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Nynorsk

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Nynorsk (translates to “Modern Norwegian”, literally “New Norwegian”) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. From 12 May 1885, it became the state-sanctioned version of Ivar Aasen's standard Norwegian language (Norwegian: Landsmål) parallel to the Dano-Norwegian written language (Riksmål). Nynorsk became the name in 1929, and it is after a series of reforms still a variation which is closer to Landsmål, whereas Bokmål is closer to Riksmål and Danish.

Norwegian Nynorsk
nynorsk
PronunciationUK:
US:
Urban East Norwegian:
Native toNorway
Native speakers
None
(written only)
Early forms
Standard forms
Latin (Norwegian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Norway
Nordic Council
Regulated byNorwegian Language Council
Language codes
ISO 639-1nn
ISO 639-2nno
ISO 639-3nno
Glottolognorw1262
Linguasphere52-AAA-ba to -be

Between 10 and 15 percent of Norwegians have Nynorsk as their official language form, estimated by the number of students attending videregående skole (secondary education). Nynorsk is also taught as a mandatory subject in both high school and elementary school for all Norwegians who do not have it as their own language form.

Contents

Danish was the written language of Norway until 1814, and Danish with Norwegian intonation and pronunciation was on occasion spoken in the cities (see Dano-Norwegian). With the independence of Norway from Denmark, Danish became a foreign language and thus lost much of its prestige, and a conservative, written form of Norwegian, Landsmål, had been developed by 1850. By this time, however, the Danish language had been gradually reformed into the written language Riksmål, and no agreement was reached on which of the two forms to use. In 1885, the parliament declared the two forms official and equal.

Efforts were made to fuse the two written forms into one language. A result was that Landsmål and Riksmål lost their official status in 1929, and were replaced by the written forms Nynorsk and Bokmål, which were intended to be temporary intermediary stages before their final fusion into one hypothesised official Norwegian language known at the time as Samnorsk. This project was later abandoned and Nynorsk and Bokmål remain the two officially sanctioned standards of what is today called the Norwegian language.

Both written languages are in reality fusions between the Norwegian and Danish languages as they were spoken and written around 1850, with Nynorsk closer to Norwegian and Bokmål closer to Danish. The official standard of Nynorsk has been significantly altered during the process to create the common language form Samnorsk. A minor purist fraction of the Nynorsk population has stayed firm with the historical Aasen norm where these alterations of Nynorsk were rejected, which is known as Høgnorsk (English:High Norwegian, analogous to High German). Ivar Aasen-sambandet is an umbrella organization of associations and individuals promoting the use of Høgnorsk, whereas Noregs Mållag and Norsk Målungdom advocate the use of Nynorsk in general.

The Landsmål (Landsmaal) language standard was constructed by the Norwegian linguist Ivar Aasen during the mid-19th century, to provide a Norwegian-based alternative to Danish, which was commonly written, and to some extent spoken, in Norway at the time.

The word Nynorsk also has another meaning. In addition to being the name of the present, official written language standard, Nynorsk can also refer to the Norwegian language in use after Old Norwegian, 11th to 14th centuries, and Middle Norwegian, 1350 to about 1550. The written Norwegian that was used until the period of Danish rule (1536-1814), closely resembles Nynorsk (New Norwegian).[citation needed] A major source of old written material is Diplomatarium Norvegicum in 22 printed volumes.

Ivar Aasen's work

Ivar Aasen (drawing by Olav Rusti)
The Norwegian romantic nationalism movement sought to identify and celebrate the genuinely Norwegian.

In 1749, Erik Pontoppidan released a comprehensive dictionary of Norwegian words that were incomprehensible to Danish people, Glossarium Norvagicum Eller Forsøg paa en Samling Af saadanne rare Norske Ord Som gemeenlig ikke forstaaes af Danske Folk, Tilligemed en Fortegnelse paa Norske Mænds og Qvinders Navne. Nevertheless, it is generally acknowledged that the first systematic study of the Norwegian language was made by Ivar Aasen in the mid 19th century. After the dissolution of Denmark–Norway and the establishment of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1814, Norwegians considered that neither Danish, by now a foreign language, nor by any means Swedish, were suitable written norms for Norwegian affairs. The linguist Knud Knudsen proposed a gradual Norwegianisation of Danish. Ivar Aasen, however, favoured a more radical approach, based on the principle that the spoken language of people living in the Norwegian countryside, who made up the vast majority of the population, should be regarded as more Norwegian than that of upper-middle class city-dwellers, who for centuries had been substantially influenced by the Danish language and culture. This idea was not unique to Aasen, and can be seen in the wider context of Norwegian romantic nationalism. In the 1840s Aasen traveled across rural Norway and studied its dialects. In 1848 and 1850 he published the first Norwegian grammar and dictionary, respectively, which described a standard that Aasen called Landsmål. New versions detailing the written standard were published in 1864 and 1873, and in the 20th century by Olav Beito in 1970.

During the same period, Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb standardised the orthography of the Faroese language. Spoken Faroese is closely related to Landsmål and dialects in Norway proper, and Lucas Debes and Peder Hansen Resen classified the Faroese tongue as Norwegian in the late 17th century. Ultimately, however, Faroese was established as a separate language.

Aasen's work is based on the idea that Norwegian dialects had a common structure that made them a separate language alongside Danish and Swedish. The central point for Aasen therefore became to find and show the structural dependencies between the dialects. In order to abstract this structure from the variety of dialects, he developed some basic criteria, which he called the most perfect form. He defined this form as the one that best showed the connection to related words, with similar words, and with the forms in Old Norwegian. No single dialect had all the perfect forms, each dialect had preserved different aspects and parts of the language. Through such a systematic approach, one could arrive at a uniting expression for all Norwegian dialects, what Aasen called the fundamental dialect, and Einar Haugen has called Proto-Norwegian.

The idea that the study should end up in a new written language marked his work from the beginning. A fundamental idea for Aasen was that the fundamental dialect should be Modern Norwegian, not Old Norwegian or Old Norse. Therefore, he did not include grammatical categories which were extinct in all dialects. At the same time, the categories that were inherited from the old language and were still present in some dialects should be represented in the written standard. Haugen has used the word reconstruction rather than construction about this work.

Conflict

From the outset, Nynorsk was met with resistance among those who believed that the Dano-Norwegian then in use was sufficient. With the advent and growth of mass media, exposure to the standard languages increased, and Bokmål's position is dominant in many situations. This may explain why negative attitudes toward Nynorsk persist, as is seen with many minority languages. This is especially prominent among students, who are required to learn both of the official written languages. There are however many individual reasons for both positive and negative attitutes towards Nynorsk. Many claim that obligatory learning of both language forms is unneccessary, and that students would be better off spending their time on learning a foreign language, or simply focusing on one of the language forms.

Some critics of obligatory Nynorsk and Bokmål as school subjects have been very outspoken about their views. For instance, during the 2005 election, the Norwegian Young Conservatives made an advertisement where a candidate for parliament threw a copy of the Nynorsk dictionary into a barrel of flames. After strong reactions to this book burning, they apologized and chose not to use the video.

Map of the official language forms of Norwegian municipalities as of 2007, with Nynorsk in cyan, Bokmål in orange, and neutral in grey

Bokmål has a much larger basis in the cities and generally outside of the western part of the country. Most Norwegians do not speak either Nynorsk or Bokmål as written, but a Norwegian dialect that identifies their origins. Nynorsk shares many of the problems that minority languages face.

In Norway, each municipality and county can choose to declare either of the two language standards as its official language or remain "standard-neutral". As of 2020, 90 municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their official standard, while 118 have chosen Bokmål and another 148 are neutral, numbers that have been stable since the 1970s. As for counties, three have declared Nynorsk as their official standard: Vestfold og Telemark, Møre og Romsdal and Vestland. Most municipalities in Rogaland and few in the "standard-neutral" counties have declared Nynorsk as their official standard. Ålesund is the largest municipality with Nynorsk as its official language form.

The main standard used in primary schools is decided by referendum within the local school district. The number of school districts and pupils using primarily Nynorsk has decreased from its height in the 1940s, even in Nynorsk municipalities. Nynorsk is also part of the school curriculum in high school and elementary school for all students in Norway, where students are taught to write it.

The prevailing regions for Nynorsk are the rural areas of the western counties of Rogaland, Vestland and Møre og Romsdal, where an estimated 90% of the population writes Nynorsk. Some of the rural parts of Oppland, Buskerud, Telemark, Aust- and Vest-Agder also write primarily in Nynorsk. In the Sunnmøre region of Møre og Romsdal, all municipalities have stated Nynorsk as the official standard. In Vestland, almost all municipalities have declared Nynorsk as the official standard – the city of Bergen being one of only three exceptions.

Written Nynorsk is found in all the same types of places and for the same uses (newspapers, commercial products, computer programs, etc.) as other written languages. Most of the biggest newspapers in Norway have certain articles written in Nynorsk, like VG and Aftenposten, but are mainly Bokmål. There are also nationwide newspapers where Nynorsk is the only Norwegian-language form of publication, among them are Dag & Tid and Framtida.no. Many local newspapers have also chosen Nynorsk as the only language form of publication, like Firdaposten, Hallingdølen, Hordaland and Bø blad. Many newspapers are also officially neutral, conforming to either Nynorsk or Bokmål in an article as they see fit, like Klassekampen and Bergens Tidende. Commercial products produced in the Nynorsk areas of Norway are also often distributed with Nynorsk text, like types of Gamalost. Many computer programs and apps that serve the whole country often present a choice between Bokmål and Nynorsk, especially those produced by the Norwegian government.

There are also requirements by law that many Norwegian institutions have to follow. These laws are in order to keep Nynorsk and Bokmål as equals, which has been seen as an important case since the creation of the language forms. For instance the State-owned broadcaster NRK is required by law to have at least 25% of their content in Nynorsk. This means that at least one quarter of their content on broadcast and online media has to be in Nynorsk. There is also a requirement for state organs and universities to have content written in Nynorsk. Every student in the country should be presented the opportunity to take their exam in either Nynorsk or Bokmål.

Nynorsk is first and foremost a written language form but it does appear as a spoken language. Spoken Nynorsk is often referred to as normed Nynorsk speech. Bokmål speech in Eastern Norway often conforms to Urban East Norwegian, whereas Bokmål speech in Bergen and Trondheim is called pen-bergensk (lit. fine Bergenish) and pen-trøndersk (lit. fine Trondheimish), respectively. Normed Nynorsk speech mostly used in scripted contexts, like news broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2. It's also widely used in theaters, like Det Norske Teatret and by teachers. Since the 1970s, the motto of the Nynorsk movement has largely been "speak dialect, write Nynorsk", which has marginalized the use of normed Nynorsk speech to mainly scripted contexts. This is in contrast to the normed Bokmål speech which many speakers use in all social settings. Outside of scripts, it is quite common to rather speak a Norwegian dialect. Compared to many other countries, dialects have a higher social status in Norway and are often used even in official contexts. At the same time, it is not uncommon for dialect speakers to use a register closer to the Nynorsk writing standard when deemed suitable, especially in formal contexts.

For a grammatical comparison between Bokmål and Nynorsk, see Norwegian language § Morphology.

Nynorsk is a North-Germanic language, close in form to both Icelandic and the other form of written Norwegian (Bokmål). Nynorsk grammar is closer in grammar to Old West Norse than Bokmål is, as the latter was influenced by Danish.

Nouns

Grammatical genders are inherent properties of nouns, and each gender has its own forms of inflection.

Standard Nynorsk and all Norwegian dialects, with the notable exception of the Bergen dialect, have three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. The situation is slightly more complicated in Bokmål, which has inherited the Danish two-gender system. Written Danish retains only the neuter and the common gender. Though the common gender took what used to be the feminine inflections in Danish, it matches the masculine inflections in Norwegian. The Norwegianization in the 20th century brought the three-gender system into Bokmål, but the process was never completed. In Nynorsk these are important distinctions, in contrast to Bokmål, in which all feminine nouns may also become masculine (due to the incomplete transition to a three-gender system) and inflect using its forms, and indeed a feminine word may be seen in both forms, for example boka or boken (“the book”) in Bokmål. This means that en liten stjerne – stjernen (“a small star – the star”, only masculine forms) and ei lita stjerne – stjerna (only feminine forms) both are correct Bokmål, as well as every possible combination: en liten stjerne – stjerna, ei liten stjerne – stjerna or even ei lita stjerne – stjernen. Choosing either two or three genders throughout the whole text is not a requirement either, so one may choose to write tida (“the time” f) and boken (“the book” m) in the same work in Bokmål. This is not allowed in Nynorsk, where the feminine forms have to be used wherever they exist.

In Nynorsk, unlike Bokmål, masculine and feminine nouns are differentiated not only in the singular form but also in the plural forms. For example:

Examples of nouns, Nynorsk
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
masculine ein bil bilen bilar bilane
a car the car cars the cars
feminine ei seng senga senger sengene
a bed the bed beds the beds
neuter eit hus huset hus husa
a house the house houses the houses

That is, nouns generally follow these patterns, where all definite articles/plural indefinite articles are suffixes:

Noun inflections in Nynorsk
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
masculine ein -en -ar -ane
feminine ei -a -er -ene
neuter eit -et - -a

The gender of each noun normally follows certain patterns. For instance will all nouns ending in -nad be masculine, like the word «jobbsøknad» (job application). Almost all nouns ending in -ing will be feminine, like the word «forventning» (expectation). The -ing nouns also get an irregular inflection pattern, with -ar and -ane in the plural indefinite and plural definite (just like the masculine) but is inflected like a feminine noun in every other way. There are a few other common nouns that have an irregular inflection too, like «mann» which means man and is a masculine word, but for plural it gets an umlaut (just like English: man - men): «menn» (men) and it gets a plural definite that follows the inflection pattern of a feminine word: «mennene» (the men). The word «son» which means son is another word that is inflected just like a masculine word except for the plural, where it is inflected like a feminine noun with an umlaut: «søner» (sons), «sønene» (the sons).

Here is a short list of irregular nouns, many of which are irregular in Bokmål too and some of which even follow the same irregular inflection as in Bokmål (like the word in the first row: «ting»):

A few common irregular nouns
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
ein ting (a thing) tingen (the thing) ting (things) tinga (the things)
ein far (a dad) faren (the dad) fedrar (dads) fedrane (the dads)
ein bror (a brother) broren (the brother) brør (brothers) brørne (the brothers)
eit museum (a museum) museumet (the museum) museum (museums) musea (the museums)

Genitive of nouns

Expressing ownership of a noun (like «the girl's car») is very similar to how it is in Bokmål, but the use of the reflexive possessive pronouns «sin», «si», «sitt», «sine» are more extensive than in Bokmål due to the preservation of historical grammatical case expressions.

Compound words

Compound words are constructed in exactly the same way as Bokmål.

Inflection

A grammatical gender is not characterized by noun inflection alone; each gender can have further inflectional forms. That is, gender can determine the inflection of other parts of speech which agree grammatically with a noun. This concerns determiners, adjectives and past participles.

The inflection patterns and words are quite similar to those of Bokmål, but unlike Bokmål the feminine forms are not optional, they have to be used. As for adjectives and determiners, the list of words with a feminine inflection form are quite few compared to those for the masculine and neuter after the 2012 language revision. All the past participles for strong verbs are for instance no longer inflected for the feminine (with an inflection ending -i) and there is just a handful of adjectives left with a feminine form, one of which is the adjective «liten» as is shown in the inflection table below.

Adjectives

Adjectives have to agree with the noun in both gender and number just like Bokmål. Unlike Bokmål, Nynorsk has a more completed system of adjective agreement comparable to that of the Swedish language (see Nynorsk past participles).

Predicative agreement
Norwegian English
Bilen er liten The car (masculine) is small
Linja er lita The line (feminine) is small
Huset er lite The house (neuter) is small

Just like in Bokmål, verbs have to agree after certain copula verbs, like in this case the verb for «to be»: vere («er» is present tense of vere). Other important copula verbs where predicative agreement happens are verte and bli (both mean "become"). Other copula verbs are also «ser ut» (looks like) and the reflexive verbs in Nynorsk. When verbs are used other than these copula verbs, the adjectives like in the example above will no longer be adjectives but an adverb. The adverb form of an adjective is the same as the neuter form of the adjective, just like in Bokmål. For instance «Han gjør lite» (he does little). Adverbs are not inflected, like most languages. The system of agreement after copula verbs in the Scandinavian languages is a remnant of the grammatical case system. The verbs where the subject and predicate of the verb had the same case are known as copula verbs. The system of grammatical case disappeared but there was still specific gender forms that was left.

Attributive agreement
Norwegian English
Ein liten bil A small car (masculine)
Ei lita linje A small line (feminine)
Eit lite hus A small house (neuter)

Most adjectives will follow this pattern of inflection for adjectives, which is the same as in Bokmål:

The most common inflection
Masculine/feminine neuter Plural/definite
- -t -e

Examples of adjectives that follow this pattern are adjectives like fin (nice), klar (ready/clear), rar (weird).

Adjectives/perfect participles that end on a diphthong (like the word «grei», which means straightforward/fine) will follow this inflection pattern:

Inflection for adjectives ending on diphthong
Masculine/feminine neuter Plural/definite
- -tt -e
Examples, adjective inflections
Norwegian English
Hagen er fin The garden (masculine) is nice
Løypa er fin The trail (feminine) is nice
Været var fint The weather (neuter) was nice
Løypa er nokså grei The trail (feminine) is pretty straightforward
Det er greitt It (neuter) is fine
Comparison

All adjective comparison follow this pattern:

Verb comparison
Positive Comparative Superlative
- -are -ast
Example, verb comparison
Positive Comparative Superlative
fin (nice) finare (nicer) finast (nicest)

Participles

Past participles of verbs, which are when the verb functions as an adjective, are inflected just like an adjective. This is very similar to the system of agreement in the Swedish language, where all participles have an inflection for gender, number and definiteness. In contrast, participles in Bokmål are only in general inflected for number and definiteness and shares many of the inflections it got from the Danish language. The inflections of these participles are inferred from the verb conjugation class they pertain to, described in the verb section. In Nynorsk, the verb «skrive» (to write, strong verb) has the following forms:

Skrive (to write, strong verb)
Masculine/feminine Neuter Plural and definite
skriven skrive skrivne

In fact, all strong verbs are conjugated in this pattern:

Strong verbs
Masculine/feminine Neuter Plural and definite
-en -e -ne

Strong verbs had an optional feminine form -i prior to the 2012 language revision that still are used among some users.

Examples, strong verbs
Norwegian English
Protokollen er skriven The protocol (masculine) is written
Boka er skriven The book (feminine) is written
Brevet er skrive The letter (neuter) is written
Bøkene er skrivne The books are written
Ein skriven protokoll A written protocol (masculine)
Ei skriven bok A written book (feminine)
Eit skrive brev A written letter (neuter)
To skrivne brev Two written letters

Some of the weak verbs have to agree in only number (just like in Bokmål), while many have to agree in both gender and number (like in Swedish). The weak verbs are inflected according to their conjugation class (see Nynorsk verb conjugation).

All a-verbs get the following inflections:

a-verbs
Masculine/feminine Neuter Plural and definite
-a

All e-verbs (with -de in preterite) and j-verbs get the following inflections:

e-verbs (-de in preterite), j-verbs
Masculine/feminine Neuter Plural and definite
-d -t -de

All other e-verbs (those with -te in preterite) get the following inflections:

e-verbs (-te in preterite)
Masculine/feminine/neuter Plural and definite
-t -te

All short verbs get the following inflections:

Short verbs
Masculine/feminine Neuter Plural and definite
-dd -dd/-tt -dde
Examples, weak verbs
Norwegian English
Boka er seld The book (feminine) has been sold
Bordet er selt The table (neuter) has been sold
Ein vald president An elected president (masculine)
Eit utvalt barn A chosen child (neuter)
Målet er oppnått The goal (neuter) has been achieved
Grensa er nådd The limit (female) has been reached

Present participles are like all other living Scandinavian languages not inflected in Nynorsk. In general, they are formed with the suffix -ande on the verb stem; «Ein skrivande student» (a writing student).

Definiteness inflection

As can be seen from the inflection tables for adjectives and past participles, they all have their own inflection for definiteness. Just like Bokmål, when adjectives and past participles are accompanied by the articles in the following table below, the adjective/past participle gets the definite inflection and the following noun also gets the definite inflection - a form of double definiteness. Nynorsk requires the use of double definiteness, where as in Bokmål this is not required due to its Danish origins, but the usage in Bokmål depends on the formality of the text. That is, in Bokmål it's perfectly fine to write «I første avsnitt» (which means; «in the first paragraph»), while the same sentence in Nynorsk would be «I det første avsnittet» which is also the most common way to construct the sentence in the Norwegian dialects and is also legal Bokmål.

Like most Scandinavian languages, when the noun is definite and is described by an adjective like the sentence «the beautiful mountains», there is a separate definite article dependent on the gender/number of the noun. In Nynorsk these articles are: «den»/«det»/«dei». The following noun and adjective both gets a definite inflection. When there is no adjective and the articles «den»/«det»/«dei» are used in front of the noun (like «dei fjella», English; «those mountains»), the articles are inferred as the demonstrative «that/those» depending on if the noun is plural or not. The difference between the demonstrative «that» and the article «the» is in general inferred from context when there is an adjective involved.

Articles: "this/that/these/the"
Masculine/feminine Neuter Plural
Den (that/the) Det (that/the) Dei (those/the)
Denne (this) Dette (this) Desse (these)
Examples: definiteness
Masculine/feminine English
Den fine bilen That/the nice car
Den bilen That car
Det rare kjøleskapet That/the weird fridge
Dei storslegne fjordane Those/the magnificent fjords
Dei nydelege fjella Those/the beautiful mountains
Denne fine jenta This nice girl
Dette store fjellet This big mountain
Desse rare jentene These weird girls

Determiners

The determinatives have inflection patterns quite similar to Bokmål, the only difference being that the masculine form is often used for the feminine in Bokmål.

Possessives
English Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
my/mine min mi mitt mine
your/yours (singular) din di ditt dine
his hans
her/hers hennar
its dess
his/her/its (reflexive) sin si sitt sine
our/ours vår vårt våre
your/yours (plural) dykkar
their/theirs deira
English: "own" (determinative)
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural/definite
eigen eiga eige eigne

Examples:

  • Min eigen bil (My own car)
  • Mi eiga hytte (My own cabin)
  • Mitt eige hus (My own house)
  • Mine eigne bilar (My own cars)

Bil (car) is a masculine noun, hytte (cabin) is a feminine noun and hus (house) is a neuter noun. They all have to agree with the determinatives min and eigen in gender and number.

English: "no" (determinative)
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
ingen inga inkje ingen

Examples:

  • Eg har ingen bil (I have no car)
  • Eg har inga hytte (I have no cabin)
  • Eg har inkje hus (I have no house)
  • Eg har ingen hytter (I have no cabins)

Bil (car) is a masculine noun, hytte (cabin) is a feminine noun and hus (house) is a neuter noun. They all have to agree with the determinative ingen in gender and number.

English: "someone/something/some/any"(determinative)
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
nokon noka noko nokre/nokon

These words are used in a variety of contexts, as in Bokmål.

«Nokon/noka» means someone/any, while «noko» means something and «nokre/nokon» means some (plural).

Examples:

  • Eg har ikkje sett nokon bil (I have not seen any car)
  • Eg har ikkje sett noka hytte (I have not seen any cabin)
  • Eg har ikkje sett noko hus (I have not seen any house)
  • Eg har ikkje sett nokre/nokon bilar (I have not seen any cars)

Bil (car) is a masculine noun, hytte (cabin) is a feminine noun and hus (house) is a neuter noun. They all have to agree with the determinative nokon in gender and number.

Verb conjugation

As in other continental Scandinavian languages, verb conjugation is quite simple as they are not conjugated in person, unlike English and other European languages. Verbs are divided into two conjugation classes: strong and weak verbs. The weak verbs are further divided into different categories: a-verbs, j-verbs, short verbs and e-verbs (some e-verbs with -de in the preterite tense and some with -te in the preterite tense). The conjugation class decides what inflection the verb will get for the different tenses and what kind of past participle inflection it gets. E-verbs with -de in the preterite will for instance be inflected in both gender and number for the past participles; while those with -te will be inflected only in number, as described in the past participle section. Unlike Bokmål, Nynorsk has a more marked difference between strong and weak verbs—a common pattern in dialects across Norway. The system resembles the Swedish verb conjugation system.

Weak verbs
Infinitive Imperative present preterite present perfect Verb category
å kaste (to throw) kast kastar kasta har kasta a-verb
å kjøpe (to buy) kjøp kjøper kjøpte har kjøpt e-verb (-te preterite)
å byggje (to build) bygg byggjer bygde har bygt e-verb (-de preterite)
å krevje (to demand) krev krev kravde har kravt j-verb
å bu (to live) bu bur budde har budd/butt short verb

To identify what conjugation class a verb pertains to; j-verbs will have -je/-ja in the infinitive. e-verbs have -er in present tense. a-verbs have -ar in the present tense and -a in the preterite.

Strong verbs
Infinitive Imperative present preterite present perfect
å skrive (to write) skriv skriv skreiv har skrive
å drepe (to kill) drep drep drap har drepe
å lese (to read) les les las har lese
å tillate (to allow) tillat tillèt tillét har tillate

Strong verbs have no ending in their present and preterite forms. The only difference between these forms is an umlaut.

Comparison with English, strong verb «drikke»
Language Infinitive Imperative present preterite present perfect
Nynorsk: å drikke drikk drikk drakk har drukke
English: to drink drink drink/drinking drank/was drinking have drunk/have been drinking

Just like in Bokmål and in most other Germanic languages, there is no difference between the simple tenses and the continuous tenses in Nynorsk. This means for instance that drikk will cover both of the English present forms drink and drinking.

All users can choose to follow a system of either an -e or an -a ending on the infinitives of verbs. That is, one can for instance choose to write either «å skrive» or «å skriva» (the latter is common in west Norwegian dialects). There is also a system where one can use both -a endings and -e endings at certain verbs, this system is known as kløyvd infinitiv.

As can be shown from the conjugation tables, the removal of the vocal ending of the infinitive creates the imperative form of the verb «kjøp deg ei ny datamaskin!» (buy yourself a new computer!). This is true for all weak and strong verbs.

Ergative verbs

There are ergative verbs in both Bokmål and Nynorsk. A verb in Norwegian that is ergative has two different conjugations, either weak or strong. The two different conjugation patterns, though similar, have two different meanings. A verb with a weak conjugation as in the section above, will have an object, that is, the weak conjugated verb is transitive. The verb with strong conjugation will not have an object. The strongly conjugated verbs are intransitive. The system of ergative verbs is more pronounced in Nynorsk than in Bokmål. An ergative verb in Bokmål will have two different conjugations only for the preterite tense for strong verbs due to the influence of Danish that did not have strong ergative verbs, while all ergative verbs in Nynorsk have two different conjugations for all tenses like Swedish. Ergative verbs are also very common in Norwegian dialects, like in the following example.

Ergative verb «brenne» (to burn)
Infinitive present preterite present perfect perfect participle, masc/fem perfect participle, neuter
å brenne brenn brann har brunne brunnen brunne
å brenne brenner brende har brent brend brent
Example, ergative verb «brenne»
Norwegian English
Låven brenn The barn is burning
Hytta brann The cabin was burning
Eg brenner ned huset I'm burning down the house
Eg brende ned treet I burned down the tree

Other verbs that are ergative are often j-verbs; liggje (to lie down), leggje (to lay down). These are differentiated for all tenses, just like Bokmål.

Passive construction

Just like the other Scandinavian languages and Bokmål, there is passive construction of verbs. In general, the passive is created by taking the verb stem and adding the suffix -ast. For instance the verb «hente» (English: fetch) has the passive form «hentast». This suffix was inherited from Old Norse and is the same suffix that exists in modern-day Icelandic. In fact, all the verb forms «berast», «reddast», «opnast», «seljast» in the table below are Icelandic verb forms too.

In contrast to Bokmål, the passive forms of verbs are only used after auxiliary verbs in Nynorsk, and never without them. Without an auxiliary verb there would rather be a passive construction by the use of the verbs «vere/bli/verte» (to be/to become) and then the past participle verb form. For instance, the following sentence is not a valid sentence in Nynorsk: «Pakka hentast i dag» (the package will be fetched today), there would rather be a construction like «Pakka vert henta i dag». This is due to the reduction of sentences that are ambiguous in meaning and due to the historic legacy of Old Norse. Bokmål and certain languages like Swedish and Danish have evolved another passive construction where the passive isn't reflexive. In the general case, this can lead to confusion as to «han slåast» means that «he's fighting» or that «he's being hit», a reflexive or a non reflexive meaning. Nynorsk has two different forms that separate this meaning for the verb «slå» (slåast og slåst), but in the general case it hasn't. Nynorsk solves this general ambiguity by mainly allowing a reflexive meaning, which is also the construction that has the most historical legacy behind it. This was also the only allowed construction in Old Norse.

There are reflexive verbs in Nynorsk just like the other Scandinavian languages, and these are not the same as passives. Examples are «synast» (think, looks like), «kjennast» (feels), etc. The reflexive verbs have their own conjugation for all tenses, which passives do not. A dictionary will usually show an inflection table if the verb is reflexive, and if it is passive the only allowed form is the word alone with an -ast suffix.

Examples of passives
Norwegian English
Eska skal berast The box shall be carried
Barna må reddast The children must be saved
Døra vil opnast The door will be opened
Sykkelen burde seljast The bike should be sold

Reflexive verbs

Reflexive verbs like «å kjennast» (to feel) are conjugated this way

«å kjennast», English: "feel"
Infinitive present preterite present perfect
å kjennast kjennest kjentest har kjenst

In general, all reflexive verbs are conjugated by this pattern. These have a reflexive meaning, see the examples below. Every reflexive verb is also a copula verb, so they have adjective agreement with adjectives like «kald» (cold), just like in Bokmål and the other Scandinavian languages.

Examples, reflexive verb: «å kjennast»
Norwegian English
Dyna (feminine) byrjar å kjennast varm The blanket is starting to feel warm
Maten (masculine) kjennest kald The food feels cold
Bollene (plural) kjentest kalde The buns felt cold
Det (neuter) har kjenst godt It has felt good
Det (neuter) kan kjennast kaldt It can feel cold

T as final sound

One of the past participle and the preterite verb ending in Bokmål is -et. Aasen originally included these t's in his Landsmål norms, but since these are silent in the dialects, it was struck out in the first officially issued specification of Nynorsk of 1901.

Examples may compare the Bokmål forms skrevet ('written', past participle) and hoppet ('jumped', both past tense and past participle), which in written Nynorsk are skrive (Landsmål skrivet) and hoppa (Landsmål hoppat). The form hoppa is also permitted in Bokmål.

Other examples from other classes of words include the neuter singular form anna of annan ('different', with more meanings) which was spelled annat in Landsmål, and the neuter singular form ope of open ('open') which originally was spelled opet. Bokmål, in comparison, still retains these t's through the equivalent forms annet and åpent.

Pronouns

The personal pronouns in Nynorsk are the only case inflected class in Nynorsk, just like English.

Pronouns
Subject form Object form Possessive
eg (I) meg (me) min, mi, mitt (mine)
du (you) deg (you) din, di, ditt (yours)
han (he/it)

ho (she/it)

det (it/that)

han (him/it)

henne/ho (her/it)

det (it/that)

hans (his)

hennar (hers)

vi/me (we) oss (us) vår, vårt (our)
de/dokker (you, plural) dykk/dokker (you, plural) dykkar/dokkar (yours, plural)
dei (they) dei (them) deira (theirs)

As can be seen from the inflection table, the words for mine, yours etc. have to agree in gender with the object as described in the determiners section.

Like in Icelandic and Old Norse (and unlike Bokmål, Danish and Swedish), nouns are referred to by han, ho, det (he, she, it) based on the gender of the noun, like the following:

Examples of the use of the pronoun it
Nynorsk Bokmål English
Kor er boka mi? Ho er her Hvor er boka mi? Den er her Where is my book? It is here
Kor er bilen min? Han er her Hvor er bilen min? Den er her Where is my car? It is here
Kor er brevet mitt? Det er her Hvor er brevet mitt? Det er her Where is my letter? It is here

Ordering of possessive pronouns

The main ordering of possessive pronouns is where the possessive pronoun is placed after the noun, while the noun has the definite article, just like in the example from the table above; «boka mi» (my book). If one wishes to emphasize ownership, the possessive pronoun may come first; «mi bok» (my book). If there is an adjective involved, the possessive pronoun also may come first, especially if the pronoun or adjective is emphasized; «mi eiga hytte» (my own cabin), «mi første bok» or «den første boka mi» (my first book). In all other cases the main ordering will be used. This is in contrast to other continental Scandinavian languages, like Danish and Swedish, where the possessive comes first regardless, just like English. This system of ordering possessive pronouns in Nynorsk is more similar to how it is in the Icelandic language today.

Adverbs

Adverbs are in general formed the same way as in Bokmål and other Scandinavian languages.

Syntax

The syntax of Nynorsk is mainly the same as in Bokmål. They are for instance both SVO.

Many words in Nynorsk are similar to their equivalents in Bokmål, with differing form, for example:

Nynorsk Bokmål other dialect forms English
eg jeg eg, æg, e, æ, ei, i, je, jæ I
ikkje ikke ikkje, inte, ente, itte, itj, ikkji not

The distinction between Bokmål and Nynorsk is that while Bokmål has for the most part derived its forms from the written Danish language or the common Danish-Norwegian speech, Nynorsk has its orthographical standards from Aasen's reconstructed "base dialect", which are intended to represent the distinctive dialectical forms.

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Norwegian Nynorsk edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nynorsk
Nynorsk Language Watch Edit The neutrality of this article is disputed Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas incidents or controversies Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message Nynorsk translates to Modern Norwegian literally New Norwegian 5 is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language the other being Bokmal From 12 May 1885 it became the state sanctioned version of Ivar Aasen s standard Norwegian language Norwegian Landsmal parallel to the Dano Norwegian written language Riksmal Nynorsk became the name in 1929 and it is after a series of reforms still a variation which is closer to Landsmal whereas Bokmal is closer to Riksmal and Danish Norwegian NynorsknynorskPronunciationUK ˈ nj uː n ɔːr s k ˈ n iː n US nj uː ˈ n ɔːr s k n iː ˈ 1 2 3 4 Urban East Norwegian ˈnỳːnɔʂk Native toNorwayNative speakersNone written only Language familyIndo European GermanicNorth GermanicWest ScandinavianNorwegian dialectsNorwegian NynorskEarly formsOld West Norse Old Norwegian Middle Norwegian Norwegian dialects LandsmalStandard formsNynorsk official Hognorsk unofficial Writing systemLatin Norwegian alphabet Official statusOfficial language in Norway Nordic CouncilRegulated byNorwegian Language CouncilLanguage codesISO 639 1 span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php iso 639 1 nn nn a span ISO 639 2 span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php code ID 327 nno a span ISO 639 3 a href https iso639 3 sil org code nno class extiw title iso639 3 nno nno a Glottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id norw1262 norw1262 a Linguasphere52 AAA ba to be Between 10 and 15 percent of Norwegians have Nynorsk as their official language form estimated by the number of students attending videregaende skole secondary education 6 Nynorsk is also taught as a mandatory subject in both high school and elementary school for all Norwegians who do not have it as their own language form 7 Contents 1 History 1 1 Ivar Aasen s work 1 2 Conflict 2 Geographical distribution 3 Status of the language form 4 Spoken Nynorsk 5 Grammar 5 1 Nouns 5 1 1 Genitive of nouns 5 2 Compound words 5 3 Inflection 5 3 1 Adjectives 5 3 1 1 Comparison 5 3 2 Participles 5 3 3 Definiteness inflection 5 3 4 Determiners 5 4 Verb conjugation 5 4 1 Ergative verbs 5 4 2 Passive construction 5 4 3 Reflexive verbs 5 4 4 T as final sound 5 5 Pronouns 5 5 1 Ordering of possessive pronouns 5 6 Adverbs 5 7 Syntax 6 Word forms compared with Bokmal Norwegian 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory EditDanish was the written language of Norway until 1814 and Danish with Norwegian intonation and pronunciation was on occasion spoken in the cities see Dano Norwegian With the independence of Norway from Denmark Danish became a foreign language and thus lost much of its prestige and a conservative written form of Norwegian Landsmal had been developed by 1850 By this time however the Danish language had been gradually reformed into the written language Riksmal and no agreement was reached on which of the two forms to use In 1885 the parliament declared the two forms official and equal Efforts were made to fuse the two written forms into one language A result was that Landsmal and Riksmal lost their official status in 1929 and were replaced by the written forms Nynorsk and Bokmal which were intended to be temporary intermediary stages before their final fusion into one hypothesised official Norwegian language known at the time as Samnorsk This project was later abandoned 5 8 and Nynorsk and Bokmal remain the two officially sanctioned standards of what is today called the Norwegian language Both written languages are in reality fusions between the Norwegian and Danish languages as they were spoken and written around 1850 with Nynorsk closer to Norwegian and Bokmal closer to Danish The official standard of Nynorsk has been significantly altered during the process to create the common language form Samnorsk A minor purist fraction of the Nynorsk population has stayed firm with the historical Aasen norm where these alterations of Nynorsk were rejected which is known as Hognorsk English High Norwegian analogous to High German Ivar Aasen sambandet is an umbrella organization of associations and individuals promoting the use of Hognorsk whereas Noregs Mallag and Norsk Malungdom advocate the use of Nynorsk in general The Landsmal Landsmaal language standard was constructed by the Norwegian linguist Ivar Aasen during the mid 19th century to provide a Norwegian based alternative to Danish which was commonly written and to some extent spoken in Norway at the time The word Nynorsk also has another meaning In addition to being the name of the present official written language standard Nynorsk can also refer to the Norwegian language in use after Old Norwegian 11th to 14th centuries and Middle Norwegian 1350 to about 1550 9 The written Norwegian that was used until the period of Danish rule 1536 1814 closely resembles Nynorsk New Norwegian citation needed A major source of old written material is Diplomatarium Norvegicum in 22 printed volumes Ivar Aasen s work Edit Ivar Aasen drawing by Olav Rusti The Norwegian romantic nationalism movement sought to identify and celebrate the genuinely Norwegian In 1749 Erik Pontoppidan released a comprehensive dictionary of Norwegian words that were incomprehensible to Danish people Glossarium Norvagicum Eller Forsog paa en Samling Af saadanne rare Norske Ord Som gemeenlig ikke forstaaes af Danske Folk Tilligemed en Fortegnelse paa Norske Maends og Qvinders Navne 10 Nevertheless it is generally acknowledged that the first systematic study of the Norwegian language was made by Ivar Aasen in the mid 19th century After the dissolution of Denmark Norway and the establishment of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1814 Norwegians considered that neither Danish by now a foreign language nor by any means Swedish were suitable written norms for Norwegian affairs The linguist Knud Knudsen proposed a gradual Norwegianisation of Danish Ivar Aasen however favoured a more radical approach based on the principle that the spoken language of people living in the Norwegian countryside who made up the vast majority of the population should be regarded as more Norwegian than that of upper middle class city dwellers who for centuries had been substantially influenced by the Danish language and culture 5 11 This idea was not unique to Aasen and can be seen in the wider context of Norwegian romantic nationalism In the 1840s Aasen traveled across rural Norway and studied its dialects In 1848 and 1850 he published the first Norwegian grammar and dictionary respectively which described a standard that Aasen called Landsmal New versions detailing the written standard were published in 1864 and 1873 and in the 20th century by Olav Beito in 1970 12 During the same period Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb standardised the orthography of the Faroese language Spoken Faroese is closely related to Landsmal and dialects in Norway proper and Lucas Debes and Peder Hansen Resen classified the Faroese tongue as Norwegian in the late 17th century 13 Ultimately however Faroese was established as a separate language Aasen s work is based on the idea that Norwegian dialects had a common structure that made them a separate language alongside Danish and Swedish The central point for Aasen therefore became to find and show the structural dependencies between the dialects In order to abstract this structure from the variety of dialects he developed some basic criteria which he called the most perfect form He defined this form as the one that best showed the connection to related words with similar words and with the forms in Old Norwegian No single dialect had all the perfect forms each dialect had preserved different aspects and parts of the language Through such a systematic approach one could arrive at a uniting expression for all Norwegian dialects what Aasen called the fundamental dialect and Einar Haugen has called Proto Norwegian The idea that the study should end up in a new written language marked his work from the beginning A fundamental idea for Aasen was that the fundamental dialect should be Modern Norwegian not Old Norwegian or Old Norse Therefore he did not include grammatical categories which were extinct in all dialects At the same time the categories that were inherited from the old language and were still present in some dialects should be represented in the written standard Haugen has used the word reconstruction rather than construction about this work Conflict Edit Main article Norwegian language conflict From the outset Nynorsk was met with resistance among those who believed that the Dano Norwegian then in use was sufficient With the advent and growth of mass media exposure to the standard languages increased and Bokmal s position is dominant in many situations This may explain why negative attitudes toward Nynorsk persist as is seen with many minority languages This is especially prominent among students who are required to learn both of the official written languages There are however many individual reasons for both positive and negative attitutes towards Nynorsk Many claim that obligatory learning of both language forms is unneccessary and that students would be better off spending their time on learning a foreign language or simply focusing on one of the language forms 14 Some critics of obligatory Nynorsk and Bokmal as school subjects have been very outspoken about their views For instance during the 2005 election the Norwegian Young Conservatives made an advertisement where a candidate for parliament threw a copy of the Nynorsk dictionary into a barrel of flames After strong reactions to this book burning they apologized and chose not to use the video 15 Geographical distribution Edit Map of the official language forms of Norwegian municipalities as of 2007 with Nynorsk in cyan Bokmal in orange and neutral in grey Bokmal has a much larger basis in the cities and generally outside of the western part of the country 16 Most Norwegians do not speak either Nynorsk or Bokmal as written but a Norwegian dialect that identifies their origins Nynorsk shares many of the problems that minority languages face In Norway each municipality and county can choose to declare either of the two language standards as its official language or remain standard neutral As of 2020 90 municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their official standard while 118 have chosen Bokmal and another 148 are neutral 17 numbers that have been stable since the 1970s 18 As for counties three have declared Nynorsk as their official standard Vestfold og Telemark More og Romsdal and Vestland Most municipalities in Rogaland and few in the standard neutral counties have declared Nynorsk as their official standard Alesund is the largest municipality with Nynorsk as its official language form 19 The main standard used in primary schools is decided by referendum within the local school district The number of school districts and pupils using primarily Nynorsk has decreased from its height in the 1940s even in Nynorsk municipalities Nynorsk is also part of the school curriculum in high school and elementary school for all students in Norway where students are taught to write it The prevailing regions for Nynorsk are the rural areas of the western counties of Rogaland Vestland and More og Romsdal where an estimated 90 of the population writes Nynorsk Some of the rural parts of Oppland Buskerud Telemark Aust and Vest Agder also write primarily in Nynorsk In the Sunnmore region of More og Romsdal all municipalities have stated Nynorsk as the official standard In Vestland almost all municipalities have declared Nynorsk as the official standard the city of Bergen being one of only three exceptions Status of the language form EditWritten Nynorsk is found in all the same types of places and for the same uses newspapers commercial products computer programs etc as other written languages Most of the biggest newspapers in Norway have certain articles written in Nynorsk like VG and Aftenposten 20 but are mainly Bokmal There are also nationwide newspapers where Nynorsk is the only Norwegian language form of publication among them are Dag amp Tid and Framtida no Many local newspapers have also chosen Nynorsk as the only language form of publication like Firdaposten Hallingdolen Hordaland and Bo blad Many newspapers are also officially neutral conforming to either Nynorsk or Bokmal in an article as they see fit like Klassekampen and Bergens Tidende Commercial products produced in the Nynorsk areas of Norway are also often distributed with Nynorsk text like types of Gamalost Many computer programs and apps that serve the whole country often present a choice between Bokmal and Nynorsk especially those produced by the Norwegian government There are also requirements by law that many Norwegian institutions have to follow These laws are in order to keep Nynorsk and Bokmal as equals which has been seen as an important case since the creation of the language forms For instance the State owned broadcaster NRK is required by law to have at least 25 of their content in Nynorsk This means that at least one quarter of their content on broadcast and online media has to be in Nynorsk 21 There is also a requirement for state organs and universities to have content written in Nynorsk 22 Every student in the country should be presented the opportunity to take their exam in either Nynorsk or Bokmal Spoken Nynorsk EditNynorsk is first and foremost a written language form but it does appear as a spoken language Spoken Nynorsk is often referred to as normed Nynorsk speech 23 Bokmal speech in Eastern Norway often conforms to Urban East Norwegian 24 whereas Bokmal speech in Bergen and Trondheim is called pen bergensk lit fine Bergenish and pen trondersk lit fine Trondheimish respectively Normed Nynorsk speech mostly used in scripted contexts like news broadcasts from television stations such as NRK and TV2 25 It s also widely used in theaters like Det Norske Teatret and by teachers Since the 1970s the motto of the Nynorsk movement has largely been speak dialect write Nynorsk which has marginalized the use of normed Nynorsk speech to mainly scripted contexts This is in contrast to the normed Bokmal speech which many speakers use in all social settings Outside of scripts it is quite common to rather speak a Norwegian dialect Compared to many other countries dialects have a higher social status in Norway and are often used even in official contexts 26 At the same time it is not uncommon for dialect speakers to use a register closer to the Nynorsk writing standard when deemed suitable especially in formal contexts 27 Grammar EditFor a grammatical comparison between Bokmal and Nynorsk see Norwegian language Morphology Nynorsk is a North Germanic language close in form to both Icelandic and the other form of written Norwegian Bokmal Nynorsk grammar is closer in grammar to Old West Norse than Bokmal is as the latter was influenced by Danish Nouns Edit Grammatical genders are inherent properties of nouns and each gender has its own forms of inflection Standard Nynorsk and all Norwegian dialects with the notable exception of the Bergen dialect 28 have three grammatical genders masculine feminine and neuter The situation is slightly more complicated in Bokmal which has inherited the Danish two gender system Written Danish retains only the neuter and the common gender Though the common gender took what used to be the feminine inflections in Danish it matches the masculine inflections in Norwegian The Norwegianization in the 20th century brought the three gender system into Bokmal but the process was never completed In Nynorsk these are important distinctions in contrast to Bokmal in which all feminine nouns may also become masculine due to the incomplete transition to a three gender system and inflect using its forms and indeed a feminine word may be seen in both forms for example boka or boken the book in Bokmal This means that en liten stjerne stjernen a small star the star only masculine forms and ei lita stjerne stjerna only feminine forms both are correct Bokmal as well as every possible combination en liten stjerne stjerna ei liten stjerne stjerna or even ei lita stjerne stjernen Choosing either two or three genders throughout the whole text is not a requirement either so one may choose to write tida the time f and boken the book m in the same work in Bokmal This is not allowed in Nynorsk where the feminine forms have to be used wherever they exist In Nynorsk unlike Bokmal masculine and feminine nouns are differentiated not only in the singular form but also in the plural forms For example Examples of nouns Nynorsk Singular PluralIndefinite Definite Indefinite Definitemasculine ein bil bilen bilar bilanea car the car cars the carsfeminine ei seng senga senger sengenea bed the bed beds the bedsneuter eit hus huset hus husaa house the house houses the houses That is nouns generally follow these patterns 29 where all definite articles plural indefinite articles are suffixes Noun inflections in Nynorsk Singular PluralIndefinite Definite Indefinite Definitemasculine ein en ar anefeminine ei a er eneneuter eit et a The gender of each noun normally follows certain patterns For instance will all nouns ending in nad be masculine like the word jobbsoknad job application Almost all nouns ending in ing will be feminine like the word forventning expectation The ing nouns also get an irregular inflection pattern with ar and ane in the plural indefinite and plural definite just like the masculine but is inflected like a feminine noun in every other way 29 There are a few other common nouns that have an irregular inflection too like mann 30 which means man and is a masculine word but for plural it gets an umlaut just like English man men menn men and it gets a plural definite that follows the inflection pattern of a feminine word mennene the men The word son which means son is another word that is inflected just like a masculine word except for the plural where it is inflected like a feminine noun with an umlaut 31 soner sons sonene the sons Here is a short list of irregular nouns many of which are irregular in Bokmal too and some of which even follow the same irregular inflection as in Bokmal like the word in the first row ting A few common irregular nouns 29 Singular PluralIndefinite Definite Indefinite Definiteein ting a thing tingen the thing ting things tinga the things ein far a dad faren the dad fedrar dads fedrane the dads ein bror a brother broren the brother bror brothers brorne the brothers eit museum a museum museumet the museum museum museums musea the museums Genitive of nouns Edit Main article Norwegian language Genitive of nouns Expressing ownership of a noun like the girl s car is very similar to how it is in Bokmal but the use of the reflexive possessive pronouns sin si sitt sine are more extensive than in Bokmal due to the preservation of historical grammatical case expressions Compound words Edit Main article Norwegian language Compound words Compound words are constructed in exactly the same way as Bokmal Inflection Edit A grammatical gender is not characterized by noun inflection alone each gender can have further inflectional forms That is gender can determine the inflection of other parts of speech which agree grammatically with a noun This concerns determiners adjectives and past participles The inflection patterns and words are quite similar to those of Bokmal but unlike Bokmal the feminine forms are not optional they have to be used As for adjectives and determiners the list of words with a feminine inflection form are quite few compared to those for the masculine and neuter after the 2012 language revision All the past participles for strong verbs are for instance no longer inflected for the feminine with an inflection ending i and there is just a handful of adjectives left with a feminine form one of which is the adjective liten as is shown in the inflection table below Adjectives Edit Adjectives have to agree with the noun in both gender and number just like Bokmal 32 Unlike Bokmal Nynorsk has a more completed system of adjective agreement comparable to that of the Swedish language see Nynorsk past participles Predicative agreement Norwegian EnglishBilen er liten The car masculine is smallLinja er lita The line feminine is smallHuset er lite The house neuter is small Just like in Bokmal verbs have to agree after certain copula verbs like in this case the verb for to be vere er is present tense of vere Other important copula verbs where predicative agreement happens are verte and bli both mean become Other copula verbs are also ser ut looks like and the reflexive verbs in Nynorsk When verbs are used other than these copula verbs the adjectives like in the example above will no longer be adjectives but an adverb The adverb form of an adjective is the same as the neuter form of the adjective just like in Bokmal 33 For instance Han gjor lite he does little Adverbs are not inflected like most languages The system of agreement after copula verbs in the Scandinavian languages is a remnant of the grammatical case system The verbs where the subject and predicate of the verb had the same case are known as copula verbs The system of grammatical case disappeared but there was still specific gender forms that was left Attributive agreement Norwegian EnglishEin liten bil A small car masculine Ei lita linje A small line feminine Eit lite hus A small house neuter Most adjectives will follow this pattern of inflection for adjectives which is the same as in Bokmal 34 The most common inflection Masculine feminine neuter Plural definite t e Examples of adjectives that follow this pattern are adjectives like fin 35 nice klar 36 ready clear rar 37 weird Adjectives perfect participles that end on a diphthong like the word grei which means straightforward fine will follow this inflection pattern 32 Inflection for adjectives ending on diphthong Masculine feminine neuter Plural definite tt eExamples adjective inflections Norwegian EnglishHagen er fin The garden masculine is niceLoypa er fin The trail feminine is niceVaeret var fint The weather neuter was niceLoypa er noksa grei The trail feminine is pretty straightforwardDet er greitt It neuter is fineComparison Edit All adjective comparison follow this pattern Verb comparison Positive Comparative Superlative are astExample verb comparison Positive Comparative Superlativefin nice finare nicer finast nicest Participles Edit Past participles of verbs which are when the verb functions as an adjective are inflected just like an adjective 32 This is very similar to the system of agreement in the Swedish language where all participles have an inflection for gender number and definiteness In contrast participles in Bokmal are only in general inflected for number and definiteness and shares many of the inflections it got from the Danish language The inflections of these participles are inferred from the verb conjugation class they pertain to described in the verb section In Nynorsk the verb skrive to write strong verb has the following forms 38 Skrive to write strong verb Masculine feminine Neuter Plural and definiteskriven skrive skrivne In fact all strong verbs are conjugated in this pattern 32 Strong verbs Masculine feminine Neuter Plural and definite en e ne Strong verbs had an optional feminine form i prior to the 2012 language revision that still are used among some users Examples strong verbs Norwegian EnglishProtokollen er skriven The protocol masculine is writtenBoka er skriven The book feminine is writtenBrevet er skrive The letter neuter is writtenBokene er skrivne The books are writtenEin skriven protokoll A written protocol masculine Ei skriven bok A written book feminine Eit skrive brev A written letter neuter To skrivne brev Two written letters Some of the weak verbs have to agree in only number just like in Bokmal while many have to agree in both gender and number like in Swedish The weak verbs are inflected according to their conjugation class 32 see Nynorsk verb conjugation All a verbs get the following inflections 32 a verbs Masculine feminine Neuter Plural and definite a All e verbs with de in preterite and j verbs get the following inflections 32 e verbs de in preterite j verbs Masculine feminine Neuter Plural and definite d t de All other e verbs those with te in preterite get the following inflections 32 e verbs te in preterite Masculine feminine neuter Plural and definite t te All short verbs get the following inflections 39 Short verbs Masculine feminine Neuter Plural and definite dd dd tt ddeExamples weak verbs Norwegian EnglishBoka er seld The book feminine has been soldBordet er selt The table neuter has been soldEin vald president An elected president masculine Eit utvalt barn A chosen child neuter Malet er oppnatt The goal neuter has been achievedGrensa er nadd The limit female has been reached Present participles are like all other living Scandinavian languages not inflected in Nynorsk In general they are formed with the suffix ande on the verb stem Ein skrivande student a writing student Definiteness inflection Edit As can be seen from the inflection tables for adjectives and past participles they all have their own inflection for definiteness Just like Bokmal when adjectives and past participles are accompanied by the articles in the following table below the adjective past participle gets the definite inflection and the following noun also gets the definite inflection a form of double definiteness 40 Nynorsk requires the use of double definiteness where as in Bokmal this is not required due to its Danish origins but the usage in Bokmal depends on the formality of the text That is in Bokmal it s perfectly fine to write I forste avsnitt which means in the first paragraph while the same sentence in Nynorsk would be I det forste avsnittet which is also the most common way to construct the sentence in the Norwegian dialects 41 and is also legal Bokmal Like most Scandinavian languages when the noun is definite and is described by an adjective like the sentence the beautiful mountains there is a separate definite article dependent on the gender number of the noun In Nynorsk these articles are den det dei The following noun and adjective both gets a definite inflection When there is no adjective and the articles den det dei are used in front of the noun like dei fjella English those mountains the articles are inferred as the demonstrative that those depending on if the noun is plural or not The difference between the demonstrative that and the article the is in general inferred from context when there is an adjective involved Articles this that these the Masculine feminine Neuter PluralDen that the Det that the Dei those the Denne this Dette this Desse these Examples definiteness Masculine feminine EnglishDen fine bilen That the nice carDen bilen That carDet rare kjoleskapet That the weird fridgeDei storslegne fjordane Those the magnificent fjordsDei nydelege fjella Those the beautiful mountainsDenne fine jenta This nice girlDette store fjellet This big mountainDesse rare jentene These weird girlsDeterminers Edit The determinatives have inflection patterns quite similar to Bokmal the only difference being that the masculine form is often used for the feminine in Bokmal Possessives 42 English Masculine Feminine Neuter Pluralmy mine min mi mitt mineyour yours singular din di ditt dinehis hansher hers hennarits desshis her its reflexive sin si sitt sineour ours var vart vareyour yours plural dykkartheir theirs deiraEnglish own 43 determinative Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural definiteeigen eiga eige eigne Examples Min eigen bil My own car Mi eiga hytte My own cabin Mitt eige hus My own house Mine eigne bilar My own cars Bil car is a masculine noun hytte cabin is a feminine noun and hus house is a neuter noun They all have to agree with the determinatives min and eigen in gender and number English no 44 determinative Masculine Feminine Neuter Pluralingen inga inkje ingen Examples Eg har ingen bil I have no car Eg har inga hytte I have no cabin Eg har inkje hus I have no house Eg har ingen hytter I have no cabins Bil car is a masculine noun hytte cabin is a feminine noun and hus house is a neuter noun They all have to agree with the determinative ingen in gender and number English someone something some any 45 determinative Masculine Feminine Neuter Pluralnokon noka noko nokre nokon These words are used in a variety of contexts as in Bokmal Nokon noka means someone any while noko means something and nokre nokon means some plural Examples Eg har ikkje sett nokon bil I have not seen any car Eg har ikkje sett noka hytte I have not seen any cabin Eg har ikkje sett noko hus I have not seen any house Eg har ikkje sett nokre nokon bilar I have not seen any cars Bil car is a masculine noun hytte cabin is a feminine noun and hus house is a neuter noun They all have to agree with the determinative nokon in gender and number Verb conjugation Edit As in other continental Scandinavian languages verb conjugation is quite simple as they are not conjugated in person unlike English and other European languages Verbs are divided into two conjugation classes strong and weak verbs The weak verbs are further divided into different categories a verbs j verbs short verbs and e verbs some e verbs with de in the preterite tense and some with te in the preterite tense The conjugation class decides what inflection the verb will get for the different tenses and what kind of past participle inflection it gets E verbs with de in the preterite will for instance be inflected in both gender and number for the past participles while those with te will be inflected only in number as described in the past participle section Unlike Bokmal Nynorsk has a more marked difference between strong and weak verbs a common pattern in dialects across Norway The system resembles the Swedish verb conjugation system Weak verbs 39 Infinitive Imperative present preterite present perfect Verb categorya kaste to throw kast kastar kasta har kasta a verba kjope to buy kjop kjoper kjopte har kjopt e verb te preterite a byggje to build bygg byggjer bygde har bygt e verb de preterite a krevje to demand krev krev kravde har kravt j verba bu to live bu bur budde har budd butt short verb To identify what conjugation class a verb pertains to j verbs will have je ja in the infinitive e verbs have er in present tense a verbs have ar in the present tense and a in the preterite Strong verbs 46 Infinitive Imperative present preterite present perfecta skrive to write skriv skriv skreiv har skrivea drepe to kill drep drep drap har drepea lese to read les les las har lesea tillate to allow tillat tillet tillet har tillate Strong verbs have no ending in their present and preterite forms The only difference between these forms is an umlaut 46 Comparison with English strong verb drikke Language Infinitive Imperative present preterite present perfectNynorsk a drikke drikk drikk drakk har drukkeEnglish to drink drink drink drinking drank was drinking have drunk have been drinking Just like in Bokmal and in most other Germanic languages there is no difference between the simple tenses and the continuous tenses in Nynorsk This means for instance that drikk will cover both of the English present forms drink and drinking All users can choose to follow a system of either an e or an a ending on the infinitives of verbs 47 That is one can for instance choose to write either a skrive or a skriva the latter is common in west Norwegian dialects There is also a system where one can use both a endings and e endings at certain verbs this system is known as kloyvd infinitiv 48 As can be shown from the conjugation tables the removal of the vocal ending of the infinitive creates the imperative form of the verb kjop deg ei ny datamaskin buy yourself a new computer This is true for all weak and strong verbs Ergative verbs Edit There are ergative verbs in both Bokmal and Nynorsk A verb in Norwegian that is ergative has two different conjugations either weak or strong The two different conjugation patterns though similar have two different meanings 49 A verb with a weak conjugation as in the section above will have an object that is the weak conjugated verb is transitive The verb with strong conjugation will not have an object The strongly conjugated verbs are intransitive The system of ergative verbs is more pronounced in Nynorsk than in Bokmal An ergative verb in Bokmal will have two different conjugations only for the preterite tense for strong verbs due to the influence of Danish that did not have strong ergative verbs while all ergative verbs in Nynorsk have two different conjugations for all tenses like Swedish Ergative verbs are also very common in Norwegian dialects like in the following example Ergative verb brenne to burn Infinitive present preterite present perfect perfect participle masc fem perfect participle neutera brenne brenn brann har brunne brunnen brunnea brenne brenner brende har brent brend brentExample ergative verb brenne Norwegian EnglishLaven brenn The barn is burningHytta brann The cabin was burningEg brenner ned huset I m burning down the houseEg brende ned treet I burned down the tree Other verbs that are ergative are often j verbs liggje to lie down leggje to lay down These are differentiated for all tenses just like Bokmal Passive construction Edit Just like the other Scandinavian languages and Bokmal there is passive construction of verbs In general the passive is created by taking the verb stem and adding the suffix ast For instance the verb hente English fetch has the passive form hentast This suffix was inherited from Old Norse and is the same suffix that exists in modern day Icelandic In fact all the verb forms berast reddast opnast seljast in the table below are Icelandic verb forms too In contrast to Bokmal the passive forms of verbs are only used after auxiliary verbs in Nynorsk and never without them Without an auxiliary verb there would rather be a passive construction by the use of the verbs vere bli verte to be to become and then the past participle verb form For instance the following sentence is not a valid sentence in Nynorsk 50 Pakka hentast i dag the package will be fetched today there would rather be a construction like Pakka vert henta i dag This is due to the reduction of sentences that are ambiguous in meaning and due to the historic legacy of Old Norse Bokmal and certain languages like Swedish and Danish have evolved another passive construction where the passive isn t reflexive In the general case this can lead to confusion as to han slaast means that he s fighting or that he s being hit a reflexive or a non reflexive meaning Nynorsk has two different forms that separate this meaning for the verb sla slaast og slast but in the general case it hasn t Nynorsk solves this general ambiguity by mainly allowing a reflexive meaning which is also the construction that has the most historical legacy behind it This was also the only allowed construction in Old Norse There are reflexive verbs in Nynorsk just like the other Scandinavian languages and these are not the same as passives 50 Examples are synast think looks like kjennast feels etc The reflexive verbs have their own conjugation for all tenses which passives do not A dictionary will usually show an inflection table if the verb is reflexive and if it is passive the only allowed form is the word alone with an ast suffix Examples of passives Norwegian EnglishEska skal berast The box shall be carriedBarna ma reddast The children must be savedDora vil opnast The door will be openedSykkelen burde seljast The bike should be soldReflexive verbs Edit Reflexive verbs like a kjennast 51 to feel are conjugated this way a kjennast English feel Infinitive present preterite present perfecta kjennast kjennest kjentest har kjenst In general all reflexive verbs are conjugated by this pattern These have a reflexive meaning see the examples below Every reflexive verb is also a copula verb so they have adjective agreement with adjectives like kald cold just like in Bokmal and the other Scandinavian languages Examples reflexive verb a kjennast Norwegian EnglishDyna feminine byrjar a kjennast varm The blanket is starting to feel warmMaten masculine kjennest kald The food feels coldBollene plural kjentest kalde The buns felt coldDet neuter har kjenst godt It has felt goodDet neuter kan kjennast kaldt It can feel coldT as final sound Edit One of the past participle and the preterite verb ending in Bokmal is et Aasen originally included these t s in his Landsmal norms but since these are silent in the dialects it was struck out in the first officially issued specification of Nynorsk of 1901 Examples may compare the Bokmal forms skrevet written past participle and hoppet jumped both past tense and past participle which in written Nynorsk are skrive Landsmal skrivet and hoppa Landsmal hoppat The form hoppa is also permitted in Bokmal Other examples from other classes of words include the neuter singular form anna of annan different with more meanings which was spelled annat in Landsmal and the neuter singular form ope of open open which originally was spelled opet Bokmal in comparison still retains these t s through the equivalent forms annet and apent Pronouns Edit The personal pronouns in Nynorsk are the only case inflected class in Nynorsk just like English Pronouns 52 Subject form Object form Possessiveeg I meg me min mi mitt mine du you deg you din di ditt yours han he it ho she it det it that han him it henne ho her it det it that hans his hennar hers vi me we oss us var vart our de dokker you plural dykk dokker you plural dykkar dokkar yours plural dei they dei them deira theirs As can be seen from the inflection table the words for mine yours etc have to agree in gender with the object as described in the determiners section Like in Icelandic and Old Norse and unlike Bokmal Danish and Swedish nouns are referred to by han ho det 52 he she it based on the gender of the noun like the following Examples of the use of the pronoun it Nynorsk Bokmal EnglishKor er boka mi Ho er her Hvor er boka mi Den er her Where is my book It is hereKor er bilen min Han er her Hvor er bilen min Den er her Where is my car It is hereKor er brevet mitt Det er her Hvor er brevet mitt Det er her Where is my letter It is hereOrdering of possessive pronouns Edit Main article Norwegian language Ordering of possessive pronouns The main ordering of possessive pronouns is where the possessive pronoun is placed after the noun while the noun has the definite article just like in the example from the table above boka mi my book If one wishes to emphasize ownership the possessive pronoun may come first mi bok my book If there is an adjective involved the possessive pronoun also may come first especially if the pronoun or adjective is emphasized mi eiga hytte my own cabin mi forste bok or den forste boka mi my first book In all other cases the main ordering will be used This is in contrast to other continental Scandinavian languages like Danish and Swedish where the possessive comes first regardless just like English This system of ordering possessive pronouns in Nynorsk is more similar to how it is in the Icelandic language today Adverbs Edit Main article Norwegian language Adverbs Adverbs are in general formed the same way as in Bokmal and other Scandinavian languages Syntax Edit Main article Norwegian language Syntax The syntax of Nynorsk is mainly the same as in Bokmal They are for instance both SVO Word forms compared with Bokmal Norwegian EditMany words in Nynorsk are similar to their equivalents in Bokmal with differing form for example Nynorsk Bokmal other dialect forms Englisheg jeg eg aeg e ae ei i je jae Iikkje ikke ikkje inte ente itte itj ikkji not The distinction between Bokmal and Nynorsk is that while Bokmal has for the most part derived its forms from the written Danish language or the common Danish Norwegian speech Nynorsk has its orthographical standards from Aasen s reconstructed base dialect which are intended to represent the distinctive dialectical forms See also Edit Norway portal Language portal Norwegian dialects Modern Norwegian Spynorsk mordliste a term used by opponents to mock NynorskReferences Edit Nynorsk The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 5th ed Boston Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Retrieved 1 May 2019 Nynorsk Collins English Dictionary HarperCollins Retrieved 1 May 2019 Nynorsk US and Nynorsk Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary Oxford University Press Retrieved 1 May 2019 Nynorsk Merriam Webster Dictionary Retrieved 1 May 2019 a b c Vikor Lars S 2015 Norwegian Bokmal vs Nynorsk Sprakradet Sprakradet Retrieved 7 January 2017 two distinct written varieties Bokmal Book Language and Nynorsk New Norwegian Forlag Gyldendal Norsk Hovuddrag i norsk sprakhistorie Gyldendal no bokmaal www gyldendal no Retrieved 2018 08 10 Laereplan i norsk NOR1 05 www udir no in Norwegian Bokmal Retrieved 2018 07 14 Jahr 1997 Nynorsk som talemal Sprakradet Retrieved 8 January 2017 Nynorsk kan i tillegg bety norsk sprak i nyere tid etter 1500 altsa etter gammelnorsk og mellomnorsk Glossarium Norvagicum eller Forsog paa en Samling af saadanne rare Norske Ord runeberg org Retrieved 2015 10 05 Jahr E H The fate of Samnorsk a social dialect experiment in language planning In Clyne M G 1997 Undoing and redoing corpus planning De Gruyter Berlin Venas Kjell 2009 Beito Olav T In Stammerjohann Harro ed Lexicon Grammaticorum A Bio Bibliographical Companion to the History of Linguistics p 126 Tubingen Max Niemeyer Sandoy H Fra tre dialektar til tre sprak In Gunnstein Akselberg og Edit Bugge red Vestnordisk sprakkontakt gjennom 1200 ar Torshavn Frodskapur 2011 pp 19 38 1 Nynorsk bor vaere valgfag June 2018 Brenner nynorsk bok i tonne 2005 08 17 Retrieved 2008 02 02 Kristoffersen Gjert 2000 The Phonology of Norwegian Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 823765 5 Forskrift om malvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar malvedtaksforskrifta Lovdata lovdata no Retrieved 2020 05 11 Ivar Aasen tunet in Norwegian Nynorsk Nynorsk kultursentrum 2015 Archived from the original on 15 July 2018 Retrieved 13 November 2015 Stenberg Marius Andre Jenssen 2019 12 15 Alesund blir landets storste nynorskkommune nn NO NRK Retrieved 2020 03 23 Den nye storkommunen Alesund blir landets storste nynorskkommune trass i at dei aller fleste som bur i omradet skriv bokmal Det far folk til a onskje at Ivar Aasen aldri blei fodd Haugtro Beate 2018 05 28 Aftenposten opnar for nynorsk Framtida Retrieved 2018 07 14 Fordal Jon Annar Sprakreglar i NRK NRK in Norwegian Bokmal Retrieved 2018 07 14 Lov om malbruk i offentleg teneste mallova Lovdata lovdata no in Norwegian Retrieved 2018 07 14 Normering av nynorsk talemal Sprakradet in Norwegian Retrieved 2018 07 22 https meta nord w uib no files 2012 01 bokmaal main v10kds pdf Sportsanker fekk mediemalpris www firda no in Norwegian 2015 04 21 Retrieved 2018 07 22 O Leary Margaret Hayford Andresen Torunn 2016 05 20 Colloquial Norwegian The Complete Course for Beginners Routledge ISBN 9781317582601 Nynorsk som talemal Sprakradet in Norwegian Retrieved 2018 07 22 Skjekkeland Martin 2016 09 16 dialekter i Bergen Store norske leksikon in Norwegian retrieved 2018 07 14 a b c Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 a b c d e f g h Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Adverb www norsksidene no in Norwegian Bokmal Retrieved 2018 07 14 Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 06 17 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 a b Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Kontakt pabygg Dobbel bestemming aktiv og passiv kontakt pabygg cappelendamm no in Norwegian Bokmal Retrieved 2018 07 14 Nynorsk som sidemal spenn1 cappelendamm no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 14 a b Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Rettleiing om konsekvent nynorsk Sprakradet in Norwegian Retrieved 2018 07 14 Skjekkeland Martin 2017 12 14 kloyvd infinitiv Store norske leksikon in Norwegian retrieved 2018 07 14 Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 a b Fridtun Kristin 2011 NTNU Nynorsk for studentar PDF www ntnu no Retrieved 15 July 2018 Bokmalsordboka Nynorskordboka ordbok uib no Retrieved 2018 07 15 a b Sprakradet elevrom sprakradet no Retrieved 2018 07 14 Further reading EditHaugen Einar Norwegian online at SprakradetExternal links EditNorwegian Nynorsk edition of Wikipedia the free encyclopediaNoregs Mallag Noregs Mallag is the major organization promoting Nynorsk Norsk Malungdom Norsk Malungdom is Noregs Mallag s youth organization Ivar Aasen tunet The Ivar Aasen Centre is a national centre for documenting and experiencing the Nynorsk written culture and the only museum in the country devoted to Ivar Aasen s life and work Sidemalsrapport 2005 report in Bokmal on the state of Nynorsk and Bokmal in Norwegian secondary schools Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Nynorsk amp oldid 1041386759, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.