 5-digit registration group is 99936, for Bhutan. The allocated registration groups are: 0–5, 600–625, 65, 7, 80–94, 950–989, 9917–9989, and 99901–99983. Books published in rare languages typically have longer group elements.

Within the 979 prefix element, the registration group 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN. The registration groups within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 8 for the United States of America, 10 for France, 11 for the Republic of Korea, and 12 for Italy.

The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero (0) to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN.

Registrant element

The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element (cf. Category:ISBN agencies) and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher; the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books. In most countries, a book publisher is not legally required to assign an ISBN, although most large bookstores only handle publications that have ISBNs assigned to them.

A listing of more than 900,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form. The website of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes. Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1.

Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier, several digits for the registrant, and a single digit for the publication element. Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different registrant element. Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements. There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country. This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers.

By using variable block lengths, registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers. For example, a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element; likewise, countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements. Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations.

ISBN Country or area Publisher
99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha
9971-5-0210-0 Singapore World Scientific
960-425-059-0 Greece Sigma Publications
80-902734-1-6 Czech Republic; Slovakia Taita Publishers
85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras
1-84356-028-3 English-speaking area Simon Wallenberg Press
0-684-84328-5 English-speaking area Scribner
0-8044-2957-X English-speaking area Frederick Ungar
0-85131-041-9 English-speaking area J. A. Allen & Co.
93-86954-21-4 English-speaking area Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd.
0-943396-04-2 English-speaking area Willmann–Bell
0-9752298-0-X English-speaking area KT Publishing

Pattern for English language ISBNs

English-language registration group elements are 0 and 1 (2 of more than 220 registration group elements). These two registration group elements are divided into registrant elements in a systematic pattern, which allows their length to be determined, as follows:

Publication
element length
0 – Registration group element 1 – Registration group element Total
Registrants
From To Registrants From To Registrants
6 digits 0-00-xxxxxx-x 0-19-xxxxxx-x 20 1-01-xxxxxx-x
1-04-xxxxxx-x
1-02-xxxxxx-x
1-06-xxxxxx-x
5 25
5 digits 0-200-xxxxx-x
0-229-xxxxx-x
0-370-xxxxx-x
0-640-xxxxx-x
0-646-xxxxx-x
0-649-xxxxx-x
0-656-xxxxx-x
0-227-xxxxx-x
0-368-xxxxx-x
0-638-xxxxx-x
0-644-xxxxx-x
0-647-xxxxx-x
0-654-xxxxx-x
0-699-xxxxx-x
494 1-000-xxxxx-x
1-030-xxxxx-x
1-100-xxxxx-x
1-714-xxxxx-x
1-009-xxxxx-x
1-034-xxxxx-x
1-397-xxxxx-x
1-716-xxxxx-x
316 810
4 digits 0-2280-xxxx-x
0-3690-xxxx-x
0-6390-xxxx-x
0-6550-xxxx-x
0-7000-xxxx-x
0-2289-xxxx-x
0-3699-xxxx-x
0-6397-xxxx-x
0-6559-xxxx-x
0-8499-xxxx-x
1,538 1-0350-xxxx-x
1-0700-xxxx-x
1-3980-xxxx-x
1-6500-xxxx-x
1-6860-xxxx-x
1-7170-xxxx-x
1-7900-xxxx-x
1-8672-xxxx-x
1-9730-xxxx-x
1-0399-xxxx-x
1-0999-xxxx-x
1-5499-xxxx-x
1-6799-xxxx-x
1-7139-xxxx-x
1-7319-xxxx-x
1-7999-xxxx-x
1-8675-xxxx-x
1-9877-xxxx-x
2,852 4,390
3 digits 0-85000-xxx-x 0-89999-xxx-x 5,000 1-55000-xxx-x
1-68000-xxx-x
1-74000-xxx-x
1-77540-xxx-x
1-77650-xxx-x
1-77830-xxx-x
1-80000-xxx-x
1-83850-xxx-x
1-86760-xxx-x
1-64999-xxx-x
1-68599-xxx-x
1-77499-xxx-x
1-77639-xxx-x
1-77699-xxx-x
1-78999-xxx-x
1-83799-xxx-x
1-86719-xxx-x
1-86979-xxx-x
22,310 27,310
2 digits 0-900000-xx-x 0-949999-xx-x 50,000 1-869800-xx-x
1-916506-xx-x
1-916908-xx-x
1-919655-xx-x
1-987800-xx-x
1-991200-xx-x
1-915999-xx-x
1-916869-xx-x
1-919599-xx-x
1-972999-xx-x
1-991149-xx-x
1-998989-xx-x
113,741 163,741
1 digit 0-6398000-x-x
0-6450000-x-x
0-6480000-x-x
0-9500000-x-x
0-6399999-x-x
0-6459999-x-x
0-6489999-x-x
0-9999999-x-x
522,000 1-7320000-x-x
1-7750000-x-x
1-7764000-x-x
1-7770000-x-x
1-8380000-x-x
1-9160000-x-x
1-9168700-x-x
1-9196000-x-x
1-9911500-x-x
1-9989900-x-x
1-7399999-x-x
1-7753999-x-x
1-7764999-x-x
1-7782999-x-x
1-8384999-x-x
1-9165059-x-x
1-9169079-x-x
1-9196549-x-x
1-9911999-x-x
1-9999999-x-x
119,590 641,590
Total 579,052 Total 258,814 837,866

A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary check bit. It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the number. The method for the 10-digit ISBN is an extension of that for SBNs, so the two systems are compatible; an SBN prefixed with a zero (the 10-digit ISBN) will give the same check digit as the SBN without the zero. The check digit is base eleven, and can be an integer between 0 and 9, or an 'X'. The system for 13-digit ISBNs is not compatible with SBNs and will, in general, give a different check digit from the corresponding 10-digit ISBN, so does not provide the same protection against transposition. This is because the 13-digit code was required to be compatible with the EAN format, and hence could not contain an 'X'.

ISBN-10 check digits

According to the 2001 edition of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual, the ISBN-10 check digit (which is the last digit of the 10-digit ISBN) must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol 'X' is used for 10), and must be such that the sum of the ten digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of 11. That is, if xi is the ith digit, then x10 must be chosen such that:

i = 1 10 ( 11 i ) x i 0 ( mod 11 ) {\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{10}(11-i)x_{i}\equiv 0{\pmod {11}}}

For example, for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-2:

s = ( 0 × 10 ) + ( 3 × 9 ) + ( 0 × 8 ) + ( 6 × 7 ) + ( 4 × 6 ) + ( 0 × 5 ) + ( 6 × 4 ) + ( 1 × 3 ) + ( 5 × 2 ) + ( 2 × 1 ) = 0 + 27 + 0 + 42 + 24 + 0 + 24 + 3 + 10 + 2 = 132 = 12 × 11 {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(0\times 10)+(3\times 9)+(0\times 8)+(6\times 7)+(4\times 6)+(0\times 5)+(6\times 4)+(1\times 3)+(5\times 2)+(2\times 1)\\&=0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10+2\\&=132=12\times 11\end{aligned}}}

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

( 10 x 1 + 9 x 2 + 8 x 3 + 7 x 4 + 6 x 5 + 5 x 6 + 4 x 7 + 3 x 8 + 2 x 9 + x 10 ) 0 ( mod 11 ) . {\displaystyle (10x_{1}+9x_{2}+8x_{3}+7x_{4}+6x_{5}+5x_{6}+4x_{7}+3x_{8}+2x_{9}+x_{10})\equiv 0{\pmod {11}}.}

It is also true for ISBN-10s that the sum of all ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. For this example:

s = ( 0 × 1 ) + ( 3 × 2 ) + ( 0 × 3 ) + ( 6 × 4 ) + ( 4 × 5 ) + ( 0 × 6 ) + ( 6 × 7 ) + ( 1 × 8 ) + ( 5 × 9 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) = 0 + 6 + 0 + 24 + 20 + 0 + 42 + 8 + 45 + 20 = 165 = 15 × 11 {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(0\times 1)+(3\times 2)+(0\times 3)+(6\times 4)+(4\times 5)+(0\times 6)+(6\times 7)+(1\times 8)+(5\times 9)+(2\times 10)\\&=0+6+0+24+20+0+42+8+45+20\\&=165=15\times 11\end{aligned}}}

Formally, this is rendered:

( x 1 + 2 x 2 + 3 x 3 + 4 x 4 + 5 x 5 + 6 x 6 + 7 x 7 + 8 x 8 + 9 x 9 + 10 x 10 ) 0 ( mod 11 ) . {\displaystyle (x_{1}+2x_{2}+3x_{3}+4x_{4}+5x_{5}+6x_{6}+7x_{7}+8x_{8}+9x_{9}+10x_{10})\equiv 0{\pmod {11}}.}

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g. when typing it or writing it down) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be proven mathematically that all pairs of valid ISBN-10s differ in at least two digits. It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These proofs are true because the ISBN is less than eleven digits long and because 11 is a prime number.) The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e., if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. However, if the error were to occur in the publishing house and remain undetected, the book would be issued with an invalid ISBN.

In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN (although it is still unlikely).

ISBN-10 check digit calculation

Each of the first nine digits of the 10-digit ISBN—excluding the check digit itself—is multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found. The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of 11.

For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

s = ( 0 × 10 ) + ( 3 × 9 ) + ( 0 × 8 ) + ( 6 × 7 ) + ( 4 × 6 ) + ( 0 × 5 ) + ( 6 × 4 ) + ( 1 × 3 ) + ( 5 × 2 ) = 130 {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(0\times 10)+(3\times 9)+(0\times 8)+(6\times 7)+(4\times 6)+(0\times 5)+(6\times 4)+(1\times 3)+(5\times 2)\\&=130\end{aligned}}}

Adding 2 to 130 gives a multiple of 11 (because 132 = 12×11) – this is the only number between 0 and 10 which does so. Therefore, the check digit has to be 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN 0-306-40615-2. If the value of x 10 {\displaystyle x_{10}} required to satisfy this condition is 10, then an 'X' should be used.

Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 (i.e. its value modulo 11), is computed. This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11. Therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11. Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. Without the second modulo operation, the calculation could result in a check digit value of 11−0 = 11, which is invalid. (Strictly speaking, the first "modulo 11" is not needed, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation.)

For example, the check digit for the ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

s = ( 11 ( ( ( 0 × 10 ) + ( 3 × 9 ) + ( 0 × 8 ) + ( 6 × 7 ) + ( 4 × 6 ) + ( 0 × 5 ) + ( 6 × 4 ) + ( 1 × 3 ) + ( 5 × 2 ) ) mod 11 ) ) mod 11 = ( 11 ( ( 0 + 27 + 0 + 42 + 24 + 0 + 24 + 3 + 10 ) mod 11 ) ) mod 11 = ( 11 ( ( 130 ) mod 11 ) ) mod 11 = ( 11 ( 9 ) ) mod 11 = ( 2 ) mod 11 = 2 {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(11-(((0\times 10)+(3\times 9)+(0\times 8)+(6\times 7)+(4\times 6)+(0\times 5)+(6\times 4)+(1\times 3)+(5\times 2))\,{\bmod {\,}}11))\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(11-((0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10)\,{\bmod {\,}}11))\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(11-((130)\,{\bmod {\,}}11))\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(11-(9))\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(2)\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=2\end{aligned}}}

Thus the check digit is 2.

It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators. Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples:

The modular reduction can be done once at the end, as shown above (in which case s could hold a value as large as 496, for the invalid ISBN 99999-999-9-X), or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition.

ISBN-13 check digit calculation

Appendix 1 of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual: 33 describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated. The ISBN-13 check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of 10. As ISBN-13 is a subset of EAN-13, the algorithm for calculating the check digit is exactly the same for both.

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

( x 1 + 3 x 2 + x 3 + 3 x 4 + x 5 + 3 x 6 + x 7 + 3 x 8 + x 9 + 3 x 10 + x 11 + 3 x 12 + x 13 ) 0 ( mod 10 ) . {\displaystyle (x_{1}+3x_{2}+x_{3}+3x_{4}+x_{5}+3x_{6}+x_{7}+3x_{8}+x_{9}+3x_{10}+x_{11}+3x_{12}+x_{13})\equiv 0{\pmod {10}}.}

The calculation of an ISBN-13 check digit begins with the first twelve digits of the 13-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself). Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. A zero (0) replaces a ten (10), so, in all cases, a single check digit results.

For example, the ISBN-13 check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7.

In general, the ISBN-13 check digit is calculated as follows.

Let

r = ( 10 ( x 1 + 3 x 2 + x 3 + 3 x 4 + + x 11 + 3 x 12 ) mod 10 ) . {\displaystyle r={\big (}10-{\big (}x_{1}+3x_{2}+x_{3}+3x_{4}+\cdots +x_{11}+3x_{12}{\big )}\,{\bmod {\,}}10{\big )}.}

Then

x 13 = { r ; r < 10 0 ; r = 10. {\displaystyle x_{13}={\begin{cases}r&{\text{ ; }}r<10\\0&{\text{ ; }}r=10.\end{cases}}}

This check system – similar to the UPC check digit formula – does not catch all errors of adjacent digit transposition. Specifically, if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the check digit will not catch their transposition. For instance, the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1. The correct order contributes 3×6+1×1 = 19 to the sum; while, if the digits are transposed (1 followed by a 6), the contribution of those two digits will be 3×1+1×6 = 9. However, 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10, and so produce the same, final result: both ISBNs will have a check digit of 7. The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0–9 to express the check digit.

Additionally, if the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th), the total will always be divisible by 10 (i.e., end in 0).

ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 conversion

An ISBN-10 is converted to ISBN-13 by prepending "978" to the ISBN-10 and recalculating the final checksum digit using the ISBN-13 algorithm. The reverse process can also be performed, but not for numbers commencing with a prefix other than 978, which have no 10-digit equivalent.

Errors in usage

Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit. Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers. For example, ISBN 0-590-76484-5 is shared by two books – Ninja gaiden: a novel based on the best-selling game by Tecmo (1990) and Wacky laws (1997), both published by Scholastic.

Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher. The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs, which it usually tags with the phrase "Cancelled ISBN". However, book-ordering systems such as Amazon.com will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine.[citation needed] OCLC often indexes by invalid ISBNs, if the book is indexed in that way by a member library.

eISBN

Only the term "ISBN" should be used; the terms "eISBN" and "e-ISBN" have historically been sources of confusion and should be avoided. If a book exists in one or more digital (e-book) formats, each of those formats must have its own ISBN. In other words, each of the three separate EPUB, Amazon Kindle, and PDF formats of a particular book will have its own specific ISBN. They should not share the ISBN of the paper version, and there is no generic "eISBN" which encompasses all the e-book formats for a title.

Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN-5 for the currency and the recommended retail price. For 10-digit ISBNs, the number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN-13 formula (modulo 10, 1× and 3× weighting on alternating digits).

Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to migrate to a 13-digit ISBN (ISBN-13). The process began on 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude on 1 January 2007. As of 2011[update], all the 13-digit ISBNs began with 978. As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted, the 979 prefix was introduced. Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN. The 10-digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero (0), and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3. All ISMNs are now thirteen digits commencing 979-0; 979-1 to 979-9 will be used by ISBN.

Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the 978 and 979 ISBNs, likewise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same. Moreover, the 10-digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the 13-digit ISBN check digit. Because the GTIN-13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (that includes the GTIN-14, the GTIN-12, and the GTIN-8), the 13-digit ISBN falls within the 14-digit data field range.

Barcode format compatibility is maintained, because (aside from the group breaks) the ISBN-13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing 10-digit ISBNs. So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems. Hence, many booksellers (e.g., Barnes & Noble) migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005. Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN-13 barcodes before 2005, most general retailers could not read them. The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN-13, in 2005, eased migration to the ISBN-13 in North America.

  • ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number)
  • BICI (Book Item and Component Identifier)
  • CODEN (serial publication identifier currently used by libraries; replaced by the ISSN for new works)
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
  • ESTC (English Short Title Catalogue)
  • ETTN (Electronic Textbook Track Number)
  • ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number)
  • ISMN (International Standard Music Number)
  • ISRC (International Standard Recording Code)
  • ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
  • ISTC (International Standard Text Code)
  • ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code)
  • ISWN (International Standard Wine Number)
  • LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number)
  • License number (East German books) [de] (Book identification system used between 1951 and 1990 in the former GDR)
  • List of group-0 ISBN publisher codes
  • List of group-1 ISBN publisher codes
  • List of ISBN identifier groups
  • OCLC number (Online Computer Library Center number)
  • Registration authority
  • SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier)
  • VD 16 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century")
  • VD 17 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century")
  1. Occasionally, publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title—the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN, 0-8050-0076-3. Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: A German second-language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87-23-90157-8 (Denmark), 0-8219-1069-8 (United States), 91-21-15628-X (Sweden), 0-85048-548-7 (United Kingdom) and 3-12-675495-3 (Germany).
  2. In some cases, books sold only as sets share ISBNs. For example, the Vance Integral Edition used only two ISBNs for 44 books.
  3. Publishers were required to convert existing ISBNs from the 10-digit format to the 13-digit format (in their publication records) by 1 January 2007. For existing publications, the new 13-digit ISBN would only need to be added if (and when) a publication was reprinted. During the transition period, publishers were recommended to print both the 10-digit and 13-digit ISBNs on the verso of a publication's title page, but they were required to print only the 13-digit ISBN after 1 January 2007.
  4. Some books have several codes in the first block: e.g. A. M. Yaglom's Correlation Theory..., published by Springer Verlag, has two ISBNs, 0-387-96331-6 and 3-540-96331-6. Though Springer's 387 and 540 codes are different for English (0) and German (3); the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit for both (6). Springer uses 431 as the publisher code for Japanese (4), and 4-431-96331-? also has a check digit of 6. Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817, and 0-817-96331-? would also have a check digit of 6. This suggests that special considerations were made for assigning Springer's publisher codes, as random assignments of different publisher codes would not be expected to lead by coincidence to the same check digit every time for the same item number. Finding publisher codes for English and German, say, with this effect would amount to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic.[original research?]
  5. The International ISBN Agency's ISBN User's Manual says: "The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, which must be separated clearly, by hyphens or spaces", although omission of separators is permitted for internal data processing. If present, hyphens must be correctly placed. The actual definition for hyphenation contains more than 220 different registration group elements with each one broken down into a few to several ranges for the length of the registrant element (more than 1,000 total). The document defining the ranges, listed by agency, is 29 pages.
  1. "The International ISBN Agency". Retrieved20 February 2018.
  2. TC 46/SC 9. "Frequently Asked Questions about the new ISBN standard from ISO". lac-bac.gc.ca. Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007.
  3. Bradley, Philip (1992). "Book numbering: The importance of the ISBN"(PDF [245KB]). The Indexer. 18 (1): 25–26.
  4. Foster, Gordon (1966). "International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN) System original 1966 report". informaticsdevelopmentinstitute.net. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved20 April 2014.
  5. "ISBN History". isbn.org. 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved20 April 2014.
  6. Manwal ghall-Utenti tal-ISBN(PDF) (in Maltese) (6th ed.). Malta: Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. p. 5. ISBN 978-99957-889-4-0. Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 August 2016.
  7. Charkin, Richard (17 July 2015). "'It was an idea whose time had come.' David Whitaker on the birth of ISBN". International Publishers Association. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved6 August 2019.
  8. "Emery Koltay, David Whitaker Named NISO Fellows"(PDF), Information Standards Quarterly, National Information Standards Organization, 8 (3): 12–13, July 1996, archived from the original(PDF) on 4 August 2014
  9. US ISBN Agency. "Bowker.com – Products". Commerce.bowker.com. Retrieved11 June 2015.
  10. Gregory, Daniel. "ISBN". PrintRS. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved11 June 2015.
  11. ISO 2108:1978(PDF), ISO
  12. "Internet Archive Search: "SBN 345"". archive.org.
  13. Haney, Robert (1974). Woodstock handmade houses. David Ballantine, Jonathan Elliott. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-24223-8. OCLC 2057258.
  14. Haney, Robert; Ballantine, David; Elliott, Jonathan (1974). Woodstock Handmade Houses. web.archive.org (1st ed.). Ballantine. ISBN 978-0-345-24223-5. Retrieved26 May 2021.
  15. ISBN Users' Manual, International Edition(PDF) (7th ed.). London: International ISBN Agency. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95055-12-4.
  16. "ISBN Ranges". International ISBN Agency. 2014.
  17. "ISBN Canada". www.bac-lac.gc.ca. LAC. 17 April 2013. Retrieved19 January 2016.
  18. "Find an agency – International ISBN Agency". isbn-international.org.
  19. "About the Australian ISBN Agency". THORPE-Bowker.
  20. "Bowker – ISBN". Thorpe-Bowker. 5 January 2009. Retrieved29 March 2012.
  21. "Tabela de preços dos serviços" [Table of service prices] (in Portuguese). Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil. Retrieved8 September 2015.
  22. "Changes in arrangements for ISBN in Brazil". Retrieved20 January 2020.
  23. "ISBN Brasil" (in Portuguese). Retrieved20 January 2020.
  24. "Introduction to Books Registration". HKPL. Retrieved12 January 2017.
  25. "Union HRD Minister Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani Launches ISBN Portal". MHRD. 7 April 2016.
  26. "What is an ISBN ?". ICL – מרכז הספר והספריות. 7 April 2015.
  27. "ISBN – Chi siamo e contatti" [ISBN – Who we are and contacts] (in Italian). EDISER srl. Retrieved3 January 2015.
  28. "ISBN – Tariffe Servizi ISBN" [ISBN Service Tariffs] (in Italian). EDISER srl. Retrieved3 January 2015.
  29. "ISBN". Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016.
  30. Manwal ghall-Utenti tal-ISBN(PDF) (in Maltese) (6th ed.). Malta: Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. pp. 1–40. ISBN 978-99957-889-4-0. Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 August 2016.
  31. "Gazzetta tal-Gvern ta' Malta"(PDF). Government Gazette. 23 January 2015. p. 582. Archived from the original(PDF) on 23 November 2016.
  32. "ISBNs, ISSNs, and ISMNs". National Library of New Zealand. Retrieved19 January 2016.
  33. "International Standard Book Number". NLP. Retrieved25 December 2017.
  34. "ISBN – Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Kütüphaneler ve Yayımlar Genel Müdürlüğü OS". ekygm.gov.tr.
  35. "Nielsen UK ISBN Agency". Nielsen UK ISBN Agency. Retrieved2 January 2015.
  36. "Bowker – ISBN". R. R. Bowker. 8 March 2013. Retrieved8 March 2013.
  37. "ISBN Ranges". isbn-international.org. 29 April 2014. Select the format you desire and click on the Generate button. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved29 April 2014.
  38. See a complete list of group identifiers. ISBN.org sometimes calls them group numbers. Their table of identifiers now refers to ISBN prefix ranges, which must be assumed to be group identifier ranges.
  39. Hailman, Jack Parker (2008). Coding and redundancy: man-made and animal-evolved signals. Harvard University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-674-02795-4.
  40. ISBN Users' Manual, International Edition(PDF) (6th ed.). London: International ISBN Agency. 2012. p. 23. ISBN 978-92-95055-02-5.
  41. International ISBN Agency (5 December 2014). "International ISBN Agency – Range Message (pdf sorted by prefix)"(PDF). isbn-international.org. p. 29. Retrieved15 December 2014.
  42. "Independent Publishers". Waterstones. Retrieved2 February 2020. Before submitting any titles to our central buying team for consideration, your book must have the following: An ISBN...
  43. "How to obtain an ISBN". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved2 February 2020. We use ISBNs to track inventory and sales information. All books Barnes & Noble transacts on must have an ISBN.
  44. "Product ID (GTIN) requirements for Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved2 February 2020. Effective June 1, 2017, you must provide an ISBN, EAN, or JAN to list a book in the Amazon catalog, regardless of the book's publication date.
  45. See "Publisher's International ISBN Directory". isbn-international.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  46. Splane, Lily (2002). The book book : a complete guide to creating a book on your computer (2nd ed.). San Diego, Calif.: Anaphase II. ISBN 0-945962-14-2. OCLC 54527545.
  47. "ISBN Ranges". isbn-international.org. International ISBN Agency. 15 September 2014. Retrieved15 September 2014.
  48. "ISBN Users' Manual (2001 edition) – 4. Structure of ISBN". International ISBN Agency. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013.
  49. For example, I'saka: a sketch grammar of a language of north-central New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN "0-85883-554-4".
  50. Lorimer, Rowland; Shoichet, Jillian; Maxwell, John W. (2005). Book Publishing I. CCSP Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-9738727-0-5.
  51. "020 – International Standard Book Number (R) – MARC 21 Bibliographic – Full". Library of Congress. September 2013.
  52. "The Myth of the eISBN Why Every eBook Edition Needs a Unique Number – Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses". Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses. 28 June 2013. Retrieved16 January 2017.
  53. Frequently asked questions, US: ISBN, 12 March 2014, archived from the original on 16 April 2014 — including a detailed description of the EAN-13 format.
  54. "ISBN", ISO TC49SC9 (FAQ), CA: Collections
  55. "Are You Ready for ISBN-13?", Standards, ISBN
  56. "xISBN (Web service)". Xisbn.worldcat.org. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved27 May 2013.
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International Standard Book Numberat Wikipedia's sister projects

International Standard Book Number
International Standard Book Number Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from ISBN identifier Not to be confused with ICCU SBN The International Standard Book Number ISBN is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique a b Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency 1 International Standard Book NumberA 13 digit ISBN 978 3 16 148410 0 as represented by an EAN 13 bar codeAcronymISBNOrganisationInternational ISBN AgencyIntroduced1970 51 years ago 1970 No of digits13 formerly 10 Check digitWeighted sumExample978 3 16 148410 0Websiteisbn international wbr org An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation except reprintings of a publication For example an e book a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007 and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007 c The method of assigning an ISBN is nation specific and varies between countries often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967 based upon the 9 digit Standard Book Numbering SBN created in 1966 The 10 digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization ISO and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 the 9 digit SBN code can be converted to a 10 digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit 0 Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN The International ISBN Agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative 3 Another identifier the International Standard Serial Number ISSN identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers The International Standard Music Number ISMN covers musical scores Contents 1 History 2 Overview 2 1 How ISBNs are issued 2 2 Registration group element 2 3 Registrant element 2 3 1 Pattern for English language ISBNs 3 Check digits 3 1 ISBN 10 check digits 3 2 ISBN 10 check digit calculation 3 3 ISBN 13 check digit calculation 3 4 ISBN 10 to ISBN 13 conversion 3 5 Errors in usage 3 6 eISBN 4 EAN format used in barcodes and upgrading 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistoryThe Standard Book Number SBN is a commercial system using nine digit code numbers to identify books It was created by Gordon Foster Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College Dublin 4 for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965 5 The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker 6 7 regarded as the Father of the ISBN 8 and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay 6 who later became director of the U S ISBN agency R R Bowker 8 9 10 The 10 digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization ISO and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 5 6 The United Kingdom continued to use the nine digit SBN code until 1974 ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46 Subcommittee 9 TC 46 SC 9 The ISO on line facility only refers back to 1978 11 An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0 For example the second edition of Mr J G Reeder Returns published by Hodder in 1965 has SBN 340 01381 8 where 340 indicates the publisher 01381 is the serial number assigned by the publisher and 8 is the check digit By prefixing a zero this can be converted to ISBN 0 340 01381 8 the check digit does not need to be re calculated Some publishers such as Ballantine Books would sometimes use 12 digit SBNs where the last three digits indicated the price of the book 12 for example Woodstock Handmade Houses had a 12 digit Standard Book Number of 345 24223 8 595 valid SBN 345 24223 8 ISBN 0 345 24223 8 13 and it cost US 5 95 14 Since 1 January 2007 ISBNs have contained thirteen digits a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Numbers which have 13 digits 2 OverviewA separate ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation except reprintings of a publication For example an ebook audiobook paperback and hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN assigned to it 15 12 The ISBN is thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007 and ten digits long if assigned before 2007 c 2 An International Standard Book Number consists of four parts if it is a 10 digit ISBN or five parts for a 13 digit ISBN Section 5 of the International ISBN Agency s official user manual 15 11 describes the structure of the 13 digit ISBN as follows The parts of a 10 digit ISBN and the corresponding EAN 13 and barcode Note the different check digits in each The part of the EAN 13 labeled EAN is the Bookland country code for a 13 digit ISBN a prefix element a GS1 prefix so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1 the registration group element language sharing country group individual country or territory d the registrant element the publication element and a checksum character or check digit A 13 digit ISBN can be separated into its parts prefix element registration group registrant publication and check digit and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces Separating the parts registration group registrant publication and check digit of a 10 digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits e How ISBNs are issued ISBN issuance is country specific in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number type and size of publishers that are active Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services In other cases the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded 17 A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website 18 A list for a few countries is given below Australia Thorpe Bowker 19 20 Brazil The National Library of Brazil 21 Up to 28 February 2020 22 Brazil Camara Brasileira do Livro 23 From 1 March 2020 22 Canada English Library and Archives Canada a government agency French Bibliotheque et Archives nationales du Quebec Colombia Camara Colombiana del Libro an NGO Hong Kong Books Registration Office BRO under the Hong Kong Public Libraries 24 India The Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN Book Promotion and Copyright Division under Department of Higher Education a constituent of the Ministry of Human Resource Development 25 Iceland Landsbokasafn National and University Library of Iceland Israel The Israel Center for Libraries 26 Italy EDISER srl owned by Associazione Italiana Editori Italian Publishers Association 27 28 Maldives The National Bureau of Classification NBC Malta The National Book Council Maltese Il Kunsill Nazzjonali tal Ktieb 29 30 31 Morocco The National Library of Morocco New Zealand The National Library of New Zealand 32 Pakistan National Library of Pakistan Philippines National Library of the Philippines 33 South Africa National Library of South Africa Spain Spanish ISBN Agency Agencia del ISBN Turkey General Directorate of Libraries and Publications a branch of the Ministry of Culture 34 United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland Nielsen Book Services Ltd part of Nielsen Holdings N V 35 United States R R Bowker 6 36 Registration group element The ISBN registration group element is a 1 to 5 digit number that is valid within a single prefix element i e one of 978 or 979 15 11 and can be separated between hyphens such as 978 1 Registration groups have primarily been allocated within the 978 prefix element 37 The single digit registration groups within the 978 prefix element are 0 or 1 for English speaking countries 2 for French speaking countries 3 for German speaking countries 4 for Japan 5 for Russian speaking countries and 7 for People s Republic of China An example 5 digit registration group is 99936 for Bhutan The allocated registration groups are 0 5 600 625 65 7 80 94 950 989 9917 9989 and 99901 99983 38 Books published in rare languages typically have longer group elements 39 Within the 979 prefix element the registration group 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers ISMNs but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN 40 The registration groups within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 8 for the United States of America 10 for France 11 for the Republic of Korea and 12 for Italy 41 The original 9 digit standard book number SBN had no registration group identifier but prefixing a zero 0 to a 9 digit SBN creates a valid 10 digit ISBN Registrant element The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element cf Category ISBN agencies and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books In most countries a book publisher is not legally required to assign an ISBN although most large bookstores only handle publications that have ISBNs assigned to them 42 43 44 A listing of more than 900 000 assigned publisher codes is published and can be ordered in book form The website of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes 45 Partial lists have been compiled from library catalogs for the English language groups identifier 0 and identifier 1 Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier several digits for the registrant and a single digit for the publication element Once that block of ISBNs is used the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs with a different registrant element Consequently a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers By using variable block lengths registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers For example a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element likewise countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements 46 Here are some sample ISBN 10 codes illustrating block length variations ISBN Country or area Publisher99921 58 10 7 Qatar NCCAH Doha9971 5 0210 0 Singapore World Scientific960 425 059 0 Greece Sigma Publications80 902734 1 6 Czech Republic Slovakia Taita Publishers85 359 0277 5 Brazil Companhia das Letras1 84356 028 3 English speaking area Simon Wallenberg Press0 684 84328 5 English speaking area Scribner0 8044 2957 X English speaking area Frederick Ungar0 85131 041 9 English speaking area J A Allen amp Co 93 86954 21 4 English speaking area Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd 0 943396 04 2 English speaking area Willmann Bell0 9752298 0 X English speaking area KT PublishingPattern for English language ISBNs English language registration group elements are 0 and 1 2 of more than 220 registration group elements These two registration group elements are divided into registrant elements in a systematic pattern which allows their length to be determined as follows 47 Publication element length 0 Registration group element 1 Registration group element Total RegistrantsFrom To Registrants From To Registrants6 digits 0 00 xxxxxx x 0 19 xxxxxx x 20 1 01 xxxxxx x 1 04 xxxxxx x 1 02 xxxxxx x 1 06 xxxxxx x 5 255 digits 0 200 xxxxx x 0 229 xxxxx x 0 370 xxxxx x 0 640 xxxxx x 0 646 xxxxx x 0 649 xxxxx x 0 656 xxxxx x 0 227 xxxxx x 0 368 xxxxx x 0 638 xxxxx x 0 644 xxxxx x 0 647 xxxxx x 0 654 xxxxx x 0 699 xxxxx x 494 1 000 xxxxx x 1 030 xxxxx x 1 100 xxxxx x 1 714 xxxxx x 1 009 xxxxx x 1 034 xxxxx x 1 397 xxxxx x 1 716 xxxxx x 316 8104 digits 0 2280 xxxx x 0 3690 xxxx x 0 6390 xxxx x 0 6550 xxxx x 0 7000 xxxx x 0 2289 xxxx x 0 3699 xxxx x 0 6397 xxxx x 0 6559 xxxx x 0 8499 xxxx x 1 538 1 0350 xxxx x 1 0700 xxxx x 1 3980 xxxx x 1 6500 xxxx x 1 6860 xxxx x 1 7170 xxxx x 1 7900 xxxx x 1 8672 xxxx x 1 9730 xxxx x 1 0399 xxxx x 1 0999 xxxx x 1 5499 xxxx x 1 6799 xxxx x 1 7139 xxxx x 1 7319 xxxx x 1 7999 xxxx x 1 8675 xxxx x 1 9877 xxxx x 2 852 4 3903 digits 0 85000 xxx x 0 89999 xxx x 5 000 1 55000 xxx x 1 68000 xxx x 1 74000 xxx x 1 77540 xxx x 1 77650 xxx x 1 77830 xxx x 1 80000 xxx x 1 83850 xxx x 1 86760 xxx x 1 64999 xxx x 1 68599 xxx x 1 77499 xxx x 1 77639 xxx x 1 77699 xxx x 1 78999 xxx x 1 83799 xxx x 1 86719 xxx x 1 86979 xxx x 22 310 27 3102 digits 0 900000 xx x 0 949999 xx x 50 000 1 869800 xx x 1 916506 xx x 1 916908 xx x 1 919655 xx x 1 987800 xx x 1 991200 xx x 1 915999 xx x 1 916869 xx x 1 919599 xx x 1 972999 xx x 1 991149 xx x 1 998989 xx x 113 741 163 7411 digit 0 6398000 x x 0 6450000 x x 0 6480000 x x 0 9500000 x x 0 6399999 x x 0 6459999 x x 0 6489999 x x 0 9999999 x x 522 000 1 7320000 x x 1 7750000 x x 1 7764000 x x 1 7770000 x x 1 8380000 x x 1 9160000 x x 1 9168700 x x 1 9196000 x x 1 9911500 x x 1 9989900 x x 1 7399999 x x 1 7753999 x x 1 7764999 x x 1 7782999 x x 1 8384999 x x 1 9165059 x x 1 9169079 x x 1 9196549 x x 1 9911999 x x 1 9999999 x x 119 590 641 590Total 579 052 Total 258 814 837 866Check digitsA check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection the decimal equivalent of a binary check bit It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the number The method for the 10 digit ISBN is an extension of that for SBNs so the two systems are compatible an SBN prefixed with a zero the 10 digit ISBN will give the same check digit as the SBN without the zero The check digit is base eleven and can be an integer between 0 and 9 or an X The system for 13 digit ISBNs is not compatible with SBNs and will in general give a different check digit from the corresponding 10 digit ISBN so does not provide the same protection against transposition This is because the 13 digit code was required to be compatible with the EAN format and hence could not contain an X ISBN 10 check digits According to the 2001 edition of the International ISBN Agency s official user manual 48 the ISBN 10 check digit which is the last digit of the 10 digit ISBN must range from 0 to 10 the symbol X is used for 10 and must be such that the sum of the ten digits each multiplied by its integer weight descending from 10 to 1 is a multiple of 11 That is if xi is the ith digit then x10 must be chosen such that i 1 10 11 i x i 0 mod 11 displaystyle sum i 1 10 11 i x i equiv 0 pmod 11 For example for an ISBN 10 of 0 306 40615 2 s 0 10 3 9 0 8 6 7 4 6 0 5 6 4 1 3 5 2 2 1 0 27 0 42 24 0 24 3 10 2 132 12 11 displaystyle begin aligned s amp 0 times 10 3 times 9 0 times 8 6 times 7 4 times 6 0 times 5 6 times 4 1 times 3 5 times 2 2 times 1 amp 0 27 0 42 24 0 24 3 10 2 amp 132 12 times 11 end aligned Formally using modular arithmetic this is rendered 10 x 1 9 x 2 8 x 3 7 x 4 6 x 5 5 x 6 4 x 7 3 x 8 2 x 9 x 10 0 mod 11 displaystyle 10x 1 9x 2 8x 3 7x 4 6x 5 5x 6 4x 7 3x 8 2x 9 x 10 equiv 0 pmod 11 It is also true for ISBN 10s that the sum of all ten digits each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10 is a multiple of 11 For this example s 0 1 3 2 0 3 6 4 4 5 0 6 6 7 1 8 5 9 2 10 0 6 0 24 20 0 42 8 45 20 165 15 11 displaystyle begin aligned s amp 0 times 1 3 times 2 0 times 3 6 times 4 4 times 5 0 times 6 6 times 7 1 times 8 5 times 9 2 times 10 amp 0 6 0 24 20 0 42 8 45 20 amp 165 15 times 11 end aligned Formally this is rendered x 1 2 x 2 3 x 3 4 x 4 5 x 5 6 x 6 7 x 7 8 x 8 9 x 9 10 x 10 0 mod 11 displaystyle x 1 2x 2 3x 3 4x 4 5x 5 6x 6 7x 7 8x 8 9x 9 10x 10 equiv 0 pmod 11 The two most common errors in handling an ISBN e g when typing it or writing it down are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits It can be proven mathematically that all pairs of valid ISBN 10s differ in at least two digits It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBN 10s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits These proofs are true because the ISBN is less than eleven digits long and because 11 is a prime number The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error i e if either of these types of error has occurred the result will never be a valid ISBN the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11 However if the error were to occur in the publishing house and remain undetected the book would be issued with an invalid ISBN 49 In contrast it is possible for other types of error such as two altered non transposed digits or three altered digits to result in a valid ISBN although it is still unlikely ISBN 10 check digit calculation Each of the first nine digits of the 10 digit ISBN excluding the check digit itself is multiplied by its integer weight descending from 10 to 2 and the sum of these nine products found The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which when added to this sum means the total is a multiple of 11 For example the check digit for an ISBN 10 of 0 306 40615 is calculated as follows s 0 10 3 9 0 8 6 7 4 6 0 5 6 4 1 3 5 2 130 displaystyle begin aligned s amp 0 times 10 3 times 9 0 times 8 6 times 7 4 times 6 0 times 5 6 times 4 1 times 3 5 times 2 amp 130 end aligned Adding 2 to 130 gives a multiple of 11 because 132 12 11 this is the only number between 0 and 10 which does so Therefore the check digit has to be 2 and the complete sequence is ISBN 0 306 40615 2 If the value of x 10 displaystyle x 10 required to satisfy this condition is 10 then an X should be used Alternatively modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11 The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 i e its value modulo 11 is computed This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11 Therefore the check digit is 11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11 modulo 11 Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0 Without the second modulo operation the calculation could result in a check digit value of 11 0 11 which is invalid Strictly speaking the first modulo 11 is not needed but it may be considered to simplify the calculation For example the check digit for the ISBN 10 of 0 306 40615 is calculated as follows s 11 0 10 3 9 0 8 6 7 4 6 0 5 6 4 1 3 5 2 mod 11 mod 11 11 0 27 0 42 24 0 24 3 10 mod 11 mod 11 11 130 mod 11 mod 11 11 9 mod 11 2 mod 11 2 displaystyle begin aligned s amp 11 0 times 10 3 times 9 0 times 8 6 times 7 4 times 6 0 times 5 6 times 4 1 times 3 5 times 2 bmod 11 bmod 11 amp 11 0 27 0 42 24 0 24 3 10 bmod 11 bmod 11 amp 11 130 bmod 11 bmod 11 amp 11 9 bmod 11 amp 2 bmod 11 amp 2 end aligned Thus the check digit is 2 It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples Returns ISBN error syndrome zero for a valid ISBN non zero for an invalid one digits i must be between 0 and 10 int CheckISBN int const digits 10 int i s 0 t 0 for i 0 i lt 10 i t digits i s t return s 11 The modular reduction can be done once at the end as shown above in which case s could hold a value as large as 496 for the invalid ISBN 99999 999 9 X or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition ISBN 13 check digit calculation Appendix 1 of the International ISBN Agency s official user manual 15 33 describes how the 13 digit ISBN check digit is calculated The ISBN 13 check digit which is the last digit of the ISBN must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits each multiplied by its integer weight alternating between 1 and 3 is a multiple of 10 As ISBN 13 is a subset of EAN 13 the algorithm for calculating the check digit is exactly the same for both Formally using modular arithmetic this is rendered x 1 3 x 2 x 3 3 x 4 x 5 3 x 6 x 7 3 x 8 x 9 3 x 10 x 11 3 x 12 x 13 0 mod 10 displaystyle x 1 3x 2 x 3 3x 4 x 5 3x 6 x 7 3x 8 x 9 3x 10 x 11 3x 12 x 13 equiv 0 pmod 10 The calculation of an ISBN 13 check digit begins with the first twelve digits of the 13 digit ISBN thus excluding the check digit itself Each digit from left to right is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3 then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9 Subtracted from 10 that leaves a result from 1 to 10 A zero 0 replaces a ten 10 so in all cases a single check digit results For example the ISBN 13 check digit of 978 0 306 40615 is calculated as follows s 9 1 7 3 8 1 0 3 3 1 0 3 6 1 4 3 0 1 6 3 1 1 5 3 9 21 8 0 3 0 6 12 0 18 1 15 93 93 10 9 remainder 3 10 3 7 Thus the check digit is 7 and the complete sequence is ISBN 978 0 306 40615 7 In general the ISBN 13 check digit is calculated as follows Let r 10 x 1 3 x 2 x 3 3 x 4 x 11 3 x 12 mod 10 displaystyle r big 10 big x 1 3x 2 x 3 3x 4 cdots x 11 3x 12 big bmod 10 big Then x 13 r r lt 10 0 r 10 displaystyle x 13 begin cases r amp text r lt 10 0 amp text r 10 end cases This check system similar to the UPC check digit formula does not catch all errors of adjacent digit transposition Specifically if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5 the check digit will not catch their transposition For instance the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1 The correct order contributes 3 6 1 1 19 to the sum while if the digits are transposed 1 followed by a 6 the contribution of those two digits will be 3 1 1 6 9 However 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10 and so produce the same final result both ISBNs will have a check digit of 7 The ISBN 10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot but requires more than the digits 0 9 to express the check digit Additionally if the sum of the 2nd 4th 6th 8th 10th and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits 1st 3rd 5th 7th 9th 11th and 13th the total will always be divisible by 10 i e end in 0 ISBN 10 to ISBN 13 conversion An ISBN 10 is converted to ISBN 13 by prepending 978 to the ISBN 10 and recalculating the final checksum digit using the ISBN 13 algorithm The reverse process can also be performed but not for numbers commencing with a prefix other than 978 which have no 10 digit equivalent Errors in usage Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it that failure causes book identification problems for libraries booksellers and readers 50 For example ISBN 0 590 76484 5 is shared by two books Ninja gaiden a novel based on the best selling game by Tecmo 1990 and Wacky laws 1997 both published by Scholastic Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs which it usually tags with the phrase Cancelled ISBN 51 However book ordering systems such as Amazon com will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine citation needed OCLC often indexes by invalid ISBNs if the book is indexed in that way by a member library eISBN Only the term ISBN should be used the terms eISBN and e ISBN have historically been sources of confusion and should be avoided If a book exists in one or more digital e book formats each of those formats must have its own ISBN In other words each of the three separate EPUB Amazon Kindle and PDF formats of a particular book will have its own specific ISBN They should not share the ISBN of the paper version and there is no generic eISBN which encompasses all the e book formats for a title 52 EAN format used in barcodes and upgradingCurrently the barcodes on a book s back cover or inside a mass market paperback book s front cover are EAN 13 they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN 5 for the currency and the recommended retail price 53 For 10 digit ISBNs the number 978 the Bookland country code is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN 13 formula modulo 10 1 and 3 weighting on alternating digits Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories the International Organization for Standardization ISO decided to migrate to a 13 digit ISBN ISBN 13 The process began on 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude on 1 January 2007 54 As of 2011 update all the 13 digit ISBNs began with 978 As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted the 979 prefix was introduced Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN The 10 digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an M letter the bar code represents the M as a zero 0 and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3 All ISMNs are now thirteen digits commencing 979 0 979 1 to 979 9 will be used by ISBN Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the 978 and 979 ISBNs likewise there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same Moreover the 10 digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the 13 digit ISBN check digit Because the GTIN 13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number GTIN system that includes the GTIN 14 the GTIN 12 and the GTIN 8 the 13 digit ISBN falls within the 14 digit data field range 55 Barcode format compatibility is maintained because aside from the group breaks the ISBN 13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing 10 digit ISBNs So migration to an EAN based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data with only minimal changes to information technology systems Hence many booksellers e g Barnes amp Noble migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005 Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN 13 barcodes before 2005 most general retailers could not read them The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN 13 in 2005 eased migration to the ISBN 13 in North America See alsoASIN Amazon Standard Identification Number BICI Book Item and Component Identifier CODEN serial publication identifier currently used by libraries replaced by the ISSN for new works DOI Digital Object Identifier ESTC English Short Title Catalogue ETTN Electronic Textbook Track Number ISAN International Standard Audiovisual Number ISMN International Standard Music Number ISRC International Standard Recording Code ISSN International Standard Serial Number ISTC International Standard Text Code ISWC International Standard Musical Work Code ISWN International Standard Wine Number LCCN Library of Congress Control Number License number East German books de Book identification system used between 1951 and 1990 in the former GDR List of group 0 ISBN publisher codes List of group 1 ISBN publisher codes List of ISBN identifier groups OCLC number Online Computer Library Center number 56 Registration authority SICI Serial Item and Contribution Identifier VD 16 Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16 Jahrhunderts Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century VD 17 Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17 Jahrhunderts Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century Notes Occasionally publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN 0 8050 0076 3 Conversely books are published with several ISBNs A German second language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87 23 90157 8 Denmark 0 8219 1069 8 United States 91 21 15628 X Sweden 0 85048 548 7 United Kingdom and 3 12 675495 3 Germany In some cases books sold only as sets share ISBNs For example the Vance Integral Edition used only two ISBNs for 44 books a b Publishers were required to convert existing ISBNs from the 10 digit format to the 13 digit format in their publication records by 1 January 2007 For existing publications the new 13 digit ISBN would only need to be added if and when a publication was reprinted During the transition period publishers were recommended to print both the 10 digit and 13 digit ISBNs on the verso of a publication s title page but they were required to print only the 13 digit ISBN after 1 January 2007 2 Some books have several codes in the first block e g A M Yaglom s Correlation Theory published by Springer Verlag has two ISBNs 0 387 96331 6 and 3 540 96331 6 Though Springer s 387 and 540 codes are different for English 0 and German 3 the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit for both 6 Springer uses 431 as the publisher code for Japanese 4 and 4 431 96331 also has a check digit of 6 Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817 and 0 817 96331 would also have a check digit of 6 This suggests that special considerations were made for assigning Springer s publisher codes as random assignments of different publisher codes would not be expected to lead by coincidence to the same check digit every time for the same item number Finding publisher codes for English and German say with this effect would amount to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic original research The International ISBN Agency s ISBN User s Manual says The ten digit number is divided into four parts of variable length which must be separated clearly by hyphens or spaces although omission of separators is permitted for internal data processing If present hyphens must be correctly placed 16 The actual definition for hyphenation contains more than 220 different registration group elements with each one broken down into a few to several ranges for the length of the registrant element more than 1 000 total The document defining the ranges listed by agency is 29 pages References The International ISBN Agency Retrieved 20 February 2018 a b c TC 46 SC 9 Frequently Asked Questions about the new ISBN standard from ISO lac bac gc ca Library and Archives Canada Archived from the original on 10 June 2007 Bradley Philip 1992 Book numbering The importance of the ISBN PDF 245KB The Indexer 18 1 25 26 Foster Gordon 1966 International Standard Book Numbering ISBN System original 1966 report informaticsdevelopmentinstitute net Archived from the original on 30 April 2011 Retrieved 20 April 2014 a b ISBN History isbn org 20 April 2014 Archived from the original on 20 April 2014 Retrieved 20 April 2014 a b c d Manwal ghall Utenti tal ISBN PDF in Maltese 6th ed Malta Kunsill Nazzjonali tal Ktieb 2016 p 5 ISBN 978 99957 889 4 0 Archived from the original PDF on 17 August 2016 Charkin Richard 17 July 2015 It was an idea whose time had come David Whitaker on the birth of ISBN International Publishers Association Archived from the original on 6 August 2019 Retrieved 6 August 2019 a b Emery Koltay David Whitaker Named NISO Fellows PDF Information Standards Quarterly National Information Standards Organization 8 3 12 13 July 1996 archived from the original PDF on 4 August 2014 US ISBN Agency Bowker com Products Commerce bowker com Retrieved 11 June 2015 Gregory Daniel ISBN PrintRS Archived from the original on 16 May 2016 Retrieved 11 June 2015 ISO 2108 1978 PDF ISO Internet Archive Search SBN 345 archive org Haney Robert 1974 Woodstock handmade houses David Ballantine Jonathan Elliott New York Ballantine Books ISBN 0 345 24223 8 OCLC 2057258 Haney Robert Ballantine David Elliott Jonathan 1974 Woodstock Handmade Houses web archive org 1st ed Ballantine ISBN 978 0 345 24223 5 Retrieved 26 May 2021 a b c d ISBN Users Manual International Edition PDF 7th ed London International ISBN Agency 2017 ISBN 978 92 95055 12 4 ISBN Ranges International ISBN Agency 2014 ISBN Canada www bac lac gc ca LAC 17 April 2013 Retrieved 19 January 2016 Find an agency International ISBN Agency isbn international org About the Australian ISBN Agency THORPE Bowker Bowker ISBN Thorpe Bowker 5 January 2009 Retrieved 29 March 2012 Tabela de precos dos servicos Table of service prices in Portuguese Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil Retrieved 8 September 2015 a b Changes in arrangements for ISBN in Brazil Retrieved 20 January 2020 ISBN Brasil in Portuguese Retrieved 20 January 2020 Introduction to Books Registration HKPL Retrieved 12 January 2017 Union HRD Minister Smt Smriti Zubin Irani Launches ISBN Portal MHRD 7 April 2016 What is an ISBN ICL מרכז הספר והספריות 7 April 2015 ISBN Chi siamo e contatti ISBN Who we are and contacts in Italian EDISER srl Retrieved 3 January 2015 ISBN Tariffe Servizi ISBN ISBN Service Tariffs in Italian EDISER srl Retrieved 3 January 2015 ISBN Kunsill Nazzjonali tal Ktieb 2016 Archived from the original on 23 October 2016 Manwal ghall Utenti tal ISBN PDF in Maltese 6th ed Malta Kunsill Nazzjonali tal Ktieb 2016 pp 1 40 ISBN 978 99957 889 4 0 Archived from the original PDF on 17 August 2016 Gazzetta tal Gvern ta Malta PDF Government Gazette 23 January 2015 p 582 Archived from the original PDF on 23 November 2016 ISBNs ISSNs and ISMNs National Library of New Zealand Retrieved 19 January 2016 International Standard Book Number NLP Retrieved 25 December 2017 ISBN Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi Kutuphaneler ve Yayimlar Genel Mudurlugu OS ekygm gov tr Nielsen UK ISBN Agency Nielsen UK ISBN Agency Retrieved 2 January 2015 Bowker ISBN R R Bowker 8 March 2013 Retrieved 8 March 2013 ISBN Ranges isbn international org 29 April 2014 Select the format you desire and click on the Generate button Archived from the original on 29 April 2014 Retrieved 29 April 2014 See a complete list of group identifiers ISBN org sometimes calls them group numbers Their table of identifiers now refers to ISBN prefix ranges which must be assumed to be group identifier ranges Hailman Jack Parker 2008 Coding and redundancy man made and animal evolved signals Harvard University Press p 209 ISBN 978 0 674 02795 4 ISBN Users Manual International Edition PDF 6th ed London International ISBN Agency 2012 p 23 ISBN 978 92 95055 02 5 International ISBN Agency 5 December 2014 International ISBN Agency Range Message pdf sorted by prefix PDF isbn international org p 29 Retrieved 15 December 2014 Independent Publishers Waterstones Retrieved 2 February 2020 Before submitting any titles to our central buying team for consideration your book must have the following An ISBN How to obtain an ISBN Barnes amp Noble Retrieved 2 February 2020 We use ISBNs to track inventory and sales information All books Barnes amp Noble transacts on must have an ISBN Product ID GTIN requirements for Books Amazon com Retrieved 2 February 2020 Effective June 1 2017 you must provide an ISBN EAN or JAN to list a book in the Amazon catalog regardless of the book s publication date See Publisher s International ISBN Directory isbn international org Archived from the original on 21 September 2013 Splane Lily 2002 The book book a complete guide to creating a book on your computer 2nd ed San Diego Calif Anaphase II ISBN 0 945962 14 2 OCLC 54527545 ISBN Ranges isbn international org International ISBN Agency 15 September 2014 Retrieved 15 September 2014 ISBN Users Manual 2001 edition 4 Structure of ISBN International ISBN Agency Archived from the original on 22 May 2013 For example I saka a sketch grammar of a language of north central New Guinea Pacific Linguistics ISBN 0 85883 554 4 Lorimer Rowland Shoichet Jillian Maxwell John W 2005 Book Publishing I CCSP Press p 299 ISBN 978 0 9738727 0 5 020 International Standard Book Number R MARC 21 Bibliographic Full Library of Congress September 2013 The Myth of the eISBN Why Every eBook Edition Needs a Unique Number Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses 28 June 2013 Retrieved 16 January 2017 Frequently asked questions US ISBN 12 March 2014 archived from the original on 16 April 2014 including a detailed description of the EAN 13 format ISBN ISO TC49SC9 FAQ CA Collections Are You Ready for ISBN 13 Standards ISBN xISBN Web service Xisbn worldcat org Archived from the original on 1 May 2011 Retrieved 27 May 2013 External linksWikidata has the properties ISBN 10 P957 see uses ISBN 13 P212 see uses International Standard Book Numberat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata Documentation from MediaWiki ISO 2108 2017 International Standard Book Number ISBN International ISBN Agency coordinates and supervises the worldwide use of the ISBN system Numerical List of Group Identifiers List of language region prefixes Free conversion tool ISBN 10 to ISBN 13 amp ISBN 13 to ISBN 10 from the ISBN agency Also shows correct hyphenation amp verifies if ISBNs are valid or not Guidelines for the Implementation of 13 Digit ISBNs PDF Archived from the original PDF on 12 September 2004 RFC 3187 Using International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform Resource Names URN Book sources search allows search by ISBN Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title International Standard Book Number amp oldid 1050441913, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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