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Sacrament of Penance

This article is about one of the sacraments of the Catholic Church. For confession in other religions, see Confession (disambiguation). For penance in other religions, see Penance. For reconciliation in other religions, see Reconciliation (theology).

The Sacrament of Penance (also commonly called the Sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession) is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church (known in Eastern Christianity as sacred mysteries), in which the faithful are absolved from sins committed after baptism and they are reconciled with the Christian community. While in current practice reconciliation services may be used to bring out the communal nature of sacraments, mortal sins must be confessed and venial sins may be confessed for devotional reasons. According to the current doctrine and practice of the church, only those ordained as priests may grant absolution.

Contents

In the New Testament, Christians are admonished to "confess your sins to one another and pray for one another" at their gatherings (James 5:16), and to be forgiving people (Ephesians 4:32). In the Gospel of John, Jesus says to the Apostles, after being raised from the dead, "Receive the Holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive, they are forgiven; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained" (John 20:22-23). The Early Church Fathers understood that the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the Apostles and to their lawful successors, the bishops and priests, for the reconciling of the faithful who have fallen after baptism.

Early practice

In the middle of the 2nd century, the idea of one reconciliation/penance after baptism for the serious sins of apostasy, murder, and adultery is suggested in the book of visions, The Shepherd of Hermas. The "episkopos" (bishop) was the main liturgical leader in a local community. He declared that God had forgiven the sins when it was clear that there was repentance, evidenced by the performance of some penance, and the penitent was readmitted to the community. Since reconciliation with the church could be granted only once after baptism, baptism was often postponed until late in life and reconciliation to one's deathbed. The need to confess to a priest is traced to Basil the Great. It was seen that God granted forgiveness through the priest. Before the fourth century confession and penitential discipline were a public affair “since all sin is sin not only against God but against our neighbor, against the community.”: 140–41 By the time of Cyprian of Carthage, confession itself was no longer public, although the practice of public penance for serious sin remained.

Lifelong penance was required at times, but from the early fifth century for most serious sins, public penance came to be seen as a sign of repentance. At Maundy Thursday sinners were readmitted to the community along with catechumens. Confusion entered in from deathbed reconciliation with the church, which required no penance as a sign of repentance, and the ritual would begin to grow apart from the reality.

Beginning in the 4th century, with the Roman Empire becoming Christian, bishops became judges, and sin was seen as breaking of the law rather than as fracturing one's relationship with God. A new, more legalistic understanding of penance emerged at episcopal courts, where it became payment to satisfy the demands of divine justice. According to Joseph Martos, this was facilitated by a misreading of John 20:23 and Matthew 18:18 by Augustine of Hippo and Pope Leo I, who thought it was the "disciple" and not God who did the forgiving, though only after true repentance. The acts of councils from the fourth to the sixth century show that no one who belonged to the order of penitents had access to Eucharistic communion until the bishop reconciled him with the community of the church. Canon 29 of the Council of Epaone (517) in Gaul says that from among penitents only apostates had to leave Sunday assembly together with catechumens before the Eucharistic part commenced. Other penitents were present until the end but were denied communion at the altar of the Lord.

A new approach to the practice of penance first became evident in the 7th century in the acts of the Council of Chalon-sur-Saône (644–655). Bishops gathered in that council were convinced that it was useful for the salvation of the faithful when the diocesan bishop prescribed penance to a sinner as many times as he or she would fall into sin (canon 8).

Functional 19th century confessionals in St Pancras Church, Ipswich

Celtic influence

When Western Christianity was overrun by peoples from the North and East in the Early Middle Ages, a Celtic version of Christian practice was developed in the monasteries of Ireland. From there Christian beliefs were carried back to Europe by missionaries from Ireland.

Because of its isolation, the Celtic Church for centuries remained fixed with its forms of worship and penitential discipline which differed from the rest of the Christian Church. It drew from Eastern monastic traditions and had no knowledge of the institution of a public penance in the community of the church which could not be repeated, and which involved canonical obligations. Celtic penitential practices consisted of confession, acceptance of satisfaction fixed by the priest, and finally reconciliation. They date back to 6th century.

Penitential books native to the islands provided precisely determined penances for all offences, small and great (an approach reminiscent of early Celtic civil and criminal law). Walter J. Woods holds that "[o]ver time the penitential books helped suppress homicide, personal violence, theft, and other offenses that damaged the community and made the offender a target for revenge." The practice of so-called tariff penance was brought to continental Europe from the British Isles by Hiberno-Scottish and Anglo-Saxon monks.

The Celtic practice led to new theories about the nature of God's justice, about temporal punishment God imposes on sin, about a treasury of merits in heaven to pay the debt of this punishment, and finally about indulgences to offset that debt.

The church's teaching on indulgences as reflected in Canon Law (992) reads: "An indulgence is the remission in the sight of God of the temporal punishment due for sins, the guilt of which has already been forgiven. A member of Christ's faithful who is properly disposed and who fulfills certain specific conditions, may gain an indulgence by the help of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, authoritatively dispenses and applies the treasury of the merits of Christ and the Saints."

In his work on the history of the Sacrament of Reconciliation, Bernhard Poschmann writes that “in its origins an indulgence is a combination of the early Medieval absolution, which had the efficacy of a prayer, and an act of jurisdiction remitting ecclesiastical penance.” And so, he concludes: “An indulgence only extends to remission of satisfaction imposed by the Church.[clarify]

Celtic penitential practice had accepted the late patristic idea that it was the disciple and not God who did the forgiving, and it also employed the principle of Celtic law that a fine could be substituted for any punishment. This obscured the importance of repentance and amendment. From the 6th century Irish monks produced "penitentials" which assigned a punishment for every sin, which penitents could pay others to do for them. The practice of seeking counsel from wise persons for the reform of one's life, which developed around monasteries, led to the custom of reconciliation in private with a priest. While private penance was first found in the penitential books of the eighth century, the beginnings of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the form of individual confession as we know it now, i.e. bringing together confession of sins and reconciliation with the church, can be traced back to 11th century. By the 9th century the practice of deathbed absolution, without performance of a penance, had led priests to pronounce absolution more widely before the performance of the penance, further separating repentance from forgiveness In the early church absolution had applied to the punishment rather than to the sins themselves. This punishment was controlled by the bishops. The later understanding of absolution as applying to the sins themselves altered the notion of only God forgiving sins. By the twelfth century the formula that the priest used after hearing the confession had changed, from “May God have mercy on you and forgive you your sins” to “I absolve you from your sins.” Thomas Aquinas, with little knowledge of the early centuries of the church, mistakenly asserted that the latter was an ancient formula, and this has led to its widespread use ever since his time.

With the spread of scholastic philosophy, the question arose as to what caused the remission of sins. From the early 12th century Peter Abelard and Peter Lombard reflected the practice that contrition and confession (even to laymen) assured of God's forgiveness, but remorse for one's sins was necessary. Absolution referred only to the punishment due to sin. But at this time Hugh of St. Victor taught on the basis of the “power of the keys” (John 20:23 and Matthew 18:18) that absolution applied not to the punishment but to the sins, and this hastened the end to lay confession. From “as early as the third century devout Christians were sometimes encouraged to reveal the condition of their soul to a spiritual guide.” This led to a private form of confession that bishops finally put a stop to by the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) that made confession to a priest obligatory within a year of the sinning, and has enshrined the practice of private confession ever since. In the 13th century the Dominican philosopher Thomas Aquinas tried to reunite the personal “matter” (contrition, confession, satisfaction) and ecclesial “form” (absolution). But the Franciscan Duns Scotus gave support to the prevalent opinion at the time that absolution was the only essential element of the sacrament, which readmitted the penitent to the Eucharist.

In the 11th and 12th centuries a new, legalistic theory of penances had crept in, as satisfying the divine justice and paying the penalty for the "temporal punishment due to sin". This was followed by a new theory of a treasury of merits which was first put forward around 1230. As a means of paying this penalty, the practice grew of granting indulgences for various good works, drawing on “the treasury of the Church's merits”. These indulgences later began to be sold, leading to Martin Luther's dramatic protest.

Since Council of Trent

Modern confessional: three options for penitent; priest behind screen

In the mid-16th century the bishops at the Council of Trent retained the private approach to the Sacrament of Reconciliation and decreed that indulgences could not be sold. The Council Fathers, according to Joseph Martos, were also “mistaken in assuming that repeated private confession dated back to the days of the Apostles.” Some Protestant Reformers retained the sacrament as sign but shorn of Canonical accretions. However, for Catholics after Trent “the confession of mortal sins would be primarily regarded as a matter of divine law supported by the ecclesiastical law to confess these within a year after they had been committed.” In the following centuries a use of the sacrament grew, from Counter-Reformation practice and, according to Martos, misunderstanding what ex opere operato meant (independent on the worthiness of the priest) and from seeing penances as penalties (abetted by indulgences) rather than as means of reform.

The problem that “has dominated the entire history of the sacrament of reconciliation . . . is the determination of the roles of the subjective and personal factors and the objective and ecclesiastical factor in penance.” From the mid-19th century, historical and biblical studies began to restore an understanding of the necessity of repentance for forgiveness by God before readmission to the Christian community through the sacrament. These studies paved the way for the bishops at the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) to decree in their Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy: "The rite and formulas for the sacrament of penance are to be revised so that they more clearly express both the nature and effect of the sacrament." In a post-conciliar document, The Constitution on Penance, Pope Paul VI emphasized “the intimate relationship between external act and internal conversion, prayer, and works of charity.” This sought to restore the New Testament emphasis on growth in the works of charity throughout the Christian life.

Sacrament of reconciliation in pandemics

On March 20, 2020, the Apostolic Penitentiary issued a note on clarifications regards the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular it was noted: "Where the individual faithful find themselves in the painful impossibility of receiving sacramental absolution, it should be remembered that perfect contrition, coming from the love of God, beloved above all things, expressed by a sincere request for forgiveness (that which the penitent is at present able to express) and accompanied by votum confessionis, that is, by the firm resolution to have recourse, as soon as possible, to sacramental confession, obtains forgiveness of sins, even mortal ones (cf. CCC, no. 1452).".

Confessional

Canon Law requires confession along with purpose of amendment and absolution from the priest for all grave sins for reconciliation with God and with the Catholic Church, except in danger of death as detailed below.

Especially in the West, the penitent may choose to confess in a specially constructed confessional. Since the Second Vatican Council, besides the previous practice of kneeling behind a screen, the option of sitting facing the priest has been added in most confessionals. But for those who prefer anonymity, the provision of an opaque screen separating the priest from the penitent is still required.

The priest administering a sacrament, such as Reconciliation, must have permission from the local bishop, or from his religious superior. But in urgent need any ordained priest may grant absolution to a penitent.

Rite

The current Rite of Penance was produced in 1973 with two options for reconciliation services, to restore the original meaning of sacraments as community signs. This also addressed the growing sensitivity to social injustices. The 1983 Code of Canon Law brought some further changes. The penitent may kneel on the kneeler or sit in a chair (not shown), facing the priest. The current book on the Rite of Penance prescribes the following (42-47). The sign of the cross precedes a greeting of encouragement to trust in God. The priest may read a short passage from the Bible that proclaims God's mercy and calls to conversion. All mortal sins must be confessed, while confession of venial sins also is recommended but not required. The priest may emphasize repentance and offer counsel, and always proposes a penance which the penitent accepts and then recites an act of contrition. The priest imparts absolution. Since the Council of Trent, the essential words of absolution have been: "I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." In the renewal of the sacrament the more ample form is:

"God, the Father of mercies, through the death and resurrection of his Son has reconciled the world to himself and sent the Holy Spirit among us for the forgiveness of sins. Through the ministry of the Church may God give you pardon and peace. And I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

Simple Confession box, Our Lady of Manaoag.

Finally, the priest invites the penitent to "give thanks to the Lord, for he is good", to which the penitent responds, "His mercy endures forever" (Psalms 136:1). The priest dismisses the penitent "in peace".

Before the absolution, the penitent makes an act of contrition, a prayer declaring sorrow for sin. While older forms might only mention sin as offence against God, newer forms mention harm done to one's neighbor.

Since Vatican II reconciliation services have been encouraged, to emphasize the communal element in the sacrament. Such services include readings from scripture, a homily, and prayers, followed by individual confession. In extenuating circumstances where general absolution is given, true repentance is still required and individual confession at some opportune time. Such circumstances include where large numbers are in danger of death, or are deprived of the sacrament by grave lack of priests, but not simply from the number of penitents at major feasts or pilgrimages. By official declaration, one day is a sufficiently “long time” to justify use of the Third Rite, a reconciliation service with absolution, but requiring individual confession after. : 137–38 The Catholic Church teaches that individual and integral confession and absolution (as opposed to collective absolution) is the only ordinary way in which a person conscious of mortal sins committed after baptism can be reconciled with God and the church.

Although spiritual direction is not necessarily connected with the sacrament, the sacrament of penance has throughout the centuries been one of its main settings, enabling the Christian to become sensitive to God's presence, deepen the personal relationship with Christ, and attend to the action of the Spirit in one's life. In the 20th century, during the Second Vatican Council, new approaches were taken in the presentation of this sacrament, taking into account the concern of scrupulosity, or the exaggerated obsessive concern for detail. This further distinguished the role of penance from forms of psychotherapy.

Necessity and frequency

A confessional in the Bohemian style, in Jaroměř, Czech Republic.

After having reached the age of discretion, each member of the faithful is obliged to confess faithfully his or her grave sins at least once a year. This yearly confession is necessitated for performing one's "Easter duty", the reception of Communion at least once during the Easter season. This must be preceded by Reconciliation if one has sinned gravely. Grave sin involves serious matter, sufficient knowledge of its seriousness, and sufficient freedom from any interior or exterior factors that would mitigate one's responsibility for the harm done. While private confession of all grave sins is now required, confession of venial sins is recommended but not required. Popes have written on the possible benefits of "devotional confession" of venial sins for strengthening of resolutions, divine encouragement, Christian growth, and interior peace.

All contrition implies sorrow of spirit and "detestation for the sin committed, together with the resolution not to sin again." Such contrition is "perfect" if it flows from divine charity but "imperfect" if it flows only from fear of penalties or of eternal damnation. While perfect contrition forgives serious sin, one must also have the intention to fulfill church teaching and confess the sin if or when it becomes possible.

In order for the sacrament of Penance to be validly celebrated, the penitent must confess all mortal sins. If the penitent knowingly conceal any mortal sin, then the confession is invalid and the penitent incurs another sin: sacrilege. A person who has knowingly concealed a mortal sin must confess the sin he has concealed, mention the sacraments he has received since that time, and confess all the mortal sins he has committed since his last good confession. If the penitent forget to confess a mortal sin in Confession, the sacrament is valid and their sins are forgiven, but he must tell the mortal sin in the next Confession if it again comes to his mind.

Sacramental seal

The sacramental seal binds all those who hear or overhear a penitent confess a sin for the purpose of absolution, to not reveal the identity of the penitent and the sin. Those who may overhear sins confessed, such as an interpreter, are bound by the same seal as the priest. A priest who violates this seal is automatically excommunicated, with pardon reserved to the Holy See. Others who violate the seal may also be excommunicated. Careless speaking that might lead people to connect a specific penitent with a sin confessed is also punishable. While there have been martyrs who have been executed for refusing to break the seal, in the United States the inviolability of the seal is recognized before the law.

A modern confessional in a Catholic church
Main article: Penitential canons

Beginning in the Middle Ages, manuals of confession emerged as a literary genre. These manuals were guidebooks on how to obtain the maximum benefits from the sacrament. There were two kinds of manuals: those addressed to the faithful, so that they could prepare a good confession, and those addressed to the priests, who had to make sure that no sins were left unmentioned and the confession was as thorough as possible. The priest had to ask questions, while being careful not to suggest sins that perhaps the faithful had not thought of and give them ideas. Manuals were written in Latin and in the vernacular.

Such manuals grew more popular as the printed word spread, and in 2011 had made a transition to electronic form as well. The first such app on the iPhone to receive a bishop's approval was mistakenly reported as an app for the sacrament itself; in reality the app was an electronic version of this long-standing tradition of material to be used in preparing oneself to make a good confession.

Unlike Western Christianity which saw its liturgical practice disrupted during the Migration Period of the Early Middle Ages, Eastern Christianity has retained more the understanding that ecclesiastical reconciliation had in Patristic times. In Eastern Christianity sacraments are called "sacred mysteries". The obligation to confess may be less rigid and this may include only one's most regrettable sins, to experience God's forgiving love. The practice of absolution or of a given penance varies greatly. The emphasis is on conversion of heart rather than on enumeration of sins.

Confession and penance in the rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church, even to our own day, preserve the character of liberation and healing rather than of judgment. Ruling and healing are seen as the same charism, as in early Christian times. Remission of sin is granted on the basis of sincere repentance and confession. Absolution proclaims God's forgiveness of the sin. Penance is entirely therapeutic; it reinforces the penitent's efforts at Christian growth. "Forgiveness of sin procured through sincere and heartfelt repentance is complete and perfect, needing no additional fulfillment," and so “the Orthodox Church most strenuously rejects … Latin teaching of penalties and punishments, eternal and temporal remission, the treasury of merits, … (and) purgatorial fire." The perceived ongoing need for reform and development of the sacrament in the Roman rite can be seen from a book with a chapter on "From Confession to Reconciliation; Vatican II to 2015", having sections on:

Ukrainian Byzantine Rite Greek-Catholic church of the Bernhardines in Lviv, Ukraine.
  • Vatican II and Liturgical Revival
  • Decline of Confessional Practice
  • Changing and Conflicting Views of Sin (increased emphasis on social sin)
  • Fundamental Option and Mortal Sin
  • Conflicts over First Confession
  • Conflicts over the New Rite of Penance and General Absolution
  • Bishop Carroll Dozier and General Absolution
  • Lutheran/Catholic Dialogue on Penance
  • Roman and American Attempts to Revive Sacramental Confession
  • New Catechesis on Penance
  • Theologians and the Restoration of Communal Penance
  • Changes in Penitential Theology and Practice: Historical Context

In his textbook on the sacraments, widely used in universities and seminaries, Joseph Martos explains how much still needs to be done to bring together what we have learned through biblical and historical studies, "sacramental theory", and the way the sacrament is experienced today, “sacramental practice”. There has been widespread demand for more general use of the Third Rite, a reconciliation service with general absolution but requiring individual confession afterwards. However, Canon Law as revised under Pope John Paul II in 1983 has forestalled change for the time being. While arguing for much wider use of community reconciliation services with general absolution and not requiring individual confession, Ladislas Orsy anticipates further developments in the church's legislation on the Sacrament of Reconciliation and asserts that "we cannot stop; truth and mercy must continue to unfold."

  1. "Sacrament of Penance" is the name used in the Catholic Church's 1983 Code of Canon Law. The Catechism of the Catholic Church uses a broader range of nomenclature, calling it the "Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation", and giving the additional alternative names of "Conversion", "Confession", and "Forgiveness".
  2. Prior to 1973, the formula of absolution contained in the 1614 Ordo ministrandi sacramentum poenitentiae was, in English: "May our Lord Jesus Christ absolve you: and I by his authority absolve you from every bond of excommunication, suspension and interdict, insofar as I am able and you need it. And finally, I absolve you from your sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen." Stafford pointed out that the first part "was legal and canonical in its inspiration and wording" while the 1973 formula "is more explicitly biblical, ecclesial, Christocentric, and Trinitarian."
  3. “Perfect contrition” is understood to remove the guilt of mortal sin even before confession or, if there is no opportunity of confessing to a priest, without confession, but with the intention of confessing when and if the opportunity arrives. Perfect contrition began as a description of sorrow that proceeded from abhorrence of the sin and not just from fear of punishment. Its description in Canon Law reads rather that it involves a sorrow “motivated by love of God”. "The necessity [of the sacrament of penance] is like that of baptism: in an emergency, desire for the sacrament," according to Karl Rahner, "can replace it." Council of Trent, Session 6, decreed that repentance includes "sacramental confession or at least the desire to confess them when a suitable occasion will be found" while "eternal punishment [and] guilt, is remitted by the reception of the sacrament or the desire of the sacrament."
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  • Frantzen, Allen J. (1983). The Literature of Penance in Anglo-Saxon England. New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  • Frantzen, Allen J. "The Anglo-Saxon Penitentials: A cultural database". Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. RetrievedMarch 12, 2010.
  • Hamilton, Sarah (2001). The Practice of Penance, c. 900-c. 1050. Royal Historical Society Studies in History. Woodbridge.
  • Payer, Pierre J. (1984). Sex and the Penitentials: The Development of a Sexual Code 55-1150. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Smith, Julie Ann (2001). Ordering Women's Lives: Penitentials and Nunnery Rules in the Early Medieval West. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • International Theological Commission (1982). "Penance and reconciliation". vatican.va. Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Prepared for 1983 Synod of Bishops.

Sacrament of Penance
Sacrament of Penance Language Watch Edit This article is about one of the sacraments of the Catholic Church For confession in other religions see Confession disambiguation For penance in other religions see Penance For reconciliation in other religions see Reconciliation theology The Sacrament of Penance a also commonly called the Sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church known in Eastern Christianity as sacred mysteries in which the faithful are absolved from sins committed after baptism and they are reconciled with the Christian community While in current practice reconciliation services may be used to bring out the communal nature of sacraments mortal sins must be confessed and venial sins may be confessed for devotional reasons According to the current doctrine and practice of the church only those ordained as priests may grant absolution Contents 1 History 1 1 Early practice 1 2 Celtic influence 1 3 Since Council of Trent 1 4 Sacrament of reconciliation in pandemics 2 Contemporary confessional practice 2 1 Rite 2 2 Necessity and frequency 2 3 Sacramental seal 3 Manuals of confession 4 Eastern Christianity and perspectives on renewal 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further readingHistory EditIn the New Testament Christians are admonished to confess your sins to one another and pray for one another at their gatherings James 5 16 and to be forgiving people Ephesians 4 32 3 In the Gospel of John Jesus says to the Apostles after being raised from the dead Receive the Holy Spirit Whose sins you forgive they are forgiven and whose sins you shall retain they are retained John 20 22 23 The Early Church Fathers understood that the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the Apostles and to their lawful successors the bishops and priests for the reconciling of the faithful who have fallen after baptism 4 Early practice Edit In the middle of the 2nd century the idea of one reconciliation penance after baptism for the serious sins of apostasy murder and adultery is suggested in the book of visions The Shepherd of Hermas 5 The episkopos bishop was the main liturgical leader in a local community 6 He declared that God had forgiven the sins when it was clear that there was repentance evidenced by the performance of some penance 6 and the penitent was readmitted to the community 7 Since reconciliation with the church could be granted only once after baptism baptism was often postponed until late in life and reconciliation to one s deathbed 8 The need to confess to a priest is traced to Basil the Great It was seen that God granted forgiveness through the priest Before the fourth century confession and penitential discipline were a public affair since all sin is sin not only against God but against our neighbor against the community 9 140 41 By the time of Cyprian of Carthage confession itself was no longer public 10 although the practice of public penance for serious sin remained Lifelong penance was required at times but from the early fifth century for most serious sins public penance came to be seen as a sign of repentance At Maundy Thursday sinners were readmitted to the community along with catechumens Confusion entered in from deathbed reconciliation with the church which required no penance as a sign of repentance and the ritual would begin to grow apart from the reality 11 Beginning in the 4th century with the Roman Empire becoming Christian bishops became judges and sin was seen as breaking of the law rather than as fracturing one s relationship with God A new more legalistic understanding of penance emerged at episcopal courts where it became payment to satisfy the demands of divine justice According to Joseph Martos this was facilitated by a misreading of John 20 23 and Matthew 18 18 by Augustine of Hippo and Pope Leo I who thought it was the disciple and not God who did the forgiving though only after true repentance 12 The acts of councils from the fourth to the sixth century show that no one who belonged to the order of penitents had access to Eucharistic communion until the bishop reconciled him with the community of the church Canon 29 of the Council of Epaone 517 in Gaul says that from among penitents only apostates had to leave Sunday assembly together with catechumens before the Eucharistic part commenced Other penitents were present until the end but were denied communion at the altar of the Lord 13 A new approach to the practice of penance first became evident in the 7th century in the acts of the Council of Chalon sur Saone 644 655 Bishops gathered in that council were convinced that it was useful for the salvation of the faithful when the diocesan bishop prescribed penance to a sinner as many times as he or she would fall into sin canon 8 Functional 19th century confessionals in St Pancras Church Ipswich Celtic influence Edit When Western Christianity was overrun by peoples from the North and East in the Early Middle Ages a Celtic version of Christian practice was developed in the monasteries of Ireland From there Christian beliefs were carried back to Europe by missionaries from Ireland Because of its isolation the Celtic Church for centuries remained fixed with its forms of worship and penitential discipline which differed from the rest of the Christian Church It drew from Eastern monastic traditions and had no knowledge of the institution of a public penance in the community of the church which could not be repeated and which involved canonical obligations 14 Celtic penitential practices consisted of confession acceptance of satisfaction fixed by the priest and finally reconciliation They date back to 6th century Penitential books native to the islands provided precisely determined penances for all offences small and great an approach reminiscent of early Celtic civil and criminal law 15 Walter J Woods holds that o ver time the penitential books helped suppress homicide personal violence theft and other offenses that damaged the community and made the offender a target for revenge 16 The practice of so called tariff penance 17 was brought to continental Europe from the British Isles by Hiberno Scottish and Anglo Saxon monks 18 The Celtic practice led to new theories about the nature of God s justice about temporal punishment God imposes on sin about a treasury of merits in heaven to pay the debt of this punishment and finally about indulgences to offset that debt 19 The church s teaching on indulgences as reflected in Canon Law 992 reads An indulgence is the remission in the sight of God of the temporal punishment due for sins the guilt of which has already been forgiven A member of Christ s faithful who is properly disposed and who fulfills certain specific conditions may gain an indulgence by the help of the Church which as the minister of redemption authoritatively dispenses and applies the treasury of the merits of Christ and the Saints In his work on the history of the Sacrament of Reconciliation Bernhard Poschmann writes that in its origins an indulgence is a combination of the early Medieval absolution which had the efficacy of a prayer and an act of jurisdiction remitting ecclesiastical penance And so he concludes An indulgence only extends to remission of satisfaction imposed by the Church clarify 20 Celtic penitential practice had accepted the late patristic idea that it was the disciple and not God who did the forgiving and it also employed the principle of Celtic law that a fine could be substituted for any punishment This obscured the importance of repentance and amendment From the 6th century Irish monks produced penitentials which assigned a punishment for every sin which penitents could pay others to do for them The practice of seeking counsel from wise persons for the reform of one s life which developed around monasteries led to the custom of reconciliation in private with a priest 21 While private penance was first found in the penitential books of the eighth century the beginnings of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the form of individual confession as we know it now i e bringing together confession of sins and reconciliation with the church can be traced back to 11th century 22 By the 9th century the practice of deathbed absolution without performance of a penance had led priests to pronounce absolution more widely before the performance of the penance further separating repentance from forgiveness 23 In the early church absolution had applied to the punishment rather than to the sins themselves This punishment was controlled by the bishops The later understanding of absolution as applying to the sins themselves altered the notion of only God forgiving sins 24 By the twelfth century the formula that the priest used after hearing the confession had changed from May God have mercy on you and forgive you your sins to I absolve you from your sins 25 Thomas Aquinas with little knowledge of the early centuries of the church mistakenly asserted that the latter was an ancient formula and this has led to its widespread use ever since his time 26 With the spread of scholastic philosophy the question arose as to what caused the remission of sins From the early 12th century Peter Abelard and Peter Lombard reflected the practice that contrition and confession even to laymen assured of God s forgiveness but remorse for one s sins was necessary Absolution referred only to the punishment due to sin But at this time Hugh of St Victor taught on the basis of the power of the keys John 20 23 and Matthew 18 18 that absolution applied not to the punishment but to the sins and this hastened the end to lay confession From as early as the third century devout Christians were sometimes encouraged to reveal the condition of their soul to a spiritual guide This led to a private form of confession that bishops finally put a stop to by the Fourth Lateran Council 1215 that made confession to a priest obligatory within a year of the sinning and has enshrined the practice of private confession ever since In the 13th century the Dominican philosopher Thomas Aquinas tried to reunite the personal matter contrition confession satisfaction and ecclesial form absolution But the Franciscan Duns Scotus gave support to the prevalent opinion at the time that absolution was the only essential element of the sacrament which readmitted the penitent to the Eucharist 27 In the 11th and 12th centuries a new legalistic theory of penances had crept in as satisfying the divine justice and paying the penalty for the temporal punishment due to sin This was followed by a new theory of a treasury of merits which was first put forward around 1230 28 As a means of paying this penalty the practice grew of granting indulgences for various good works drawing on the treasury of the Church s merits These indulgences later began to be sold leading to Martin Luther s dramatic protest 29 Since Council of Trent Edit Modern confessional three options for penitent priest behind screen In the mid 16th century the bishops at the Council of Trent 30 retained the private approach to the Sacrament of Reconciliation and decreed that indulgences could not be sold The Council Fathers according to Joseph Martos were also mistaken in assuming that repeated private confession dated back to the days of the Apostles 31 Some Protestant Reformers retained the sacrament as sign but shorn of Canonical accretions However for Catholics after Trent the confession of mortal sins would be primarily regarded as a matter of divine law supported by the ecclesiastical law to confess these within a year after they had been committed 32 In the following centuries a use of the sacrament grew from Counter Reformation practice and according to Martos misunderstanding what ex opere operato meant independent on the worthiness of the priest and from seeing penances as penalties abetted by indulgences rather than as means of reform 33 The problem that has dominated the entire history of the sacrament of reconciliation is the determination of the roles of the subjective and personal factors and the objective and ecclesiastical factor in penance 34 From the mid 19th century historical and biblical studies began to restore an understanding of the necessity of repentance for forgiveness by God before readmission to the Christian community through the sacrament 35 These studies paved the way for the bishops at the Second Vatican Council 1962 1965 to decree in their Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy The rite and formulas for the sacrament of penance are to be revised so that they more clearly express both the nature and effect of the sacrament 36 In a post conciliar document The Constitution on Penance Pope Paul VI emphasized the intimate relationship between external act and internal conversion prayer and works of charity This sought to restore the New Testament emphasis on growth in the works of charity throughout the Christian life 37 Sacrament of reconciliation in pandemics Edit On March 20 2020 the Apostolic Penitentiary issued a note on clarifications regards the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the COVID 19 pandemic In particular it was noted Where the individual faithful find themselves in the painful impossibility of receiving sacramental absolution it should be remembered that perfect contrition coming from the love of God beloved above all things expressed by a sincere request for forgiveness that which the penitent is at present able to express and accompanied by votum confessionis that is by the firm resolution to have recourse as soon as possible to sacramental confession obtains forgiveness of sins even mortal ones cf CCC no 1452 38 Contemporary confessional practice Edit Confessional Canon Law requires confession along with purpose of amendment and absolution from the priest for all grave sins for reconciliation with God and with the Catholic Church except in danger of death as detailed below 39 Especially in the West the penitent may choose to confess in a specially constructed confessional Since the Second Vatican Council besides the previous practice of kneeling behind a screen the option of sitting facing the priest has been added in most confessionals But for those who prefer anonymity the provision of an opaque screen separating the priest from the penitent is still required 39 The priest administering a sacrament such as Reconciliation must have permission from the local bishop or from his religious superior 39 But in urgent need any ordained priest may grant absolution to a penitent 39 Rite Edit The current Rite of Penance was produced in 1973 with two options for reconciliation services to restore the original meaning of sacraments as community signs This also addressed the growing sensitivity to social injustices 40 The 1983 Code of Canon Law brought some further changes The penitent may kneel on the kneeler or sit in a chair not shown facing the priest The current book on the Rite of Penance prescribes the following 42 47 The sign of the cross precedes a greeting of encouragement to trust in God The priest may read a short passage from the Bible that proclaims God s mercy and calls to conversion All mortal sins must be confessed while confession of venial sins also is recommended but not required The priest may emphasize repentance and offer counsel and always proposes a penance which the penitent accepts and then recites an act of contrition The priest imparts absolution Since the Council of Trent the essential words of absolution have been I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit b In the renewal of the sacrament the more ample form is God the Father of mercies through the death and resurrection of his Son has reconciled the world to himself and sent the Holy Spirit among us for the forgiveness of sins Through the ministry of the Church may God give you pardon and peace And I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 41 Simple Confession box Our Lady of Manaoag Finally the priest invites the penitent to give thanks to the Lord for he is good to which the penitent responds His mercy endures forever Psalms 136 1 The priest dismisses the penitent in peace Before the absolution the penitent makes an act of contrition a prayer declaring sorrow for sin While older forms might only mention sin as offence against God newer forms mention harm done to one s neighbor 42 Since Vatican II reconciliation services have been encouraged to emphasize the communal element in the sacrament Such services include readings from scripture a homily and prayers followed by individual confession 43 In extenuating circumstances where general absolution is given true repentance is still required and individual confession at some opportune time 39 Such circumstances include where large numbers are in danger of death or are deprived of the sacrament by grave lack of priests but not simply from the number of penitents at major feasts or pilgrimages 39 By official declaration one day is a sufficiently long time to justify use of the Third Rite a reconciliation service with absolution but requiring individual confession after 44 137 38 The Catholic Church teaches that individual and integral confession and absolution as opposed to collective absolution is the only ordinary way in which a person conscious of mortal sins committed after baptism can be reconciled with God and the church 39 Although spiritual direction is not necessarily connected with the sacrament the sacrament of penance has throughout the centuries been one of its main settings enabling the Christian to become sensitive to God s presence deepen the personal relationship with Christ and attend to the action of the Spirit in one s life 45 In the 20th century during the Second Vatican Council new approaches were taken in the presentation of this sacrament taking into account the concern of scrupulosity or the exaggerated obsessive concern for detail This further distinguished the role of penance from forms of psychotherapy 46 Necessity and frequency Edit See also Frequent confession A confessional in the Bohemian style in Jaromer Czech Republic After having reached the age of discretion each member of the faithful is obliged to confess faithfully his or her grave sins at least once a year 47 This yearly confession is necessitated for performing one s Easter duty the reception of Communion at least once during the Easter season 48 39 This must be preceded by Reconciliation if one has sinned gravely Grave sin involves serious matter sufficient knowledge of its seriousness and sufficient freedom from any interior or exterior factors that would mitigate one s responsibility for the harm done 49 While private confession of all grave sins is now required confession of venial sins is recommended but not required 39 Popes have written on the possible benefits of devotional confession of venial sins for strengthening of resolutions divine encouragement Christian growth and interior peace 50 All contrition implies sorrow of spirit and detestation for the sin committed together with the resolution not to sin again Such contrition is perfect if it flows from divine charity but imperfect if it flows only from fear of penalties or of eternal damnation While perfect contrition forgives serious sin one must also have the intention to fulfill church teaching and confess the sin if or when it becomes possible 51 c In order for the sacrament of Penance to be validly celebrated the penitent must confess all mortal sins If the penitent knowingly conceal any mortal sin then the confession is invalid and the penitent incurs another sin sacrilege A person who has knowingly concealed a mortal sin must confess the sin he has concealed mention the sacraments he has received since that time and confess all the mortal sins he has committed since his last good confession 55 If the penitent forget to confess a mortal sin in Confession the sacrament is valid and their sins are forgiven but he must tell the mortal sin in the next Confession if it again comes to his mind 55 Sacramental seal Edit Main article Seal of the Confessional Catholic Church See also Confessional privilege United States The sacramental seal binds all those who hear or overhear a penitent confess a sin for the purpose of absolution to not reveal the identity of the penitent and the sin Those who may overhear sins confessed such as an interpreter are bound by the same seal as the priest 39 A priest who violates this seal is automatically excommunicated with pardon reserved to the Holy See Others who violate the seal may also be excommunicated Careless speaking that might lead people to connect a specific penitent with a sin confessed is also punishable 39 While there have been martyrs who have been executed for refusing to break the seal 56 in the United States the inviolability of the seal is recognized before the law 57 Manuals of confession Edit A modern confessional in a Catholic church Main article Penitential canons Beginning in the Middle Ages manuals of confession emerged as a literary genre These manuals were guidebooks on how to obtain the maximum benefits from the sacrament There were two kinds of manuals those addressed to the faithful so that they could prepare a good confession and those addressed to the priests who had to make sure that no sins were left unmentioned and the confession was as thorough as possible The priest had to ask questions while being careful not to suggest sins that perhaps the faithful had not thought of and give them ideas Manuals were written in Latin and in the vernacular 58 Such manuals grew more popular as the printed word spread and in 2011 had made a transition to electronic form as well The first such app on the iPhone to receive a bishop s approval was mistakenly reported as an app for the sacrament itself 59 in reality the app was an electronic version of this long standing tradition of material to be used in preparing oneself to make a good confession 60 Eastern Christianity and perspectives on renewal EditUnlike Western Christianity which saw its liturgical practice disrupted during the Migration Period of the Early Middle Ages Eastern Christianity has retained more the understanding that ecclesiastical reconciliation had in Patristic times In Eastern Christianity sacraments are called sacred mysteries The obligation to confess may be less rigid and this may include only one s most regrettable sins to experience God s forgiving love The practice of absolution or of a given penance varies greatly The emphasis is on conversion of heart rather than on enumeration of sins 61 Confession and penance in the rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church even to our own day preserve the character of liberation and healing rather than of judgment Ruling and healing are seen as the same charism as in early Christian times 62 Remission of sin is granted on the basis of sincere repentance and confession Absolution proclaims God s forgiveness of the sin Penance is entirely therapeutic it reinforces the penitent s efforts at Christian growth Forgiveness of sin procured through sincere and heartfelt repentance is complete and perfect needing no additional fulfillment and so the Orthodox Church most strenuously rejects Latin teaching of penalties and punishments eternal and temporal remission the treasury of merits and purgatorial fire 63 The perceived ongoing need for reform and development of the sacrament in the Roman rite can be seen from a book with a chapter on From Confession to Reconciliation Vatican II to 2015 64 having sections on Ukrainian Byzantine Rite Greek Catholic church of the Bernhardines in Lviv Ukraine Vatican II and Liturgical Revival Decline of Confessional Practice Changing and Conflicting Views of Sin increased emphasis on social sin 40 Fundamental Option and Mortal Sin 35 Conflicts over First Confession 65 Conflicts over the New Rite of Penance and General Absolution Bishop Carroll Dozier and General Absolution Lutheran Catholic Dialogue on Penance Roman and American Attempts to Revive Sacramental Confession New Catechesis on Penance Theologians and the Restoration of Communal Penance Changes in Penitential Theology and Practice Historical Context In his textbook on the sacraments widely used in universities and seminaries Joseph Martos explains how much still needs to be done to bring together what we have learned through biblical and historical studies sacramental theory and the way the sacrament is experienced today sacramental practice 66 There has been widespread demand for more general use of the Third Rite a reconciliation service with general absolution but requiring individual confession afterwards However Canon Law as revised under Pope John Paul II in 1983 has forestalled change for the time being 67 44 While arguing for much wider use of community reconciliation services with general absolution and not requiring individual confession Ladislas Orsy anticipates further developments in the church s legislation on the Sacrament of Reconciliation and asserts that we cannot stop truth and mercy must continue to unfold 68 See also Edit Catholicism portal Christian views on sin Handbook for a Confessor Note on the importance of the internal forum and the inviolability of the Sacramental Seal Paenitentiam agere Reconciliatio et paenitentia Seven deadly sins Spiritual CommunionNotes Edit Sacrament of Penance is the name used in the Catholic Church s 1983 Code of Canon Law 1 The Catechism of the Catholic Church uses a broader range of nomenclature calling it the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation and giving the additional alternative names of Conversion Confession and Forgiveness 2 Prior to 1973 the formula of absolution contained in the 1614 Ordo ministrandi sacramentum poenitentiae was in English May our Lord Jesus Christ absolve you and I by his authority absolve you from every bond of excommunication suspension and interdict insofar as I am able and you need it And finally I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit Amen Stafford pointed out that the first part was legal and canonical in its inspiration and wording while the 1973 formula is more explicitly biblical ecclesial Christocentric and Trinitarian 41 Perfect contrition is understood to remove the guilt of mortal sin even before confession or if there is no opportunity of confessing to a priest without confession but with the intention of confessing when and if the opportunity arrives 39 Perfect contrition began as a description of sorrow that proceeded from abhorrence of the sin and not just from fear of punishment 52 Its description in Canon Law reads rather that it involves a sorrow motivated by love of God 53 The necessity of the sacrament of penance is like that of baptism in an emergency desire for the sacrament according to Karl Rahner can replace it Council of Trent Session 6 decreed that repentance includes sacramental confession or at least the desire to confess them when a suitable occasion will be found while eternal punishment and guilt is remitted by the reception of the sacrament or the desire of the sacrament 54 References Edit The Sacrament of Penance 1983 Code of Canon Law Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation Catechism of the Catholic Church Martos 2014 p 322 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA The Sacrament of Penance Church Fathers The Shepherd of Hermas www catholicculture org a b Osborne Kenan November 28 2001 Reconciliation and Justification The Sacrament and Its Theology Wipf and Stock Publishers ISBN 9781579108199 via Google Books Martos 2014 pp 323 325 327 How Ambrose Was Chosen to Be Bishop of Milan by Hugh O Reilly www traditioninaction org Tsirpanlis Constantine N 1991 Eastern Patristic Orthodox Theology ISBN 0814658016 Poschmann 1964 pp 60 61 Poschmann 1964 pp 95 96 136 45 Martos 2014 pp 328 30 Cyrille Vogel Le pecheur et la penitence dans l Eglise ancienne Paris Cerf 1982 36 Catechism of the Catholic Church ccc usccb org Davies Oliver O Loughlin Thomas December 17 1999 Celtic Spirituality Paulist Press ISBN 9780809138944 via Google Books Woods Walter J February 1 2010 Walking with Faith New Perspectives on the Sources and Shaping of Catholic Moral Life Wipf and Stock Publishers ISBN 9781608992850 via Google Books Poschmann 1964 pp 124 125 Cf Vogel Cyrille 1982 Le pecheur et la penitence au moyen age pp 15 24 Poschmann 1964 pp 123 37 Poschmann 1964 pp 231 Poschmann 1964 pp 127 29 Poschmann 1964 pp 130 31 138 145 Martos 2014 p 340 Poschmann 1964 pp 146 48 Martos 2014 pp 341 347 Poschmann 1964 pp 174 Martos 2014 pp 334 343 Library The Historical Origin of Indulgences www catholicculture org Martos 2014 pp 338 339 350 Introduction www usccb org Retrieved September 26 2019 Martos 2014 p 362 Martos 2014 p 357 Martos 2014 pp 347 357 58 Poschmann 1964 p 209 a b Martos 2014 p 360 Sacrosanctum concilium www vatican va Retrieved September 26 2019 Joseph Martos on The History of Penance and Reconciliation Piacenza amp Nykiel 2020 a b c d e f g h i j k l Full text of The Code Of Canon Law pdf PDFy mirror archive org a b Martos 2014 p 361 a b Sacraments of Healing Reconciliation and Anointing www vatican va Rite of Penance 89 91 Catechism of the Catholic Church 1482 a b The Sacrament of Reconciliation Liturgical Press Moon Gary W 2004 Spiritual Direction and the Care of Souls InterVarsity Press p 64 ISBN 978 0 8308 2777 0 Wise Todd R An empirical phenomenological analysis of the Rite of Reconciliation from the perspective of the penitent Ann Arbor MI Union Institute Graduate School Code of Canon Law text IntraText CT www intratext com Dictionary EASTER DUTY www catholicculture org Retrieved September 13 2019 Catechism of the Catholic Church 1857 Mystici corporis Sacerdotii nostri primordia Paenitemini Enchiridion symbolorum 1676 78 Martos 2014 p 343 Catechism of the Catholic Church The sacrament of penance and reconciliation www vatican va Trent Council of session 6 1547 01 13 Decree on justification In Denzinger 2012 nn 1542 1543 Cited in Rahner 1969 p 387 a b Confession www catholicity com These priests were martyred for refusing to violate the seal of confession Catholic News Agency jgyan theadvocate com JOE GYAN JR Priests can t legally be forced to reveal what s heard in confessional Louisiana Supreme Court rules The Advocate Medieval Sourcebook Arroyo Les manuels de confession en castillan sourcebooks fordham edu Catholics cannot confess via iPhone Vatican February 10 2011 via www reuters com Confession A Roman Catholic App for iPhone iPod touch and iPad on the iTunes App Store iTunes January 31 2011 Archived from the original on January 31 2011 Martos 2014 p 367 Tsirpanlis Constantine N 1991 Introduction to Eastern patristic thought and Orthodox theology Collegeville Minn Liturgical Press pp 140 41 ISBN 978 0814658017 Clendenin Daniel B ed 1995 Eastern Orthodox theology a contemporary reader Grand Rapids Mich Baker Books p 29 ISBN 978 0801025891 Carey 2018 pp 225 27 Martos 2014 p 366 Martos 2014 p 369 Carey 2018 pp 266 267 Orsy Ladislas M 1978 The evolving church and the Sacrament of Penance Denville N J Dimension Books pp 182 51 ISBN 978 0871930729 Bibliography EditBouyer Louis 1963 The Spirit and Forms of Protestantism A V Littledale transl from French London Glasgow Collins p 278 Bouyer Louis 2004 The Word Church and Sacraments in Protestantism and Catholicism San Francisco Ignatius Press p 92 ISBN 1 58617 023 6 Carey Patrick W 2018 Confession Catholics repentance and forgiveness in America New York NY ISBN 978 0190889135 Denzinger Heinrich Hunermann Peter et al eds 2012 Denzinger Enchiridion symbolorum a compendium of creeds definitions and declarations of the Catholic Church 43rd ed San Francisco Ignatius Press ISBN 978 0 89870 746 5 Martos Joseph 2014 Doors to the Sacred Ligouri Poschmann Bernhard 1964 Penance and the anointing of the sick Herder history of dogma Translated by Courtney Francis New York Herder and Herder OCLC 2205919 Rahner Karl 1969 Penance In Rahner Karl Darlapp Adolf Ernst Cornelius Smyth Kevin eds Sacramentum mundi an encyclopedia of theology 4 New York u a Herder and Herder pp 385 399 OCLC 21568 Vogel C 1982 Le pecheur et la penitence dans l Eglise ancienne Paris Cerf p 213 ISBN 2 204 01949 6 Vogel C 1982 Le pecheur et la penitence au moyen age Paris Cerf p 245 ISBN 2 204 01950 X Code of Canon Law Prepared under the auspices of the Canon Law Society of America from 2001 Latin English print ed Vatican City Libreria Editrice Vaticana November 4 2003 via vatican va CS1 maint others link Piacenza Mauro Nykiel Krzysztof Jozef March 20 2020 Note from the Apostolic Penitentiary on the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the current pandemic March 20 2020 Press release Apostolic Penitentiary Retrieved March 27 2020 Further reading EditWikisource has original text related to this article Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae III q 84 On the Sacrament of Penance Bieler Ludwig ed and tr 1963 The Irish Penitentials Scriptores Latini Hiberniae 5 Dublin Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Church Catholic The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent Translated by Rev H J Schroeder O P published by Tan Books and Publishers Rockford IL 61105 Curran Thomas 2010 Confession Five Sentences that will Heal Your Life MCF Press Frantzen Allen J 1983 The Literature of Penance in Anglo Saxon England New Brunswick New Jersey Frantzen Allen J The Anglo Saxon Penitentials A cultural database Archived from the original on August 21 2009 Retrieved March 12 2010 Hamilton Sarah 2001 The Practice of Penance c 900 c 1050 Royal Historical Society Studies in History Woodbridge Payer Pierre J 1984 Sex and the Penitentials The Development of a Sexual Code 55 1150 Toronto University of Toronto Press Smith Julie Ann 2001 Ordering Women s Lives Penitentials and Nunnery Rules in the Early Medieval West Aldershot Ashgate International Theological Commission 1982 Penance and reconciliation vatican va Archived from the original on July 31 2012 Prepared for 1983 Synod of Bishops Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sacrament of Penance amp oldid 1053617867, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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