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Saccorhytus

Saccorhytus (from Latin saccus "bag" and Ancient Greek ῥύτις rhytis "wrinkle") is an extinct genus of animal belonging to the superphylum Deuterostomia, which is represented by a single species, Saccorhytus coronarius (from Latin attributive coronarius "[of a] crown"). Having lived approximately 540 million years ago in the Fortunian stage of the Cambrian Period, it is the oldest known confirmed species of this superphylum.

Saccorhytus
Temporal range: Earliest Cambrian (Fortunian),540 Ma
Artist's reconstruction of Saccorhytus coronarius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Saccorhytida
Han et al., 2017
Family: Saccorhytidae
Han et al., 2017
Genus: Saccorhytus
Han et al., 2017
Species:
S. coronarius
Binomial name
Saccorhytus coronarius
Han et al., 2017

Fossils of the species were first discovered in the Kuanchuanpu Formation of Shaanxi province of China by a team of scientists from the United Kingdom, China and Germany, and the findings were first published in January 2017.

Contents

Saccorhytus was only about a millimetre (1.3 mm) in size and is characterised by its globular or hemispherical body with a prominent mouth. Its body was covered by a thick but flexible cuticle. It had four nodulate ridges above its mouth. Around its body are eight openings in the form of truncated cones with radial folds, termed "body cones." Two sets of small circular pores also occur on the body. One set is widely separated and runs parallel to the body cones. It may have had a sensory function, though they could have alternatively released internal contents like adhesive mucus or gametes. The other set is more dorsal and consists of sub-linear arrays. This set of pores may have housed bristles, which may have been used for touching the animal's surroundings and related functions, including temporary attachment.

There is no evident anus, which means that the animal must have consumed its food and excreted it from the same orifice, though the body cones may have served this function as well in addition to expelling water. However, the strong folding found in the fossils makes this conclusion tentative, with Simon Conway Morris, one of the British scientists involved in its discovery, admitting the possibility that the team simply has not spotted it.

Saccorhytus is classified as a deuterostome due to its possession of body openings in the form of its body cones, which appear similar to apparently equivalent structures in vetulicolians and vetulocystids, and thus was thought to be closely related to those two clades by Han et al. Below is a simplified phylogenetic tree based on that constructed by Han et al.

Since the earliest deuterostomes had a one-way through gut, the evident lack of an anus may either be a secondary loss (as seen in ophiurioids) or a plesiomorphic trait inherited from more primitive bilaterian ancestors, which may be linked to acoels and xenoturbellids.

Saccorhytus most likely lived a meiofaunal lifestyle, with its body plan suited for an interstitial habitat, such as its thick but flexible cuticle providing protection and allowing it to wriggle through grains of sand, and the dorsal set of circular pores could have allowed it to attach itself to them. While feeding, the large quantities of water it would swallow would then be expelled through its body cones.

  1. Ghosh, Pallab (30 January 2017). "Scientists find 'oldest human ancestor'". BBC. Retrieved30 January 2017.
  2. "Bag-like sea creature was humans' oldest known ancestor". Phys.org. 30 January 2017. Retrieved30 January 2017.
  3. Han, Jian; Morris, Simon Conway; Ou, Qiang; Shu, Degan; Huang, Hai (2017). "Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)". Nature. 542 (7640): 228–231. Bibcode:2017Natur.542..228H. doi:10.1038/nature21072. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 28135722. S2CID 353780.
  4. Wade, Nicholas (30 January 2017). "This Prehistoric Human Ancestor Was All Mouth". New York Times. Retrieved31 January 2017.
  5. Khan, Amina (31 January 2017). "Humans, meet the ancient sea creature at the other end of your family tree". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved1 February 2017.
  6. Lindermann, Katherine (30 January 2017). "Meet your earliest known ancestor: Saccorhytus". ResearchGate (Interview). Retrieved30 January 2017.
  7. Davis, Nicola (30 January 2017). "A huge mouth and no anus – this could be our earliest known ancestor". The Guardian. Retrieved2 February 2017.

Saccorhytus
Saccorhytus Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Saccorhytus coronarius Saccorhytus from Latin saccus bag and Ancient Greek ῥytis rhytis wrinkle is an extinct genus of animal belonging to the superphylum Deuterostomia which is represented by a single species Saccorhytus coronarius from Latin attributive coronarius of a crown Having lived approximately 540 million years ago in the Fortunian stage of the Cambrian Period it is the oldest known confirmed species of this superphylum 1 2 Saccorhytus Temporal range Earliest Cambrian Fortunian 540 Ma PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N Artist s reconstruction of Saccorhytus coronariusScientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaSuperphylum DeuterostomiaPhylum Saccorhytida Han et al 2017Family Saccorhytidae Han et al 2017Genus Saccorhytus Han et al 2017Species S coronariusBinomial name Saccorhytus coronarius Han et al 2017 Fossils of the species were first discovered in the Kuanchuanpu Formation of Shaanxi province of China by a team of scientists from the United Kingdom China and Germany 1 and the findings were first published in January 2017 3 4 Contents 1 Description 2 Phylogeny 3 Palaeoecology 4 ReferencesDescription Edit Life restoration by Nobu Tamura Saccorhytus was only about a millimetre 1 3 mm 3 5 in size and is characterised by its globular or hemispherical body with a prominent mouth 6 Its body was covered by a thick but flexible cuticle It had four nodulate ridges above its mouth Around its body are eight openings in the form of truncated cones with radial folds termed body cones Two sets of small circular pores also occur on the body One set is widely separated and runs parallel to the body cones It may have had a sensory function though they could have alternatively released internal contents like adhesive mucus or gametes The other set is more dorsal and consists of sub linear arrays This set of pores may have housed bristles which may have been used for touching the animal s surroundings and related functions including temporary attachment 3 There is no evident anus 3 which means that the animal must have consumed its food and excreted it from the same orifice 1 though the body cones may have served this function as well in addition to expelling water 3 However the strong folding found in the fossils makes this conclusion tentative 3 with Simon Conway Morris one of the British scientists involved in its discovery admitting the possibility that the team simply has not spotted it 7 Phylogeny EditSaccorhytus is classified as a deuterostome due to its possession of body openings in the form of its body cones which appear similar to apparently equivalent structures in vetulicolians and vetulocystids and thus was thought to be closely related to those two clades by Han et al 3 Below is a simplified phylogenetic tree based on that constructed by Han et al 3 Protostomes Deuterostomes Ambulacrarians Chordates Saccorhytus coronarius Vetulocystids Vetulicolians Since the earliest deuterostomes had a one way through gut the evident lack of an anus may either be a secondary loss as seen in ophiurioids or a plesiomorphic trait inherited from more primitive bilaterian ancestors which may be linked to acoels and xenoturbellids 3 Palaeoecology EditSaccorhytus most likely lived a meiofaunal lifestyle with its body plan suited for an interstitial habitat such as its thick but flexible cuticle providing protection and allowing it to wriggle through grains of sand and the dorsal set of circular pores could have allowed it to attach itself to them 3 7 While feeding the large quantities of water it would swallow would then be expelled through its body cones 7 References Edit a b c Ghosh Pallab 30 January 2017 Scientists find oldest human ancestor BBC Retrieved 30 January 2017 Bag like sea creature was humans oldest known ancestor Phys org 30 January 2017 Retrieved 30 January 2017 a b c d e f g h i j Han Jian Morris Simon Conway Ou Qiang Shu Degan Huang Hai 2017 Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi China Nature 542 7640 228 231 Bibcode 2017Natur 542 228H doi 10 1038 nature21072 ISSN 0028 0836 PMID 28135722 S2CID 353780 Wade Nicholas 30 January 2017 This Prehistoric Human Ancestor Was All Mouth New York Times Retrieved 31 January 2017 Khan Amina 31 January 2017 Humans meet the ancient sea creature at the other end of your family tree Los Angeles Times Retrieved 1 February 2017 Lindermann Katherine 30 January 2017 Meet your earliest known ancestor Saccorhytus ResearchGate Interview Retrieved 30 January 2017 a b c Davis Nicola 30 January 2017 A huge mouth and no anus this could be our earliest known ancestor The Guardian Retrieved 2 February 2017 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saccorhytus amp oldid 1040294561, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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