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International Standard Serial Number

For the use of ISSNs on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:ISSN.

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSNs is used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.

International Standard Serial Number
an ISSN, 2049-3630, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code.
AcronymISSN-615-682536
OrganisationISSN International Centre
Introduced1976; 45 years ago (1976)
No. issued> 2,000,000
No. of digits8
Check digitWeighted sum
Example2049-3630
Websitewww.issn.org
ISSN encoded in an EAN-13 barcode with sequence variant 0 and issue number615-682536;
Example of an ISSN encoded in an EAN-13 barcode, with explanation.
ISSN-615-682536 expanded with sequence variant 0 to a GTIN-13 and encoded in an EAN-13 barcode with an EAN-2 add-on designating issue number 13

The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard.

When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media. The ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN (p-ISSN) and electronic ISSN (e-ISSN), respectively. Consequently, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a linking ISSN (ISSN-L), typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.

Contents

The format of the ISSN is an eight-digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code (also named "ISSN structure" or "ISSN syntax") can be expressed as follows:

NNNN-NNNC
where N is in the set {0,1,2,...,9}, a digit character, and C is in {0,1,2,...,9,X};

or by a Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) regular expression:

^[0-9]{4}-[0-9]{3}[0-9xX]$.

The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, that is C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used:

Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2, respectively:
0 8 + 3 7 + 7 6 + 8 5 + 5 4 + 9 3 + 5 2 {\displaystyle 0\cdot 8+3\cdot 7+7\cdot 6+8\cdot 5+5\cdot 4+9\cdot 3+5\cdot 2}
= 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 {\displaystyle =0+21+42+40+20+27+10}
= 160 {\displaystyle =160}
The modulus 11 of this sum is then calculated; divide the sum by 11 and determine the remainder:
160 11 = 14 remainder 6 = 14 + 6 11 {\displaystyle {\frac {160}{11}}=14{\mbox{ remainder }}6=14+{\frac {6}{11}}}
If there is no remainder the check digit is 0, otherwise the remainder value is subtracted from 11 to give the check digit:
11 6 = 5 {\displaystyle 11-6=5}
5 is the check digit, C.
For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10 (like a Roman ten).

To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right (if the check digit is X, then add 10 to the sum). The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, based on the above algorithm.

In EANs

ISSNs can be encoded in EAN-13 bar codes with a 977 "country code" (compare the 978 country code ("bookland") for ISBNs), followed by the 7 main digits of the ISSN (the check digit is not included), followed by 2 publisher-defined digits, followed by the EAN check digit (which need not match the ISSN check digit).

ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government.

Linking ISSN

ISSN-L is a unique identifier for all versions of the serial containing the same content across different media. As defined by ISO 3297:2007, the "linking ISSN (ISSN-L)" provides a mechanism for collocation or linking among the different media versions of the same continuing resource. The ISSN-L is one of a serial's existing ISSNs, so does not change the use or assignment of "ordinary" ISSNs; it is based on the ISSN of the first published medium version of the publication. If the print and online versions of the publication are published at the same time, the ISSN of the print version is chosen as the basis of the ISSN-L.

With ISSN-L is possible to designate one single ISSN for all those media versions of the title. The use of ISSN-L facilitates search, retrieval and delivery across all media versions for services like OpenURL, library catalogues, search engines or knowledge bases.

Register

The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register (International Serials Data System), otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016,[update] the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. The Register is not freely available for interrogation on the web, but is available by subscription.

  • The print version of a serial typically will include the ISSN code as part of the publication information.
  • Most serial websites contain ISSN code information.
  • Derivative lists of publications will often contain ISSN codes; these can be found through on-line searches with the ISSN code itself or serial title.
  • WorldCat permits searching its catalog by ISSN, by entering "issn:" before the code in the query field. One can also go directly to an ISSN's record by appending it to "https://www.worldcat.org/ISSN/", e.g. https://www.worldcat.org/ISSN/1021-9749. This does not query the ISSN Register itself, but rather shows whether any Worldcat library holds an item with the given ISSN.

ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change.

Extensions

Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, other identifiers have been built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components (like the table of contents): the Publisher Item Identifier (PII) and the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI).

Media versus content

Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media (except reproduction microforms). Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs, and CD-ROM versions and web versions require different ISSNs. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats (e.g. PDF and HTML) of the same online serial.

This "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, and the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media. This "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier (DOI), an ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s.

Only later, in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the new ISSN standard (ISO 3297:2007) as an "ISSN designated by the ISSN Network to enable collocation or versions of a continuing resource linking among the different media".

An ISSN can be encoded as a uniform resource name (URN) by prefixing it with "urn:ISSN:". For example, Rail could be referred to as "urn:ISSN:0953-4563". URN namespaces are case-sensitive, and the ISSN namespace is all caps. If the checksum digit is "X" then it is always encoded in uppercase in a URN.

Problems

The URNs are content-oriented, but ISSN is media-oriented:

  • ISSN is not unique when the concept is "a journal is a set of contents, generally copyrighted content": the same journal (same contents and same copyrights) may have two or more ISSN codes. A URN needs to point to "unique content" (a "unique journal" as a "set of contents" reference).
Example: Nature has an ISSN for print, 0028-0836, and another for the same content on the Web, 1476-4687; only the oldest (0028-0836) is used as a unique identifier. As the ISSN is not unique, the U.S. National Library of Medicine needed to create, prior to 2007, the NLM Unique ID (JID).
Example: the DOI name "10.1038/nature13777" can be represented as an HTTP string by https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13777, and is redirected (resolved) to the current article's page; but there is no ISSN online service, like http://dx.issn.org/, to resolve the ISSN of the journal (in this sample 1476-4687).

A unique URN for serials simplifies the search, recovery and delivery of data for various services including, in particular, search systems and knowledge databases. ISSN-L (see Linking ISSN above) was created to fill this gap.

The two standard categories of media in which serials are most available are print and electronic. In metadata contexts (e.g., JATS), these may have standard labels.

Print ISSN

p-ISSN is a standard label for "Print ISSN", the ISSN for the print media (paper) version of a serial. Usually it is the "default media" and so the "default ISSN".

Electronic ISSN

e-ISSN (or eISSN) is a standard label for "Electronic ISSN", the ISSN for the electronic media (online) version of a serial.

  1. "What is an ISSN?". Paris: ISSN International Centre. Retrieved13 July 2014.
  2. "Collection Metadata Standards". British Library. Retrieved14 July 2014.
  3. "ISSN, a Standardised Code". Paris: ISSN International Centre. Retrieved13 July 2014.
  4. ISSN InterNational Centre. "The ISSN for electronic media". ISSN. Retrieved3 April 2020.
  5. "3". ISSN Manual(PDF). Paris: ISSN International Centre. January 2015. pp. 14, 16, 55–58. HTML version available at www.issn.org
  6. Example of database implementation where seven-digit integers are used to store ISSNs.
  7. Thren, Slawek Rozenfeld (January 2001). "Using The ISSN (International Serial Standard Number) as URN (Uniform Resource Names) within an ISSN-URN Namespace". tools.ietf.org.
  8. github.com/amsl-project/issn-resolver See p. ex. $pattern at source code (issn-resolver.php) of GitHub.
  9. "Online ISSN Validator". Journal Seeker. Retrieved9 August 2014.
  10. Identification with the GTIN 13 barcode. ISSN International Centre. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020.
  11. Kansalliskirjasto, Nationalbiblioteket, The National Library of Finland. "Kansalliskirjasto, Nationalbiblioteket, The National Library of Finland". nationallibrary.fi.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. "Total number of records in the ISSN Register"(PDF). ISSN International Centre. February 2017. Retrieved23 February 2017.
  13. "ISSN for Electronic Serials". U.S. ISSN Center, Library of Congress. 19 February 2010. Retrieved12 July 2014.
  14. "The ISSN-L for publications on multiple media". ISSN International Centre. Retrieved12 July 2014.
  15. Rozenfeld, Slawek (January 2001). "Using The ISSN (International Serial Standard Number) as URN (Uniform Resource Names) within an ISSN-URN Namespace". IETF Tools. RFC3044. Retrieved15 July 2014.
  16. Powell, Andy; Johnston, Pete; Campbell, Lorna; Barker, Phil (21 June 2006). "Guidelines for using resource identifiers in Dublin Core metadata §4.5 ISSN". Dublin Core Architecture Wiki. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012.
  17. "MEDLINE/PubMed Data Element (Field) Descriptions". U.S. National Library of Medicine. 7 May 2014. Retrieved19 July 2014.
  18. "La nueva Norma ISSN facilita la vida de la comunidad de las publicaciones en serie", A. Roucolle. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved29 October 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. "Road in a nutshell". Road.issn.org. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved12 September 2017.
Wikidata has the property:

International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from ISSN identifier For the use of ISSNs on Wikipedia see Wikipedia ISSN An International Standard Serial Number ISSN is an eight digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication such as a magazine 1 The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title ISSNs is used in ordering cataloging interlibrary loans and other practices in connection with serial literature 2 International Standard Serial Numberan ISSN 2049 3630 as represented by an EAN 13 bar code AcronymISSN 615 682536OrganisationISSN International CentreIntroduced1976 45 years ago 1976 No issued gt 2 000 000No of digits8Check digitWeighted sumExample2049 3630Websitewww wbr issn wbr orgISSN encoded in an EAN 13 barcode with sequence variant 0 and issue number615 682536 Example of an ISSN encoded in an EAN 13 barcode with explanation ISSN 615 682536 expanded with sequence variant 0 to a GTIN 13 and encoded in an EAN 13 barcode with an EAN 2 add on designating issue number 13 The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization ISO international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975 3 ISO subcommittee TC 46 SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type a different ISSN is assigned to each media type For example many serials are published both in print and electronic media The ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN p ISSN and electronic ISSN e ISSN respectively 4 Consequently as defined in ISO 3297 2007 every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a linking ISSN ISSN L typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium 5 Contents 1 Code format 1 1 In EANs 2 Code assignment maintenance and look up 2 1 Linking ISSN 2 2 Register 3 Comparison with other identifiers 3 1 Extensions 3 2 Media versus content 4 Use in URNs 4 1 Problems 5 Media category labels 5 1 Print ISSN 5 2 Electronic ISSN 6 ROAD 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksCode format EditThe format of the ISSN is an eight digit code divided by a hyphen into two four digit numbers 1 As an integer number it can be represented by the first seven digits 6 The last code digit which may be 0 9 or an X is a check digit Formally the general form of the ISSN code also named ISSN structure or ISSN syntax can be expressed as follows 7 NNNN NNNC where N is in the set 0 1 2 9 a digit character and C is in 0 1 2 9 X or by a Perl Compatible Regular Expressions PCRE regular expression 8 span class o span span class p span span class mi 0 span span class o span span class mi 9 span span class p span span class mi 4 span span class p span span class o span span class p span span class mi 0 span span class o span span class mi 9 span span class p span span class mi 3 span span class p span span class mi 0 span span class o span span class mi 9 span span class n xX span span class p span span class nv span The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research for example is 0378 5955 where the final 5 is the check digit that is C 5 To calculate the check digit the following algorithm may be used Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number counting from the right that is 8 7 6 5 4 3 and 2 respectively 0 8 3 7 7 6 8 5 5 4 9 3 5 2 displaystyle 0 cdot 8 3 cdot 7 7 cdot 6 8 cdot 5 5 cdot 4 9 cdot 3 5 cdot 2 0 21 42 40 20 27 10 displaystyle 0 21 42 40 20 27 10 160 displaystyle 160 dd The modulus 11 of this sum is then calculated divide the sum by 11 and determine the remainder 160 11 14 remainder 6 14 6 11 displaystyle frac 160 11 14 mbox remainder 6 14 frac 6 11 dd If there is no remainder the check digit is 0 otherwise the remainder value is subtracted from 11 to give the check digit 11 6 5 displaystyle 11 6 5 dd 5 is the check digit C For calculations an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10 like a Roman ten To confirm the check digit calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number counting from the right if the check digit is X then add 10 to the sum The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0 There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN based on the above algorithm 9 In EANs Edit ISSNs can be encoded in EAN 13 bar codes with a 977 country code compare the 978 country code bookland for ISBNs followed by the 7 main digits of the ISSN the check digit is not included followed by 2 publisher defined digits followed by the EAN check digit which need not match the ISSN check digit 10 Code assignment maintenance and look up EditISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris The International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government Linking ISSN Edit ISSN L is a unique identifier for all versions of the serial containing the same content across different media As defined by ISO 3297 2007 the linking ISSN ISSN L provides a mechanism for collocation or linking among the different media versions of the same continuing resource The ISSN L is one of a serial s existing ISSNs so does not change the use or assignment of ordinary ISSNs 11 it is based on the ISSN of the first published medium version of the publication If the print and online versions of the publication are published at the same time the ISSN of the print version is chosen as the basis of the ISSN L With ISSN L is possible to designate one single ISSN for all those media versions of the title The use of ISSN L facilitates search retrieval and delivery across all media versions for services like OpenURL library catalogues search engines or knowledge bases Register Edit The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide the ISDS Register International Serials Data System otherwise known as the ISSN Register At the end of 2016 update the ISSN Register contained records for 1 943 572 items 12 The Register is not freely available for interrogation on the web but is available by subscription The print version of a serial typically will include the ISSN code as part of the publication information Most serial websites contain ISSN code information Derivative lists of publications will often contain ISSN codes these can be found through on line searches with the ISSN code itself or serial title WorldCat permits searching its catalog by ISSN by entering issn before the code in the query field One can also go directly to an ISSN s record by appending it to https www worldcat org ISSN e g https www worldcat org ISSN 1021 9749 This does not query the ISSN Register itself but rather shows whether any Worldcat library holds an item with the given ISSN Comparison with other identifiers EditISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept where ISBNs are assigned to individual books An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole An ISSN unlike the ISBN code is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title containing no information as to the publisher or its location For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change Extensions Edit Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier other identifiers have been built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes articles or other identifiable components like the table of contents the Publisher Item Identifier PII and the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier SICI Media versus content Edit Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media except reproduction microforms Thus the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs 13 and CD ROM versions and web versions require different ISSNs However the same ISSN can be used for different file formats e g PDF and HTML of the same online serial This media oriented identification of serials made sense in the 1970s In the 1990s and onward with personal computers better screens and the Web it makes sense to consider only content independent of media This content oriented identification of serials was a repressed demand during a decade but no ISSN update or initiative occurred A natural extension for ISSN the unique identification of the articles in the serials was the main demand application An alternative serials contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application the digital object identifier DOI an ISSN independent initiative consolidated in the 2000s Only later in 2007 ISSN L was defined in the new ISSN standard ISO 3297 2007 as an ISSN designated by the ISSN Network to enable collocation or versions of a continuing resource linking among the different media 14 Use in URNs EditAn ISSN can be encoded as a uniform resource name URN by prefixing it with urn ISSN 15 For example Rail could be referred to as urn ISSN 0953 4563 URN namespaces are case sensitive and the ISSN namespace is all caps 16 If the checksum digit is X then it is always encoded in uppercase in a URN Problems Edit The URNs are content oriented but ISSN is media oriented ISSN is not unique when the concept is a journal is a set of contents generally copyrighted content the same journal same contents and same copyrights may have two or more ISSN codes A URN needs to point to unique content a unique journal as a set of contents reference Example Nature has an ISSN for print 0028 0836 and another for the same content on the Web 1476 4687 only the oldest 0028 0836 is used as a unique identifier As the ISSN is not unique the U S National Library of Medicine needed to create prior to 2007 the NLM Unique ID JID 17 ISSN does not offer resolution mechanisms like a digital object identifier DOI or a URN does so the DOI is used as a URN for articles with for historical reasons no need for an ISSN s existence Example the DOI name 10 1038 nature13777 can be represented as an HTTP string by i https doi org i 10 1038 nature13777 and is redirected resolved to the current article s page but there is no ISSN online service like http dx issn org to resolve the ISSN of the journal in this sample 1476 4687 A unique URN for serials simplifies the search recovery and delivery of data for various services including in particular search systems and knowledge databases 14 ISSN L see Linking ISSN above was created to fill this gap Media category labels EditThe two standard categories of media in which serials are most available are print and electronic In metadata contexts e g JATS these may have standard labels Print ISSN Edit p ISSN is a standard label for Print ISSN the ISSN for the print media paper version of a serial Usually it is the default media and so the default ISSN Electronic ISSN Edit e ISSN or eISSN is a standard label for Electronic ISSN the ISSN for the electronic media online version of a serial 18 ROAD EditROAD Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources it est 2013 produced by the ISSN International Centre and UNESCO 19 See also EditCODEN WorldCat an ISSN resolve serviceReferences Edit a b What is an ISSN Paris ISSN International Centre Retrieved 13 July 2014 Collection Metadata Standards British Library Retrieved 14 July 2014 ISSN a Standardised Code Paris ISSN International Centre Retrieved 13 July 2014 ISSN InterNational Centre The ISSN for electronic media ISSN Retrieved 3 April 2020 3 ISSN Manual PDF Paris ISSN International Centre January 2015 pp 14 16 55 58 HTML version available at www issn org Example of database implementation where seven digit integers are used to store ISSNs Thren Slawek Rozenfeld January 2001 Using The ISSN International Serial Standard Number as URN Uniform Resource Names within an ISSN URN Namespace tools ietf org github com amsl project issn resolver See p ex pattern at source code issn resolver php of GitHub Online ISSN Validator Journal Seeker Retrieved 9 August 2014 Identification with the GTIN 13 barcode ISSN International Centre Archived from the original on 29 June 2020 Kansalliskirjasto Nationalbiblioteket The National Library of Finland Kansalliskirjasto Nationalbiblioteket The National Library of Finland nationallibrary fi CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Total number of records in the ISSN Register PDF ISSN International Centre February 2017 Retrieved 23 February 2017 ISSN for Electronic Serials U S ISSN Center Library of Congress 19 February 2010 Retrieved 12 July 2014 a b The ISSN L for publications on multiple media ISSN International Centre Retrieved 12 July 2014 Rozenfeld Slawek January 2001 Using The ISSN International Serial Standard Number as URN Uniform Resource Names within an ISSN URN Namespace IETF Tools RFC 3044 Retrieved 15 July 2014 Powell Andy Johnston Pete Campbell Lorna Barker Phil 21 June 2006 Guidelines for using resource identifiers in Dublin Core metadata 4 5 ISSN Dublin Core Architecture Wiki Archived from the original on 13 May 2012 MEDLINE PubMed Data Element Field Descriptions U S National Library of Medicine 7 May 2014 Retrieved 19 July 2014 La nueva Norma ISSN facilita la vida de la comunidad de las publicaciones en serie A Roucolle Archived copy Archived from the original on 10 December 2014 Retrieved 29 October 2014 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Road in a nutshell Road issn org Archived from the original on 5 September 2017 Retrieved 12 September 2017 External links EditWikidata has the property ISSN P236 see uses ISSN International Centre ISSN Portal List of 63800 ISSN numbers and titles ISSN InterNational Centre January 2015 ISSN Manual PDF 2015 ed Paris ISSN InterNational Centre How U S publishers can obtain an ISSN United States Library of Congress ISSN Canada Ottawa Library and Archives Canada 8 January 2020 retrieved 3 April 2020 Getting an ISSN in the UK British Library Getting an ISSN in France in French Bibliotheque nationale de France Getting an ISSN in Germany in German Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Getting an ISSN in South Africa National Library of South Africa archived from the original on 24 December 2017 retrieved 7 January 2015 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title International Standard Serial Number amp oldid 1054527329, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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