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Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine

For the collection of information officially organized with the SNOMED system, see SNOMED CT.

The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) is a systematic, computer-processable collection of medical terms, in human and veterinary medicine, to provide codes, terms, synonyms and definitions which cover anatomy, diseases, findings, procedures, microorganisms, substances, etc. It allows a consistent way to index, store, retrieve, and aggregate medical data across specialties and sites of care. Although now international, SNOMED was started in the U.S. by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) in 1973 and revised into the 1990s. In 2002 CAP's SNOMED Reference Terminology (SNOMED RT) was merged with, and expanded by, the National Health Service's Clinical Terms Version 3 (previously known as the Read codes) to produce SNOMED CT.

Versions of SNOMED released prior to 2001 were based on a multiaxial, hierarchical classification system. As in any such system, a disease may be located in a body organ (anatomy), which results in a code in a topography axis and may lead to morphological alterations represented by a morphology code.

In 2002 the first release of SNOMED CT adopted a completely different structure. A sub-type hierarchy, supported by defining relationships based on description logic, replaced the axes described in this article. Versions of SNOMED prior to SNOMED CT are planned to be formally deprecated from 2017. Therefore, readers interested in current information about SNOMED are directed to the article on SNOMED CT.

Contents

SNOMED was designed as a comprehensive nomenclature of clinical medicine for the purpose of accurately storing and/or retrieving records of clinical care in human and veterinary medicine. The metaphor used by Roger A. Côté, the first editorial chair, was that SNOMED would become the periodic table of elements of medicine because of its definitional organization beyond the hierarchical design. Indeed, diseases and procedures were ordered hierarchically and are further referenced back to more elementary terms (see Reference Ontology and Multi-Axial Design, below).

SNOMED was originally conceived by Côté as an extension of the design of the Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP) applicable for all medicine. SNOP was originally designed by Arnold Pratt to describe pathological specimens according to their morphology and anatomy (topography). The ambitious development of SNOMED required many more axes (see multi-axial design, below). SNOMED was jointly proposed for development to the College of American Pathologists by Côté and Pratt. The former was appointed as editorial chair of the Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of Diseases of the CAP and developed the SNOMED from 1973 to 1997. In 1998, Kent Spackman was appointed to chair this committee and spearheaded the transformation of the multi-axis systems into a highly computable form (See SNOMED CT): a directed acyclic graph anchored in formal representation logic. In 2007, the newly formed International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO) acquired all the Intellectual Property of SNOMED CT and all antecedent SNOMED versions.

Brief timeline:

SNOMED was designed from its inception with complex concepts defined in terms of simpler ones. For example, a disease can be defined in terms of its abnormal anatomy, abnormal functions and morphology. In some cases, the etiology of the disease is known and can be attributed to an infectious agent, a physical trauma or a chemical or pharmaceutical agent.

The current concept uses eleven (11) axes that comprise terms organised in hierarchical trees. The axes and some examples are provided below:

T (Topography) – Anatomic terms

M (Morphology) – Changes found in cells, tissues and organs

For the Morphology axis, SNOMED has agreed to collaborate and use the same harmonized codes shared with International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. Additional examples on topology are provided on that page.

L (Living organisms) – Bacteria and viruses

C (Chemical) – Drugs

F (Function) – Signs and symptoms

J (Occupation) – Terms that describe the occupation

  • Kindergarten teacher (13420)
  • Computer programmer (08420)
  • Doctor (06105)
  • Professional Nurse (General) (07110)
  • Beautician (57040)

D (Diagnosis) – Diagnostic terms

P (Procedure) – Administrative, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

A (Physical agents, forces, activities) – Devices and activities associated with the disease

S (Social context) – Social conditions and important relationships in medicine

G (General) – Syntactic linkages and qualifiers

  1. Roger A. Côté (1986). "Architecture of SNOMED". Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care: 74–80. PMC2245000.
  2. "SNOMED Clinical Terms To Be Added To UMLS Metathesaurus". United States National Library of Medicine. 24 May 2006. Retrieved8 October 2015.
  3. "FAQs: SNOMED CT in the UMLS". United States National Library of Medicine. 22 May 2012. Retrieved8 October 2015.
  4. Yves A. Lussier, Roger A. Côté (1998). "The SNOMED model: A knowledge source for the controlled terminology of the computerized patient record". Methods of Information in Medicine. 37 (2): 161-164!pmid=9656658. doi:10.1055/s-0038-1634522.
  5. Deprecation of Antecedent Versions of SNOMED by IHTSDO General Assembly

Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine
Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from SNOMED For the collection of information officially organized with the SNOMED system see SNOMED CT The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine SNOMED is a systematic computer processable collection of medical terms in human and veterinary medicine to provide codes terms synonyms and definitions which cover anatomy diseases findings procedures microorganisms substances etc It allows a consistent way to index store retrieve and aggregate medical data across specialties and sites of care Although now international SNOMED was started in the U S by the College of American Pathologists CAP 1 in 1973 and revised into the 1990s In 2002 CAP s SNOMED Reference Terminology SNOMED RT was merged with and expanded by the National Health Service s Clinical Terms Version 3 previously known as the Read codes to produce SNOMED CT 2 3 Versions of SNOMED released prior to 2001 were based on a multiaxial hierarchical classification system 1 4 As in any such system a disease may be located in a body organ anatomy which results in a code in a topography axis and may lead to morphological alterations represented by a morphology code In 2002 the first release of SNOMED CT adopted a completely different structure A sub type hierarchy supported by defining relationships based on description logic replaced the axes described in this article Versions of SNOMED prior to SNOMED CT are planned to be formally deprecated from 2017 5 Therefore readers interested in current information about SNOMED are directed to the article on SNOMED CT Contents 1 Purpose 2 History 3 Reference ontology 4 Multi axial design 4 1 T Topography Anatomic terms 4 2 M Morphology Changes found in cells tissues and organs 4 3 L Living organisms Bacteria and viruses 4 4 C Chemical Drugs 4 5 F Function Signs and symptoms 4 6 J Occupation Terms that describe the occupation 4 7 D Diagnosis Diagnostic terms 4 8 P Procedure Administrative diagnostic and therapeutic procedures 4 9 A Physical agents forces activities Devices and activities associated with the disease 4 10 S Social context Social conditions and important relationships in medicine 4 11 G General Syntactic linkages and qualifiers 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksPurpose EditSNOMED was designed as a comprehensive nomenclature of clinical medicine for the purpose of accurately storing and or retrieving records of clinical care in human and veterinary medicine The metaphor used by Roger A Cote the first editorial chair was that SNOMED would become the periodic table of elements of medicine because of its definitional organization beyond the hierarchical design Indeed diseases and procedures were ordered hierarchically and are further referenced back to more elementary terms see Reference Ontology and Multi Axial Design below History EditSNOMED was originally conceived by Cote as an extension of the design of the Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology SNOP applicable for all medicine SNOP was originally designed by Arnold Pratt to describe pathological specimens according to their morphology and anatomy topography The ambitious development of SNOMED required many more axes see multi axial design below SNOMED was jointly proposed for development to the College of American Pathologists by Cote and Pratt The former was appointed as editorial chair of the Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of Diseases of the CAP and developed the SNOMED from 1973 to 1997 In 1998 Kent Spackman was appointed to chair this committee and spearheaded the transformation of the multi axis systems into a highly computable form See SNOMED CT a directed acyclic graph anchored in formal representation logic In 2007 the newly formed International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation IHTSDO acquired all the Intellectual Property of SNOMED CT and all antecedent SNOMED versions Brief timeline 1965 SNOP 1974 SNOMED 1979 SNOMED II 1993 SNOMED International 3 0 1995 SNOMED Microglossary of Signs and Symptoms 1993 98 SNOMED International versions 3 1 3 5 2002 First release of SNOMED CT 2007 All versions of SNOMED acquired by IHTSDO 2017 All SNOMED versions except SNOMED CT have been formally deprecated by IHTSDOReference ontology EditSNOMED was designed from its inception with complex concepts defined in terms of simpler ones For example a disease can be defined in terms of its abnormal anatomy abnormal functions and morphology In some cases the etiology of the disease is known and can be attributed to an infectious agent a physical trauma or a chemical or pharmaceutical agent Multi axial design EditThe current concept uses eleven 11 axes that comprise terms organised in hierarchical trees The axes and some examples are provided below T Topography Anatomic terms Edit T 28000 Lung T 32000 Heart T 51000 Mouth T D2500 Hip T D9600 HeelM Morphology Changes found in cells tissues and organs Edit M 40000 Inflammation M 44000 Granuloma M 54700 Infarcted M 54701 Microscopic infarct For the Morphology axis SNOMED has agreed to collaborate and use the same harmonized codes shared with International Classification of Diseases for Oncology Additional examples on topology are provided on that page L Living organisms Bacteria and viruses Edit L 21801 Mycobacterium tuberculosis L 25116 Streptococcus pneumoniaeC Chemical Drugs Edit C C137A Bufferin Analgesic Tablets C C137B Bufferin Analgesic CapletsF Function Signs and symptoms Edit F 03003 FeverJ Occupation Terms that describe the occupation Edit Kindergarten teacher 13420 Computer programmer 08420 Doctor 06105 Professional Nurse General 07110 Beautician 57040 D Diagnosis Diagnostic terms Edit D 13510 Pneumococcal pneumonia D 14800 Tuberculosis D3 15000 Myocardial infarctionP Procedure Administrative diagnostic and therapeutic procedures Edit A Physical agents forces activities Devices and activities associated with the disease Edit S Social context Social conditions and important relationships in medicine Edit S 10120 MotherG General Syntactic linkages and qualifiers EditSee also EditDiagnosis code Drug class DOCLE Medical classification SNOMED CT Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities MedDRA Pathology Messaging Implementation ProjectReferences Edit a b Roger A Cote 1986 Architecture of SNOMED Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care 74 80 PMC 2245000 SNOMED Clinical Terms To Be Added To UMLS Metathesaurus United States National Library of Medicine 24 May 2006 Retrieved 8 October 2015 FAQs SNOMED CT in the UMLS United States National Library of Medicine 22 May 2012 Retrieved 8 October 2015 Yves A Lussier Roger A Cote 1998 The SNOMED model A knowledge source for the controlled terminology of the computerized patient record Methods of Information in Medicine 37 2 161 164 pmid 9656658 doi 10 1055 s 0038 1634522 Deprecation of Antecedent Versions of SNOMED by IHTSDO General AssemblyExternal links EditOfficial page at snomed org now redirects to www ihtsdo org Studies of the formal structure of SNOMED CT at buffalo edu SNOCat the SNOMED Categorizer Browser to automatically encode medical narratives provided by the BiTeM group http bitem hesge ch Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine amp oldid 1001863423, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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