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SAR supergroup

SAR or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria. The name is an acronym derived from the first letters of each of these clades; it has been alternatively spelled "RAS". The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used. The SAR supergroup was formulated as the node-based taxon.

SAR
Temporal range:
Scientific classification
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
Clade: TSAR
Clade: SAR
Burki et al., 2007
Clades
Synonyms
  • Harosa Cavalier-Smith, 2010

Note that as a formal taxon, "Sar" has only its first letter capitalized, while the earlier abbreviation, SAR, retains all uppercase letters. Both names refer to the same group of organisms, unless further taxonomic revisions deem otherwise. Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata (Chromista and Alveolata) and Rhizaria, until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged with Rhizaria. This apparently excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads, leading Okamoto et al. (2009) to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them.

Based on a compilation of the following works.

TSAR

Telonemia

SAR/
Rhizaria

Phytomyxea Engler & Prantl 1897 em. Cavalier-Smith 1993

Vampyrellida West 1901 emend. Hess et al. 2012 {Vampyrellidea Cavalier-Smith 2017}

Filosa Leidy 1879 s.s.

Marimyxia Cavalier-Smith 2017

Retaria Cavalier-Smith 2002 s.s.

Halvaria
Alveolata

Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat. n. Copeland 1956

Myzozoa Cavalier-Smith and Chao 2004

Heterokonta

Platysulcidae Shiratori, Nkayama & Ishida 2015

Sagenista Cavalier-Smith 1995 stat. n. 2006

Bikosea Cavalier-Smith 2013

Placidozoa Cavalier-Smith 2013

Gyrista

Bigyromonadea Cavalier-Smith 1998

Oomycota Arx 1967

Hyphochytriomycota Whittaker 1969

Pirsoniales Cavalier-Smith 1998

Ochrophyta Cavalier-Smith 1986 (Brown, golden & yellow algae)

Harosa
  1. Laura Wegener Parfrey, Daniel J G Lahr, Andrew H Knoll, Laura A Katz (16 August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks"(PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–9. doi:10.1073/PNAS.1110633108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC3158185. PMID 21810989. Wikidata Q24614721.
  2. Archibald JM (January 2009). "The puzzle of plastid evolution". Current Biology. 19 (2): R81-8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.067. PMID 19174147. S2CID 51989.
  3. Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, Skjaeveland A, Nikolaev SI, Jakobsen KS, Pawlowski J (August 2007). Butler G. (ed.). "Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups". PLOS ONE. 2 (8): e790. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..790B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMC1949142. PMID 17726520.
  4. Hampl V, Hug L, Leigh JW, Dacks JB, Lang BF, Simpson AG, Roger AJ (March 2009). "Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups"". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (10): 3859–64. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3859H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807880106. PMC2656170. PMID 19237557.
  5. Frommolt R, Werner S, Paulsen H, Goss R, Wilhelm C, Zauner S, et al. (December 2008). "Ancient recruitment by chromists of green algal genes encoding enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (12): 2653–67. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn206. PMID 18799712.
  6. Adl SM, Simpson AG, Lane CE, Lukeš J, Bass D, Bowser SS, et al. (September 2012). "The revised classification of eukaryotes". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–93. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC3483872. PMID 23020233.
  7. Baldauf SL (2008). "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes"(PDF). Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 46 (3): 263–273. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08060 (inactive 31 October 2021). S2CID 512766. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-08-20.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2021 (link)
  8. Cavalier-Smith T (June 2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biology Letters. 6 (3): 342–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC2880060. PMID 20031978.
  9. Dawkins R, Wong Y (2016). Ancestor's Tale. pp. 573–577. ISBN 978-0544859937.
  10. Burki F (May 2014). "The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (5): a016147. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016147. PMC3996474. PMID 24789819.
  11. Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015). "A higher level classification of all living organisms". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0119248. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1019248R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. PMC4418965. PMID 25923521.
  12. Silar, Philippe (2016). "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes". HAL Archives-ouvertes: 1–462.
  13. Cavalier-Smith T (January 2018). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma. 255 (1): 297–357. doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3. PMC5756292. PMID 28875267.
  14. Strassert JF, Jamy M, Mylnikov AP, Tikhonenkov DV, Burki F (April 2019). "New Phylogenomic Analysis of the Enigmatic Phylum Telonemia Further Resolves the Eukaryote Tree of Life". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 36 (4): 757–765. doi:10.1093/molbev/msz012. PMC6844682. PMID 30668767.

SAR supergroup
SAR supergroup Language Watch Edit SAR or Harosa informally the SAR supergroup is a clade that includes stramenopiles heterokonts alveolates and Rhizaria 2 3 4 5 The name is an acronym derived from the first letters of each of these clades it has been alternatively spelled RAS 6 7 The term Harosa at the subkingdom level has also been used 8 The SAR supergroup was formulated as the node based taxon 6 SAR Temporal range 736 0 Ma 1 Pha Proterozoic Archean Had nScientific classification unranked DiaphoretickesClade TSARClade SAR Burki et al 2007CladesStramenopiles Heterokonta Alveolata RhizariaSynonymsHarosa Cavalier Smith 2010 Note that as a formal taxon Sar has only its first letter capitalized while the earlier abbreviation SAR retains all uppercase letters Both names refer to the same group of organisms unless further taxonomic revisions deem otherwise Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata Chromista and Alveolata and Rhizaria until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged with Rhizaria 9 This apparently excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads leading Okamoto et al 2009 to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them 10 Phylogeny EditBased on a compilation of the following works 11 12 13 14 TSAR Telonemia SAR Rhizaria Phytomyxea Engler amp Prantl 1897 em Cavalier Smith 1993 Vampyrellida West 1901 emend Hess et al 2012 Vampyrellidea Cavalier Smith 2017 Filosa Leidy 1879 s s Marimyxia Cavalier Smith 2017 Retaria Cavalier Smith 2002 s s Halvaria Alveolata Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat n Copeland 1956 Myzozoa Cavalier Smith and Chao 2004 Heterokonta Platysulcidae Shiratori Nkayama amp Ishida 2015 Sagenista Cavalier Smith 1995 stat n 2006 Bikosea Cavalier Smith 2013 Placidozoa Cavalier Smith 2013 Gyrista Bigyromonadea Cavalier Smith 1998 Oomycota Arx 1967 Hyphochytriomycota Whittaker 1969 Pirsoniales Cavalier Smith 1998 Ochrophyta Cavalier Smith 1986 Brown golden amp yellow algae Harosa See also EditAmoebozoa Archaeplastida Excavata OpisthokontaReferences Edit Laura Wegener Parfrey Daniel J G Lahr Andrew H Knoll Laura A Katz 16 August 2011 Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks PDF Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 33 13624 9 doi 10 1073 PNAS 1110633108 ISSN 0027 8424 PMC 3158185 PMID 21810989 Wikidata Q24614721 Archibald JM January 2009 The puzzle of plastid evolution Current Biology 19 2 R81 8 doi 10 1016 j cub 2008 11 067 PMID 19174147 S2CID 51989 Burki F Shalchian Tabrizi K Minge M Skjaeveland A Nikolaev SI Jakobsen KS Pawlowski J August 2007 Butler G ed Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups PLOS ONE 2 8 e790 Bibcode 2007PLoSO 2 790B doi 10 1371 journal pone 0000790 PMC 1949142 PMID 17726520 Hampl V Hug L Leigh JW Dacks JB Lang BF Simpson AG Roger AJ March 2009 Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic supergroups Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 10 3859 64 Bibcode 2009PNAS 106 3859H doi 10 1073 pnas 0807880106 PMC 2656170 PMID 19237557 Frommolt R Werner S Paulsen H Goss R Wilhelm C Zauner S et al December 2008 Ancient recruitment by chromists of green algal genes encoding enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 12 2653 67 doi 10 1093 molbev msn206 PMID 18799712 a b Adl SM Simpson AG Lane CE Lukes J Bass D Bowser SS et al September 2012 The revised classification of eukaryotes The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 5 429 93 doi 10 1111 j 1550 7408 2012 00644 x PMC 3483872 PMID 23020233 Baldauf SL 2008 An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes PDF Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46 3 263 273 doi 10 3724 SP J 1002 2008 08060 inactive 31 October 2021 S2CID 512766 Archived from the original PDF on 2019 08 20 CS1 maint DOI inactive as of October 2021 link Cavalier Smith T June 2010 Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree Biology Letters 6 3 342 5 doi 10 1098 rsbl 2009 0948 PMC 2880060 PMID 20031978 Dawkins R Wong Y 2016 Ancestor s Tale pp 573 577 ISBN 978 0544859937 Burki F May 2014 The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 6 5 a016147 doi 10 1101 cshperspect a016147 PMC 3996474 PMID 24789819 Ruggiero MA Gordon DP Orrell TM Bailly N Bourgoin T Brusca RC et al 2015 A higher level classification of all living organisms PLOS ONE 10 4 e0119248 Bibcode 2015PLoSO 1019248R doi 10 1371 journal pone 0119248 PMC 4418965 PMID 25923521 Silar Philippe 2016 Protistes Eucaryotes Origine Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes HAL Archives ouvertes 1 462 Cavalier Smith T January 2018 Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution and ancient divergences Protoplasma 255 1 297 357 doi 10 1007 s00709 017 1147 3 PMC 5756292 PMID 28875267 Strassert JF Jamy M Mylnikov AP Tikhonenkov DV Burki F April 2019 New Phylogenomic Analysis of the Enigmatic Phylum Telonemia Further Resolves the Eukaryote Tree of Life Molecular Biology and Evolution 36 4 757 765 doi 10 1093 molbev msz012 PMC 6844682 PMID 30668767 This SAR related article is a stub You can help Wikipedia by expanding it vte Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title SAR supergroup amp oldid 1053504995, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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