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Nîmes

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Nîmes ( , French: (); Occitan: Nimes ; Latin: Nemausus) is the prefecture of the Gard department in the Occitanie region of Southern France. Located between the Mediterranean Sea and Cévennes, the commune of Nîmes has an estimated population of 150,610 (2017).

Nîmes
Nimes(Occitan)
From top to bottom, left to right: city view from Tour Magne, Fontaine Pradier, Arena of Nîmes and Maison Carrée at night
Coat of arms
Location of Nîmes
Nîmes
Show map of France
Nîmes
Show map of Occitanie
Coordinates:43°50′17″N4°21′40″E /43.838°N 4.361°E /43.838; 4.361Coordinates: 43°50′17″N4°21′40″E /43.838°N 4.361°E /43.838; 4.361
CountryFrance
RegionOccitanie
DepartmentGard
ArrondissementNîmes
CantonNîmes-1, 2, 3 and 4 and Saint-Gilles
IntercommunalityCA Nîmes Métropole
Government
• Mayor(2020–2026)Jean-Paul Fournier (LR)
Area
1
161.85 km2 (62.49 sq mi)
Population
(Jan. 2018)
149,633
• Density920/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
30189 /30000 and 30900
Elevation21–215 m (69–705 ft)
(avg. 39 m or 128 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Dubbed the most Roman city outside Italy, Nîmes has a rich history dating back to the Roman Empire when the city was a regional capital, and home to 50,000–60,000 people. Several famous monuments are in Nîmes, such as the Arena of Nîmes and the Maison Carrée. Because of this, Nîmes is often referred to as the French Rome.

Contents

The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan; to the southwest, Montaury; to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes".

Nemausus was the god of the local Volcae Arecomici tribe.

Roman Bastion, Tour Magne
Roman temple, the "Maison Carrée"

4000–2000 BC

The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the site of Nîmes.[citation needed]

The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and is considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

1800–600 BC

The Bronze Age has left traces of villages that were made out of huts and branches.[citation needed] The population of the site increased during the Bronze Age.

600–121 BC

The hill of Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built with a dry-stone tower at the summit which was later incorporated into the Tour Magne. The Volcae Arecomici people settled around the spring at the foot of Mount Cavalier and built a sanctuary to Nemausus there.

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul.[citation needed]

In 123 BC the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus campaigned against Gallic tribes in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni, while the Volcae offered no resistance. The Roman province Gallia Transalpina was established in 121 BC and from 118 BC the Via Domitia was built through the later site of the city.

Roman period

Amphitheatre used today for concerts and bullfights
Amphiteatre Interior
"Temple of Diana"
Roman wall foundations
The Augustan Gate

The city arose on the important Via Domitia which connected Italy with Hispania.

Nîmes became a Roman colony as Colonia Nemausus sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". Veterans of Julius Caesar's legions in his Nile campaigns were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes.

Augustus started a major building program in the city, as elsewhere in the empire. He also gave the town a ring of ramparts 6 km (3.7 miles) long, reinforced by 14 towers; two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France.

The Maison Carrée dating from the late 1st c. BC is one of the best-preserved temples to be found anywhere in the former Roman Empire, and appears to be almost totally intact.

The great Nimes Aqueduct, many of whose remains can be seen today outside of the city, was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where it crossed the River Gard between Uzès and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 km (12 mi) north east of the city.

The museum contains many fine objects including mosaic floors, frescoes and sculpture from rich houses and buildings found in excavations in and near the city. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre is very well preserved, dates from the end of the 2nd century and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire. The so-called Temple of Diana dating from Augustus and rebuilt in the 2nd century was not a temple but was centred on a nymphaeum located within the Fontaine Sanctuary dedicated to Augustus and may have been a library.

The city was the birthplace of the family of emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161).

Emperor Constantine (306-337) endowed the city with baths.

It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar,[citation needed] the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.

The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century when successive barbarian invasions slowed its development. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles.[citation needed]

The Visigoths captured the city in 472.

Nîmes, dupondius of Augustus, 10 – 14 a. D., Commemorating the conquest of Egypt in 30 BC.

Obverse: Back to back head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown, and laureate head of Augustus right; on either side, inscription. Above and below, inscription. Border of dots. Lettering: "IMP P P DIVI F" ("IMPerator DIVI Filius Pater Patriæ", Emperor, Son of the Divine Father of the Nation).

Reverse: Crocodile to right, chained by neck to a palm-tree with tip bending left, two short palms on either side of trunk; on right, inscription; on left, inscription surmounted by a crown with two long tails to right. Border of dots. Lettering: "COL NEM" ("Colonia Nemausus", Colony of Nemausus)

Finds from Roman Nimes in the Musée de la Romanité

  • Mosaic of Europa and Zeus

  • Mosaic of still life

  • Pentheus mosaic

  • Fresco of war galleys

4th–13th centuries

After the Roman period the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD,[citation needed] appeared to be the last refuge of classical civilisation, as it was organised and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats.[citation needed] When the Visigoths were accepted into the Roman Empire, Nîmes was included in their territory in 472, even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouillé (507). The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths, but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact.

By 725, the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania including Nîmes. In 736–737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north. The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city. In 754, an uprising took place against the Carolingian king, but was put down, and count Radulf, a Frank, appointed as master of the city. After the events connected with the war, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Roman city it had once been. The local authorities installed themselves in the remains of the amphitheatre. Islamic burials have been found in Nîmes.

Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house; meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.

Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.

After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nîmes thus finally came into the hands of the King of France.

Period of invasions

During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine. Customs were forgotten, religious troubles developed (see French Wars of Religion) and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nîmes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations (including the Michelade massacre) which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.

17th century to the French Revolution

Les Quais de la Fontaine, the embankments of the spring that provided water for the city, the first civic gardens of France, were laid out in 1738–55.

In the middle of the 17th century Nîmes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. To this period also belong the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (hôtels). This renaissance strengthened the manufacturing and industrial potential of the city, the population rising from 21,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

In this same period the Fountain gardens, the Quais de la Fontaine, were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carrée and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.

From the French Revolution to the present

Following a European economic crisis that hit Nîmes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke the slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the century, and Nîmes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry into new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth.

During the Second World War, the Maquis resistance fighters Jean Robert and Vinicio Faïta were executed at Nîmes on 22 April 1943. The Nîmes marshalling yards were bombed by American bombers in 1944.

The 2º Régiment Étranger d'Infanterie (2ºREI), the main motorised infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion, has been garrisoned in Nîmes since November 1983.

Climate

Nîmes is one of the warmest cities in France. The city has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa), with summers being too wet for it to be classified as a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). It's slightly inland, southerly location results in hot air over the city during summer months, temperatures above 34 °C are common in July and August, whereas winters are cool but not cold. Night temps under 0 °C are common from December to February, while snowfall occurs every year.

Climate data for Nîmes (Météo France Office-Courbessac), elevation: 59 m or 194 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1922–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.5
(70.7)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
30.7
(87.3)
34.7
(94.5)
44.4
(111.9)
38.8
(101.8)
41.6
(106.9)
35.4
(95.7)
31.9
(89.4)
26.1
(79.0)
20.6
(69.1)
44.4
(111.9)
Average high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
12.4
(54.3)
16.0
(60.8)
18.6
(65.5)
23.0
(73.4)
27.5
(81.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.5
(86.9)
25.7
(78.3)
20.4
(68.7)
14.5
(58.1)
11.3
(52.3)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.8
(46.0)
10.9
(51.6)
13.5
(56.3)
17.5
(63.5)
21.7
(71.1)
24.9
(76.8)
24.4
(75.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.0
(60.8)
10.5
(50.9)
7.4
(45.3)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.2
(37.8)
5.8
(42.4)
8.3
(46.9)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
18.7
(65.7)
18.4
(65.1)
14.9
(58.8)
11.5
(52.7)
6.5
(43.7)
3.6
(38.5)
10.2
(50.4)
Record low °C (°F) −12.2
(10.0)
−14.0
(6.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.1
(34.0)
5.4
(41.7)
10.0
(50.0)
9.2
(48.6)
5.4
(41.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
−9.7
(14.5)
−14.0
(6.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.7
(2.55)
47.3
(1.86)
40.4
(1.59)
65.1
(2.56)
58.5
(2.30)
40.9
(1.61)
28.2
(1.11)
53.3
(2.10)
96.4
(3.80)
119.2
(4.69)
83.1
(3.27)
65.8
(2.59)
762.9
(30.04)
Average precipitation days(≥ 1.0 mm) 5.7 5.2 4.9 6.8 5.9 4.4 2.8 3.8 5.2 7.0 6.8 5.8 64.2
Average snowy days 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 2.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 141.6 166.3 222.2 229.8 262.0 311.0 341.1 301.6 239.0 166.6 147.9 134.0 2,662.9
Source: Météo France
Climate data for Nîmes (Météo France Office-Courbessac), elevation: 59 m or 194 ft, 1961–1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
22.7
(72.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.9
(82.2)
30.6
(87.1)
37.4
(99.3)
38.0
(100.4)
38.2
(100.8)
34.7
(94.5)
28.7
(83.7)
26.1
(79.0)
20.6
(69.1)
38.2
(100.8)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
15.8
(60.4)
18.1
(64.6)
20.7
(69.3)
24.8
(76.6)
29.5
(85.1)
33.0
(91.4)
31.5
(88.7)
28.8
(83.8)
22.2
(72.0)
16.4
(61.5)
13.5
(56.3)
33.0
(91.4)
Average high °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
12.1
(53.8)
14.9
(58.8)
18.0
(64.4)
21.6
(70.9)
26.1
(79.0)
29.8
(85.6)
28.9
(84.0)
25.6
(78.1)
20.3
(68.5)
14.3
(57.7)
11.3
(52.3)
19.4
(67.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
8.0
(46.4)
10.0
(50.0)
12.8
(55.0)
16.4
(61.5)
20.5
(68.9)
23.7
(74.7)
22.9
(73.2)
20.1
(68.2)
15.8
(60.4)
10.0
(50.0)
7.3
(45.1)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.6
(38.5)
5.2
(41.4)
7.8
(46.0)
11.1
(52.0)
14.8
(58.6)
17.6
(63.7)
16.9
(62.4)
15.0
(59.0)
11.0
(51.8)
5.9
(42.6)
3.3
(37.9)
9.6
(49.2)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.2
(36.0)
6.0
(42.8)
9.2
(48.6)
13.2
(55.8)
15.7
(60.3)
15.5
(59.9)
12.2
(54.0)
5.6
(42.1)
3.7
(38.7)
−0.3
(31.5)
−1.7
(28.9)
Record low °C (°F) −12.2
(10.0)
−10.5
(13.1)
−6.4
(20.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.1
(34.0)
5.4
(41.7)
10.0
(50.0)
9.3
(48.7)
5.4
(41.7)
0.9
(33.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−12.2
(10.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.7
(2.39)
58.6
(2.31)
52.1
(2.05)
62.8
(2.47)
55.5
(2.19)
26.3
(1.04)
14.9
(0.59)
50.7
(2.00)
42.6
(1.68)
96.3
(3.79)
60.4
(2.38)
60.1
(2.37)
641
(25.26)
Average precipitation days(≥ 1.0 mm) 6.9 6.4 6.7 6.7 5.8 4.8 3.1 3.8 4.7 6.7 5.5 6.2 67.3
Average snowy days 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.9 3.4
Average relative humidity (%) 71 68 63 63 64 61 56 60 67 73 72 72 65.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 143.5 147.4 203.1 227.6 267.8 310.2 353.8 315.3 236.6 186.7 143.9 133.0 2,668.9
Percent possible sunshine 51 51 56 57 59 68 77 74 64 55 50 49 59
Source 1: NOAA
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity)
Tour Magne.
The Jardins de la Fontaine.

Several important remains of the Roman Empire can still be seen in and around Nîmes:

  • The elliptical Roman amphitheatre, of the 1st or 2nd century AD, is the best-preserved Roman arena in France. It was filled with medieval housing, when its walls served as ramparts, but they were cleared under Napoleon. It is still used as a bull fighting and concert arena.
  • The Maison Carrée (Square House), a small Roman temple dedicated to sons of Agrippa was built c. 19 BC. It is one of the best-preserved Roman temples anywhere. Visitors can watch a short film about the history of Nîmes inside.
  • The 18th-century Jardins de la Fontaine (Gardens of the Fountain) built around the Roman thermae ruins.
  • The nearby Pont du Gard, also built by Agrippa, is a well-preserved aqueduct that used to carry water across the small Gardon river valley.
  • The nearby Mont Cavalier is crowned by the Tour Magne ("Great Tower"), a ruined Roman tower.

Later monuments include:

There is modern architecture at Nîmes too: Norman Foster conceived the Carré d'art (1986), a museum of modern art and mediatheque, and Jean Nouvel designed the Nemausus, a post-modern residential ensemble.

Tree-shaded boulevards trace the foundations of its former city walls.

Nîmes is historically known for its textiles. Denim, the fabric of blue jeans, derives its name from this city (Serge de Nîmes). The blue dye was imported via Genoa from Lahore the capital of the Great Mughal.

The population of Roman Nîmes (50 AD) was estimated at 50–60,000. The population of Nîmes increased from 128,471 in 1990 to 146,709 in 2012, yet the biggest growth the city ever experienced happened in 1968, with a growth of +23.5% compared to 1962.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 40,000
1800 39,594−0.15%
1806 41,195+0.66%
1821 37,908−0.55%
1831 41,266+0.85%
1836 43,036+0.84%
1841 44,697+0.76%
1846 53,497+3.66%
1851 53,619+0.05%
1856 54,293+0.25%
1861 57,129+1.02%
1866 60,151+1.04%
1872 62,394+0.61%
1876 63,001+0.24%
1881 63,552+0.17%
1886 69,898+1.92%
1891 71,623+0.49%
1896 74,601+0.82%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 80,605+1.56%
1906 80,184−0.10%
1911 80,437+0.06%
1921 82,774+0.29%
1926 84,667+0.45%
1931 89,213+1.05%
1936 93,758+1.00%
1946 91,667−0.23%
1954 89,130−0.35%
1962 99,802+1.42%
1968 123,292+3.59%
1975 127,933+0.53%
1982 124,220−0.42%
1990 128,471+0.42%
1999 133,424+0.42%
2007 143,468+0.91%
2012 146,709+0.45%
2017 150,610+0.53%
Source: EHESS and INSEE (1968-2017)

From 1810 to 1822, Joseph Gergonne published a scientific journal specializing in mathematics from Nîmes called Annales de Gergonne.

In the famous novel The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas, in Nîmes, the procureur du roi Villefort kills the older brother of Bertuccio, a soldier in Napoleon's army, as he is en route to his home in Corsica in 1829. Bertuccio declares a vendetta on Villefort and stabs him; Villefort survives and asks for a transfer out of the city. Bertuccio later becomes a servant to the Count.

The asteroid 51 Nemausa was named after Nîmes, where it was discovered in 1858.

Two times per year, Nîmes hosts one of the main French bullfighting events, Feria de Nîmes (festival), and several hundreds of thousands gather in the streets.

In 2005 Rammstein filmed their #1 live Album Völkerball in Nîmes, and are returning in 2017.

Metallica's live DVD Français Pour une Nuit (English: French for One Night) was recorded in Nîmes, France, in the Arena of Nîmes on 7 July 2009, during the World Magnetic Tour.

Nîmes-Alès-Camargue-Cévennes Airport serves the city. The Gare de Nîmes is the central railway station, offering connections to Paris (high-speed rail), Marseille, Montpellier, Narbonne, Toulouse, Perpignan, Figueras and Barcelona in Spain and several regional destinations. The motorway A9 connects Nîmes with Orange, Montpellier, Narbonne, and Perpignan, the A54 with Arles and Salon-de-Provence.

Work is almost complete on the construction of a high-speed TGV line, Contournement Nîmes – Montpellier bypassing Nîmes and Montpellier with the LGV Méditerranée.

The new line opened to passenger service on 15 December 2019 together with a new TGV station at Gare de Nîmes-Pont-du-Gard, (a confusing name as it located some 12 km from the city itself and 20 km from the Pont du Gard).

A new station is also to be opened at the same time on the existing route between Nìmes and Avignon, thus providing connections between the new line and local rail service.

Nîmes bus station is adjacent to the city centre railway station. Buses connect the city with nearby towns and villages not served by rail. https://www.laregion.fr/transports-gard-regulier

The association football club Nîmes Olympique who has recently achieved promotion to Ligue 1 is based in Nîmes. World Archery Indoor World Cup takes place in Nîmes each year in mid January The local rugby union team is RC Nîmes.

There is a professional volleyball team located here.

Olympic swimming champion Yannick Agnel was born in Nîmes.

The city hosted the opening stages of the 2017 Vuelta a España cycling race.

  • Émile Jourdan, PCF (1965–1983)
  • Jean Bousquet, UDF (1983–1995)
  • Alain Clary, PCF (1995–2001)
  • Jean-Paul Fournier, LR (since 2001)

Nîmes is twinned with:

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  2. "Populations légales 2018". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2020.
  3. Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, INSEE
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  6. Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. p. 853. ISBN 978-1-136-63951-7.
  7. "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 March 2014. Retrieved19 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. MobileReference (1 January 2007). Travel Barcelona, Spain for Smartphones and Mobile Devices – City Guide, Phrasebook, and Maps. MobileReference. p. 428. ISBN 978-1-60501-059-5.
  9. Woodard, Roger D. (2008). The Ancient Languages of Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-139-46932-6.
  10. Maddison, Angus (2007), Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 41, ISBN 9780191647581
  11. Colin M. Kraay, "The Chronology of the coinage of Colonia Nemausus", Numismatic Chronicle 15 (1955), pp. 75–87.
  12. Alain Veyrac, "Le symbolisme de l'as de Nîmes au crocodile" Archéologie et histoire romaine vol. 1 (1998) (on-line text).
  13. Netburn, Deborah (24 February 2016). "Earliest Known Medieval Muslim Graves are Discovered in France". Los Angeles Times.
  14. Newitz, Annalee (24 February 2016). "Medieval Muslim Graves in France Reveal a Previously Unseen History". Ars Technica.
  15. "France's Earliest 'Muslim Burials' Found". BBC News. 25 February 2016.
  16. Gleize, Yves; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves (24 February 2016). "Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence". PLOS ONE. 11 (2): e0148583. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1148583G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148583. PMC4765927. PMID 26910855.
  17. Official Website of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, Historique du 2 REI, La Creation (Creation)
  18. "Données climatiques de la station de Nîmes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved7 January 2016.
  19. "Climat Languedoc-Roussillon" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved7 January 2016.
  20. "Nimes–Courbessac (30)"(PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original(PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved30 March 2018.
  21. "Nîmes (07645) – WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved22 July 2019.
  22. "Normes et records 1961–1990: Nimes-Courbessac (30) – altitude 59m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved7 January 2016.
  23. Giving rise to the example of rime richissime Gall, amant de la Reine, alla (tour magnanime)/ Gallament de l'Arène a la Tour Magne, à Nîmes, or "Gall, lover opf the Queen, passed (magnanimous gesture), gallantly from the Arena to the Tour Magne at Nîmes".
  24. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Nîmes, EHESS.(in French)
  25. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  26. "Railway Gazette: Southern LGV projects make progress". Retrieved14 February 2011.
  27. "Nîmes Pont du Gard: New station offers benefits for travellers".
  28. "Jumelages". nimes.fr (in French). Nîmes. Retrieved15 November 2019.
  29. "Official Nîmes Signing". fwsistercities.org. Fort Worth. Retrieved15 November 2019.
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nîmes.

Nîmes
Nimes Language Watch Edit This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French July 2014 Click show for important translation instructions View a machine translated version of the French article Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate rather than simply copy pasting machine translated text into the English Wikipedia Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low quality If possible verify the text with references provided in the foreign language article You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation A model attribution edit summary Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at fr Nimes see its history for attribution You should also add the template Translated fr Nimes to the talk page For more guidance see Wikipedia Translation Nimes n iː m NEEM French nim listen Occitan Nimes ˈnimes Latin Nemausus is the prefecture of the Gard department in the Occitanie region of Southern France Located between the Mediterranean Sea and Cevennes the commune of Nimes has an estimated population of 150 610 2017 3 Nimes Nimes Occitan Prefecture and communeFrom top to bottom left to right city view from Tour Magne Fontaine Pradier Arena of Nimes and Maison Carree at nightCoat of armsLocation of NimesNimesShow map of FranceNimesShow map of OccitanieCoordinates 43 50 17 N 4 21 40 E 43 838 N 4 361 E 43 838 4 361 Coordinates 43 50 17 N 4 21 40 E 43 838 N 4 361 E 43 838 4 361CountryFranceRegionOccitanieDepartmentGardArrondissementNimesCantonNimes 1 2 3 and 4 and Saint GillesIntercommunalityCA Nimes MetropoleGovernment Mayor 2020 2026 Jean Paul Fournier 1 LR Area1161 85 km2 62 49 sq mi Population Jan 2018 2 149 633 Density920 km2 2 400 sq mi Time zoneUTC 01 00 CET Summer DST UTC 02 00 CEST INSEE Postal code30189 30000 and 30900Elevation21 215 m 69 705 ft avg 39 m or 128 ft 1 French Land Register data which excludes lakes ponds glaciers gt 1 km2 0 386 sq mi or 247 acres and river estuaries Dubbed the most Roman city outside Italy 4 Nimes has a rich history dating back to the Roman Empire when the city was a regional capital and home to 50 000 60 000 people 5 6 7 8 Several famous monuments are in Nimes such as the Arena of Nimes and the Maison Carree Because of this Nimes is often referred to as the French Rome Contents 1 Origins 2 History 2 1 4000 2000 BC 2 2 1800 600 BC 2 3 600 121 BC 2 4 Roman period 2 4 1 Finds from Roman Nimes in the Musee de la Romanite 2 5 4th 13th centuries 2 6 Period of invasions 2 7 17th century to the French Revolution 2 8 From the French Revolution to the present 3 Geography 3 1 Climate 4 Sights 5 Economy and infrastructure 6 Population 7 Culture 8 Transportation 9 Sport 10 Mayors 11 Twin towns sister cities 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External linksOrigins EditThe site on which the built up area of Nimes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills to the northeast Mont Duplan to the southwest Montaury to the west Mt Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo he has given to the mothers of Nimes and toutios Namausatis citizen of Nimes 9 Nemausus was the god of the local Volcae Arecomici tribe History EditSee also Timeline of Nimes Roman Bastion Tour Magne Roman temple the Maison Carree 4000 2000 BC Edit The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the site of Nimes citation needed The menhir of Courbessac or La Poudriere stands in a field near the airstrip This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC and is considered the oldest monument of Nimes 1800 600 BC Edit The Bronze Age has left traces of villages that were made out of huts and branches citation needed The population of the site increased during the Bronze Age 600 121 BC Edit The hill of Mt Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum which gave birth to the city During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built with a dry stone tower at the summit which was later incorporated into the Tour Magne The Volcae Arecomici people settled around the spring at the foot of Mount Cavalier and built a sanctuary to Nemausus there The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul citation needed In 123 BC the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus campaigned against Gallic tribes in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni while the Volcae offered no resistance The Roman province Gallia Transalpina was established in 121 BC 10 and from 118 BC the Via Domitia was built through the later site of the city Roman period Edit See also Maison Carree Nimes Aqueduct Arena of Nimes and Temple of Diana Nimes Amphitheatre used today for concerts and bullfights Amphiteatre Interior Temple of Diana Roman wall foundations The Augustan Gate The city arose on the important Via Domitia which connected Italy with Hispania Nimes became a Roman colony as Colonia Nemausus sometime before 28 BC as witnessed by the earliest coins which bear the abbreviation NEM COL Colony of Nemausus 11 Veterans of Julius Caesar s legions in his Nile campaigns were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nimes 12 Augustus started a major building program in the city as elsewhere in the empire He also gave the town a ring of ramparts 6 km 3 7 miles long reinforced by 14 towers two gates remain today the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France The Maison Carree dating from the late 1st c BC is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the former Roman Empire and appears to be almost totally intact The great Nimes Aqueduct many of whose remains can be seen today outside of the city was built to bring water from the hills to the north Where it crossed the River Gard between Uzes and Remoulins the spectacular Pont du Gard was built This is 20 km 12 mi north east of the city The museum contains many fine objects including mosaic floors frescoes and sculpture from rich houses and buildings found in excavations in and near the city It is known that the town had a civil basilica a curia a gymnasium and perhaps a circus The amphitheatre is very well preserved dates from the end of the 2nd century and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire The so called Temple of Diana dating from Augustus and rebuilt in the 2nd century was not a temple but was centred on a nymphaeum located within the Fontaine Sanctuary dedicated to Augustus and may have been a library The city was the birthplace of the family of emperor Antoninus Pius 138 161 Emperor Constantine 306 337 endowed the city with baths It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar citation needed the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century when successive barbarian invasions slowed its development During the 4th and 5th centuries the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles citation needed The Visigoths captured the city in 472 Nimes dupondius of Augustus 10 14 a D Commemorating the conquest of Egypt in 30 BC Obverse Back to back head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown and laureate head of Augustus right on either side inscription Above and below inscription Border of dots Lettering IMP P P DIVI F IMPerator DIVI Filius Pater Patriae Emperor Son of the Divine Father of the Nation Reverse Crocodile to right chained by neck to a palm tree with tip bending left two short palms on either side of trunk on right inscription on left inscription surmounted by a crown with two long tails to right Border of dots Lettering COL NEM Colonia Nemausus Colony of Nemausus Finds from Roman Nimes in the Musee de la Romanite Edit Mosaic of Europa and Zeus Mosaic of still life Pentheus mosaic Fresco of war galleys4th 13th centuries Edit After the Roman period the Christian Church already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD citation needed appeared to be the last refuge of classical civilisation as it was organised and directed by a series of Gallo Roman aristocrats citation needed When the Visigoths were accepted into the Roman Empire Nimes was included in their territory in 472 even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouille 507 The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact By 725 the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania including Nimes In 736 737 Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence and largely destroyed the city in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo Roman and Gothic nobility including the amphitheatre thereafter heading back north The Muslim government came to an end in 752 when Pepin the Short captured the city In 754 an uprising took place against the Carolingian king but was put down and count Radulf a Frank appointed as master of the city After the events connected with the war Nimes was now only a shadow of the opulent Roman city it had once been The local authorities installed themselves in the remains of the amphitheatre Islamic burials have been found in Nimes 13 14 15 16 Carolingian rule brought relative peace but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles which lasted until the days of St Louis During that period Nimes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena and the religious power based in the Bishop s palace complex around the cathedral its chapter and the Bishop s house meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls who sat in the Maison Carree Despite incessant feudal squabbling Nimes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock breeding and associated activities After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse St Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc Nimes thus finally came into the hands of the King of France Period of invasions Edit During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine Customs were forgotten religious troubles developed see French Wars of Religion and epidemics all of which affected the city Nimes which was one of the Protestant strongholds felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations including the Michelade massacre which continued until the middle of the 17th century adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague 17th century to the French Revolution Edit Les Quais de la Fontaine the embankments of the spring that provided water for the city the first civic gardens of France were laid out in 1738 55 In the middle of the 17th century Nimes experienced a period of prosperity Population growth caused the town to expand and slum housing to be replaced To this period also belong the reconstruction of Notre Dame Saint Castor the Bishop s palace and numerous mansions hotels This renaissance strengthened the manufacturing and industrial potential of the city the population rising from 21 000 to 50 000 inhabitants In this same period the Fountain gardens the Quais de la Fontaine were laid out the areas surrounding the Maison Carree and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity From the French Revolution to the present Edit Following a European economic crisis that hit Nimes with full force the Revolutionary period awoke the slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession produced murder pillage and arson until 1815 Order was however restored in the course of the century and Nimes became the metropolis of Bas Languedoc diversifying its industry into new kinds of activity At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth During the Second World War the Maquis resistance fighters Jean Robert and Vinicio Faita were executed at Nimes on 22 April 1943 The Nimes marshalling yards were bombed by American bombers in 1944 The 2º Regiment Etranger d Infanterie 2ºREI the main motorised infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion has been garrisoned in Nimes since November 1983 17 Geography EditClimate Edit Nimes is one of the warmest cities in France The city has a humid subtropical climate Koppen Cfa with summers being too wet for it to be classified as a hot summer Mediterranean climate Koppen Csa It s slightly inland southerly location results in hot air over the city during summer months temperatures above 34 C are common in July and August whereas winters are cool but not cold Night temps under 0 C are common from December to February while snowfall occurs every year Climate data for Nimes Meteo France Office Courbessac elevation 59 m or 194 ft 1981 2010 normals extremes 1922 presentMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 21 5 70 7 23 8 74 8 27 3 81 1 30 7 87 3 34 7 94 5 44 4 111 9 38 8 101 8 41 6 106 9 35 4 95 7 31 9 89 4 26 1 79 0 20 6 69 1 44 4 111 9 Average high C F 11 0 51 8 12 4 54 3 16 0 60 8 18 6 65 5 23 0 73 4 27 5 81 5 31 0 87 8 30 5 86 9 25 7 78 3 20 4 68 7 14 5 58 1 11 3 52 3 20 2 68 4 Daily mean C F 6 8 44 2 7 8 46 0 10 9 51 6 13 5 56 3 17 5 63 5 21 7 71 1 24 9 76 8 24 4 75 9 20 3 68 5 16 0 60 8 10 5 50 9 7 4 45 3 15 2 59 4 Average low C F 2 7 36 9 3 2 37 8 5 8 42 4 8 3 46 9 12 1 53 8 15 8 60 4 18 7 65 7 18 4 65 1 14 9 58 8 11 5 52 7 6 5 43 7 3 6 38 5 10 2 50 4 Record low C F 12 2 10 0 14 0 6 8 6 8 19 8 2 0 28 4 1 1 34 0 5 4 41 7 10 0 50 0 9 2 48 6 5 4 41 7 1 0 30 2 4 8 23 4 9 7 14 5 14 0 6 8 Average precipitation mm inches 64 7 2 55 47 3 1 86 40 4 1 59 65 1 2 56 58 5 2 30 40 9 1 61 28 2 1 11 53 3 2 10 96 4 3 80 119 2 4 69 83 1 3 27 65 8 2 59 762 9 30 04 Average precipitation days 1 0 mm 5 7 5 2 4 9 6 8 5 9 4 4 2 8 3 8 5 2 7 0 6 8 5 8 64 2Average snowy days 0 8 0 6 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 5 2 4Mean monthly sunshine hours 141 6 166 3 222 2 229 8 262 0 311 0 341 1 301 6 239 0 166 6 147 9 134 0 2 662 9Source Meteo France 18 19 20 Climate data for Nimes Meteo France Office Courbessac elevation 59 m or 194 ft 1961 1990 normals and extremesMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 20 1 68 2 22 7 72 9 27 3 81 1 27 9 82 2 30 6 87 1 37 4 99 3 38 0 100 4 38 2 100 8 34 7 94 5 28 7 83 7 26 1 79 0 20 6 69 1 38 2 100 8 Mean maximum C F 13 2 55 8 15 8 60 4 18 1 64 6 20 7 69 3 24 8 76 6 29 5 85 1 33 0 91 4 31 5 88 7 28 8 83 8 22 2 72 0 16 4 61 5 13 5 56 3 33 0 91 4 Average high C F 10 3 50 5 12 1 53 8 14 9 58 8 18 0 64 4 21 6 70 9 26 1 79 0 29 8 85 6 28 9 84 0 25 6 78 1 20 3 68 5 14 3 57 7 11 3 52 3 19 4 67 0 Daily mean C F 6 3 43 3 8 0 46 4 10 0 50 0 12 8 55 0 16 4 61 5 20 5 68 9 23 7 74 7 22 9 73 2 20 1 68 2 15 8 60 4 10 0 50 0 7 3 45 1 14 5 58 1 Average low C F 2 4 36 3 3 6 38 5 5 2 41 4 7 8 46 0 11 1 52 0 14 8 58 6 17 6 63 7 16 9 62 4 15 0 59 0 11 0 51 8 5 9 42 6 3 3 37 9 9 6 49 2 Mean minimum C F 1 7 28 9 0 5 31 1 2 2 36 0 6 0 42 8 9 2 48 6 13 2 55 8 15 7 60 3 15 5 59 9 12 2 54 0 5 6 42 1 3 7 38 7 0 3 31 5 1 7 28 9 Record low C F 12 2 10 0 10 5 13 1 6 4 20 5 1 1 30 0 1 1 34 0 5 4 41 7 10 0 50 0 9 3 48 7 5 4 41 7 0 9 33 6 3 3 26 1 9 7 14 5 12 2 10 0 Average precipitation mm inches 60 7 2 39 58 6 2 31 52 1 2 05 62 8 2 47 55 5 2 19 26 3 1 04 14 9 0 59 50 7 2 00 42 6 1 68 96 3 3 79 60 4 2 38 60 1 2 37 641 25 26 Average precipitation days 1 0 mm 6 9 6 4 6 7 6 7 5 8 4 8 3 1 3 8 4 7 6 7 5 5 6 2 67 3Average snowy days 0 7 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 9 3 4Average relative humidity 71 68 63 63 64 61 56 60 67 73 72 72 65 8Mean monthly sunshine hours 143 5 147 4 203 1 227 6 267 8 310 2 353 8 315 3 236 6 186 7 143 9 133 0 2 668 9Percent possible sunshine 51 51 56 57 59 68 77 74 64 55 50 49 59Source 1 NOAA 21 Source 2 Infoclimat fr humidity 22 Sights Edit Tour Magne The Jardins de la Fontaine Several important remains of the Roman Empire can still be seen in and around Nimes The elliptical Roman amphitheatre of the 1st or 2nd century AD is the best preserved Roman arena in France It was filled with medieval housing when its walls served as ramparts but they were cleared under Napoleon It is still used as a bull fighting and concert arena The Maison Carree Square House a small Roman temple dedicated to sons of Agrippa was built c 19 BC It is one of the best preserved Roman temples anywhere Visitors can watch a short film about the history of Nimes inside The 18th century Jardins de la Fontaine Gardens of the Fountain built around the Roman thermae ruins The nearby Pont du Gard also built by Agrippa is a well preserved aqueduct that used to carry water across the small Gardon river valley The nearby Mont Cavalier is crowned by the Tour Magne Great Tower a ruined Roman tower 23 Later monuments include The cathedral dedicated to Saint Castor of Apt a native of the city occupying it is believed the site of the temple of Augustus is partly Romanesque and partly Gothic in style The Musee des Beaux Arts de Nimes There is modern architecture at Nimes too Norman Foster conceived the Carre d art 1986 a museum of modern art and mediatheque and Jean Nouvel designed the Nemausus a post modern residential ensemble Tree shaded boulevards trace the foundations of its former city walls Economy and infrastructure EditNimes is historically known for its textiles Denim the fabric of blue jeans derives its name from this city Serge de Nimes The blue dye was imported via Genoa from Lahore the capital of the Great Mughal Population EditThe population of Roman Nimes 50 AD was estimated at 50 60 000 The population of Nimes increased from 128 471 in 1990 to 146 709 in 2012 yet the biggest growth the city ever experienced happened in 1968 with a growth of 23 5 compared to 1962 Historical populationYearPop p a 179340 000 180039 594 0 15 180641 195 0 66 182137 908 0 55 183141 266 0 85 183643 036 0 84 184144 697 0 76 184653 497 3 66 185153 619 0 05 185654 293 0 25 186157 129 1 02 186660 151 1 04 187262 394 0 61 187663 001 0 24 188163 552 0 17 188669 898 1 92 189171 623 0 49 189674 601 0 82 YearPop p a 190180 605 1 56 190680 184 0 10 191180 437 0 06 192182 774 0 29 192684 667 0 45 193189 213 1 05 193693 758 1 00 194691 667 0 23 195489 130 0 35 196299 802 1 42 1968123 292 3 59 1975127 933 0 53 1982124 220 0 42 1990128 471 0 42 1999133 424 0 42 2007143 468 0 91 2012146 709 0 45 2017150 610 0 53 Source EHESS 24 and INSEE 1968 2017 25 Culture EditFrom 1810 to 1822 Joseph Gergonne published a scientific journal specializing in mathematics from Nimes called Annales de Gergonne In the famous novel The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas in Nimes the procureur du roi Villefort kills the older brother of Bertuccio a soldier in Napoleon s army as he is en route to his home in Corsica in 1829 Bertuccio declares a vendetta on Villefort and stabs him Villefort survives and asks for a transfer out of the city Bertuccio later becomes a servant to the Count The asteroid 51 Nemausa was named after Nimes where it was discovered in 1858 Two times per year Nimes hosts one of the main French bullfighting events Feria de Nimes festival and several hundreds of thousands gather in the streets In 2005 Rammstein filmed their 1 live Album Volkerball in Nimes and are returning in 2017 Metallica s live DVD Francais Pour une Nuit English French for One Night was recorded in Nimes France in the Arena of Nimes on 7 July 2009 during the World Magnetic Tour Transportation EditNimes Ales Camargue Cevennes Airport serves the city The Gare de Nimes is the central railway station offering connections to Paris high speed rail Marseille Montpellier Narbonne Toulouse Perpignan Figueras and Barcelona in Spain and several regional destinations The motorway A9 connects Nimes with Orange Montpellier Narbonne and Perpignan the A54 with Arles and Salon de Provence Work is almost complete on the construction of a high speed TGV line Contournement Nimes Montpellier bypassing Nimes and Montpellier with the LGV Mediterranee 26 The new line opened to passenger service on 15 December 2019 together with a new TGV station at Gare de Nimes Pont du Gard a confusing name as it located some 12 km from the city itself and 20 km from the Pont du Gard 27 A new station is also to be opened at the same time on the existing route between Nimes and Avignon thus providing connections between the new line and local rail service Nimes bus station is adjacent to the city centre railway station Buses connect the city with nearby towns and villages not served by rail https www laregion fr transports gard regulierSport EditThe association football club Nimes Olympique who has recently achieved promotion to Ligue 1 is based in Nimes World Archery Indoor World Cup takes place in Nimes each year in mid January The local rugby union team is RC Nimes There is a professional volleyball team located here Olympic swimming champion Yannick Agnel was born in Nimes The city hosted the opening stages of the 2017 Vuelta a Espana cycling race Mayors EditEmile Jourdan PCF 1965 1983 Jean Bousquet UDF 1983 1995 Alain Clary PCF 1995 2001 Jean Paul Fournier LR since 2001 Twin towns sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in France Nimes is twinned with 28 29 Preston United Kingdom since 1955 Verona Italy since 1960 Braunschweig Germany since 1962 Prague 1 Czech Republic since 1967 Frankfurt Oder Germany since 1976 Cordoba Spain Rishon LeZion Israel since 1986 Meknes Morocco since 2005 Fort Worth United States since 2019See also EditCostieres de Nimes AOC Communes of the Gard department Councils of Nimes Feria de Nimes List of works by James Pradier The works of Maxime Real del SarteReferences Edit Repertoire national des elus les maires data gouv fr Plateforme ouverte des donnees publiques francaises in French 2 December 2020 Retrieved 11 December 2020 Populations legales 2018 The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies 28 December 2020 Telechargement du fichier d ensemble des populations legales en 2017 INSEE Nimes the most Roman city outside Italy just got more Roman The Telegraph Retrieved 30 July 2018 Frank Sear 1983 Roman Architecture Cornell University Press p 213 ISBN 0 8014 9245 9 Trudy Ring Noelle Watson Paul Schellinger 28 October 2013 Northern Europe International Dictionary of Historic Places Taylor amp Francis p 853 ISBN 978 1 136 63951 7 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 26 March 2014 Retrieved 19 March 2014 CS1 maint archived copy as title link MobileReference 1 January 2007 Travel Barcelona Spain for Smartphones and Mobile Devices City Guide Phrasebook and Maps MobileReference p 428 ISBN 978 1 60501 059 5 Woodard Roger D 2008 The Ancient Languages of Europe Cambridge University Press p 183 ISBN 978 1 139 46932 6 Maddison Angus 2007 Contours of the World Economy 1 2030 AD Essays in Macro Economic History Oxford Oxford University Press p 41 ISBN 9780191647581 Colin M Kraay The Chronology of the coinage of Colonia Nemausus Numismatic Chronicle 15 1955 pp 75 87 Alain Veyrac Le symbolisme de l as de Nimes au crocodile Archeologie et histoire romaine vol 1 1998 on line text Netburn Deborah 24 February 2016 Earliest Known Medieval Muslim Graves are Discovered in France Los Angeles Times Newitz Annalee 24 February 2016 Medieval Muslim Graves in France Reveal a Previously Unseen History Ars Technica France s Earliest Muslim Burials Found BBC News 25 February 2016 Gleize Yves Mendisco Fanny Pemonge Marie Helene Hubert Christophe Groppi Alexis Houix Bertrand Deguilloux Marie France Breuil Jean Yves 24 February 2016 Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France First Archaeological Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence PLOS ONE 11 2 e0148583 Bibcode 2016PLoSO 1148583G doi 10 1371 journal pone 0148583 PMC 4765927 PMID 26910855 Official Website of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment Historique du 2 REI La Creation Creation Donnees climatiques de la station de Nimes in French Meteo France Retrieved 7 January 2016 Climat Languedoc Roussillon in French Meteo France Retrieved 7 January 2016 Nimes Courbessac 30 PDF Fiche Climatologique Statistiques 1981 2010 et records in French Meteo France Archived from the original PDF on 30 March 2018 Retrieved 30 March 2018 Nimes 07645 WMO Weather Station NOAA Retrieved 22 July 2019 Normes et records 1961 1990 Nimes Courbessac 30 altitude 59m in French Infoclimat Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 7 January 2016 Giving rise to the example of rime richissime Gall amant de la Reine alla tour magnanime Gallament de l Arene a la Tour Magne a Nimes or Gall lover opf the Queen passed magnanimous gesture gallantly from the Arena to the Tour Magne at Nimes Des villages de Cassini aux communes d aujourd hui Commune data sheet Nimes EHESS in French Population en historique depuis 1968 INSEE Railway Gazette Southern LGV projects make progress Retrieved 14 February 2011 Nimes Pont du Gard New station offers benefits for travellers Jumelages nimes fr in French Nimes Retrieved 15 November 2019 Official Nimes Signing fwsistercities org Fort Worth Retrieved 15 November 2019 Further reading EditSee also Bibliography of the history of Nimes Nismes A Handbook for Travellers in France 8th ed London J Murray 1861 OL 24627024M Nimes Encyclopaedia Britannica 19 11th ed 1911 pp 701 702 Nimes Southern France including Corsica 6th ed Leipzig Baedeker 1914 OL 24364670MExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Nimes Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nimes 2 Regiment etranger d infanterie Practical Guide to Nimes Airport City council website The official Web site of Roman Nimes Images of Roman remains of Nimes Photogallery of Nimes Regordane Info The independent portal for The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail The Regordane passes through Nimes in English and French Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Nimes amp oldid 1052359781, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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