fbpx
Wikipedia

Jihlava (Czech pronunciation: (); German: Iglau, pronounced ()) is a city in the Czech Republic. It has about 51,000 inhabitants. Jihlava is the capital of the Vysočina Region, situated on the Jihlava river on the historical border between Moravia and Bohemia, and is the oldest mining town in the Czech Republic, approximately 50 years older than Kutná Hora. The historic centre of Jihlava is well preserved and historically significant and is protected by law as an urban monument reservation.

Jihlava
Masarykovo Square with the Church of Saint Ignatius and the city hall
Flag
Coat of arms
Jihlava
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates:49°24′1″N15°35′26″E /49.40028°N 15.59056°E /49.40028; 15.59056Coordinates: 49°24′1″N15°35′26″E /49.40028°N 15.59056°E /49.40028; 15.59056
CountryCzech Republic
RegionVysočina
DistrictJihlava
First documented1233
Government
• MayorKarolína Koubová (Fórum Jihlava)
Area
• Total87.86 km2 (33.92 sq mi)
Elevation
525 m (1,722 ft)
Population
(2021-01-01)
• Total51,125
• Density580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
586 01
Websitewww.jihlava.cz

Contents

Jihlava is made up of 17 administrative parts:

  • Jihlava
  • Horní Kosov
  • Staré Hory
  • Antonínův Důl
  • Červený Kříž
  • Helenín
  • Henčov
  • Heroltice
  • Hosov
  • Hruškové Dvory
  • Kosov
  • Pávov
  • Popice
  • Pístov
  • Sasov
  • Vysoká
  • Zborná

The origin of the city's name (Iglau in German) is unclear. Most common theory has it derived from the German word Igel, meaning hedgehog, usually in reference to the city's coat of arms. However, the name was in use since before the symbol of a hedgehog was. It is more likely the city is named for the river that flows through it, the name of which is also unclear in its origin, either being derived from the German word Igel as the first theory suggests, or from Slavic word jehla, referring to sharp stones in the Jihlava river bed.

According to legend, silver was mined in Iglau as early as 799. King Ottokar I established a mint, and Iglau was granted extensive privileges already during these early times.

An old Slavic settlement upon a ford was moved to a nearby hill where the mining town was founded (ca. 1240) by King Wenceslaus I. In the Middle Ages the town was inhabited mostly by Germans (mostly from Northern Bavaria and Upper Saxony). Medieval mines surrounded by mining settlements were localized outside the walls of the medieval town (named Staré Hory).

In the era of the Hussite Wars, Jihlava remained a Catholic stronghold and managed to resist a number of sieges. Later at Jihlava, on 5 July 1436, a treaty was made with the Hussites, whereby the emperor Sigismund was acknowledged king of Bohemia. A marble relief near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I, in 1527, swore fidelity to the Bohemian estates.

During the Thirty Years' War Jihlava was twice captured by the Swedes. In 1742, it fell into the hands of the Prussians, and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were defeated near the town. In 1860, it became the childhood home of Bohemian-Austrian composer Gustav Mahler, who retained his ties to the town until the death of both of his parents in 1889.

Until World War I the town was an important Austro-Hungarian Army military centre. In 1914, the First, Second and Third Battalions of the Moravian Infantry Regiment No. 81 (Bataillon des Mährischen Infanterie-Regiments Nummer. 81) and the Second Battalion of the Landwehr infantry regiment number 14 (II. Bataillon des Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 14) were the garrison troops.

After World War I the town constituted a German language island within Slavic speaking Moravia. This affected local politics, as it remained the centre of the second largest German-speaking enclave in the republic of Czechoslovakia (after Schönhengstgau/Hřebečsko). After the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed on 28 October 1918, the indigenous Germans of Bohemia and Moravia, claiming the right to self-determination according to the 10th of President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, demanded that their homeland areas remain with the new Austrian State. The Volksdeutsche of Iglau relied on peaceful opposition to the Czech military occupation of their region, a process that started on 31 October 1918 and was completed on 28 January 1919. Unsuccessful in getting their right to self-determination recognized and incorporated into the new Czechoslovak state, many of the indigenous Germans instead took to more nationalistic politics. Thereafter extremist political figures like Hans Krebs, editor of the Iglauer Volkswehr newspaper, became prominent with the rise of Nazism and the Nazi occupation (1939–1945).

Brána Matky Boží (picture from 1899, at that time known as Muttergottestor)

Until the end of World War II, Iglau was the centre of a distinctive regional folk culture reflecting hundreds of years of local customs. The local dialect of German was a unique branch of Mitteldeutsch. Musicians often used homemade instruments and original groups of four fiddles (Vierergruppen Fiedeln) and Ploschperment. Typical folk dances were the Hatschou, Tuschen and Radln. Peasant women wore old "pairische" Scharkaröckchen costumes with shiny dark skirts and big red cloths.

Most of Jihlava's Jewish population was deported and killed due to the Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia.

After the end of World War II, starting from May 9, 1945, German-speakers were banned from using public transportation and were ordered to carry white armbands identifying them as Germans. Following the Beneš decrees, the German-speakers were evicted from their homeland; it is estimated that hundreds died on the arduous trek to Austria. The town was repopulated with Czech and Moravian settlers favored by the new Communist regime. After 1951, the town was the site of several Communist show trials, which were directed against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on the rural population. In the processes eleven death sentences were passed and 111 years of prison sentences imposed. All the convicted persons were rehabilitated after the Velvet Revolution.

In protest against the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1969 Evžen Plocek set himself on fire in the town marketplace in emulation of others in Prague. Today there is a memorial plaque to him.

Since the collapse of Communism in the 1990s the share of employment in agriculture has steadily declined. The industrial sector of the town now employs 65 percent of all workers.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186924,197
188026,750+10.6%
189028,577+6.8%
190030,213+5.7%
191032,724+8.3%
YearPop.±%
192132,702−0.1%
193037,076+13.4%
195031,268−15.7%
196136,528+16.8%
197042,538+16.5%
YearPop.±%
198049,770+17.0%
199151,831+4.1%
200150,702−2.2%
201150,075−1.2%
202151,125+2.1%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic

In 2004, the Jihlava Polytechnic University was founded. As of 2019, it had more than 2,200 students.

The city's football club is FC Vysočina Jihlava. The club plays mostly in the Czech National Football League (second tier).

The local ice hockey club, HC Dukla Jihlava, was successful between 1966–1991, however in recent decades it plays mostly in the 1st Czech Republic Hockey League (second tier).

Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross

Among the principal buildings are the early Gothic churches of St. Jacob, Friars Minor Church of Our Lady and Dominican Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, the Baroque Church of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the city hall and a number of municipal houses containing Gothic and Renaissance details. There is also a Jewish cemetery, containing some remarkable monuments including the tombstone of the parents of Gustav Mahler.

Jihlava is twinned with:

Jihlava also cooperates with Wuhan in China.

  1. "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
  2. "Jihlavský ježek má stovky podob. Původ však halí tajemství". E15 (in Czech). Retrieved22 October 2019.
  3. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911)."Iglau" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 291–292.
  4. Hampel, Jens (1998). "Das Schicksal der jüdischen Bevölkerung der Stadt Iglau 1938–1942". Theresienstädter Studien und Dokumente (in German) (5): 70–99. CEEOL 64193.
  5. "Iglau lebt weiter". Gemeoinschaft Iglauer Sprachinsel e.V.". 1990. p. 52.
  6. Lumans, Valdis O., “Himmler’s Auxiliaries; The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933-1945” - 1993. ISBN 0-8078-2066-0 / ISBN 978-0-8078-2066-7
  7. "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Jihlava" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 5–6.
  8. "Výroční zpráva o činnosti VŠPJ pro rok 2019". vspj.cz (in Czech). Vysoká škola polytechnická Jihlava. April 2020. p. 2.
  9. "Partnerská města, Memoranda" (in Czech). Statutární město Jihlava. Retrieved2020-06-18.
  10. "Polský Zgierz se stal partnerským městem Jihlavy" (in Czech). Statutární město Jihlava. 2018-08-22. Retrieved2020-06-18.
  • Peter von Chlumecký: Die Regesten oder die chronologischen Verzeichnisse der Urkunden in den Archiven zu Iglau […]. Nitsch & Grosse, Brünn 1856 (Digitalisat)
  • Martin Leupold von Löwenthal: Chronik der Königlichen Stadt Iglau (1402–1607). Hrsg. v. Christian d' Elvert. Brünn 1861 (Digitalisat)
  • Alois Pokorny: Die Vegetationsverhältnisse von Iglau. Ein Beitrag zur Pflanzengeographie des böhmisch-mährischen Gebirges. Wien 1852 (Digitalisat)
  • Andreas Sterly: Drangsale der Stadt Iglau unter der schwedischen Zwingherrschaft. Iglau 1828 (Digitalisat)
  • Johann Achatzi: Iglauer Heimatbuch. Gemeinschaft Iglauer Sprachinsel e.V. 1962
Wikimedia Commons has media related toJihlava.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jihlava.

Jihlava Article Talk Language Watch Edit Jihlava Czech pronunciation ˈjɪɦlava listen German Iglau pronounced ˈiːɡlaʊ listen is a city in the Czech Republic It has about 51 000 inhabitants Jihlava is the capital of the Vysocina Region situated on the Jihlava river on the historical border between Moravia and Bohemia and is the oldest mining town in the Czech Republic approximately 50 years older than Kutna Hora The historic centre of Jihlava is well preserved and historically significant and is protected by law as an urban monument reservation JihlavaStatutory cityMasarykovo Square with the Church of Saint Ignatius and the city hallFlagCoat of armsWordmarkJihlavaLocation in the Czech RepublicCoordinates 49 24 1 N 15 35 26 E 49 40028 N 15 59056 E 49 40028 15 59056 Coordinates 49 24 1 N 15 35 26 E 49 40028 N 15 59056 E 49 40028 15 59056Country Czech RepublicRegionVysocinaDistrictJihlavaFirst documented1233Government MayorKarolina Koubova Forum Jihlava Area Total87 86 km2 33 92 sq mi Elevation525 m 1 722 ft Population 2021 01 01 1 Total51 125 Density580 km2 1 500 sq mi Time zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Postal code586 01Websitewww wbr jihlava wbr cz Contents 1 Administrative division 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Demography 5 Education 6 Sport 7 Sights 8 Notable people 9 Twin towns sister cities 10 References 11 Literature 12 External linksAdministrative division EditJihlava is made up of 17 administrative parts Jihlava Horni Kosov Stare Hory Antoninuv Dul Cerveny Kriz Helenin Hencov Heroltice Hosov Hruskove Dvory Kosov Pavov Popice Pistov Sasov Vysoka ZbornaEtymology EditThe origin of the city s name Iglau in German is unclear Most common theory has it derived from the German word Igel meaning hedgehog usually in reference to the city s coat of arms However the name was in use since before the symbol of a hedgehog was It is more likely the city is named for the river that flows through it the name of which is also unclear in its origin either being derived from the German word Igel as the first theory suggests or from Slavic word jehla referring to sharp stones in the Jihlava river bed 2 History EditAccording to legend silver was mined in Iglau as early as 799 King Ottokar I established a mint and Iglau was granted extensive privileges already during these early times An old Slavic settlement upon a ford was moved to a nearby hill where the mining town was founded ca 1240 by King Wenceslaus I In the Middle Ages the town was inhabited mostly by Germans mostly from Northern Bavaria and Upper Saxony Medieval mines surrounded by mining settlements were localized outside the walls of the medieval town named Stare Hory In the era of the Hussite Wars Jihlava remained a Catholic stronghold and managed to resist a number of sieges Later at Jihlava on 5 July 1436 a treaty was made with the Hussites whereby the emperor Sigismund was acknowledged king of Bohemia 3 A marble relief near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I in 1527 swore fidelity to the Bohemian estates 3 During the Thirty Years War Jihlava was twice captured by the Swedes In 1742 it fell into the hands of the Prussians and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were defeated near the town 3 In 1860 it became the childhood home of Bohemian Austrian composer Gustav Mahler who retained his ties to the town until the death of both of his parents in 1889 Until World War I the town was an important Austro Hungarian Army military centre In 1914 the First Second and Third Battalions of the Moravian Infantry Regiment No 81 Bataillon des Mahrischen Infanterie Regiments Nummer 81 and the Second Battalion of the Landwehr infantry regiment number 14 II Bataillon des Landwehr Infanterie Regiments Nr 14 were the garrison troops After World War I the town constituted a German language island within Slavic speaking Moravia This affected local politics as it remained the centre of the second largest German speaking enclave in the republic of Czechoslovakia after Schonhengstgau Hrebecsko After the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed on 28 October 1918 the indigenous Germans of Bohemia and Moravia claiming the right to self determination according to the 10th of President Woodrow Wilson s Fourteen Points demanded that their homeland areas remain with the new Austrian State The Volksdeutsche of Iglau relied on peaceful opposition to the Czech military occupation of their region a process that started on 31 October 1918 and was completed on 28 January 1919 Unsuccessful in getting their right to self determination recognized and incorporated into the new Czechoslovak state many of the indigenous Germans instead took to more nationalistic politics Thereafter extremist political figures like Hans Krebs editor of the Iglauer Volkswehr newspaper became prominent with the rise of Nazism and the Nazi occupation 1939 1945 Brana Matky Bozi picture from 1899 at that time known as Muttergottestor Until the end of World War II Iglau was the centre of a distinctive regional folk culture reflecting hundreds of years of local customs The local dialect of German was a unique branch of Mitteldeutsch Musicians often used homemade instruments and original groups of four fiddles Vierergruppen Fiedeln and Ploschperment Typical folk dances were the Hatschou Tuschen and Radln Peasant women wore old pairische Scharkarockchen costumes with shiny dark skirts and big red cloths Most of Jihlava s Jewish population was deported and killed due to the Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia 4 After the end of World War II starting from May 9 1945 German speakers were banned from using public transportation and were ordered to carry white armbands identifying them as Germans 5 Following the Benes decrees the German speakers were evicted from their homeland it is estimated that hundreds died on the arduous trek to Austria 6 The town was repopulated with Czech and Moravian settlers favored by the new Communist regime After 1951 the town was the site of several Communist show trials which were directed against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on the rural population In the processes eleven death sentences were passed and 111 years of prison sentences imposed All the convicted persons were rehabilitated after the Velvet Revolution In protest against the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1969 Evzen Plocek set himself on fire in the town marketplace in emulation of others in Prague Today there is a memorial plaque to him Since the collapse of Communism in the 1990s the share of employment in agriculture has steadily declined The industrial sector of the town now employs 65 percent of all workers Demography EditHistorical populationYearPop 186924 197 188026 750 10 6 189028 577 6 8 190030 213 5 7 191032 724 8 3 YearPop 192132 702 0 1 193037 076 13 4 195031 268 15 7 196136 528 16 8 197042 538 16 5 YearPop 198049 770 17 0 199151 831 4 1 200150 702 2 2 201150 075 1 2 202151 125 2 1 Source Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic 7 Education EditIn 2004 the Jihlava Polytechnic University was founded As of 2019 it had more than 2 200 students 8 Sport EditThe city s football club is FC Vysocina Jihlava The club plays mostly in the Czech National Football League second tier The local ice hockey club HC Dukla Jihlava was successful between 1966 1991 however in recent decades it plays mostly in the 1st Czech Republic Hockey League second tier Sights Edit Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross Among the principal buildings are the early Gothic churches of St Jacob 3 Friars Minor Church of Our Lady and Dominican Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross the Baroque Church of St Ignatius of Loyola the city hall and a number of municipal houses containing Gothic and Renaissance details There is also a Jewish cemetery containing some remarkable monuments 3 including the tombstone of the parents of Gustav Mahler Notable people EditGustav Mahler 1860 1911 Austrian German composer and conductor Julius Tandler 1869 1936 physician and politician Hans Krebs 1888 1947 Nazi SS Brigadefuhrer executed for war crimes Frantisek Cipro born 1947 football manager Zdenek Merinsky 1948 2016 archeologist and historian Ondrej Vetchy born 1962 actor Patrik Augusta born 1969 ice hockey player Bobby Holik born 1971 ice hockey player Jiri Slegr born 1971 ice hockey player Lukas Krpalek born 1990 judoka David Rittich born 1992 ice hockey playerTwin towns sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in the Czech Republic Jihlava is twinned with 9 10 Heidenheim an der Brenz Germany Uzhhorod Ukraine Zgierz Poland Jihlava also cooperates with Wuhan in China 9 References Edit Population of Municipalities 1 January 2021 Czech Statistical Office 2021 04 30 Jihlavsky jezek ma stovky podob Puvod vsak hali tajemstvi E15 in Czech Retrieved 22 October 2019 a b c d e Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Iglau Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 14 11th ed Cambridge University Press pp 291 292 Hampel Jens 1998 Das Schicksal der judischen Bevolkerung der Stadt Iglau 1938 1942 Theresienstadter Studien und Dokumente in German 5 70 99 CEEOL 64193 Iglau lebt weiter Gemeoinschaft Iglauer Sprachinsel e V 1990 p 52 Lumans Valdis O Himmler s Auxiliaries The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe 1933 1945 1993 ISBN 0 8078 2066 0 ISBN 978 0 8078 2066 7 Historicky lexikon obci Ceske republiky 1869 2011 Okres Jihlava in Czech Czech Statistical Office 2015 12 21 pp 5 6 Vyrocni zprava o cinnosti VSPJ pro rok 2019 vspj cz in Czech Vysoka skola polytechnicka Jihlava April 2020 p 2 a b Partnerska mesta Memoranda in Czech Statutarni mesto Jihlava Retrieved 2020 06 18 Polsky Zgierz se stal partnerskym mestem Jihlavy in Czech Statutarni mesto Jihlava 2018 08 22 Retrieved 2020 06 18 Literature EditPeter von Chlumecky Die Regesten oder die chronologischen Verzeichnisse der Urkunden in den Archiven zu Iglau Nitsch amp Grosse Brunn 1856 Digitalisat Martin Leupold von Lowenthal Chronik der Koniglichen Stadt Iglau 1402 1607 Hrsg v Christian d Elvert Brunn 1861 Digitalisat Alois Pokorny Die Vegetationsverhaltnisse von Iglau Ein Beitrag zur Pflanzengeographie des bohmisch mahrischen Gebirges Wien 1852 Digitalisat Andreas Sterly Drangsale der Stadt Iglau unter der schwedischen Zwingherrschaft Iglau 1828 Digitalisat Johann Achatzi Iglauer Heimatbuch Gemeinschaft Iglauer Sprachinsel e V 1962External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Jihlava Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jihlava Official website zJihlavy cz Free Regional Press Monitor Jihlava International Documentary Film Festival Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Jihlava amp oldid 1049897713, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.