# Néron model

In algebraic geometry, the **Néron model** (or **Néron minimal model**, or **minimal model**) for an abelian variety *A _{K}* defined over the field of fractions

*K*of a Dedekind domain

*R*is the "push-forward" of

*A*from Spec(

_{K}*K*) to Spec(

*R*), in other words the "best possible" group scheme

*A*defined over

_{R}*R*corresponding to

*A*.

_{K}They were introduced by André Néron (1961, 1964) for abelian varieties over the quotient field of a Dedekind domain *R* with perfect residue fields, and Raynaud (1966) extended this construction to semiabelian varieties over all Dedekind domains.

## Contents

Suppose that *R* is a Dedekind domain with field of fractions *K*, and suppose that *A _{K}* is a smooth separated scheme over

*K*(such as an abelian variety). Then a

**Néron model**of

*A*is defined to be a smooth separated scheme

_{K}*A*over

_{R}*R*with fiber

*A*that is universal in the following sense.

_{K}- If
*X*is a smooth separated scheme over*R*then any*K*-morphism from*X*_{K}to*A*can be extended to a unique_{K}*R*-morphism from*X*to*A*_{R}**(Néron mapping property)**.

In particular, the canonical map$A_{R}(R)\to A_{K}(K)$ is an isomorphism. If a Néron model exists then it is unique up to unique isomorphism.

In terms of sheaves, any scheme *A* over Spec(*K*) represents a sheaf on the category of schemes smooth over Spec(*K*) with the smooth Grothendieck topology, and this has a pushforward by the injection map from Spec(*K*) to Spec(*R*), which is a sheaf over Spec(*R*). If this pushforward is representable by a scheme, then this scheme is the Néron model of *A*.

In general the scheme *A _{K}* need not have any Néron model. For abelian varieties

*A*Néron models exist and are unique (up to unique isomorphism) and are commutative quasi-projective group schemes over

_{K}*R*. The fiber of a Néron model over a closed point of Spec(

*R*) is a smooth commutative algebraic group, but need not be an abelian variety: for example, it may be disconnected or a torus. Néron models exist as well for certain commutative groups other than abelian varieties such as tori, but these are only locally of finite type. Néron models do not exist for the additive group.

- The formation of Néron models commutes with products.
- The formation of Néron models commutes with étale base change.
- An Abelian scheme
*A*_{R}is the Néron model of its generic fibre.

The Néron model of an elliptic curve *A*_{K} over *K* can be constructed as follows. First form the minimal model over *R* in the sense of algebraic (or arithmetic) surfaces. This is a regular proper surface over *R* but is not in general smooth over *R* or a group scheme over *R*. Its subscheme of smooth points over *R* is the Néron model, which is a smooth group scheme over *R* but not necessarily proper over *R*. The fibers in general may have several irreducible components, and to form the Néron model one discards all multiple components, all points where two components intersect, and all singular points of the components.

Tate's algorithm calculates the special fiber of the Néron model of an elliptic curve, or more precisely the fibers of the minimal surface containing the Néron model.

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*Arithmetic geometry (Storrs, Conn., 1984)*, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 213–230, MR 0861977 - Bosch, Siegfried; Lütkebohmert, Werner; Raynaud, Michel (1990),
*Néron models*, Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete (3),**21**, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-51438-8, ISBN 978-3-540-50587-7, MR 1045822 - I.V. Dolgachev (2001) [1994], "Néron model",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - Néron, André (1961),
*Modèles p-minimaux des variétés abéliennes.*, Séminaire Bourbaki,**7**, MR 1611194, Zbl 0132.41402 - Néron, André (1964), "Modèles minimaux des variétes abèliennes sur les corps locaux et globaux",
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