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Sabbath in Christianity

Sabbath in Christianity is the inclusion in Christianity of a Sabbath, a day set aside for rest and worship, a practice that was mandated for the Israelites in the Ten Commandments in line with God's blessing of the seventh day (Saturday) making it holy, "because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation". The practice was associated with the assembly of the people to worship in synagogues on the day known as the Shabbat.

Early Christians, at first mainly Jewish, observed the seventh-day Sabbath with prayer and rest, but gathered on the first day, Sunday, reckoned in Jewish tradition as beginning, like the other days, at sunset on what would now be considered the Saturday evening. At the beginning of the second century Ignatius of Antioch approved non-observance of the Sabbath. The now majority practice of Christians is to observe Sunday, called the Lord's Day, rather than the Jewish seventh-day Sabbath as a day of rest and worship.

Possibly because of a movement initiated in the early 14th century by Ewostatewos, which gained approval under Emperor Zara Yaqob, Christians in Ethiopia observe a two-day Sabbath covering both Saturday and Sunday.

In line with ideas of the 16th and 17th-century Puritans, the Presbyterian and Congregationalist, as well as Methodist and Baptist Churches, enshrined first-day (Sunday) Sabbatarian views in their confessions of faith, observing the Lord's Day as the Christian Sabbath. First-day Sabbatarian (Sunday Sabbatarian) practices include attending morning and evening church services on Sundays, receiving catechesis in Sunday School on the Lord's Day, taking the Lord's Day off from servile labour, not eating at restaurants on Sundays, not Sunday shopping, not using public transportation on the Lord's Day, not participating in sporting events that are held on Sundays, as well as not viewing television and the internet on Sundays; Christians who are Sunday Sabbatarians often engage in works of mercy on the Lord's Day, such as evangelism, as well as visiting prisoners at jails and the sick at hospitals and nursing homes.

Beginning about the 17th century, a few groups of Restorationist Christians, mostly Seventh-day Sabbatarians, formed communities that adopted a more literal interpretation of law, either Christian or Mosaic.

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Sabbath timing

The Hebrew Shabbat, the seventh day of the week, is "Saturday" but in the Hebrew calendar a day begins at sunset and not at midnight. The Shabbat therefore coincides with what is now commonly identified as Friday sunset to Saturday night when three stars are visible in the night sky. The Sabbath continued to be observed on the seventh day in the early Christian church. To this day, the liturgical day continues to be observed in line with the Hebrew reckoning in the church calendars in Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy. In the Latin Church, "the liturgical day runs from midnight to midnight. However, the celebration of Sundays and of Solemnities begins already on the evening of the previous day". This is not justification for the change of the sabbath from Saturday to Sunday.

In non-liturgical matters, the canon law of the Latin Church defines a day as beginning at midnight.

Early Christianity

Jewish Christians continued to observe Shabbat but met together at the end of the day, on a Saturday evening. In the gospels, the women are described as coming to the empty tomb Greek:εις μια των σαββατων, lit. 'toward the first [day] of the Sabbath', although it is often translated "on the first day of the week". This is made clear in Acts 20:7 when Paul continued his message "until midnight" and a young man went to sleep and fell out of the window. It was Emperor Constantine who decreed that Christians should no longer keep the Sabbath and keep only to Sunday (the latter part of the first day of the week) calling it the "Venerable Day of the Sun"[citation needed]. Christians justify this move because it is the day on which Jesus had risen from the dead and on which the Holy Spirit had come to the apostles. Although Christians meeting for worship on the first day of the week (Sunday for Gentiles) dates back to Acts and is historically mentioned around 115 AD, Constantine's edict was the start of many more Christians observing only Sunday and not the Sabbath. Patristic writings attest that by the second century, it had become commonplace to celebrate the Eucharist in a corporate day of worship on the first day. A Church Father, Eusebius, who became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about AD 314, stated that for Christians, "the sabbath had been transferred to Sunday".

In his book From Sabbath to Sunday, Adventist theologian Samuele Bacchiocchi contended that the transition from the Saturday Sabbath to Sunday in the early Christian church was due to pagan and political factors, and the decline of standards for the Sabbath day.

According to Socrates of Constantinople and Sozomen, most of the early Church (excluding Rome and Alexandria) observed the seventh day Sabbath in Easter.

Corporate worship

While the Lord's Day observance of the Eucharist was established separately from the Jewish Shabbat, the centrality of the Eucharist itself made it the commonest early observance whenever Christians gathered for worship. In many places and times as late as the 4th century, they did continue to gather weekly on the Sabbath, often in addition to the Lord's Day, celebrating the Eucharist on both days. No disapproval of Sabbath observance of the Christian festival was expressed at the early church councils that dealt with Judaizing. The Council of Laodicea (363-364), for example, mandated only that Sabbath Eucharists must be observed in the same manner as those on the first day. Neander has suggested that Sabbath Eucharists in many places were kept "as a feast in commemoration of the Creation."

The issues about Hebrew practices that continued into the 2nd century tended to relate mostly to the Sabbath. Justin Martyr, who attended worship on the first day, wrote about the cessation of Hebrew Sabbath observance and stated that the Sabbath was enjoined as a temporary sign to Israel to teach it of human sinfulness (Gal. 3:24-25), no longer needed after Christ came without sin. He rejected the need to keep a literal seventh-day Sabbath, arguing instead that "the new law requires you to keep the sabbath constantly." However, Justin the Martyr believe the Sabbath has only attributed to Moses and the Israelites. According to J.N Andrews, a historian, and theologian, he mentions, "In his( Justin) estimation, the Sabbath was a Jewish institution, absolutely unknown to good men before the time of Moses, and of no authority whatever since the death of Christ." He identifies this through Justin's writings to Ty. The following passage is written by Justin the Martyr, "Do you see that the elements are not idle, and keep no Sabbaths? Remain as you were born. For if there was no need of circumcision before Abraham, or of the observance of Sabbaths, of feasts and sacrifices, before Moses; no more need of them is there now, after that, according to the will of God, Jesus Christ the Son of God has been born without sin, of a virgin sprung from the stock of Abraham." With more clarification, Andrews also states," Not only does he(Justin) declare that the Jews were commanded to keep the sabbath because of their wickedness, but in chapter nineteen he denies that any Sabbath existed before Moses. Thus, after naming Adam, Abel, Enoch, Lot, and Melchizedek, he says:-"Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths were pleasing to God." With Christian corporate worship so clearly aligned with the Eucharist[citation needed] and allowed on the seventh day, Hebrew Shabbat practices primarily involved the observance of a day of rest.

Day of rest

A common theme in criticism of Hebrew Shabbat rest was idleness, found not to be in the Christian spirit of rest.[citation needed] Irenaeus (late 2nd century), also citing continuous Sabbath observance, wrote that the Christian "will not be commanded to leave idle one day of rest, who is constantly keeping sabbath", and Tertullian (early 3rd century) argued "that we still more ought to observe a sabbath from all servile work always, and not only every seventh-day, but through all time". This early metaphorical interpretation of Sabbath applied it to the entire Christian life.

Ignatius, cautioning against "Judaizing" in the Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians, contrasts the Jewish Shabbat practices with the Christian life which includes the Lord's Day:

Let us therefore no longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish manner, and rejoice in days of idleness. [...] But let every one of you keep the Sabbath after a spiritual manner, rejoicing in meditation on the law, not in relaxation of the body, admiring the workmanship of God, and not eating things prepared the day before, nor using lukewarm drinks, and walking within a prescribed space, nor finding delight in dancing and plaudits which have no sense in them. And after the observance of the Sabbath, let every friend of Christ keep the Lord's [Day, Dominicam] as a festival, the resurrection-day, the queen and chief of all the days.

The 2nd and 3rd centuries solidified the early church's emphasis upon Sunday worship and its rejection of a Jewish (Mosaic Law-based) observation of the Sabbath and manner of rest. Christian practice of following Sabbath after the manner of the Hebrews declined, prompting Tertullian to note "to [us] Sabbaths are strange" and unobserved. Even as late as the 4th century, Judaizing was still sometimes a problem within the Church, but by this time it was repudiated strongly as heresy.

Sunday was another work day in the Roman Empire. On March 7, 321, however, Roman Emperor Constantine I issued a civil decree making Sunday a day of rest from labor, stating:

All judges and city people and the craftsmen shall rest upon the venerable day of the sun. Country people, however, may freely attend to the cultivation of the fields, because it frequently happens that no other days are better adapted for planting the grain in the furrows or the vines in trenches. So that the advantage given by heavenly providence may not for the occasion of a short time perish.

While established only in civil law rather than religious principle,[citation needed] the Church welcomed the development as a means by which Christians could the more easily attend Sunday worship and observe Christian rest. At Laodicea also, the Church encouraged Christians to make use of the day for Christian rest where possible, without ascribing to it any of the regulation of Mosaic Law, and indeed anathematizing Hebrew observance on the Sabbath. The civil law and its effects made possible a pattern in Church life that has been imitated throughout the centuries in many places and cultures, wherever possible.[citation needed]

From ancient times to Middle Ages

Augustine of Hippo followed the early patristic writers in spiritualizing the meaning of the Sabbath commandment, referring it to eschatological rest rather than observance of a literal day. Such writing, however, did serve to deepen the idea of Christian rest on Sunday, and its practice increased in prominence throughout the early Middle Ages.

Thomas Aquinas taught that the Decalogue is an expression of natural law which binds all men, and therefore the Sabbath commandment is a moral requirement along with the other nine. Thus in the West, Sunday rest became more closely associated with a Christian application of the Sabbath, a development towards the idea of a "Christian Sabbath" rather than a Hebrew one. While Sunday worship and Sunday rest combined powerfully to relate to Sabbath commandment precepts, the application of the commandment to Christian life was nevertheless a response within the law of liberty, not restricted to a single day but continuous, and not a displacement of the Sabbath in time.[citation needed]

Continuations of Hebrew practices

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Seventh-day Sabbath was observed at least sporadically by a minority of groups during the Middle Ages.

In the early church in Ireland, there is evidence that a sabbath-rest on Saturday may have been kept along with Mass on Sunday as the Lord's Day. It appears that many of the canon laws in Ireland from that period were derived from parts of the laws of Moses. In Adomnan of Iona's biography of St Columba it describes Columba's death by having Columba say on a Saturday, "Today is truly my sabbath, for it is my last day in this wearisome life, when I shall keep the Sabbath after my troublesome labours. At midnight this Sunday, as Scripture saith, 'I shall go the way of my fathers'" and he then dies that night. The identification of this Sabbath day as a Saturday in the narrative is clear in the context, because Columba is recorded as seeing an angel at the Mass on the previous Sunday and the narrative claims he dies in the same week, on the Sabbath day at the end of the week, during the 'Lord's night' (referring to Saturday night-Sunday morning).

An Eastern body of Christian Sabbath-keepers mentioned from the 8th century to the 12th is called Athenians ("touch-not") because they abstained from uncleanness and intoxicating drinks, called Athinginians in Neander: "This sect, which had its principal seat in the city of Armorion, in upper Phrygia, where many Jews resided, sprung out of a mixture of Judaism and Christianity. They united baptism with the observance of all the rites of Judaism, circumcision excepted. We may perhaps recognize a branch of the older Judaizing sects."

Cardinal Hergenrother says that they stood in intimate relation with Emperor Michael II (AD 821-829), and testifies that they observed Sabbath. As late as the 11th century Cardinal Humbert still referred to the Nazarenes as a Sabbath-keeping Christian body existing at that time. But in the 10th and 11th centuries, there was a great extension of sects from the East to the West. Neander states that the corruption of the clergy furnished a most important vantage-ground on which to attack the dominant church. The abstemious life of these Christians, the simplicity and earnestness of their preaching and teaching, had their effect. "Thus we find them emerging at once in the 11th century, in countries the most diverse, and the most remote from each other, in Italy, France, and even in the Harz districts in Germany." Likewise, also, "traces of Sabbath-keepers are found in the times of Gregory I, Gregory VII, and in the 12th century in Lombardy."

Oriental Orthodoxy

The Orthodox Tewahedo churches celebrate the Sabbath, a practice proselytised in the Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia in the 1300s by Ewostatewos (ዮስጣቴዎስ, Ancient Greek:Ευστάθιος, romanized: Eustathios). In response to colonial pressure by missionaries of the Catholic Church in the 1500s, the emperor Saint Gelawdewos wrote his Confession, an apologia of traditional beliefs and practices including observation of the Sabbath and a theological defense of the Miaphysitism of Oriental Orthodoxy.

Protestant Reformation

A recreation ground on Raasay displaying a sign "Please do not use this playing field on Sundays".

Protestant reformers, beginning in the 16th century, brought new interpretations of Christian law to the West. The Heidelberg Catechism of the Reformed Churches founded by John Calvin teaches that the moral law as contained in the Ten Commandments is binding for Christians and that it instructs Christians how to live in service to God in gratitude for His grace shown in redeeming mankind. Likewise, Martin Luther, in his work against the Antinomians, rejected the idea of the abolition of the Ten Commandments. They also viewed Sunday rest as a civic institution established by human authority, which provided an occasion for bodily rest and public worship. Another Protestant, John Wesley, stated "This 'handwriting of ordinances' our Lord did blot out, take away, and nail to His cross (Col. 2:14). But the moral law contained in the Ten Commandments, and enforced by the prophets, He did not take away. ...The moral law stands on an entirely different foundation from the ceremonial or ritual law. ...Every part of this law must remain in force upon all mankind and in all ages."

Sabbatarianism arose and spread among both the continental and English Protestants during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Puritans of England and Scotland brought a new rigorism into the observance of the Christian Lord's Day in reaction to the customary Sunday observance of the time, which they regarded as lax. They appealed to Sabbath ordinances with the idea that only the Bible can bind men's consciences on whether or how they will take a break from work, or to impose an obligation to meet at a particular time. Their influential reasoning spread to other denominations also, and it is primarily through their influence that "Sabbath" has become the colloquial equivalent of "Lord's Day" or "Sunday". Sunday Sabbatarianism is enshrined in its most mature expression, the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), in the Calvinist theological tradition. Paragraphs 7 and 8 of Chapter 21 (Of Religious Worship, and the Sabbath Day) read:

7. As it is the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven, for a Sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which, in Scripture, is called the Lord's day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath.

8. This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe a holy rest, all the day, from their own works, words, and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations, but also are taken up, the whole time, in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.

The confession holds that not only is work forbidden on Sunday, but also "works, words, and thoughts" about "worldly employments and recreations." Instead, the whole day should be taken up with "public and private exercises of [one's] worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy."

Strict Sunday Sabbatarianism is sometimes called "Puritan Sabbath", which may be contrasted with "Continental Sabbath". The latter follows the reformed confessions of faith of Continental Europe such as the Heidelberg Catechism, which emphasize rest and worship on the Lord's Day, but do not explicitly forbid recreational activities. However, in practice, many continental Reformed Christians also abstain from recreation on the Sabbath, following the admonition by the Heidelberg Catechism's author Zacharaias Ursinus that "To keep holy the Sabbath, is not to spend the day in slothfulness and idleness".

Though first-day Sabbatarian practice declined in the 18th century, the First Great Awakening in the 19th century led to a greater concern for strict Sunday observance. The founding of the Day One Christian Ministries in 1831 was influenced by the teaching of Daniel Wilson.

Many Christian theologians believe that Sabbath observance is not binding for Christians today, citing for instance Col. 2:16–17.

Some Christian non-Sabbatarians advocate physical Sabbath rest on any chosen day of the week, and some advocate Sabbath as a symbolic metaphor for rest in Christ; the concept of Lord's Day is usually treated as synonymous with "Sabbath". This non-Sabbatarian interpretation usually states that Jesus's obedience and the New Covenant fulfilled the laws of Sabbath, the Ten Commandments, and the Law of Moses, which are thus considered not to be binding moral laws, and sometimes considered abolished or abrogated. While Sunday is often observed as the day of Christian assembly and worship, in accordance with church tradition, Sabbath commandments are dissociated from this practice.

Non-Sabbatarian Christians also cite 2 Cor. 3:2–3, in which believers are compared to "a letter from Christ, the result of our ministry, written ... not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts"; this interpretation states that Christians accordingly no longer follow the Ten Commandments with dead orthodoxy ("tablets of stone"), but follow a new law written upon "tablets of human hearts". In 3:7–11 we read that "if the ministry that brought death, which was engraved in letters on stone, came with glory ..., will not the ministry of the Spirit be even more glorious? ...And if what was fading away came with glory, how much greater is the glory of that which lasts!" This is interpreted as teaching that New Covenant Christians are not bound by the Mosaic Law, and that Sabbath-keeping is not required. Further, because "love is the fulfillment of the law" (Rom. 13:10), the new-covenant "law" is considered to be based entirely upon love and to rescind Sabbath requirements.

Methodist theologian Joseph D. McPherson criticizes these views, and teaches that the Lord's Day as the First-day Christian Sabbath is binding:

It has been argued by some that such as narrow view of the Christian Sabbath is overturned by St. Paul's letter to the Romans in which he writes: "One man esteemeth one day above another: another esteemeth every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it" (Romans 14:5-6). It is a mistake to suppose that the Apostle has the Sabbath in mind when writing these words. Such an erroneous supposition would be a wrenching of his words and meaning out of context. It must first be remembered that he is writing to a church whose members are made up of both Jewish and Gentile converts. Reliable Bible expositors, such as Adam Clarke, agree that "Reference is being made here to the Jewish institutions, and especially their festivals; such as the passover, pentecost, feast of tabernacles, new moons, jubilee, &c." Jewish Christians continued to think of these special days and festivals to be of moral obligation. In contrast, the Gentile Christians had never been trained to observe these special days related to the Jewish ceremonial law and therefore had no inclination nor desire to observe them. Furthermore, those who had been instrumental in their conversion enforced no such requirement upon them. In consequence, they paid no religious regard to these special days of the Jewish institution. "The converted Gentile," writes Clarke, "esteemeth every day—considers that all time is the Lord's and that each day should be devoted to the glory of God; and that those festivals are not binding on him." Accordingly, it is concluded that "With respect to the propriety or non-propriety of keeping the [Jewish special days and] festivals, 'Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind;' there is sufficient latitude allowed; all may be fully satisfied."Our translators have added the word "alike" in verse 5. This word, according to Clarke, "should not be added; nor it is acknowledged by any [manuscript] or ancient version." By adding the word "alike," they "make the text say what [we can be] sure was never intended, viz/ that there is no distinction of days, not even the Sabbath: ant that every Christian is at liberty to consider even this day to be holy or not holy, as he happens to be persuaded in his own mind." "That the Sabbath is of lasting obligation," writes Clarke, "may be reasonable concluded from its institution and from its typical references. All allow that the Sabbath is a type of rest in glory which remains for the people of God. Now, all types are intended to continue in full force till the antitype, or thing signified, take place; consequently, the Sabbath will continue in force till the consummation of all things" (Commentary, 6:151).

Spiritual rest

Non-Sabbatarians who affirm that Sabbath-keeping remains for God's people (as in Heb. 3:7–4:11) frequently regard this as present weeklong spiritual rest or future heavenly rest rather than as physical weekly rest. For instance, Irenaeus saw Sabbath rest from secular affairs for one day each week as a sign of the way that Christians were called to permanently devote themselves to God, and an eschatological symbol. One such interpretation of Hebrews states that seventh-day Sabbath is no longer relevant as a regular, literal day of rest, but instead is a symbolic metaphor for the eternal salvation "rest" that Christians enjoy in Christ, which was in turn prefigured by the promised land of Canaan.

The NT indicates that the sabbath followed its own channel and found its goal in Christ's redemptive work (John 5:17, cf. 7:23, Colossians 2:16, Matthew 11:28–12:14, Hebrews 3:7–4:11). It is true to the NT to say that the Mosaic Sabbath as a legal and weekly matter was a temporary symbol of a more fundamental and comprehensive salvation, epitomized by and grounded in God's own creation Sabbath, and brought to fulfillment (in already–not yet fashion) in Christ's redemptive work. Believers are indeed to "keep Sabbath", no longer by observance of a day of the week but now by the upholding of that to which it pointed: the gospel of the [Kingdom of God].

See also: Sabbatarianism

Much of Western Christianity came to view Sunday as a transference of Sabbath observance to the first day, identifying Sunday with a first-day "Christian Sabbath". While first-day Sabbatarian practice declined during the 18th century, leaving few modern followers, its concern for stricter Sunday observances did have influence in the West, shaping the origin of the Christian Sabbath. The term no longer applies to a specific set of practices, but tends to be used to describe the general establishment of Sunday worship and rest observances within Christianity. It does not necessarily imply the displacement of the Sabbath itself, which is often recognized as remaining on Saturday. As such, the Christian Sabbath generally represents a reinterpretation of the meaning of the Sabbath in the light of Christian law, emphases of practice, and values.

Roman Catholicism

In 1998 Pope John Paul II wrote an apostolic letter Dies Domini, "on keeping the Lord's day holy". He encouraged Catholics to remember the importance of keeping Sunday holy, urging that it not lose its meaning by being blended with a frivolous "weekend" mentality.

Seeking to uphold the Lord's Day Act in French Quebec, the Catholic Sunday League was formed in 1923 to promote First-day Sabbatarian restrictions in the province, especially against movie theaters.

In the Latin Church, Sunday is kept in commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus and celebrated with the Eucharist (Catholic Catechism 2177). It is also the day of leisure. The Lord's Day is considered both the first day and the "eighth day" of the week, symbolizing both first creation and new creation (2174). Roman Catholics view the first day as a day for assembly for worship (2178,Heb. 10:25), but consider a day of rigorous rest not obligatory on Christians (Rom. 14:5,Col. 2:16). Catholic recommendations to rest on Sunday do not hinder participation in "ordinary and innocent occupations". In the spirit of the Sabbath, Catholics ought to observe a day of rest from servile work, which also becomes "a day of protest against the servitude of work and the worship of money" (Catholic Catechism 2172). This day is often (traditionally) observed on Sunday in conjunction with the Lord's Day (Catholic Catechism 2176).

Cardinal James Gibbons affirmed Sunday observances as one of the examples of the Roman Catholic Church's sufficiency as guide:

Now the Scriptures alone do not contain all the truths which a Christian is bound to believe, nor do they explicitly enjoin all the duties which he is obliged to practice. Not to mention other examples, is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday and to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of this law among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.

Faith of Our Fathers, Cardinal Gibbons, p. 72

Eastern Orthodoxy

Orthodox Sunday worship is not a direct Sabbath observance. The Eastern Orthodox Church observes the first day (liturgical Sunday, beginning Saturday evening) as a weekly feast, the remembrance of Christ's resurrection, and a mini-Pascha. As such, it tends to hold the first place within a week's observances, sharing that place only with other major feasts which occur from time to time. The Divine Liturgy is always celebrated, joining the participants on earth with those who offer the worship in God's kingdom, and hence joining the first day to the eighth day, wherein the communion of the whole Church with Christ is fully realized. As such, it is never surpassed as a time for the Orthodox to assemble in worship.

The Church affirms its authority to appoint the time of this feast (and all observances) as deriving from the authority given to the apostles and passed to the bishops through the laying-on of hands, for the sake of the governance of the Church on earth, and under the guidance of the Holy Spirit (John 20:22,John 14:26,Rom. 6:14-18,Rom. 7:6). It does not treat Sunday worship as a transference of Sabbath worship, but identifies the Sabbath, still on Saturday, as a Biblical "type", a precursor, realized fully only after Christ's fulfillment of the Mosaic Law (Mat. 5:17-18). Thus, the Sabbath and the Mosaic Law both remain as a teacher, reminding Christians to worship in holiness, but now according to grace, in Christian observations and Sunday worship.

The grace received in baptism binds the Church to Christ, who has given his people the freedom to seek him directly in relationship, not to pursue whatever suits one's fancy. The goal of that freedom is always union with Christ in theosis, and the maintenance of that union all the time, throughout this life and into the next, which is sometimes described as the "sanctification of time". Grace therefore never permits of whatever is sinful or unhelpful to salvation, such as laziness or hedonistic revelry. Rather, it becomes a stricter guide for behavior than any legal code, even the Mosaic, and disciplines the believer in some degree of ascetic endeavor (Rom. 6:14-18).

Orthodoxy recognizes no mandated time for rest, a day or any other span, but the Church leads the individual to holiness in different ways, and recognizes the need for economy and for rest. Activities such as sleep, relaxation, and recreation become a matter of balance and proper handling, and acceptance of God's mercy. St. Basil the Great expresses thanks for this in a prayer often said by Orthodox Christians in the morning, after rising: "You do we bless, O Most High God and Lord of mercy, ... Who has given unto us sleep for rest from our infirmity, and for repose of our much-toiling flesh." In recognition of God's gifts, therefore, the Church welcomes and supports civil laws that provide a day away from labor, which then become opportunities for Christians to pray, rest, and engage in acts of mercy. In grace do Christians respond, remembering both the example of the Sabbath rest, and Christ's lordship (Mk. 2:21-28).

Eastern Christianity and Saturday vs. Sunday observances

Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches distinguish between the Sabbath (Saturday) and the Lord's Day (Sunday), and both continue to play a special role for the faithful. Many parishes and monasteries will serve the Divine Liturgy on both Saturday morning and Sunday morning. The church never allows strict fasting on any Saturday (except Holy Saturday) or Sunday, and the fasting rules on those Saturdays and Sundays which fall during one of the fasting seasons (such as Great Lent, Apostles' Fast, etc.) are always relaxed to some degree. During Great Lent, when the celebration of the Liturgy is forbidden on weekdays, there is always Liturgy on Saturday as well as Sunday. The church also has a special cycle of Bible readings (Epistle and Gospel) for Saturdays and Sundays which is different from the cycle of readings allotted to weekdays. However, the Lord's Day, being a celebration of the Resurrection, is clearly given more emphasis. For instance, in the Russian Orthodox Church Sunday is always observed with an all-night vigil on Saturday night, and in all of the Eastern Churches it is amplified with special hymns which are chanted only on Sunday. If a feast day falls on a Sunday it is always combined with the hymns for Sunday (unless it is a Lord's Great Feast). Saturday is celebrated as a sort of afterfeast for the previous Sunday, on which several of the hymns from the previous Sunday are repeated.

In part, Eastern Christians continue to celebrate Saturday as Sabbath because of its role in the history of salvation: it was on a Saturday that Jesus "rested" in the cave tomb after the Passion. For this reason also, Saturday is a day for general commemoration of the departed, and special requiem hymns are often chanted on this day. Orthodox Christians make time to help the poor and needy as well on this day.

Lutheranism

Lutheran founder Martin Luther stated "I wonder exceedingly how it came to be imputed to me that I should reject the law of Ten Commandments. ...Whosoever abrogates the law must of necessity abrogate sin also." The Lutheran Augsburg Confession, speaking of changes made by Roman Catholic pontiffs, states: "They refer to the Sabbath-day as having been changed into the Lord's Day, contrary to the Decalogue, as it seems. Neither is there any example whereof they make more than concerning the changing of the Sabbath-day. Great, say they, is the power of the Church, since it has dispensed with one of the Ten Commandments!" Lutheran church historian Augustus Neander states "The festival of Sunday, like all other festivals, was always only a human ordinance".

Lutheran writer Marva Dawn keeps a whole day as Sabbath, advocating for rest during any weekly complete 24-hour period and favoring rest from Saturday sunset to Sunday sunset, but regarding corporate worship as "an essential part of God's Sabbath reclamation."

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

In 1831, Joseph Smith published a revelation commanding his related movement, the formative Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints), to go to the house of prayer, offer up their sacraments, rest from their labors, and pay their devotions on the Lord's day (D&C 59:9–12). Latter Day Saints believe this means performing no labor that would keep them from giving their full attention to spiritual matters (Ex. 20:10). LDS prophets have described this as meaning they should not shop, hunt, fish, attend sports events, or participate in similar activities on that day. Elder Spencer W. Kimball wrote in his The Miracle of Forgiveness that mere idle lounging on the Sabbath does not keep the day holy, and that it calls for constructive thoughts and acts.

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are encouraged to prepare their meals with "singleness of heart" on the Sabbath and believe the day is only for righteous activities (Is. 58:13). In most areas of the world, Latter-day Saints worship on Sunday.

The observance of the Lord's Day (Sunday) as the Christian Sabbath is known as first-day Sabbatarianism and this view was historically heralded by nonconformist denominations, such as Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists, as well as many Episcopalians. First-day sabbatarianism impacted popular Western Christian culture, with influences remaining to the present day, e.g. Sunday laws.

The Sabbath Breakers by J.C. Dollman (1896)

Presbyterian, Congregationalist and Reformed Baptist

The Westminster Confession, historically upheld by Presbyterians, commands the belief of first-day Sabbatarian doctrine:

As it is the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven, for a Sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which, in Scripture, is called the Lord’s day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath.
This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe a holy rest, all the day, from their own works, words, and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations, but also are taken up, the whole time, in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.

The Savoy Declaration, upheld by Puritan Congregationalists, as well as the Second London Baptist Confession, upheld by Reformed Baptists, advanced first-day Sabbatarian views identical to those expressed in the Westminster Confession.

General Baptist

General Baptists also advocate first-day Sabbatarian doctrine in their confessions of faith; for example, the Treatise on the Faith and Practice of the Free Will Baptists states:

This is one day in seven, which from the creation of the world God has set apart for sacred rest and holy service. Under the former dispensation, the seventh day of the week, as commemorative of the work of creation, was set apart for the Lord's Day. Under the gospel, the first day of the week, in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ, and by authority of Christ and the apostles, is observed as the Christian Sabbath. On this day all men are required to refrain from secular labor and devote themselves to the worship and service of God.

Methodist

In keeping with historic Methodism, the Discipline of the Bible Methodist Connection of Churches enshrines first-day Sabbatarianism:

We believe that the Lord’s Day, celebrated on Sunday, the first day of the week, throughout the Christian church, is the Christian sabbath, which we reverently observe as a day of rest and worship and as the continuing memorial of our Savior’s resurrection. For this reason, we abstain from secular work and from all merchandising on this holy day, except that required by mercy or necessity.

Regarded as the "prince of Methodist theologians" William Burt Pope explained that "Its [the Sabbath] original purpose to commemorate the creation and bear witness to the government of the One God was retained, but, as the new creation of mankind in Christ Jesus had more fully revealed the Triune God, the day of the Lord's resurrection, the first day of the week, became the Christian Sabbath, or the Lord's Day". Pope delineated that the Christian Sabbath was "given by Christ Himself, the Lord also of the Sabbath" as with "His resurrection began a formal appointment of the First day, and with the Pentecost He finally ratified it." Methodist systematic theologian Richard Watson delineated that the observance of the Sabbath is part of the unchanging moral law, and "its observance is connected throughout the prophetic age with the highest promises, its violations with the severest maledictions; it was among the Jews in our Lord's time a day of solemn religious assembling, and was so observed by him; when changed to the first day of the week, it was the day on which the Christians assembled; it was called, by way of eminence, 'the Lord's day;' and we have inspired authority to say, that both under the Old and New Testament dispensations, it is used as an expressive type of the heavenly and eternal rest."

Interdenominational

Organizations that promote Sunday Sabbatarianism include Day One Christian Ministries (formerly known as the Lord's Day Observance Society) in the UK. With unwavering support by mainstream Christian denominations, Sabbatarian organizations were formed, such as the American Sabbath Union (also known as the Lord's Day Alliance) and the Sunday League of America, following the American Civil War, to preserve the importance of Sunday as the Christian Sabbath. Founded in 1888, the Lord's Day Alliance continues to "encourage all people to recognize and observe a day of Sabbath rest and to worship the risen Lord Jesus Christ, on the Lord’s Day, Sunday". The Board of Managers of the Lord's Day Alliance is composed of clergy and laity from Christian churches, including Baptist, Catholic, Episcopalian, Friends, Lutheran, Methodist, Non-Denominationalist, Orthodox, Presbyterian, and Reformed traditions. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union also supports Sabbatarian views and worked to reflect these in the public sphere. In Canada, the Lord's Day Alliance (renamed the People for Sunday Association of Canada) was founded there and it lobbied successfully to pass in 1906 the Lord's Day Act, which was not repealed until 1985. Throughout their history, Sabbatarian organizations, such as the Lord's Day Alliance, have mounted campaigns, with support in both Canada and Britain from labour unions with the goals of preventing secular and commercial interests from hampering freedom of worship and preventing them from exploiting workers.

The founder of the Moody Bible Institute declares, "Sabbath was binding in Eden, and it has been in force ever since. This fourth commandment begins with the word 'remember,' showing that the Sabbath already existed when God wrote the law on the tables of stone at Sinai. How can men claim that this one commandment has been done away with when they will admit that the other nine are still binding?"

Oldest Sabbatarian Meeting House in America (Seventh Day Baptists), built in 1729 in Newport, Rhode Island, now owned by Newport Historical Society.

Seventh-day Protestants regard Sabbath as a day of rest for all mankind and not Israel alone, based on Jesus's statement, "the Sabbath was made for man" (i.e., purposed for humankind at the time of its creation,Mark 2:27, cf.Heb. 4), and on early-church Sabbath meetings. Seventh-day Sabbatarianism has been criticized as an effort to combine Old Testament laws, practiced in Judaism, with Christianity, or to revive the Judaizers of the Epistles or the Ebionites.

Seventh-day Sabbatarians practice a strict seventh-day Sabbath observance, similar to Shabbat in Judaism. John Traske (1586–1636) and Thomas Brabourne first advocated seventh-day Sabbatarianism in England. Their ideas gave rise to the Seventh Day Baptists, formed in early 17th-century in England. Samuel and Tacy Hubbard began the first American congregation on Rhode Island in 1671.

Grace Communion International (Armstrongism) taught seventh-day Sabbath observance. The United Church of God teaches seventh-day Sabbath observance.

Seventh-day Adventist Church

A Seventh-day Adventist Church.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church arose in the mid-19th century in America after Rachel Oakes, a Seventh Day Baptist, gave a tract about the Sabbath to an Adventist Millerite, who passed it on to Ellen G. White.

Fundamental Belief # 20 of the Seventh-day Adventist Church states:

The beneficent Creator, after the six days of Creation, rested on the seventh day and instituted the Sabbath for all people as a memorial of Creation. The fourth commandment of God's unchangeable law requires the observance of this seventh-day Sabbath as the day of rest, worship, and ministry in harmony with the teaching and practice of Jesus, the Lord of the Sabbath. The Sabbath is a day of delightful communion with God and one another. It is a symbol of our redemption in Christ, a sign of our sanctification, a token of our allegiance, and a foretaste of our eternal future in God's kingdom. The Sabbath is God's perpetual sign of His eternal covenant between Him and His people. Joyful observance of this holy time from evening to evening, sunset to sunset, is a celebration of God's creative and redemptive acts. (Gen. 2:1-3;Ex. 20:8-11;Luke 4:16;Isa. 56:5,Isa. 6;Isa. 58:13,Isa. 14;Matt. 12:1-12;Ex. 31:13-17;Eze. 20:12,Eze. 20;Deut. 5:12-15;Heb. 4:1-11;Lev. 23:32;Mark 1:32.)

Seventh-day Adventist Fundamental Beliefs

By synecdoche the term "Sabbath" in the New Testament may also mean simply a "se'nnight" or seven-day week, namely, the interval between two Sabbaths. Jesus's parable of the Pharisee and the Publican describes the Pharisee as fasting "twice a week" (Greek dis tou sabbatou, literally, "twice of the Sabbath").

Seven annual Biblical festivals, called by the name miqra ("called assembly") in Hebrew and "High Sabbath" in English, serve as supplemental testimonies to Sabbath. These are recorded in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy and do not necessarily occur on the Sabbath. They are observed by Jews and a minority of Christians. Three of them occur in spring: the first and seventh days of Passover, and Pentecost. Four occur in fall, in the seventh month, and are also called Shabbaton: the Feast of Trumpets; Yom Kippur, "Sabbath of Sabbaths"; and the first and eighth days of Tabernacles.

The year of Shmita (Hebrew שמיטה, literally, "release"), also called Sabbatical Year, is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah for the Land of Israel. During Shmita, the land is to be left to lie fallow. A second aspect of Shmita concerns debts and loans: when the year ends, personal debts are considered nullified and forgiven.

Jewish Shabbat is a weekly day of rest cognate to Christian Sabbath, observed from sundown on Friday until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night; it is also observed by a minority of Christians. Customarily, Shabbat is ushered in by lighting candles shortly before sunset, at halakhicallly calculated times that change from week to week and from place to place.

The new moon, occurring every 29 or 30 days, is an important separately sanctioned occasion in Judaism and some other faiths. It is not widely regarded as Sabbath, but some Hebrew Roots and Pentecostal churches, such as the native New Israelites of Peru and the Creation Seventh Day Adventist Church, do keep the day of the new moon as Sabbath or rest day, from evening to evening. New-moon services can last all day.

In South Africa, Christian Boers have celebrated December 16, the Day of the Vow (now called the Day of Reconciliation, as annual Sabbath (holy day of thanksgiving) since 1838, commemorating a famous Boer victory over the Zulu Kingdom.

Many early Christian writers from the 2nd century, such as pseudo-Barnabas, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr and Hippolytus of Rome followed rabbinic Judaism (the Mishna) in interpreting Sabbath not as a literal day of rest but as a thousand-year reign of Jesus Christ, which would follow six millennia of world history.

Secular use of "Sabbath" for "rest day", while it usually refers to Sunday, is often stated in North America to refer to different purposes for the rest day than those of Christendom. In McGowan v. Maryland (1961), the Supreme Court of the United States held that contemporary Maryland blue laws (typically, Sunday rest laws) were intended to promote the secular values of "health, safety, recreation, and general well-being" through a common day of rest, and that this day coinciding with majority Christian Sabbath neither reduces its effectiveness for secular purposes nor prevents adherents of other religions from observing their own holy days.

  1. The civil calendar of the ancient Roman Empire, the Julian calendar (founded in 45 BC), marked days loosely in general practice, since the timing of midnight was difficult to determine widely at that time. Thus, the early church easily adopted for its own use the Hebrew calendar's sunset-to-sunset formula for marking the days, even after it began to calculate Easter according to the Julian calendar. Its daily cycle of church services began with Vespers, which was often celebrated just after sunset, in the early evening. This pattern made its way into both Roman and Eastern liturgical practice, and continues in use in the Eastern Orthodox Church to this day.

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  84. Heyck, Thomas (27 September 2013). A History of the Peoples of the British Isles: From 1688 to 1914. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN 9781134415205. Yet the degree of overlap between the middle class and nonconformity-Baptists, Congregregationalists, Wesleyan Methodists, Quakers, Presbyterians, and Unitarians-was substantial. ... Most nonconformist denominations ...frowned on drink, dancing, and the theater, and they promoted Sabbatarianism (the policy of prohibiting trade and public recreation on Sundays).
  85. Vugt, William E. Van (2006). British Buckeyes: The English, Scots, and Welsh in Ohio, 1700-1900. Kent State University Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780873388436. As predominantly Methodists and other nonconformists, British immigrants were pietists, committed to conversion and the reform of society. They did not separate religion from civil government, bur rather integrated right belief with right behavior. Therefore they embraced reform movements, most notably temperance and abolitionism, as well as Sabbatarian laws.
  86. O'Brien, Glen; Carey, Hilary M. (3 March 2016). Methodism in Australia: A History. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 9781317097099. Sabbatarianism: For the non-Anglican Protestants of colonial Queensland (Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Baptists), desecration of the Sabbath was one of the great sins of the late nineteenth century.
  87. Watts, Michael R. (March 19, 2015). The Dissenters: Volume III: The Crisis and Conscience of Nonconformity, Volume 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 156–160. ISBN 9780198229698.
  88. Wigley, John (1980).The Rise and Fall of the Victorian Sunday. Manchester University Press. p. 800. ISBN 9780719007941. Following the formulation of the Westminster Confession, fully fledged Sabbatarianism quickly took root too, being embodied in an Act of 1661, then spreading northwards and westwards as the Highlands were opened up after the '45, during which time the doctrine lost its original force and vigour in the Lowlands.
  89. McGraw, Ryan M. (18 June 2014). A Heavenly Directory: Trinitarian Piety, Public Worship and a Reassessment of John Owen's Theology. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9783525550755.
  90. Smither, Edward L. (25 September 2014). Rethinking Constantine: History, Theology and Legacy. James Clarke & Co. p. 121. ISBN 9780227902721. Many Baptists have insisted upon the observance of Sunday as the Christian Sabbath, as a day of rest from "secular" work. For example, the Lord's Day article from the Westminster Confession (and its insistence upon Sunday rest) was transferred almost word-for-word into the Second London Baptist Confession of 1689.
  91. Smither, Edward L. (25 September 2014). Rethinking Constantine: History, Theology and Legacy. James Clarke & Co. p. 121. ISBN 9780227902721.
  92. Journal of the North Carolina Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 1921. p. 62.
  93. "Discipline of the Bible Methodist Connection of Churches"(PDF). 2014. p. 30. Retrieved19 June 2017.
  94. "About". The Lord’s Day Alliance of the U.S. 2017. Retrieved22 June 2017.
  95. Vincent, Ted (1994). The Rise and Fall of American Sport: Mudville's Revenge. University of Nebraska Press. p. 115. ISBN 9780803296138.
  96. Darrow, Clarence (2005). Closing Arguments: Clarence Darrow on Religion, Law, and Society. Ohio University Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780821416327.
  97. Fahlbusch, Erwin; Bromiley, Geoffrey William (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 787. ISBN 9780802824165.
  98. D.L. MOODY, "Weighed and Wanting," page 47
  99. "Beliefs :: The Official Site of the Seventh-day Adventist world church". www.adventist.org.
  100. Strong's Concordance.

Works cited

First-day
  • Dawn, Marva J. (1989). Keeping the Sabbath Wholly: Ceasing, Resting, Embracing, Feasting. Grand Rapids.
  • Dawn, Marva J. (2006). The Sense of the Call: A Sabbath Way of Life for Those Who Serve God, the Church, and the World.
  • United States Catholic Conference, Inc. (1997). "You Shall Love the Lord Your God with All Your Heart, and with All Your Soul, and with All Your Mind, Article 3, The Third Commandment". Catechism of the Catholic Church (2d ed.). New York City: Doubleday. 2168–2195.
Seventh-day
Non-Sabbatarian
Varying

Sabbath in Christianity
Sabbath in Christianity Language Watch Edit Sabbath in Christianity is the inclusion in Christianity of a Sabbath a day set aside for rest and worship a practice that was mandated for the Israelites in the Ten Commandments in line with God s blessing of the seventh day Saturday making it holy because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation 1 The practice was associated with the assembly of the people to worship in synagogues on the day known as the Shabbat Early Christians at first mainly Jewish observed the seventh day Sabbath with prayer and rest but gathered on the first day Sunday reckoned in Jewish tradition as beginning like the other days at sunset on what would now be considered the Saturday evening At the beginning of the second century Ignatius of Antioch approved non observance of the Sabbath 2 The now majority practice of Christians is to observe Sunday called the Lord s Day rather than the Jewish seventh day Sabbath as a day of rest and worship 2 Possibly because of a movement initiated in the early 14th century by Ewostatewos which gained approval under Emperor Zara Yaqob Christians in Ethiopia observe a two day Sabbath covering both Saturday and Sunday 3 4 In line with ideas of the 16th and 17th century Puritans the Presbyterian and Congregationalist as well as Methodist and Baptist Churches enshrined first day Sunday Sabbatarian views in their confessions of faith observing the Lord s Day as the Christian Sabbath 5 First day Sabbatarian Sunday Sabbatarian practices include attending morning and evening church services on Sundays receiving catechesis in Sunday School on the Lord s Day taking the Lord s Day off from servile labour not eating at restaurants on Sundays not Sunday shopping not using public transportation on the Lord s Day not participating in sporting events that are held on Sundays as well as not viewing television and the internet on Sundays Christians who are Sunday Sabbatarians often engage in works of mercy on the Lord s Day such as evangelism as well as visiting prisoners at jails and the sick at hospitals and nursing homes 6 7 8 9 Beginning about the 17th century a few groups of Restorationist Christians mostly Seventh day Sabbatarians formed communities that adopted a more literal interpretation of law either Christian or Mosaic Contents 1 History 1 1 Sabbath timing 1 2 Early Christianity 1 3 Corporate worship 1 4 Day of rest 1 5 From ancient times to Middle Ages 1 5 1 Continuations of Hebrew practices 1 6 Oriental Orthodoxy 1 7 Protestant Reformation 2 Common theology 2 1 Spiritual rest 3 Sabbatarian churches 3 1 Roman Catholicism 3 2 Eastern Orthodoxy 3 2 1 Eastern Christianity and Saturday vs Sunday observances 3 3 Lutheranism 3 4 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints 4 First day sabbatarian churches and organizations 4 1 Presbyterian Congregationalist and Reformed Baptist 4 2 General Baptist 4 3 Methodist 4 4 Interdenominational 5 Seventh day sabbatarian churches 5 1 Seventh day Adventist Church 6 Related terms 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 9 1 Citations 9 2 Works cited 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory EditSabbath timing Edit The Hebrew Shabbat the seventh day of the week is Saturday but in the Hebrew calendar a day begins at sunset and not at midnight The Shabbat therefore coincides with what is now commonly identified as Friday sunset to Saturday night when three stars are visible in the night sky The Sabbath continued to be observed on the seventh day in the early Christian church note 1 To this day the liturgical day continues to be observed in line with the Hebrew reckoning in the church calendars in Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy 10 In the Latin Church the liturgical day runs from midnight to midnight However the celebration of Sundays and of Solemnities begins already on the evening of the previous day 11 This is not justification for the change of the sabbath from Saturday to Sunday In non liturgical matters the canon law of the Latin Church defines a day as beginning at midnight 12 Early Christianity Edit Jewish Christians continued to observe Shabbat but met together at the end of the day on a Saturday evening In the gospels the women are described as coming to the empty tomb Greek eis mia twn sabbatwn lit toward the first day of the Sabbath 13 although it is often translated on the first day of the week This is made clear in Acts 20 7 when Paul continued his message until midnight and a young man went to sleep and fell out of the window It was Emperor Constantine who decreed that Christians should no longer keep the Sabbath and keep only to Sunday the latter part of the first day of the week calling it the Venerable Day of the Sun citation needed Christians justify this move because it is the day on which Jesus had risen from the dead and on which the Holy Spirit had come to the apostles 14 15 Although Christians meeting for worship on the first day of the week Sunday for Gentiles dates back to Acts and is historically mentioned around 115 AD Constantine s edict was the start of many more Christians observing only Sunday and not the Sabbath 14 Patristic writings attest that by the second century it had become commonplace to celebrate the Eucharist in a corporate day of worship on the first day 16 A Church Father Eusebius who became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about AD 314 stated that for Christians the sabbath had been transferred to Sunday 17 In his book From Sabbath to Sunday Adventist theologian Samuele Bacchiocchi contended that the transition from the Saturday Sabbath to Sunday in the early Christian church was due to pagan and political factors and the decline of standards for the Sabbath day 18 According to Socrates of Constantinople and Sozomen most of the early Church excluding Rome and Alexandria observed the seventh day Sabbath in Easter 19 20 Corporate worship Edit While the Lord s Day observance of the Eucharist was established separately from the Jewish Shabbat the centrality of the Eucharist itself made it the commonest early observance whenever Christians gathered for worship In many places and times as late as the 4th century they did continue to gather weekly on the Sabbath often in addition to the Lord s Day celebrating the Eucharist on both days 21 22 23 No disapproval of Sabbath observance of the Christian festival was expressed at the early church councils that dealt with Judaizing The Council of Laodicea 363 364 for example mandated only that Sabbath Eucharists must be observed in the same manner as those on the first day 23 Neander has suggested that Sabbath Eucharists in many places were kept as a feast in commemoration of the Creation 23 The issues about Hebrew practices that continued into the 2nd century tended to relate mostly to the Sabbath Justin Martyr who attended worship on the first day 24 wrote about the cessation of Hebrew Sabbath observance and stated that the Sabbath was enjoined as a temporary sign to Israel to teach it of human sinfulness Gal 3 24 25 25 no longer needed after Christ came without sin 26 He rejected the need to keep a literal seventh day Sabbath arguing instead that the new law requires you to keep the sabbath constantly 27 However Justin the Martyr believe the Sabbath has only attributed to Moses and the Israelites According to J N Andrews a historian and theologian he mentions In his Justin estimation the Sabbath was a Jewish institution absolutely unknown to good men before the time of Moses and of no authority whatever since the death of Christ He identifies this through Justin s writings to Ty The following passage is written by Justin the Martyr Do you see that the elements are not idle and keep no Sabbaths Remain as you were born For if there was no need of circumcision before Abraham or of the observance of Sabbaths of feasts and sacrifices before Moses no more need of them is there now after that according to the will of God Jesus Christ the Son of God has been born without sin of a virgin sprung from the stock of Abraham 28 With more clarification Andrews also states Not only does he Justin declare that the Jews were commanded to keep the sabbath because of their wickedness but in chapter nineteen he denies that any Sabbath existed before Moses Thus after naming Adam Abel Enoch Lot and Melchizedek he says Moreover all those righteous men already mentioned though they kept no Sabbaths were pleasing to God 29 30 With Christian corporate worship so clearly aligned with the Eucharist citation needed and allowed on the seventh day Hebrew Shabbat practices primarily involved the observance of a day of rest Day of rest Edit A common theme in criticism of Hebrew Shabbat rest was idleness found not to be in the Christian spirit of rest citation needed Irenaeus late 2nd century also citing continuous Sabbath observance wrote that the Christian will not be commanded to leave idle one day of rest who is constantly keeping sabbath 31 and Tertullian early 3rd century argued that we still more ought to observe a sabbath from all servile work always and not only every seventh day but through all time 32 This early metaphorical interpretation of Sabbath applied it to the entire Christian life 33 Ignatius cautioning against Judaizing in the Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 34 contrasts the Jewish Shabbat practices with the Christian life which includes the Lord s Day Let us therefore no longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish manner and rejoice in days of idleness But let every one of you keep the Sabbath after a spiritual manner rejoicing in meditation on the law not in relaxation of the body admiring the workmanship of God and not eating things prepared the day before nor using lukewarm drinks and walking within a prescribed space nor finding delight in dancing and plaudits which have no sense in them And after the observance of the Sabbath let every friend of Christ keep the Lord s Day Dominicam as a festival the resurrection day the queen and chief of all the days 35 The 2nd and 3rd centuries solidified the early church s emphasis upon Sunday worship and its rejection of a Jewish Mosaic Law based observation of the Sabbath and manner of rest Christian practice of following Sabbath after the manner of the Hebrews declined prompting Tertullian to note to us Sabbaths are strange and unobserved 36 Even as late as the 4th century Judaizing was still sometimes a problem within the Church but by this time it was repudiated strongly as heresy 37 38 39 Sunday was another work day in the Roman Empire On March 7 321 however Roman Emperor Constantine I issued a civil decree making Sunday a day of rest from labor stating 40 All judges and city people and the craftsmen shall rest upon the venerable day of the sun Country people however may freely attend to the cultivation of the fields because it frequently happens that no other days are better adapted for planting the grain in the furrows or the vines in trenches So that the advantage given by heavenly providence may not for the occasion of a short time perish While established only in civil law rather than religious principle citation needed the Church welcomed the development as a means by which Christians could the more easily attend Sunday worship and observe Christian rest At Laodicea also the Church encouraged Christians to make use of the day for Christian rest where possible 39 without ascribing to it any of the regulation of Mosaic Law and indeed anathematizing Hebrew observance on the Sabbath The civil law and its effects made possible a pattern in Church life that has been imitated throughout the centuries in many places and cultures wherever possible citation needed From ancient times to Middle Ages Edit Augustine of Hippo followed the early patristic writers in spiritualizing the meaning of the Sabbath commandment referring it to eschatological rest rather than observance of a literal day Such writing however did serve to deepen the idea of Christian rest on Sunday and its practice increased in prominence throughout the early Middle Ages 41 Thomas Aquinas taught that the Decalogue is an expression of natural law which binds all men and therefore the Sabbath commandment is a moral requirement along with the other nine Thus in the West Sunday rest became more closely associated with a Christian application of the Sabbath a development towards the idea of a Christian Sabbath rather than a Hebrew one 41 While Sunday worship and Sunday rest combined powerfully to relate to Sabbath commandment precepts the application of the commandment to Christian life was nevertheless a response within the law of liberty not restricted to a single day but continuous and not a displacement of the Sabbath in time citation needed Continuations of Hebrew practices Edit This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia s quality standards You can help The talk page may contain suggestions November 2020 This section relies too much on references to primary sources Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources September 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message Seventh day Sabbath was observed at least sporadically by a minority of groups during the Middle Ages In the early church in Ireland there is evidence that a sabbath rest on Saturday may have been kept along with Mass on Sunday as the Lord s Day It appears that many of the canon laws in Ireland from that period were derived from parts of the laws of Moses In Adomnan of Iona s biography of St Columba it describes Columba s death by having Columba say on a Saturday Today is truly my sabbath for it is my last day in this wearisome life when I shall keep the Sabbath after my troublesome labours At midnight this Sunday as Scripture saith I shall go the way of my fathers and he then dies that night The identification of this Sabbath day as a Saturday in the narrative is clear in the context because Columba is recorded as seeing an angel at the Mass on the previous Sunday and the narrative claims he dies in the same week on the Sabbath day at the end of the week during the Lord s night referring to Saturday night Sunday morning 42 An Eastern body of Christian Sabbath keepers mentioned from the 8th century to the 12th is called Athenians touch not because they abstained from uncleanness and intoxicating drinks called Athinginians in Neander This sect which had its principal seat in the city of Armorion in upper Phrygia where many Jews resided sprung out of a mixture of Judaism and Christianity They united baptism with the observance of all the rites of Judaism circumcision excepted We may perhaps recognize a branch of the older Judaizing sects 43 Cardinal Hergenrother says that they stood in intimate relation with Emperor Michael II AD 821 829 and testifies that they observed Sabbath 44 As late as the 11th century Cardinal Humbert still referred to the Nazarenes as a Sabbath keeping Christian body existing at that time But in the 10th and 11th centuries there was a great extension of sects from the East to the West Neander states that the corruption of the clergy furnished a most important vantage ground on which to attack the dominant church The abstemious life of these Christians the simplicity and earnestness of their preaching and teaching had their effect Thus we find them emerging at once in the 11th century in countries the most diverse and the most remote from each other in Italy France and even in the Harz districts in Germany Likewise also traces of Sabbath keepers are found in the times of Gregory I Gregory VII and in the 12th century in Lombardy 45 Oriental Orthodoxy Edit The Orthodox Tewahedo churches celebrate the Sabbath a practice proselytised in the Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia in the 1300s by Ewostatewos ዮስጣቴዎስ Ancient Greek Eysta8ios romanized Eustathios 46 In response to colonial pressure by missionaries of the Catholic Church in the 1500s the emperor Saint Gelawdewos wrote his Confession an apologia of traditional beliefs and practices including observation of the Sabbath and a theological defense of the Miaphysitism of Oriental Orthodoxy 47 Protestant Reformation Edit A recreation ground on Raasay displaying a sign Please do not use this playing field on Sundays Protestant reformers beginning in the 16th century brought new interpretations of Christian law to the West The Heidelberg Catechism of the Reformed Churches founded by John Calvin teaches that the moral law as contained in the Ten Commandments is binding for Christians and that it instructs Christians how to live in service to God in gratitude for His grace shown in redeeming mankind 48 Likewise Martin Luther in his work against the Antinomians rejected the idea of the abolition of the Ten Commandments 49 They also viewed Sunday rest as a civic institution established by human authority which provided an occasion for bodily rest and public worship 50 Another Protestant John Wesley stated This handwriting of ordinances our Lord did blot out take away and nail to His cross Col 2 14 But the moral law contained in the Ten Commandments and enforced by the prophets He did not take away The moral law stands on an entirely different foundation from the ceremonial or ritual law Every part of this law must remain in force upon all mankind and in all ages 51 Sabbatarianism arose and spread among both the continental and English Protestants during the 17th and 18th centuries The Puritans of England and Scotland brought a new rigorism into the observance of the Christian Lord s Day in reaction to the customary Sunday observance of the time which they regarded as lax They appealed to Sabbath ordinances with the idea that only the Bible can bind men s consciences on whether or how they will take a break from work or to impose an obligation to meet at a particular time Their influential reasoning spread to other denominations also and it is primarily through their influence that Sabbath has become the colloquial equivalent of Lord s Day or Sunday Sunday Sabbatarianism is enshrined in its most mature expression the Westminster Confession of Faith 1646 in the Calvinist theological tradition Paragraphs 7 and 8 of Chapter 21 Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day read 7 As it is the law of nature that in general a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God so in his Word by a positive moral and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath to be kept holy unto him which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ was the last day of the week and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week which in Scripture is called the Lord s day and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath 8 This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord when men after a due preparing of their hearts and ordering of their common affairs beforehand do not only observe a holy rest all the day from their own works words and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship and in the duties of necessity and mercy 52 The confession holds that not only is work forbidden on Sunday but also works words and thoughts about worldly employments and recreations Instead the whole day should be taken up with public and private exercises of one s worship and in the duties of necessity and mercy 52 Strict Sunday Sabbatarianism is sometimes called Puritan Sabbath which may be contrasted with Continental Sabbath 53 The latter follows the reformed confessions of faith of Continental Europe such as the Heidelberg Catechism which emphasize rest and worship on the Lord s Day but do not explicitly forbid recreational activities 54 However in practice many continental Reformed Christians also abstain from recreation on the Sabbath following the admonition by the Heidelberg Catechism s author Zacharaias Ursinus that To keep holy the Sabbath is not to spend the day in slothfulness and idleness 55 Though first day Sabbatarian practice declined in the 18th century the First Great Awakening in the 19th century led to a greater concern for strict Sunday observance The founding of the Day One Christian Ministries in 1831 was influenced by the teaching of Daniel Wilson 50 Common theology EditSee also Christian views on the Old Covenant Many Christian theologians believe that Sabbath observance is not binding for Christians today 56 57 citing for instance Col 2 16 17 58 Some Christian non Sabbatarians advocate physical Sabbath rest on any chosen day of the week 59 and some advocate Sabbath as a symbolic metaphor for rest in Christ the concept of Lord s Day is usually treated as synonymous with Sabbath This non Sabbatarian interpretation usually states that Jesus s obedience and the New Covenant fulfilled the laws of Sabbath the Ten Commandments and the Law of Moses which are thus considered not to be binding moral laws and sometimes considered abolished or abrogated While Sunday is often observed as the day of Christian assembly and worship in accordance with church tradition Sabbath commandments are dissociated from this practice Non Sabbatarian Christians also cite 2 Cor 3 2 3 in which believers are compared to a letter from Christ the result of our ministry written not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts this interpretation states that Christians accordingly no longer follow the Ten Commandments with dead orthodoxy tablets of stone but follow a new law written upon tablets of human hearts In 3 7 11 we read that if the ministry that brought death which was engraved in letters on stone came with glory will not the ministry of the Spirit be even more glorious And if what was fading away came with glory how much greater is the glory of that which lasts This is interpreted as teaching that New Covenant Christians are not bound by the Mosaic Law and that Sabbath keeping is not required Further because love is the fulfillment of the law Rom 13 10 the new covenant law is considered to be based entirely upon love and to rescind Sabbath requirements Methodist theologian Joseph D McPherson criticizes these views and teaches that the Lord s Day as the First day Christian Sabbath is binding 60 It has been argued by some that such as narrow view of the Christian Sabbath is overturned by St Paul s letter to the Romans in which he writes One man esteemeth one day above another another esteemeth every day alike Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind He that regardeth the day regardeth it unto the Lord and he that regardeth not the day to the Lord he doth not regard it Romans 14 5 6 It is a mistake to suppose that the Apostle has the Sabbath in mind when writing these words Such an erroneous supposition would be a wrenching of his words and meaning out of context It must first be remembered that he is writing to a church whose members are made up of both Jewish and Gentile converts Reliable Bible expositors such as Adam Clarke agree that Reference is being made here to the Jewish institutions and especially their festivals such as the passover pentecost feast of tabernacles new moons jubilee amp c Jewish Christians continued to think of these special days and festivals to be of moral obligation In contrast the Gentile Christians had never been trained to observe these special days related to the Jewish ceremonial law and therefore had no inclination nor desire to observe them Furthermore those who had been instrumental in their conversion enforced no such requirement upon them In consequence they paid no religious regard to these special days of the Jewish institution The converted Gentile writes Clarke esteemeth every day considers that all time is the Lord s and that each day should be devoted to the glory of God and that those festivals are not binding on him Accordingly it is concluded that With respect to the propriety or non propriety of keeping the Jewish special days and festivals Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind there is sufficient latitude allowed all may be fully satisfied Our translators have added the word alike in verse 5 This word according to Clarke should not be added nor it is acknowledged by any manuscript or ancient version By adding the word alike they make the text say what we can be sure was never intended viz that there is no distinction of days not even the Sabbath ant that every Christian is at liberty to consider even this day to be holy or not holy as he happens to be persuaded in his own mind That the Sabbath is of lasting obligation writes Clarke may be reasonable concluded from its institution and from its typical references All allow that the Sabbath is a type of rest in glory which remains for the people of God Now all types are intended to continue in full force till the antitype or thing signified take place consequently the Sabbath will continue in force till the consummation of all things Commentary 6 151 60 Spiritual rest Edit Non Sabbatarians who affirm that Sabbath keeping remains for God s people as in Heb 3 7 4 11 frequently regard this as present weeklong spiritual rest or future heavenly rest rather than as physical weekly rest For instance Irenaeus saw Sabbath rest from secular affairs for one day each week as a sign of the way that Christians were called to permanently devote themselves to God 61 and an eschatological symbol 62 One such interpretation of Hebrews states that seventh day Sabbath is no longer relevant as a regular literal day of rest but instead is a symbolic metaphor for the eternal salvation rest that Christians enjoy in Christ which was in turn prefigured by the promised land of Canaan The NT indicates that the sabbath followed its own channel and found its goal in Christ s redemptive work John 5 17 cf 7 23 Colossians 2 16 Matthew 11 28 12 14 Hebrews 3 7 4 11 It is true to the NT to say that the Mosaic Sabbath as a legal and weekly matter was a temporary symbol of a more fundamental and comprehensive salvation epitomized by and grounded in God s own creation Sabbath and brought to fulfillment in already not yet fashion in Christ s redemptive work Believers are indeed to keep Sabbath no longer by observance of a day of the week but now by the upholding of that to which it pointed the gospel of the Kingdom of God 63 Sabbatarian churches EditSee also Sabbatarianism Much of Western Christianity came to view Sunday as a transference of Sabbath observance to the first day identifying Sunday with a first day Christian Sabbath While first day Sabbatarian practice declined during the 18th century leaving few modern followers its concern for stricter Sunday observances did have influence in the West shaping the origin of the Christian Sabbath The term no longer applies to a specific set of practices but tends to be used to describe the general establishment of Sunday worship and rest observances within Christianity It does not necessarily imply the displacement of the Sabbath itself which is often recognized as remaining on Saturday As such the Christian Sabbath generally represents a reinterpretation of the meaning of the Sabbath in the light of Christian law emphases of practice and values Roman Catholicism Edit In 1998 Pope John Paul II wrote an apostolic letter Dies Domini on keeping the Lord s day holy He encouraged Catholics to remember the importance of keeping Sunday holy urging that it not lose its meaning by being blended with a frivolous weekend mentality 64 Seeking to uphold the Lord s Day Act in French Quebec the Catholic Sunday League was formed in 1923 to promote First day Sabbatarian restrictions in the province especially against movie theaters 65 In the Latin Church Sunday is kept in commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus and celebrated with the Eucharist Catholic Catechism 2177 66 It is also the day of leisure The Lord s Day is considered both the first day and the eighth day of the week symbolizing both first creation and new creation 2174 66 Roman Catholics view the first day as a day for assembly for worship 2178 Heb 10 25 66 but consider a day of rigorous rest not obligatory on Christians Rom 14 5 Col 2 16 67 Catholic recommendations to rest on Sunday do not hinder participation in ordinary and innocent occupations 68 In the spirit of the Sabbath Catholics ought to observe a day of rest from servile work which also becomes a day of protest against the servitude of work and the worship of money Catholic Catechism 2172 This day is often traditionally observed on Sunday in conjunction with the Lord s Day Catholic Catechism 2176 69 Cardinal James Gibbons affirmed Sunday observances as one of the examples of the Roman Catholic Church s sufficiency as guide Now the Scriptures alone do not contain all the truths which a Christian is bound to believe nor do they explicitly enjoin all the duties which he is obliged to practice Not to mention other examples is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday and to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work Is not the observance of this law among the most prominent of our sacred duties But you may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday a day which we never sanctify Faith of Our Fathers Cardinal Gibbons p 72 70 Eastern Orthodoxy Edit Orthodox Sunday worship is not a direct Sabbath observance The Eastern Orthodox Church observes the first day liturgical Sunday beginning Saturday evening as a weekly feast the remembrance of Christ s resurrection and a mini Pascha As such it tends to hold the first place within a week s observances sharing that place only with other major feasts which occur from time to time The Divine Liturgy is always celebrated joining the participants on earth with those who offer the worship in God s kingdom and hence joining the first day to the eighth day wherein the communion of the whole Church with Christ is fully realized As such it is never surpassed as a time for the Orthodox to assemble in worship The Church affirms its authority to appoint the time of this feast and all observances as deriving from the authority given to the apostles and passed to the bishops through the laying on of hands for the sake of the governance of the Church on earth and under the guidance of the Holy Spirit John 20 22 John 14 26 Rom 6 14 18 Rom 7 6 It does not treat Sunday worship as a transference of Sabbath worship but identifies the Sabbath still on Saturday as a Biblical type a precursor realized fully only after Christ s fulfillment of the Mosaic Law Mat 5 17 18 Thus the Sabbath and the Mosaic Law both remain as a teacher reminding Christians to worship in holiness but now according to grace in Christian observations and Sunday worship The grace received in baptism binds the Church to Christ who has given his people the freedom to seek him directly in relationship not to pursue whatever suits one s fancy The goal of that freedom is always union with Christ in theosis and the maintenance of that union all the time throughout this life and into the next which is sometimes described as the sanctification of time Grace therefore never permits of whatever is sinful or unhelpful to salvation such as laziness or hedonistic revelry Rather it becomes a stricter guide for behavior than any legal code even the Mosaic and disciplines the believer in some degree of ascetic endeavor Rom 6 14 18 71 Orthodoxy recognizes no mandated time for rest a day or any other span but the Church leads the individual to holiness in different ways and recognizes the need for economy and for rest Activities such as sleep relaxation and recreation become a matter of balance and proper handling and acceptance of God s mercy St Basil the Great expresses thanks for this in a prayer often said by Orthodox Christians in the morning after rising You do we bless O Most High God and Lord of mercy Who has given unto us sleep for rest from our infirmity and for repose of our much toiling flesh 72 In recognition of God s gifts therefore the Church welcomes and supports civil laws that provide a day away from labor which then become opportunities for Christians to pray rest and engage in acts of mercy In grace do Christians respond remembering both the example of the Sabbath rest and Christ s lordship Mk 2 21 28 Eastern Christianity and Saturday vs Sunday observances Edit Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches distinguish between the Sabbath Saturday and the Lord s Day Sunday and both continue to play a special role for the faithful Many parishes and monasteries will serve the Divine Liturgy on both Saturday morning and Sunday morning The church never allows strict fasting on any Saturday except Holy Saturday or Sunday and the fasting rules on those Saturdays and Sundays which fall during one of the fasting seasons such as Great Lent Apostles Fast etc are always relaxed to some degree During Great Lent when the celebration of the Liturgy is forbidden on weekdays there is always Liturgy on Saturday as well as Sunday The church also has a special cycle of Bible readings Epistle and Gospel for Saturdays and Sundays which is different from the cycle of readings allotted to weekdays However the Lord s Day being a celebration of the Resurrection is clearly given more emphasis For instance in the Russian Orthodox Church Sunday is always observed with an all night vigil on Saturday night and in all of the Eastern Churches it is amplified with special hymns which are chanted only on Sunday If a feast day falls on a Sunday it is always combined with the hymns for Sunday unless it is a Lord s Great Feast Saturday is celebrated as a sort of afterfeast for the previous Sunday on which several of the hymns from the previous Sunday are repeated In part Eastern Christians continue to celebrate Saturday as Sabbath because of its role in the history of salvation it was on a Saturday that Jesus rested in the cave tomb after the Passion For this reason also Saturday is a day for general commemoration of the departed and special requiem hymns are often chanted on this day Orthodox Christians make time to help the poor and needy as well on this day Lutheranism Edit Lutheran founder Martin Luther stated I wonder exceedingly how it came to be imputed to me that I should reject the law of Ten Commandments Whosoever abrogates the law must of necessity abrogate sin also 73 The Lutheran Augsburg Confession speaking of changes made by Roman Catholic pontiffs states They refer to the Sabbath day as having been changed into the Lord s Day contrary to the Decalogue as it seems Neither is there any example whereof they make more than concerning the changing of the Sabbath day Great say they is the power of the Church since it has dispensed with one of the Ten Commandments 74 Lutheran church historian Augustus Neander 75 states The festival of Sunday like all other festivals was always only a human ordinance 76 Lutheran writer Marva Dawn keeps a whole day as Sabbath advocating for rest during any weekly complete 24 hour period 77 and favoring rest from Saturday sunset to Sunday sunset 78 but regarding corporate worship as an essential part of God s Sabbath reclamation 79 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints Edit See also Sacrament meeting and Worship services of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints In 1831 Joseph Smith published a revelation commanding his related movement the formative Church of Christ Latter Day Saints to go to the house of prayer offer up their sacraments rest from their labors and pay their devotions on the Lord s day D amp C 59 9 12 Latter Day Saints believe this means performing no labor that would keep them from giving their full attention to spiritual matters Ex 20 10 LDS prophets have described this as meaning they should not shop hunt fish attend sports events or participate in similar activities on that day Elder Spencer W Kimball wrote in his The Miracle of Forgiveness that mere idle lounging on the Sabbath does not keep the day holy and that it calls for constructive thoughts and acts 80 Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints are encouraged to prepare their meals with singleness of heart on the Sabbath 81 and believe the day is only for righteous activities Is 58 13 In most areas of the world Latter day Saints worship on Sunday 82 First day sabbatarian churches and organizations EditMain article Sabbatarianism Sunday Sabbatarians The observance of the Lord s Day Sunday as the Christian Sabbath is known as first day Sabbatarianism and this view was historically heralded by nonconformist denominations such as Congregationalists Presbyterians Methodists and Baptists as well as many Episcopalians 83 84 85 86 First day sabbatarianism impacted popular Western Christian culture with influences remaining to the present day e g Sunday laws 87 The Sabbath Breakers by J C Dollman 1896 Presbyterian Congregationalist and Reformed Baptist Edit The Westminster Confession historically upheld by Presbyterians commands the belief of first day Sabbatarian doctrine 88 As it is the law of nature that in general a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God so in his Word by a positive moral and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath to be kept holy unto him which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ was the last day of the week and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week which in Scripture is called the Lord s day and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord when men after a due preparing of their hearts and ordering of their common affairs beforehand do not only observe a holy rest all the day from their own works words and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship and in the duties of necessity and mercy The Savoy Declaration upheld by Puritan Congregationalists 89 as well as the Second London Baptist Confession upheld by Reformed Baptists advanced first day Sabbatarian views identical to those expressed in the Westminster Confession 90 General Baptist Edit General Baptists also advocate first day Sabbatarian doctrine in their confessions of faith for example the Treatise on the Faith and Practice of the Free Will Baptists states 91 This is one day in seven which from the creation of the world God has set apart for sacred rest and holy service Under the former dispensation the seventh day of the week as commemorative of the work of creation was set apart for the Lord s Day Under the gospel the first day of the week in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ and by authority of Christ and the apostles is observed as the Christian Sabbath On this day all men are required to refrain from secular labor and devote themselves to the worship and service of God 91 Methodist Edit In keeping with historic Methodism 92 the Discipline of the Bible Methodist Connection of Churches enshrines first day Sabbatarianism 93 We believe that the Lord s Day celebrated on Sunday the first day of the week throughout the Christian church is the Christian sabbath which we reverently observe as a day of rest and worship and as the continuing memorial of our Savior s resurrection For this reason we abstain from secular work and from all merchandising on this holy day except that required by mercy or necessity 93 Regarded as the prince of Methodist theologians William Burt Pope explained that Its the Sabbath original purpose to commemorate the creation and bear witness to the government of the One God was retained but as the new creation of mankind in Christ Jesus had more fully revealed the Triune God the day of the Lord s resurrection the first day of the week became the Christian Sabbath or the Lord s Day 60 Pope delineated that the Christian Sabbath was given by Christ Himself the Lord also of the Sabbath as with His resurrection began a formal appointment of the First day and with the Pentecost He finally ratified it 60 Methodist systematic theologian Richard Watson delineated that the observance of the Sabbath is part of the unchanging moral law and its observance is connected throughout the prophetic age with the highest promises its violations with the severest maledictions it was among the Jews in our Lord s time a day of solemn religious assembling and was so observed by him when changed to the first day of the week it was the day on which the Christians assembled it was called by way of eminence the Lord s day and we have inspired authority to say that both under the Old and New Testament dispensations it is used as an expressive type of the heavenly and eternal rest 60 Interdenominational Edit Organizations that promote Sunday Sabbatarianism include Day One Christian Ministries formerly known as the Lord s Day Observance Society in the UK With unwavering support by mainstream Christian denominations Sabbatarian organizations were formed such as the American Sabbath Union also known as the Lord s Day Alliance and the Sunday League of America following the American Civil War to preserve the importance of Sunday as the Christian Sabbath 5 Founded in 1888 the Lord s Day Alliance continues to encourage all people to recognize and observe a day of Sabbath rest and to worship the risen Lord Jesus Christ on the Lord s Day Sunday 94 The Board of Managers of the Lord s Day Alliance is composed of clergy and laity from Christian churches including Baptist Catholic Episcopalian Friends Lutheran Methodist Non Denominationalist Orthodox Presbyterian and Reformed traditions 94 The Woman s Christian Temperance Union also supports Sabbatarian views and worked to reflect these in the public sphere 95 In Canada the Lord s Day Alliance renamed the People for Sunday Association of Canada was founded there and it lobbied successfully to pass in 1906 the Lord s Day Act which was not repealed until 1985 96 Throughout their history Sabbatarian organizations such as the Lord s Day Alliance have mounted campaigns with support in both Canada and Britain from labour unions with the goals of preventing secular and commercial interests from hampering freedom of worship and preventing them from exploiting workers 97 The founder of the Moody Bible Institute declares Sabbath was binding in Eden and it has been in force ever since This fourth commandment begins with the word remember showing that the Sabbath already existed when God wrote the law on the tables of stone at Sinai How can men claim that this one commandment has been done away with when they will admit that the other nine are still binding 98 Seventh day sabbatarian churches Edit Oldest Sabbatarian Meeting House in America Seventh Day Baptists built in 1729 in Newport Rhode Island now owned by Newport Historical Society Main articles Sabbath in seventh day churches and List of Sabbath keeping churches Seventh day Protestants regard Sabbath as a day of rest for all mankind and not Israel alone based on Jesus s statement the Sabbath was made for man i e purposed for humankind at the time of its creation Mark 2 27 cf Heb 4 and on early church Sabbath meetings Seventh day Sabbatarianism has been criticized as an effort to combine Old Testament laws practiced in Judaism with Christianity or to revive the Judaizers of the Epistles or the Ebionites Seventh day Sabbatarians practice a strict seventh day Sabbath observance similar to Shabbat in Judaism John Traske 1586 1636 and Thomas Brabourne first advocated seventh day Sabbatarianism in England Their ideas gave rise to the Seventh Day Baptists formed in early 17th century in England Samuel and Tacy Hubbard began the first American congregation on Rhode Island in 1671 Grace Communion International Armstrongism taught seventh day Sabbath observance The United Church of God teaches seventh day Sabbath observance Seventh day Adventist Church Edit A Seventh day Adventist Church See also Seventh day Adventist worship Armstrongism and Seventh day Adventist eschatology The Seventh day Adventist Church arose in the mid 19th century in America after Rachel Oakes a Seventh Day Baptist gave a tract about the Sabbath to an Adventist Millerite who passed it on to Ellen G White Fundamental Belief 20 of the Seventh day Adventist Church states The beneficent Creator after the six days of Creation rested on the seventh day and instituted the Sabbath for all people as a memorial of Creation The fourth commandment of God s unchangeable law requires the observance of this seventh day Sabbath as the day of rest worship and ministry in harmony with the teaching and practice of Jesus the Lord of the Sabbath The Sabbath is a day of delightful communion with God and one another It is a symbol of our redemption in Christ a sign of our sanctification a token of our allegiance and a foretaste of our eternal future in God s kingdom The Sabbath is God s perpetual sign of His eternal covenant between Him and His people Joyful observance of this holy time from evening to evening sunset to sunset is a celebration of God s creative and redemptive acts Gen 2 1 3 Ex 20 8 11 Luke 4 16 Isa 56 5 Isa 6 Isa 58 13 Isa 14 Matt 12 1 12 Ex 31 13 17 Eze 20 12 Eze 20 Deut 5 12 15 Heb 4 1 11 Lev 23 32 Mark 1 32 Seventh day Adventist Fundamental Beliefs 99 Related terms EditBy synecdoche the term Sabbath in the New Testament may also mean simply a se nnight 100 or seven day week namely the interval between two Sabbaths Jesus s parable of the Pharisee and the Publican describes the Pharisee as fasting twice a week Greek dis tou sabbatou literally twice of the Sabbath Seven annual Biblical festivals called by the name miqra called assembly in Hebrew and High Sabbath in English serve as supplemental testimonies to Sabbath These are recorded in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy and do not necessarily occur on the Sabbath They are observed by Jews and a minority of Christians Three of them occur in spring the first and seventh days of Passover and Pentecost Four occur in fall in the seventh month and are also called Shabbaton the Feast of Trumpets Yom Kippur Sabbath of Sabbaths and the first and eighth days of Tabernacles The year of Shmita Hebrew שמיטה literally release also called Sabbatical Year is the seventh year of the seven year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah for the Land of Israel During Shmita the land is to be left to lie fallow A second aspect of Shmita concerns debts and loans when the year ends personal debts are considered nullified and forgiven Jewish Shabbat is a weekly day of rest cognate to Christian Sabbath observed from sundown on Friday until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night it is also observed by a minority of Christians Customarily Shabbat is ushered in by lighting candles shortly before sunset at halakhicallly calculated times that change from week to week and from place to place The new moon occurring every 29 or 30 days is an important separately sanctioned occasion in Judaism and some other faiths It is not widely regarded as Sabbath but some Hebrew Roots and Pentecostal churches such as the native New Israelites of Peru and the Creation Seventh Day Adventist Church do keep the day of the new moon as Sabbath or rest day from evening to evening New moon services can last all day In South Africa Christian Boers have celebrated December 16 the Day of the Vow now called the Day of Reconciliation as annual Sabbath holy day of thanksgiving since 1838 commemorating a famous Boer victory over the Zulu Kingdom Many early Christian writers from the 2nd century such as pseudo Barnabas Irenaeus Justin Martyr and Hippolytus of Rome followed rabbinic Judaism the Mishna in interpreting Sabbath not as a literal day of rest but as a thousand year reign of Jesus Christ which would follow six millennia of world history 33 Secular use of Sabbath for rest day while it usually refers to Sunday is often stated in North America to refer to different purposes for the rest day than those of Christendom In McGowan v Maryland 1961 the Supreme Court of the United States held that contemporary Maryland blue laws typically Sunday rest laws were intended to promote the secular values of health safety recreation and general well being through a common day of rest and that this day coinciding with majority Christian Sabbath neither reduces its effectiveness for secular purposes nor prevents adherents of other religions from observing their own holy days See also EditGregorian calendar Christianity portalNotes Edit The civil calendar of the ancient Roman Empire the Julian calendar founded in 45 BC marked days loosely in general practice since the timing of midnight was difficult to determine widely at that time Thus the early church easily adopted for its own use the Hebrew calendar s sunset to sunset formula for marking the days even after it began to calculate Easter according to the Julian calendar Its daily cycle of church services began with Vespers which was often celebrated just after sunset in the early evening This pattern made its way into both Roman and Eastern liturgical practice and continues in use in the Eastern Orthodox Church to this day References EditCitations Edit Genesis 2 3 a b Everett Ferguson ed 8 October 2013 Encyclopedia of Early Christianity 2nd ed Routledge pp 1007 1008 ISBN 9781136611582 Kevin Shillington ed 2013 Encyclopedia of African History 1 Routledge p 853 ISBN 9781135456696 Selassie Brahana 2000 Towards a Fuller Vision My Life amp the Ethiopian Orthodox Church Minerva Press ISBN 9781861069481 Retrieved 23 June 2017 The main reason they gave for the two day Sabbath was that these two days commemorated the Lord s body that rested in the grave and His resurrection the following day a b Tucker Karen B Westerfield 27 April 2011 American Methodist Worship Oxford University Press p 45 ISBN 9780199774159 Hughes James R 2006 The Sabbath A Universal and Enduring Ordinance of God PDF Evangelical Presbyterian Church Retrieved 6 October 2020 Why an Evening Worship Service Christ United Reformed Church 8 December 2010 Retrieved 6 October 2020 Jones M 12 June 2015 Organized Sports on Sundays Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals Retrieved 6 October 2020 Edwards Jonathan The Perpetuity and Change of the Sabbath Retrieved 24 June 2017 Canon of Holy Saturday Orthodox Kontakion Exceeding blessed is this Sabbath on which Christ has slumbered to rise on the third day Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar 3 Code of Canon Law canon 202 1 www vatican va Matthew 28 1 Mark 16 2 a b Sabbath Cross F L ed The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church New York Oxford University Press 2005 p 1443 Sunday Cross F L ed The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church New York Oxford University Press 2005 p 1569 Bauckham R J 1982 The Lord s Day In Carson D A ed From Sabbath to Lord s Day Wipf amp Stock Publishers Zondervan pp 221 50 ISBN 978 1 57910 307 1 Guy Laurie 4 November 2004 Introducing Early Christianity A Topical Survey of Its Life Beliefs and Practices InterVarsity Press p 213 ISBN 9780830826988 Significantly the first Christian writer to suggest that the Sabbath had been transferred to Sunday is Eusbius of Caesarea post 330 Biblical Perspectives is under construction Retrieved 2020 05 21 Socrates Church History Book 5 Chapter 22 Sozomen Church History Book 7 Chapter 19 Socrates Scholasticus Ecclesiastical History Book V Chapter 22 Philip Schaff et al Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers Second Series NPNF2 Vol 2 Sozomen Ecclesiastical History Book VII Chapter 19 Philip Schaff et al Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers Second Series NPNF2 Vol 2 a b c Schaff Philip Wace Henry eds Synod of Laodicea Canon 16 Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers Second Series NPNF2 Vol 14 Editorial notes of Van Espen Among the Greeks the Sabbath was kept exactly as the Lord s day except so far as the cessation of work was concerned Justin Martyr First Apology 67 Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho 21 Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho 23 Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho 12 3 Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho Chapter 23 Andrew John Missionary Historian Theologian Ellen G White Writings Steam Press Seventh day Adventist Publishing Assoc 1873 Retrieved 28 April 2021 Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho Chapter 19 Irenaeus late 2d cen Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching 96 Tertullian Adv Jud 4 2 a b Bauckham R J 1982 Sabbath and Sunday in the Post Apostolic Church In Carson Don A ed From Sabbath to Lord s Day Wipf amp Stock Publishers Zondervan pp 252 98 ISBN 978 1 57910 307 1 Ignatius of Antioch The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians chapters 8 10 New Advent Ignatius Epistle to the Magnesians 9 Christian Classics Ethereal Library Tertullian On Idolatry 14 Sozomen Ecclesiastical History Book VII Chapter 18 Schaff Philip Wace Henry eds The Synodal Letter of the First Council of Nicea Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers Second Series NPNF2 Vol 14 Christian Classics Ethereal Library a b Schaff Philip Wace Henry eds Synod of Laodicea Canon 29 Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers Second Series NPNF2 Vol 14 retrieved 25 Jun 2015 Ayer Joseph Cullen 1913 A Source Book for Ancient Church History 2 1 1 59g New York City Charles Scribner s Sons pp 284 5 a b Bauckham R J 1982 Sabbath and Sunday in the Medieval Church in the West In Carson Don A ed From Sabbath to Lord s Day Wipf amp Stock Publishers Zondervan pp 299 310 ISBN 978 1 57910 307 1 Adomnan of Iona Life of St Columba Penguin books 1995 Neander fourth period 6 428 Kirchengeschichte I 527 SABBATH DURING THE DARK AGES dedication www3 50megs com Marcus Harold G 1994 A History of Ethiopia University of California Press p 24 ISBN 978 0 520 08121 5 Abir Mordechai 28 October 2013 Ethiopia and the Red Sea The Rise and Decline of the Solomonic Dynasty and Muslim European Rivalry in the Region Routledge ISBN 978 1 136 28090 0 God s Law in Old and New Covenants Orthodox Presbyterian Church 2018 Retrieved 1 June 2018 Martin Luther Wider die Antinomer Against the Antinomians secs 6 8 in his Sammtliche Schriften ed by Joh ann Georg Walch Vol 20 St Louis Concordia 1890 cols 1613 1614 German a b Bauckham R J 1982 Sabbath and Sunday in the Protestant Tradition In Carson D A ed From Sabbath to Lord s Day Wipf amp Stock Publishers Zondervan pp 311 42 ISBN 978 1 57910 307 1 John Wesley Sermons on Several Occasions 2 Vol Edition Vol I pages 221 222 a b Assembly Westminster The Confession of Faith of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster Marsden George 1991 Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism William B Eerdmans Publishing Company p 25 ISBN 9780802805393 Heidelberg Catechism Q amp A 103 Ursinus Zacharias 1956 Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism William B Eerdmans Publishing Company p 558 S Bacchiocchi From Sabbath to Sunday Rome The Pontifical Gregorian University Press 1977 R J Bauckham The Lord s Day and Sabbath and Sunday in the Postapostolic Church in From Sabbath to Lord s Day ed D A Carson Grand Rapids Zondervan 1982 221 98 R T Beckwith and W Stott This Is the Day London Marshall Morgan amp Scott 1978 H Bietenhard Lord Master NIDNTT 2 508 20 R H Charles Revelation of St John 2 vols ICC Edinburgh T amp T Clark 1920 J S Clemens Lord s Day in Dictionary of the Apostolic Church ed J Hastings 2 vols Edinburgh T amp T Clark 1915 1 707 10 A Deissmann Light from the Ancient East Grand Rapids Baker 1965 repr J D G Dunn The Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon NIGTC Grand Rapids Eerdmans 1996 T C Eskenazi et al eds The Sabbath in Jewish and Christian Traditions New York Crossroad 1991 J A Fitzmyer kyrios kyriakos EDNT 2 331 W Foerster kyriakos TDNT 3 1095 96 C N Jefford Did Ignatius of Antioch Know the Didache in The Didache in Context ed C N Jefford NovTSup 77 Leiden E J Brill 1995 330 51 J Jeremias pasxa TDNT 5 896 904 P K Jewett The Lord s Day Grand Rapids Eerdmans 1971 J Laansma I Will Give You Rest The Background and Significance of the Rest Motif in the New Testament with Special Reference to Mt 11 and Heb 3 4 Ph D dissertation University of Aberdeen 1995 Tubingen J C B Mohr forthcoming Martin R P amp Davids P H 2000 1997 Dictionary of the later New Testament and its developments electronic ed Downers Grove Illinois InterVarsity Press J Murray Romans 14 5 and the Weekly Sabbath in Epistle to the Romans NICNT Grand Rapids Eerdmans 1959 1965 257 59 W Rordorf Sabbat und Sonntag in der Alten Kirche Zurich Theologischer Verlag 1972 texts of primary sources W Rordorf Sunday London SCM 1968 W Rordorf Sunday The Fullness of Christian Liturgical Time StudLit 14 1982 90 96 W R Schoedel Ignatius of Antioch Herm Philadelphia Fortress 1985 C Spicq kyriakos in Theological Lexicon of the New Testament 3 vols Peabody Massachusetts Hendrickson 1994 2 338 40 W Stott A Note on the Word KYRIAKH in Rev 1 10 NTS 12 1965 70 75 W Stott Sabbath Lord s Day NIDNTT 3 405 15 K A Strand ed The Sabbath in Scripture and History Washington D C Review and Herald Publishing Association 1982 M M B Turner The Sabbath Sunday and the Law in Luke Acts in From Sabbath to Lord s Day ed D A Carson Grand Rapids Zondervan 1982 99 157 P S Alexander Aqedah in Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation ed R J Coggins and J L Houlden Philadelphia Trinity Press International 1990 44 47 J Behm 8yw ktl TDNT III 180 90 R J Daly The Origins of the Christian Doctrine of Sacrifice Philadelphia Fortress 1978 59 65 R J Daly The Soteriological Significance of the Sacrifice of Isaac CBQ 39 1977 45 75 P R Davies and B D Chilton The Aqedah A Revised Tradition History CBQ 40 1978 514 46 G D Fee II Corinthians vi 14 vii 1 NTS 23 1976 77 140 61 E Ferguson Spiritual Sacrifice in Early Christianity and Its Environment ANRW 2 23 2 1151 89 Hawthorne G F Martin R P amp Reid D G 1993 Dictionary of Paul and his letters 857 Downers Grove Ill InterVarsity Press M Hengel The Atonement The Origins of the Doctrine in the New Testament Philadelphia Fortress 1981 J Jeremias pasxa TDNT V 896 904 E L Kendall A Living Sacrifice London SCM 1960 H J Klauck Kultische Symbolsprache bei Paulus in Gemeinde Amt Sacrament Neutestamentliche Perspektiven ed H J Klauck Wurzburg Echter 1989 348 58 J Lambrecht Reconcile Yourselves A Reading of 2 Cor 5 11 21 in The Diakonia of the Spirit 2 Cor 4 7 7 4 Rome Benedictina 1989 S Lyonnet and L Sabourin Sin Redemption and Sacrifice AnBib 48 Rome Pontifical Biblical Institute 1970 L Morris The Atonement Downers Grove Illinois InterVarsity 1983 43 67 F Thiele and C Brown Sacrifice etc NIDNTT 3 415 38 H Thyen 8ysia 8yw EDNT 2 161 63 R K Yerkes Sacrifice in Greek and Roman Religions and Early Judaism New York Scribners 1952 F M Young Sacrifice and the Death of Christ London SCM 1975 Colossians 2 16 17 notes ESV Study Bible The false teachers were advocating a number of Jewish observances arguing that they were essential for spiritual advancement On new moon see note on Num 28 11 15 The old covenant observances pointed to a future reality that was fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ cf Heb 10 1 Christians are no longer obligated to observe a festival new moon Sabbath Col 2 16 for what these things foreshadowed has been fulfilled in Christ It is debated whether the Sabbaths in question included the regular seventh day rest of the fourth commandment or were only the special Sabbaths of the Jewish festal calendar Dawn Marva J 2006 The Sense of the Call A Sabbath Way of Life for Those Who Serve God the Church and the World pp 55 6 a b c d e McPherson Joseph D 2016 The Authority by which the Sabbath was Changed to the First Day of the Week The Arminian 34 2 3 4 Against Heresies 3 16 1 Against Heresies 4 33 2 Martin R P amp Davids P H 2000 1997 Dictionary of the Later New Testament and Its Developments electronic ed Downers Grove Illinois InterVarsity Press John Paul II 1998 Dies Domini May 31 1998 in Latin Holy See Retrieved 28 February 2021 Roy Christian 2005 Traditional Festivals A Multicultural Encyclopedia ABC CLIO p 457 ISBN 9781576070895 However an amendment was made that left is enforcement to the discretion of the provinces so that it remained a dead letter in mostly French Quebec A Catholic Sunday League was formed in 1923 to combat this laxity and promote sabbatarian restrictions in that province especially against movie theaters a b c U S Catholic Conference 1997 pp 580 6 Sabbath The Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 Sabbatarians The Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 Celebrating the Lord s Day PDF U S Council of Catholic Bishops retrieved 8 July 2015 Gibbons James 1917 VIII The Church and the Bible Faith of Our Fathers p 72 Archived from the original on 2006 08 29 First published in 1876 Orthodox Study Bible St Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology 2008 p 1533 A Prayer Book for Orthodox Christians Holy Transfiguration Monastery Boston MA 1987 p 7 Martin Luther Spiritual Antichrist pp 71 2 The Augsburg Confession 1530 AD Lutheran part 2 art 7 in Philip Schaff the Creeds of Christiandom 4th Edition vol 3 p64 Augustus Neander Christian Classics Ethereal Library Christian Classics Ethereal Library www ccel org Augustus Neander History of the Christian Religion and Church Vol 1 page 186 Dawn 2006 pp 55 6 Dawn 1989 Appendix In Bacchiocchi Samuele 1998 7 The Sabbath Under Crossfire A Biblical Analysis Of Recent Sabbath Sunday Developments Biblical Perspectives Dawn 2006 pp 69 71 The Miracle of Forgiveness pp 96 97 Doctrine and Covenants 59 ChurchofJesusChrist org Intellectual Reserve Inc Retrieved December 22 2019 Sabbath Day ChurchofJesusChrist org Intellectual Reserve Inc Retrieved December 22 2019 Roth Randolph A 25 April 2002 The Democratic Dilemma Religion Reform and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont 1791 1850 Cambridge University Press p 171 ISBN 9780521317733 Except for the strong support of Episcopalians in Windsor and Woodstock the Sabbatarians found their appeal limited almost exclusively to Congregationalists and Presbyterians some of whom did not fear state action on religious matters of interdenominational concern Heyck Thomas 27 September 2013 A History of the Peoples of the British Isles From 1688 to 1914 Taylor amp Francis p 251 ISBN 9781134415205 Yet the degree of overlap between the middle class and nonconformity Baptists Congregregationalists Wesleyan Methodists Quakers Presbyterians and Unitarians was substantial Most nonconformist denominations frowned on drink dancing and the theater and they promoted Sabbatarianism the policy of prohibiting trade and public recreation on Sundays Vugt William E Van 2006 British Buckeyes The English Scots and Welsh in Ohio 1700 1900 Kent State University Press p 55 ISBN 9780873388436 As predominantly Methodists and other nonconformists British immigrants were pietists committed to conversion and the reform of society They did not separate religion from civil government bur rather integrated right belief with right behavior Therefore they embraced reform movements most notably temperance and abolitionism as well as Sabbatarian laws O Brien Glen Carey Hilary M 3 March 2016 Methodism in Australia A History Routledge p 83 ISBN 9781317097099 Sabbatarianism For the non Anglican Protestants of colonial Queensland Methodists Presbyterians Congregationalists and Baptists desecration of the Sabbath was one of the great sins of the late nineteenth century Watts Michael R March 19 2015 The Dissenters Volume III The Crisis and Conscience of Nonconformity Volume 3 Oxford University Press pp 156 160 ISBN 9780198229698 Wigley John 1980 The Rise and Fall of the Victorian Sunday Manchester University Press p 800 ISBN 9780719007941 Following the formulation of the Westminster Confession fully fledged Sabbatarianism quickly took root too being embodied in an Act of 1661 then spreading northwards and westwards as the Highlands were opened up after the 45 during which time the doctrine lost its original force and vigour in the Lowlands McGraw Ryan M 18 June 2014 A Heavenly Directory Trinitarian Piety Public Worship and a Reassessment of John Owen s Theology Vandenhoeck amp Ruprecht pp 23 24 ISBN 9783525550755 Smither Edward L 25 September 2014 Rethinking Constantine History Theology and Legacy James Clarke amp Co p 121 ISBN 9780227902721 Many Baptists have insisted upon the observance of Sunday as the Christian Sabbath as a day of rest from secular work For example the Lord s Day article from the Westminster Confession and its insistence upon Sunday rest was transferred almost word for word into the Second London Baptist Confession of 1689 a b Smither Edward L 25 September 2014 Rethinking Constantine History Theology and Legacy James Clarke amp Co p 121 ISBN 9780227902721 Journal of the North Carolina Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South 1921 p 62 a b Discipline of the Bible Methodist Connection of Churches PDF 2014 p 30 Retrieved 19 June 2017 a b About The Lord s Day Alliance of the U S 2017 Retrieved 22 June 2017 Vincent Ted 1994 The Rise and Fall of American Sport Mudville s Revenge University of Nebraska Press p 115 ISBN 9780803296138 Darrow Clarence 2005 Closing Arguments Clarence Darrow on Religion Law and Society Ohio University Press p 39 ISBN 9780821416327 Fahlbusch Erwin Bromiley Geoffrey William 2005 The Encyclopedia of Christianity Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 787 ISBN 9780802824165 D L MOODY Weighed and Wanting page 47 Beliefs The Official Site of the Seventh day Adventist world church www adventist org Strong s Concordance Works cited Edit First dayDawn Marva J 1989 Keeping the Sabbath Wholly Ceasing Resting Embracing Feasting Grand Rapids Dawn Marva J 2006 The Sense of the Call A Sabbath Way of Life for Those Who Serve God the Church and the World United States Catholic Conference Inc 1997 You Shall Love the Lord Your God with All Your Heart and with All Your Soul and with All Your Mind Article 3 The Third Commandment Catechism of the Catholic Church 2d ed New York City Doubleday 2168 2195 Seventh dayBacchiocchi Samuele 1977 From Sabbath to Sunday Pontifical Gregorian University Press Biblical Perspectives Bacchiocchi Samuele June 1980 Divine Rest for Human Restlessness Biblical Perspectives ISBN 978 99946 1 024 2 Bacchiocchi Samuele 1998 The Sabbath Under Crossfire A Biblical Analysis Of Recent Sabbath Sunday Developments Biblical Perspectives Ford Desmond 1981 The Forgotten Day Strand Kenneth A ed July 1982 The Sabbath in Scripture and History Washington D C Review and Herald Publishing Association ISBN 978 0 8280 0037 6 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Tonstad Sigve K November 2009 The Lost Meaning of the Seventh Day Berrien Springs Michigan Andrews University Press ISBN 978 1 883925 65 9 Non SabbatarianBrinsmead Robert June 1981 Sabbatarianism Re examined Verdict Publishing 4 4 Ratzlaff Dale Muth Don Tinker Richard Fredericks Richard 2003 1990 Sabbath in Christ VaryingCarson Don A ed 1982 From Sabbath to Lord s Day Wipf amp Stock Publishers Zondervan ISBN 978 1 57910 307 1 Further reading EditCotton John Paul From Sabbath to Sunday a study in early Christianity 1933 Kraft Robert A 1965 Some Notes on Sabbath Observance in Early Christianity Andrews University Seminary Studies 3 1 18 33 Land Gary Historical Dictionary of the Seventh day Adventists Rowman amp Littlefield 2014 Miller Stephen The Peculiar life of Sundays Harvard University Press 2008 Nekrutman David 2020 Your Sabbath Invitation The End Times amp You External links EditThe Lord s Day the Christian Sabbath by James Chrystie Reformed Presbyterian Church The Christian Week and Sabbath by Methodist theologian Daniel D Whedon Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sabbath in Christianity amp oldid 1052849645, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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