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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1

This article is about the virus that causes SARS. For the virus that causes COVID-19, see Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. For the species to which both viruses belong, see Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV) is a strain of coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the respiratory illness responsible for the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak. It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which infects the epithelial cells within the lungs. The virus enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. It infects humans, bats, and palm civets.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1
Electron microscope image of SARS virion
Virus classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Subgenus: Sarbecovirus
Species:
Strain:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1
Synonyms
  • SARS coronavirus
  • SARS-related coronavirus
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

On 16 April 2003, following the outbreak of SARS in Asia and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that the coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the official cause of SARS. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States and National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) in Canada identified the SARS-CoV-1 genome in April 2003. Scientists at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, demonstrated that the SARS coronavirus fulfilled Koch's postulates, thereby confirming it as the causative agent. In the experiments, macaques infected with the virus developed the same symptoms as human SARS victims.

A virus very similar to SARS was discovered in late 2019. This virus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the causative pathogen of COVID-19, the propagation of which started the COVID-19 pandemic.

Contents

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is the disease caused by SARS-CoV-1. It causes an often severe illness and is marked initially by systemic symptoms of muscle pain, headache, and fever, followed in 2–14 days by the onset of respiratory symptoms, mainly cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. Another common finding in SARS patients is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood.

In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-1 infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 60 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Transmission of SARS-CoV-1 from mammals as biological carriers to humans

In March 2003, WHO established a global network of leading laboratories to collaborate in the identification of the causative agent of SARS. Early on, labs in the network narrowed the search to members of the paramyxovirus and coronavirus families. Early findings shared by the labs pointed to coronaviruses with increasing consistency. On 21 March, scientists from the University of Hong Kong announced the isolation of a new virus that was strongly suspected to be the causative agent of SARS.

Epidemiological evidence suggested a zoonotic origin of the virus: more than 33% of the first detected cases of SARS in Guangdong corresponded to animal or food handlers. Seroprevalence studies reinforced this zoonotic link (a high proportion of asymptomatic animal handlers at markets in Guangdong Province had antibodies against SARS-CoV).

On 12 April 2003, scientists working at the Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre in Vancouver finished mapping the genetic sequence of a coronavirus believed to be linked to SARS. The team was led by Marco Marra and worked in collaboration with the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control and the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg, Manitoba, using samples from infected patients in Toronto. The map, hailed by the WHO as an important step forward in fighting SARS,[citation needed] is shared with scientists worldwide via the GSC website (see below). Donald Low of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto described the discovery as having been made with "unprecedented speed". The sequence of the SARS coronavirus has since been confirmed by other independent groups.

Molecular epidemiological research demonstrated the virus of 2002–2003 south China outbreak and the virus isolated in the same area in late 2003 and early 2004 outbreaks are different, indicating separate species-crossing events. The phylogeny of the outbreak strains shows that the southwestern provinces including Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi compare to the human SARS-CoV-1 better than those of the other provinces, but the viruses' evolution is a product of the host interaction and particularity.

In late May 2003, studies from samples of wild animals sold as food in the local market in Guangdong, China, found a strain of SARS coronavirus could be isolated from masked palm civets (Paguma sp.), but the animals did not always show clinical signs. The preliminary conclusion was the SARS virus crossed the xenographic barrier from palm civet to humans, and more than 10,000 masked palm civets were killed in Guangdong Province. The virus was also later found in raccoon dogs (Nyctereuteus sp.), ferret badgers (Melogale spp.), and domestic cats. In 2005, two studies identified a number of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese bats. Although the bat SARS virus did not replicate in cell culture, in 2008, American researchers altered the genetic structure of bat SARS virus with the human receptor binding domain both in the bat virus and in the mice which demonstrated how zoonosis might occur in evolution. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets. The bats did not show any visible signs of disease, but are the likely natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. In 2004, scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of the University of Hong Kong and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a genetic link between the SARS coronavirus appearing in civets and humans, confirming claims that the virus had jumped across species.

Bats are likely to be the natural reservoir, that is, the host that harbored the pathogen but that does not show ill effects and serves as a source of infection. No direct progenitor of SARS-CoV was found in bat populations, but WIV16 was found in a cave in Yunnan province, China between 2013 and 2016, and has a 96% genetically similar virus strain. The hypothesis that SARS-CoV-1 emerged through recombinations of bat SARSr-CoVs in the Yunnan cave of WIV16 or in other yet-to-be-identified bat caves is considered highly likely.

A phylogenetic tree based on whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-1 and related coronaviruses is:

SARS‑CoV‑1 related coronavirus

16BO133 [zh], 82.8% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, North Jeolla, South Korea

Bat SARS CoV Rf1, 87.8% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Yichang, Hubei

BtCoV HKU3, 87.9% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus, Hong kong and Guangdong

LYRa11 [zh], 90.9% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus affinis, Baoshan, Yunnan

Bat SARS-CoV/Rp3, 92.6% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus pearsoni, Nanning, Guangxi

Bat SL-CoV YNLF_31C, 93.5% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Lufeng, Yunnan

Bat SL-CoV YNLF_34C, 93.5% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Lufeng, Yunnan

SHC014-CoV, 95.4% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus, Kunming, Yunnan

WIV1, 95.6% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus, Kunming, Yunnan

WIV16, 96.0% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus Kunming, Yunnan

Civet SARS-CoV, 99.8% to SARS-CoV-1, Paguma larvata, market in Guangdong, China

SARS-CoV-1

SARS-CoV-2, 79% to SARS-CoV-1


SARS-CoV-1 follows the replication strategy typical of the coronavirus subfamily. The primary human receptor of the virus is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and hemaglutinin (HE), first identified in 2003.

Human SARS-CoV-1 appears to have had a complex history of recombination between ancestral coronaviruses that were hosted in several different animal groups. In order for recombination to happen at least two SARS-CoV-1 genomes must be present in the same host cell. Recombination may occur during genome replication when the RNA polymerase switches from one template to another (copy choice recombination).

SARS-CoV-1 is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans. The other six are:

The SARS outbreak raised biosafety concerns among the biotechnology community and, specifically, the question of risk assessment regarding the contained use of SARS-CoV for laboratory work. Since this event, China has been making efforts to regulate safely the activities conducted in high-level biosafety laboratories, enacting some laws and decrees in this regard.

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Sources

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from SARS virus This article is about the virus that causes SARS For the virus that causes COVID 19 see Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 For the species to which both viruses belong see Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 SARS CoV 1 or SARS CoV 2 is a strain of coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS the respiratory illness responsible for the 2002 2004 SARS outbreak 3 It is an enveloped positive sense single stranded RNA virus which infects the epithelial cells within the lungs 4 The virus enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 5 It infects humans bats and palm civets 6 7 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1Electron microscope image of SARS virionVirus classification unranked VirusRealm RiboviriaKingdom OrthornaviraePhylum PisuviricotaClass PisoniviricetesOrder NidoviralesFamily CoronaviridaeGenus BetacoronavirusSubgenus SarbecovirusSpecies Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirusStrain Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1SynonymsSARS coronavirus SARS related coronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 On 16 April 2003 following the outbreak of SARS in Asia and secondary cases elsewhere in the world the World Health Organization WHO issued a press release stating that the coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the official cause of SARS The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC in the United States and National Microbiology Laboratory NML in Canada identified the SARS CoV 1 genome in April 2003 8 9 Scientists at Erasmus University in Rotterdam the Netherlands demonstrated that the SARS coronavirus fulfilled Koch s postulates thereby confirming it as the causative agent In the experiments macaques infected with the virus developed the same symptoms as human SARS victims 10 A virus very similar to SARS was discovered in late 2019 This virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS CoV 2 is the causative pathogen of COVID 19 the propagation of which started the COVID 19 pandemic 11 Contents 1 SARS 2 Origin and evolutionary history 3 Phylogenetic 4 Virology 5 Biosafety 6 See also 7 References 7 1 Citations 7 2 Sources 8 External linksSARS Edit Scanning electron micrograph of SARS virions Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS is the disease caused by SARS CoV 1 It causes an often severe illness and is marked initially by systemic symptoms of muscle pain headache and fever followed in 2 14 days by the onset of respiratory symptoms 12 mainly cough dyspnea and pneumonia Another common finding in SARS patients is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood 13 In the SARS outbreak of 2003 about 9 of patients with confirmed SARS CoV 1 infection died 14 The mortality rate was much higher for those over 60 years old with mortality rates approaching 50 for this subset of patients 14 Origin and evolutionary history Edit Transmission of SARS CoV 1 from mammals as biological carriers to humans In March 2003 WHO established a global network of leading laboratories to collaborate in the identification of the causative agent of SARS Early on labs in the network narrowed the search to members of the paramyxovirus and coronavirus families Early findings shared by the labs pointed to coronaviruses with increasing consistency On 21 March scientists from the University of Hong Kong announced the isolation of a new virus that was strongly suspected to be the causative agent of SARS 15 Epidemiological evidence suggested a zoonotic origin of the virus more than 33 of the first detected cases of SARS in Guangdong corresponded to animal or food handlers 16 Seroprevalence studies reinforced this zoonotic link a high proportion of asymptomatic animal handlers at markets in Guangdong Province had antibodies against SARS CoV 16 On 12 April 2003 scientists working at the Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre in Vancouver finished mapping the genetic sequence of a coronavirus believed to be linked to SARS The team was led by Marco Marra and worked in collaboration with the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control and the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg Manitoba using samples from infected patients in Toronto The map hailed by the WHO as an important step forward in fighting SARS citation needed is shared with scientists worldwide via the GSC website see below Donald Low of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto described the discovery as having been made with unprecedented speed 17 The sequence of the SARS coronavirus has since been confirmed by other independent groups Molecular epidemiological research demonstrated the virus of 2002 2003 south China outbreak and the virus isolated in the same area in late 2003 and early 2004 outbreaks are different indicating separate species crossing events 18 The phylogeny of the outbreak strains shows that the southwestern provinces including Yunnan Guizhou and Guangxi compare to the human SARS CoV 1 better than those of the other provinces but the viruses evolution is a product of the host interaction and particularity 19 In late May 2003 studies from samples of wild animals sold as food in the local market in Guangdong China found a strain of SARS coronavirus could be isolated from masked palm civets Paguma sp but the animals did not always show clinical signs The preliminary conclusion was the SARS virus crossed the xenographic barrier from palm civet to humans and more than 10 000 masked palm civets were killed in Guangdong Province The virus was also later found in raccoon dogs Nyctereuteus sp 20 ferret badgers Melogale spp and domestic cats In 2005 two studies identified a number of SARS like coronaviruses in Chinese bats 21 22 Although the bat SARS virus did not replicate in cell culture in 2008 American researchers 23 altered the genetic structure of bat SARS virus with the human receptor binding domain both in the bat virus and in the mice which demonstrated how zoonosis might occur in evolution 24 Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets The bats did not show any visible signs of disease but are the likely natural reservoirs of SARS like coronaviruses In 2004 scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of the University of Hong Kong and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a genetic link between the SARS coronavirus appearing in civets and humans confirming claims that the virus had jumped across species 25 Phylogenetic EditBats are likely to be the natural reservoir that is the host that harbored the pathogen but that does not show ill effects and serves as a source of infection No direct progenitor of SARS CoV was found in bat populations but WIV16 was found in a cave in Yunnan province China between 2013 and 2016 and has a 96 genetically similar virus strain The hypothesis that SARS CoV 1 emerged through recombinations of bat SARSr CoVs in the Yunnan cave of WIV16 or in other yet to be identified bat caves is considered highly likely 26 A phylogenetic tree based on whole genome sequences of SARS CoV 1 and related coronaviruses is SARS CoV 1 related coronavirus 16BO133 zh 82 8 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum North Jeolla South Korea 27 Bat SARS CoV Rf1 87 8 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Yichang Hubei 28 BtCoV HKU3 87 9 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus sinicus Hong kong and Guangdong 29 LYRa11 zh 90 9 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus affinis Baoshan Yunnan 30 Bat SARS CoV Rp3 92 6 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus pearsoni Nanning Guangxi 28 Bat SL CoV YNLF 31C 93 5 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Lufeng Yunnan 31 Bat SL CoV YNLF 34C 93 5 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Lufeng Yunnan 31 SHC014 CoV 95 4 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus sinicus Kunming Yunnan 32 WIV1 95 6 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus sinicus Kunming Yunnan 32 WIV16 96 0 to SARS CoV 1 Rhinolophus sinicus Kunming Yunnan 33 Civet SARS CoV 99 8 to SARS CoV 1 Paguma larvata market in Guangdong China 29 SARS CoV 1 SARS CoV 2 79 to SARS CoV 1 34 Virology EditSARS CoV 1 follows the replication strategy typical of the coronavirus subfamily The primary human receptor of the virus is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 ACE2 and hemaglutinin HE 35 first identified in 2003 36 37 Human SARS CoV 1 appears to have had a complex history of recombination between ancestral coronaviruses that were hosted in several different animal groups 38 39 In order for recombination to happen at least two SARS CoV 1 genomes must be present in the same host cell Recombination may occur during genome replication when the RNA polymerase switches from one template to another copy choice recombination 39 SARS CoV 1 is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans The other six are 40 Human coronavirus 229E HCoV 229E Human coronavirus NL63 HCoV NL63 Human coronavirus OC43 HCoV OC43 Human coronavirus HKU1 HCoV HKU1 Middle East respiratory syndrome related coronavirus MERS CoV Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS CoV 2 Biosafety EditThe SARS outbreak raised biosafety concerns among the biotechnology community and specifically the question of risk assessment regarding the contained use of SARS CoV for laboratory work 41 Since this event China has been making efforts to regulate safely the activities conducted in high level biosafety laboratories enacting some laws and decrees in this regard 42 See also EditCarlo Urbani Timeline of the SARS outbreak SL CoV WIV1References EditCitations Edit ICTV Taxonomy history Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV Retrieved 2019 01 27 Neeltje van Doremalen Trenton Bushmaker Dylan H Morris Myndi G Holbrook Amandine Gamble Brandi N Williamson Azaibi Tamin Jennifer L Harcourt Natalie J Thornburg Susan I Gerber James O Lloyd Smith Emmie de Wit Vincent J Munster 2020 03 17 Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS CoV 2 as Compared with SARS CoV 1 The New England Journal of Medicine 382 16 1564 1567 doi 10 1056 NEJMc2004973 PMC 7121658 PMID 32182409 Thiel V ed 2007 Coronaviruses Molecular and Cellular Biology 1st ed Caister Academic Press ISBN 978 1 904455 16 5 Fehr Anthony R Perlman Stanley 2015 Coronaviruses An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis Coronaviruses Methods in Molecular Biology 1282 Clifton New Jersey USA pp 1 23 doi 10 1007 978 1 4939 2438 7 1 ISBN 978 1 4939 2437 0 ISSN 1064 3745 PMC 4369385 PMID 25720466 SARS CoV primarily infects epithelial cells within the lung The virus is capable of entering macrophages and dendritic cells but only leads to an abortive infection 87 88 Xing Yi Ge Jia Lu Li Xing Lou Yang et al 2013 Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor Nature 503 7477 535 538 Bibcode 2013Natur 503 535G doi 10 1038 nature12711 PMC 5389864 PMID 24172901 Wong Antonio C P Li Xin Lau Susanna K P Woo Patrick C Y 2019 02 20 Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses Viruses 11 2 174 doi 10 3390 v11020174 ISSN 1999 4915 PMC 6409556 PMID 30791586 Most notably horseshoe bats were found to be the reservoir of SARS like CoVs while palm civet cats are considered to be the intermediate host for SARS CoVs 43 44 45 Li Fang October 2013 Receptor recognition and cross species infections of SARS coronavirus Antiviral Research 100 1 246 254 doi 10 1016 j antiviral 2013 08 014 ISSN 0166 3542 PMC 3840050 PMID 23994189 See Figure 6 Remembering SARS A Deadly Puzzle and the Efforts to Solve It Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 04 11 Archived from the original on 2013 08 01 Retrieved 2013 08 03 Coronavirus never before seen in humans is the cause of SARS United Nations 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676 679 Bibcode 2005Sci 310 676L doi 10 1126 science 1118391 PMID 16195424 S2CID 2971923 Lau S K Woo P C Li K S et al 2005 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 39 14040 14045 Bibcode 2005PNAS 10214040L doi 10 1073 pnas 0506735102 PMC 1236580 PMID 16169905 Becker Michelle M et al Synthetic recombinant bat SARS like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol 105 50 2008 19944 9 doi 10 1073 pnas 0808116105 National Library of Medicine website Retrieved 13 April 2020 National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Life Sciences Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Committee on Strategies for Identifying and Addressing Potential Biodefense Vulnerabilities Posed by Synthetic Biology 5 December 2018 Biodefense in 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Infectious Diseases First Edition John Wiley amp Sons CS1 maint multiple names authors list link He B Zhang Y Xu L Yang W Yang F Feng Y et al 2014 Identification of diverse alphacoronaviruses and genomic characterization of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome like coronavirus from bats in China J Virol 88 12 7070 82 doi 10 1128 JVI 00631 14 PMC 4054348 PMID 24719429 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link a b Lau Susanna K P Feng Yun Chen Honglin Luk Hayes K H Yang Wei Hong Li Kenneth S M Zhang Yu Zhen Huang Yi et al 2015 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination Journal of Virology 89 20 10532 10547 doi 10 1128 JVI 01048 15 ISSN 0022 538X a b Xing Yi Ge Jia Lu Li Xing Lou Yang et al 2013 Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor Nature 503 7477 535 8 Bibcode 2013Natur 503 535G doi 10 1038 nature12711 PMC 5389864 PMID 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2003Natur 426 450L doi 10 1038 nature02145 ISSN 0028 0836 PMC 7095016 PMID 14647384 Bakkers Mark J G Lang Yifei Feitsma Louris J Hulswit Ruben J G De Poot Stefanie A H Van Vliet Arno L W Margine Irina De Groot Mijnes Jolanda D F Van Kuppeveld Frank J M Langereis Martijn A Huizinga Eric G De Groot Raoul J 2017 03 08 Betacoronavirus Adaptation to Humans Involved Progressive Loss of Hemagglutinin Esterase Lectin Activity Cell Host amp Microbe 21 3 356 366 doi 10 1016 j chom 2017 02 008 ISSN 1931 3128 PMC 7104930 PMID 28279346 Stanhope MJ Brown JR Amrine Madsen H Evidence from the evolutionary analysis of nucleotide sequences for a recombinant history of SARS CoV Infect Genet Evol 2004 Mar 4 1 15 9 PMID 15019585 a b Zhang XW Yap YL Danchin A Testing the hypothesis of a recombinant origin of the SARS associated coronavirus Arch Virol 2005 Jan 150 1 1 20 Epub 2004 Oct 11 PMID 15480857 Leung Daniel 2019 01 20 Coronaviruses including SARS Infectious Disease Advisor Decision Support in Medicine LLC Retrieved 2020 08 01 Artika I Made Ma roef Chairin Nisa May 2017 Laboratory biosafety for handling emerging viruses Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 7 5 483 491 doi 10 1016 j apjtb 2017 01 020 PMC 7103938 PMID 32289025 Wu Z Jin Q Wu G Lu J Li M Guo D Lan K Feng L Qian Z Ren L Tan W Xu W Yang W Wang J Wang C 2021 09 17 SARS CoV 2 s origin should be investigated worldwide for pandemic prevention Lancet doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 21 02020 1 PMC 8448491 PMID 34543611 Sources Edit Peiris J S Lai S T Poon L L et al April 2003 Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome The Lancet 361 9366 1319 1325 doi 10 1016 s0140 6736 03 13077 2 PMC 7112372 PMID 12711465 Rota P A Oberste M S Monroe S S et al 2003 05 30 Characterization of a Novel Coronavirus Associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Science 300 5624 1394 1399 Bibcode 2003Sci 300 1394R doi 10 1126 science 1085952 PMID 12730500 S2CID 14522804 Marra Marco A et al 2003 05 30 The Genome Sequence of the SARS Associated coronavirus Science 300 5624 1399 1404 Bibcode 2003Sci 300 1399M doi 10 1126 science 1085953 PMID 12730501 Snijder E J et al 2003 08 29 Unique and conserved features of genome and proteome of SARS coronavirus an early split off from the coronavirus group 2 lineage Journal of Molecular Biology 331 5 991 1004 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 319 7007 doi 10 1016 S0022 2836 03 00865 9 PMC 7159028 PMID 12927536 Yount B et al 2006 08 15 Rewiring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS CoV transcription circuit engineering a recombination resistant genome Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 33 12546 12551 Bibcode 2006PNAS 10312546Y doi 10 1073 pnas 0605438103 PMC 1531645 PMID 16891412 Thiel V ed 2007 Coronaviruses Molecular and Cellular Biology 1st ed Caister Academic Press ISBN 978 1 904455 16 5 Enjuanes L et al 2008 Coronavirus Replication and Interaction with Host Animal Viruses Molecular Biology Caister Academic Press ISBN 978 1 904455 22 6 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to SARS CoV Wikispecies has information related to Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus WHO press release identifying and naming the SARS virus The SARS virus genetic map Science special on the SARS virus free content no registration required McGill University SARS Resources at the Wayback Machine archived 1 March 2005 U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC SARS home World Health Organization on alert Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 amp oldid 1051296624, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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