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Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George

For other uses, see Order of Saint George (disambiguation).

The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George (Italian: Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio, Spanish: Sagrada Orden Militar Constantiniana de San Jorge), also historically referred to as the Imperial Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Order of the Constantinian Angelic Knights of Saint George, is a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Currently, the grand magistry of the order is disputed among the two claimants to the headship of the former reigning House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies as heirs of the House of Farnese, namely Prince Pedro and Prince Carlo. The order was confirmed as a religious-military order in a 1718 papal bull owing to a notable success in liberating Christians in the Peloponnese. Alongside the Sovereign Military Order of Malta it is the sole international Catholic Order which still has this status today. Although it is not an order of chivalry under patronage of the Holy See, membership is restricted to practising Catholics.

Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
Cross of the order
Foundedc. 330 (legendary)
c. 1545 (actual)
Royal houseHouse of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
House of Bourbon-Parma
Religious affiliationRoman Catholic
Seatbasilica Santa Croce in Via Flaminia, Rome
RibbonLight blue
MottoIn hoc signo vinces
FounderConstantine the Great (legendary)
Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno (actual)
Grand MasterDisputed:
Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria
Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro
Prince Carlos, Duke of Parma
GradesHouse of Bourbon-Two Sicilies: See all
House of Bourbon-Parma: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar
Knight Grand Cross
Knight Commander
Knight/Dame
Precedence
Next (higher)House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies: Royal Order of Saint Januarius
House of Bourbon-Parma: None (highest)
Next (lower)House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies: Royal Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit
House of Bourbon-Parma: Ducal Royal Order of Saint Louis

Sash & ribbon of the order

Though the order is alleged to have been founded in its original form by Constantine the Great in Antiquity and then restored under later Byzantine emperors, the actual origin of the order can be traced to the 16th century, when it was founded by an Albanian family by the name Angelo Flavio Comneno. Though this family, extinct in 1698, claimed to be connected to the Byzantine Komnenos and Angelos dynasties, such a familial connection cannot be proven. The order being connected to the Byzantine Empire is fantasy as chivalric orders were completely unknown in the Byzantine world and as such, much of the alleged history of the order was invented much later. Outside the generally recognized line of grand masters from its origin in the 16th century to the present day, there have been many people claiming to be grand masters who have been forgers and title-seekers hoping to gain support for invented lines of descent from ancient and medieval nobility.

Contents

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Origins

The legendary origins of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George trace its foundation to an apocryphal order founded by Constantine the Great. Although it has sometimes been held that the order would have been restored/created by the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos, any claimed connection between chivalric orders and the Eastern Roman Empire are pure fantasy, as chivalric orders in the modern Western sense were completely unknown in the Byzantine world. At best, any connection to some ancient group would be excessively indirect and abstracted.

The order was actually founded by Albanian nobles of the Angelo Flavio Comneno family (claiming connection to the Byzantine houses of Angelos and Komnenos) in the 16th century, attested in association with a man by the name Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno, and his brother Paolo Angelo Flavio Comneno, in 1545. In 1545, the brothers Andrea and Paolo were officially acknowledged as descendants of the Angeloi emperors (a claim seen as doubtful today) by Pope Paul III. The brothers were also guaranteed the right to inherit territory in the former Byzantine Empire, should such territory be recovered from the Ottomans. Their family remained grand masters of the order until 1698 when Giovanni Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno Lascaris Paleologo, who also claimed the titles of "Prince of Macedonia", "Duke of Thessaly" and "Count of Drivasto, Durazzo etc." upon his death assigned the order not to any living relatives but to Francesco Farnese, the duke of Parma.

Outside the generally recognized line of grand masters from its origin in the 17th century to the present day, there have been many people claiming to be grand masters who have been forgers and title-seekers hoping to gain support for invented lines of descent from ancient and medieval nobility.

Farnese family, male primogeniture

Its incorporation as a religious order of the Catholic Church hereditary in the House of Farnese and its heirs, the Bourbons, dates from the transfer to Francesco Farnese on 11 January 1698, an act confirmed in an imperial diploma, "Agnoscimus et notum facimus", of the emperor, Leopold I, dated 5 August 1699, and the apostolic brief, "Sincerae Fidei", issued by Pope Innocent XII on 24 October 1699.

The Duke of Parma wearing the ceremonial robes of the order

These confirmed the succession of the grand magistry to the Farnese family and its heirs as an ecclesiastical office (therefore limited to males) and, crucially, did not tie it to tenure of sovereignty of the Duchy of Parma. Among the first major acts of the Farnese grand magistry were revised, amended and expanded statutes, issued on 25 May 1705 and confirmed in a papal brief dated 12 July 1706; both these confirmed the requirement that the grand magistry should pass by male primogeniture. Following the order's contribution to Prince Eugene of Savoy's campaign to drive the Turks from the Balkans between 1716 and 1718, Pope Clement XI, a former cardinal protector of the order, confirmed the order as a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in the bull, "Militantis Ecclesiae", of 27 May 1718.[citation needed]

Knight, Knight Commander, Knight Grand Cross

Claim by the House of Two Sicilies

With the death of the last male of the House of Farnese on 30 January 1731, the grand magistry was claimed by Charles, eldest son of Elisabeth Farnese and King Philip V of Spain; Charles also inherited the duchies of Parma and Piacenza from the Farnese. After becoming king of Naples and Sicily in 1734, Charles was forced to surrender Parma to Austria in 1736, but he retained the Constantinian grand magistry. On 16 October 1759, Charles abdicated the grand magistry (ten days after abdicating the “Italian Sovereignties”) to his second surviving son, King Ferdinand IV and III of Naples and Sicily (from 1815 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies). The administration of the order was transferred from Parma to Naples in 1768.[citation needed]

Despite the loss of its original basis of papal legitimacy, the Order continued to function under Ferdinand I and his successor heads of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. It has continued to do so after the fall of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies; the view of the Bourbon-Sicily family is that the grand magistry was never united with the Sicilian crown, but remained independent. Ferdinand's words, in a decree of 8 March 1796, were: "In his (the king's) royal person there exists together two very distinct qualities, the one of monarch of the Two Sicilies, and the other of grand master of the illustrious, royal and military Constantinian Order, which though united gloriously in the same person form nonetheless at the same time two separate independent lordships".

Arms of the Spanish royal family as grand masters of the Constantinian Order, Cathedral of Barcelona

The succession of Ferdinand I as grand master was resented by some of the Parmesan nobility but when in 1748, Charles III's younger brother Philip succeeded as duke of Parma, he explicitly recognised his brother Charles and later his nephew Ferdinand as grand master in a series of decrees and official acts. Philip's son Ferdinand, after becoming duke of Parma, sent an emissary to the Spanish court to try and persuade the king of Spain to intervene with the king of Naples and Sicily and persuade the latter to give up the grand mastership, but without success.

Separate Parmesan Order from 1817

The Parmesan Constantinian Order was a new foundation, instituted by Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, in 1817 and following her death the duke of Lucca, heir to the Bourbon-Parma succession, became duke of Parma under the terms of the Congress of Vienna and assumed the grand mastership which is today claimed by Prince Carlos, Duke of Parma. See the historical note authored by Paolo Conforte, a senior officer of the Parma dynastic order, who maintains that the Parma Order, despite its late foundation, is the successor of the original order; this view was explicitly rejected by the Holy See in 1860 and in 1913 the Holy See did not respond to a request from the Parma ducal family to accord their order similar privileges to those granted to the order of which Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta was grand master.

The Order under the House of Two Sicilies

Portrait of Infante Francisco, king of the Two-Sicilies, wearing the collar of the order

In 1910, Pope Pius X appointed the first of three successive cardinal protectors and, in 1913, approved a series of privileges for the chaplains of the order. In 1915, Pope Benedict XV dedicated the Constantinian chapel in the basilica of Santa Croce al Flaminio, which had been built with donations from the knights, who included Monsignor Eugenio Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII. In 1916, the pope restored the church of Saint Anthony Abbot to the Order - this church had originally been given to the Constantinian order along with the properties of the religious order of that name in 1777, but had been put under the direction of the archdiocese of Naples in 1861.[citation needed]

In 1919, new statutes received papal approval and Cardinal Ranuzzi de' Bianchi was appointed cardinal protector, the last to hold this post. Following the intervention of the grand magistry of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus in 1924, whose grand master, the king of Italy, objected to the awarding of the order to leading Italian noblemen, the Holy See felt the close relationship with Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta might prove an obstacle to settling the Roman question. It was, therefore, decided not to reappoint a successor to Cardinal Ranuzzi de' Bianchi at his death in 1927.[citation needed]

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The succession to the grand magistry of this order has been disputed among as many as three branches of Bourbons since 1960. The dispute is rooted in different interpretations of the so-called "Act of Cannes" of 14 December 1900 in which the count of Caserta's second son, Prince Carlo (grandfather of Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria), promised that he would renounce his succession to the crown of the Two Sicilies in execution of the "Pragmatic Decree" of 1759. This decree required that if the king of Spain, or his immediate heir, should inherit the Two Sicilies crown, he would renounce the latter to the next in line. Whether the "Pragmatic Decree" applied to Prince Carlo's situation in 1900, and whether the grand magistry of the order was included in such a renunciation, are both issues in dispute, yet within the world of academia, the latter has been, almost without exception, ruled in favour of the Hispano-Neapolitan branch. The Act of Cannes literally states:

Before Us, Don Alfonso de Borbón, Count of Caserta... Head of the Royal House and Dynasty of the Two Sicilies... His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlos, our beloved Son, appears and declares that, having to marry HRH Infanta María de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, and assuming by such marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, understands to renounce as by this Act solemnly renounces, by himself and by his heirs and successors, all the right and reason to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the assets of the Royal House that are in Italy and elsewhere, and this according to our Laws, constitutions and Family customs, in execution of the Pragmatic Sanction of King Charles III, our Augustus ancestor, of October 6, 1759, the prescriptions of which he freely and spontaneously declares to subscribe and obey. He also declares, in particular, to renounce for himself, his heirs and successors to the assets and values existing in Italy, Vienna and Monaco (Bavaria) and destined by His Majesty King Francis II (may God have welcomed his soul), to the foundation of a majorat for the Head of the Dynasty and of the Family of the Two Sicilies and for the constitution of an endowment fund in favor of the Royal Princesses and granddaughters of our August Father King Ferdinand (may God have welcomed his soul), of marriageable age; but preserving his rights to the part of the assets that were bequeathed to him by his late uncle King Francis II, in the event that the Italian Government, which improperly retains them, makes the due restitution and the same everything that may arrive to him by other testamentary legacies.

Cannes, December 14, 1900

Supporters of the late Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and his only son and heir, Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria assert that Prince Carlo's renunciation was conditional on his actually inheriting both the Spanish and Two Sicilies crowns and/or that, even in that circumstances, such a renunciation did not include the position of grand master of the Constantinian order, which they regard as separate from the crown. Indeed, the Act of Cannes never mentioned the order at all, although most authors argue that even if it had, its grand magistry is by nature a trustee Farnesian dynastic legacy that is not linked in any shape or form to the throne of the Two Sicilies. The official Spanish branch website[where?], headed by Prince Pedro, asserts that the renunciation was conditioned on facts that never arose, and that the order and the crown are governed by separate rules. Further, supporters of Infante Carlos argue that the "Act of Cannes" was legally defective and thus void.[citation needed] The Infante Don Carlos died on the 5 October 2015 and was succeeded by his only son, Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria.

Napoleon II wearing the cross of the order in his deathbed, 1832

Supporters of Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro reject all three positions advanced by Infante Carlos' supporters, and claim that the rival claimant's ancestor validly renounced both the crown of the Two Sicilies and the grand magistry.

Each branch appoints a Roman Catholic cardinal as grand prior. On 16 October 2012, the Vatican Secretary of State renewed its position that the Holy See does not recognise any order except the seven Papal Orders listed on their statement. The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George was not one of those orders.

Version led by Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria (Hispano-Neapolitan branch)

Spaniards and Italians who have been granted the Constantinian Order by Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and his heir Prince Pedro have applied for, and received, authorisation to wear the decorations of the order.

In a decree of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs by the Introductor de Embajadores, 28 November 2014, the Ministry stated that along with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre and the Royal Order of Saint Januarius (of which Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria, is also Grand Master) "... la Sagrada y Militar Orden Constantiniana de San Jorge fueron tuteladas por la Corona de Espana o se hallan estrechamente vinculadas a su Historia, tal y como preve en este sentido el Ministerio de Defensa en su Instruccion General 06/12 sobre autorización de uso de recompensas civiles y militares." ("...the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, came under the protection of or were linked to the Crown and history of Spain, as set forth by the Ministry of Defence in its General Instruction 06/12, on permission to wear civil and military awards"). The status of the Constantinian Order was again defined in a statement by the Introductor de Embajadores, dated 2 June 2017 and issued in Spanish, French and English - the latter read: "...Hereby Certifies That the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Royal Order of Saint Januarius are officially recognized by Spain as Orders historically tied to the Crown of Spain, pursuant to the Ministry's Circular Order 4/2014 of 28 November. The use of the insignias of these two Orders is subject to the appropriate authorization, issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as stipulated by the Royal Decree of 5 June 1916, signed by the Introducer of Ambassadors, Ambassador-Secretary of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Civil Merit." The Constantinian Order awarded by Prince Pedro is explicitly authorised to be worn by the governments of Italy and Mexico and citizens of the Netherlands have also been authorised to wear it. The United States Department of the Army has included the Order among those for which authorisation may be given to wear the decorations on the official list of such awards, under Spain.

Princess Marie Louise of Austria wearing the light blue sash of the order, 1835

Version led by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro (Franco-Neapolitan branch)

In the 1990s, under the authority of Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, the organization and activities of his version of the order were "revived" as the so-called "Delegation for Great Britain and Ireland of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George".[citation needed] This version of the Order has appointed a British Catholic public relations advisor as its "magistral delegate", and has awarded him other honours. In August 2016, notable herald and then Vice-Grand Chancellor of the Hispano-Neapolitan branch, Guy Stair Sainty stated that his order had no connection with this PR advisor, nor with his business activities, nor with the order of which he is described as “delegate”.

The Italian and Hungarian governments among others have authorised members of the Franco-Neapolitan branch, bestowed by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, to wear the insignia.

In 2011, the version of the Constantinian Order headed by the Duke of Castro, became one of the 3,536 NGO's. In 2011-12 some 600 organizations applied for consultative status. On average between 100 and 150 applications are recommended by the Committee in each of its two sessions per year non-governmental organizations to hold consultative status at the Economic and Social Council at the United Nations. The United Nations recognises the organisation as qualifying for this status without acknowledging its historical claims or any particular character as an Order of knighthood.

In 2016, the branch of the Order led by the Duke of Castro was involved in controversy over the election of Patricia Scotland as Commonwealth Secretary-General. It was alleged that Scotland used the Order's awards to influence votes in her favour through reciprocal exchanges of honours. Investigations resulted in a knighthood granted to the Duke of Castro by the Governor General of Antigua being revoked.

Attempted reconciliation

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On 24 January 2014, the day before the Blessed Beatification of the Venerable Servant of God Princess Maria Cristina of Savoy (later Queen Maria Cristina, Queen Consort of the Two Sicilies, the two disputed heads of the house: Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro and Prince Pedro, Duke of Noto (on behalf of his father Prince Carlos, Duke of Calabria) signed an "Act of Reconciliation" at Naples' Excelsior Hotel.

Portrait of king Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies wearing the cross of the order, 1851

This act appeared to have ended the longstanding differences over the titles used by the two branches of the House of the Two Sicilies. The signing of the act of reconciliation was done in the presence of the Duchesses of Noto and Castro, the Duke of Noto's mother, the Duchess of Calabria, the Duke of Noto's sisters, Maria and Inés, and their husbands, Archduke Simeon and Michele Carrelli Palombi, their aunt, Princess Teresa, Marquesa de Laserma, the Duke of Castro's sister, Princess Napoleon, Prince Casimiro of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and his wife Princess Margherita, and the Duke of Braganza. Owing to his state of health, the Infante Don Carlos, Duke of Calabria was unable to attend the ceremony.

The Act stated that the two branches will recognize each other's titles for the present holders and their successors; the titles of the senior, Spanish line, being Duke of Calabria, Duke of Noto and Duke of Capua, and of the junior line, being Duke of Castro and Duchess of Palermo and Duchess of Capri which were accorded to the Duke and Duchess of Castro's two daughters. The final intention was to work together to unite the Constantinian Order as well as perhaps share the grand mastership of the Two Sicilies Order of St. Januarius (the revival of the Order of Francis I has never been accepted by the senior, Spanish line.)

Renewed schism

In May 2016 Prince Carlo unilaterally renounced the agreement[citation needed] and subsequently conferred the titles of Duchess of Calabria and Duchess of Noto on his daughters, declaring the former to be the heiress to the headship of the Royal House and the Constantinian Grand Mastership. This act has not been recognised by members of the branch descended from Prince Gabriel of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. The legality of this has been disputed by Prince Pedro on the grounds that the succession to the Two Sicilies crown was established in two international treaties (Vienna 1737 and Naples 1759) as well as the Pragmatic Decree of 1759 and the nineteenth century Two Sicilies constitutions and therefore could not be changed by a unilateral act, even by an undisputed head of the royal house. The succession to the Constantinian Grand Mastership was confirmed by an Imperial Bull and a Papal Brief, and by the Bull Militantis Ecclesiae, and required that the Grand Mastership, an ecclesiastical office in canon law, could only be held by males and must pass by primogeniture to the heirs of the House of Farnese; the purported change to the succession by Prince Carlo has not been approved by the Holy See.

Knights of the Hispano-Neapolitan branch in the robes of the order greeting Cardinal Castrillón, 2009

Grades

Special Class

(This category created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro and are not considered part of the historical ranks of the Order.)

  • Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar
  • Knight Grand Cross, Special Class
Justice
  • Bailiff Knight Grand Cross with Collar of Justice
  • Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Justice
  • Knight/Dame Grand Cross of Justice
  • Knight/Dame Grand Officer of Justice (The rank of Commander was created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Commander of Justice (The rank of Commander was created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame of Justice
Lithography of the cross and neck insignia of the order, 1893
Grace or Jure Sanguinis

(The name Grace was changed to Jure Sanguinis by Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, when Grand Master.)

  • Knight/Dame Grand Cross of Grace, or Jure Sanguinis
  • Knight/Dame Grand Commander of Grace (The rank of Commander was created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Grand Officer of Grace, Special Class (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Grand Officer of Grace (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame of Grace or Jure Sanguinis
Merit
  • Knight/Dame Grand Cross of Merit
  • Knight/Dame Grand Commander of Merit, Special Class (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Grand Commander of Merit (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Grand Officer of Merit, Special Class (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Grand Officer of Merit (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame Commander (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • Knight/Dame of Merit
Office
  • Knight/Dame of Office
Medal
  • Gold, silver or bronze
  • Special Class (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
  • 1st Class
  • 2nd Class (a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro)
Insignia
Collar Knight sash Dame ribbon
Ribbon bars
Justice Grand Cross
Grace Grand Cross
Merit Grand Cross
Knight/Dame of Office
Medal

Recipients

Extended content
Bailiffs Grand Cross
Dames Grand Crosses of Justice
Other or Unknown Classes of Dames
Knights Grand Crosses of Justice
Knights Commanders of Justice
Knights Grand Crosses of Merit
Knights Commanders of Merit
Other or Unknown Classes of Knights
Grand Priors
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  2. The Institution, Laws and Ceremonies of the Most Noble Order of the Garter Collected and Digested Into One Body Etc. J. Macock. 1672. p. 63.
  3. "StackPath".
  4. Sainty, Guy Stair (2018-12-01). The Constantinian Order of Saint George: and the Angeli, Farnese and Bourbon families which governed it. Boletín Oficial del Estado. p. 12. ISBN 978-84-340-2506-6.
  5. "Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State" (Press release). Pontifical Council for Social Communication. 16 October 2012. Retrieved27 November 2012.
  6. Adernò, Fabio (22 October 2012). "La Santa Sede e gli Ordini Cavallereschi: doverosi chiarimenti (Seconda parte)". Zenit (in Italian). Retrieved22 August 2016.
  7. "Sacred Military Constantinian Order Of Saint George". Constantinianorder.org. Retrieved13 November 2016.
  8. Nicol, Donald M. (2002-05-09). The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans. Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-521-89409-8.
  9. Sainty, Guy Stair (2018-12-01). The Constantinian Order of Saint George: and the Angeli, Farnese and Bourbon families which governed it. Boletín Oficial del Estado. p. 58. ISBN 978-84-340-2506-6.
  10. Nicol, Donald M. (2002-05-09). The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans. Cambridge University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-521-89409-8.
  11. Lecanda Crooke 2012, p. 475.
  12. Stair Sainty 2018, pp. 363–363; Lecanda Crooke 2012, pp. 481–483; Villareal de Álava 1964, pp. 58–69 sfnm error: no target: CITEREFVillareal_de_Álava1964 (help); España 1987, pp. 70–77.
  13. Villareal de Álava 1964, pp. 58–69. sfn error: no target: CITEREFVillareal_de_Álava1964 (help)
  14. History asserting that the "Act of Cannes" was a fully valid act of renunciation, Realcasadiborbone.it; accessed 13 November 2016.
  15. "Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State". news.va. Pontifical Council for Social Communication. 16 October 2012. Retrieved27 November 2012. Vatican City (VIS) - In response to frequent requests for information concerning the recognition by the Holy See of Equestrian Orders dedicated to the saints or to holy places, the Secretariat of State considers it opportune to reiterate what has already been published, namely that, other than its own Equestrian Orders (the Supreme Order of Christ, the Order of the Golden Spur, the Pian Order, the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and the Order of Pope Saint Sylvester), the Holy See recognises and supports only the Sovereign Military Order of Malta - also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta - and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The Holy See foresees no additions or innovations in this regard. All other orders, whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See. Furthermore, the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy, their ends or organisational structures. To avoid any possible doubts, even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places, and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called "ceremonies of investiture".
  16. Gregor Gatscher-Riedl, In hoc signo vinces. Zwischen religiösem Mythos und politischem Anspruch von Byzanz nach Neapel. Die Geschichte des Heiligen Konstantinischen Ritterordens vom Heiligen Georg, Vienna 2012, p. 173(in German)
  17. Orden Circular 4/2014 Instrucciones sobre el uso de condecoraciones extranjeras por ciudadanos espanoles. 28 de noviembre de 2014.
  18. Website of Constantinian Order, accessed 20 June 2016
  19. Guy Stair Sainty, vice-grand chancellor of the Order. As reported in http://antiguaobserver.com/catholic-order-disowns-honours-awards-to-caribbean-leaders/ Antigua Observer. August 24, 2016. "The Order purportedly revived in the UK by Bailey is described on its website as the “Delegation for Great Britain and Ireland”; however, in a follow up email, Guy Stair Sainty, vice-grand chancellor of the Order, said it has no connection with Bailey, his business activities or the order of which he is described as “delegate”. Sainty explained that the Constantinian Order concentrates primarily on its Catholic mission and never “exchanges” its membership with anyone for any reason, since this would be contrary to the statutes and character of the Order as a Catholic, chivalric, confraternal institution. “Neither are we interested in expensive entertainments nor in constant publicity, which is why we have not issued any public statement until now, when the good name of our Order has repeatedly been the subject of so much critical commentary,” he added. Sainty went on to note that the grant of awards for “’interfaith’ services or whatever” to the likes of President Assad of Syria and former President Saleh of Yemen and various state officials in other countries, including the Caribbean, has no worth. “The self-evident conflict of interest between Mr Bailey’s role as a businessman apparently acting on behalf of states for fees, yet exchanging decorations of this controversial Constantinian Order … and then claiming awards in return would appear to be entirely contrary to the spirit of this ancient Catholic institution,” he said."
  20. Gregor Gatscher-Riedl, In hoc signo vinces. Zwischen religiösem Mythos und politischem Anspruch von Byzanz nach Neapel. Die Geschichte des Heiligen Konstantinischen Ritterordens vom Heiligen Georg, Vienna 2012, p. 172
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Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Language Watch Edit For other uses see Order of Saint George disambiguation The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Italian Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio Spanish Sagrada Orden Militar Constantiniana de San Jorge also historically referred to as the Imperial Constantinian Order of Saint George 1 and the Order of the Constantinian Angelic Knights of Saint George 2 is a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Bourbon Two Sicilies 3 Currently the grand magistry of the order is disputed among the two claimants to the headship of the former reigning House of Bourbon Two Sicilies as heirs of the House of Farnese namely Prince Pedro and Prince Carlo The order was confirmed as a religious military order in a 1718 papal bull owing to a notable success in liberating Christians in the Peloponnese Alongside the Sovereign Military Order of Malta it is the sole international Catholic Order which still has this status today 4 Although it is not an order of chivalry under patronage of the Holy See membership is restricted to practising Catholics 5 6 Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint GeorgeCross of the orderFoundedc 330 legendary c 1545 actual Royal houseHouse of Bourbon Two Sicilies House of Bourbon ParmaReligious affiliationRoman CatholicSeatbasilica Santa Croce in Via Flaminia RomeRibbonLight blueMottoIn hoc signo vincesFounderConstantine the Great legendary Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno actual Grand MasterDisputed Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria Prince Carlo Duke of Castro Prince Carlos Duke of ParmaGradesHouse of Bourbon Two Sicilies See all House of Bourbon Parma Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar Knight Grand Cross Knight Commander Knight DamePrecedenceNext higher House of Bourbon Two Sicilies Royal Order of Saint Januarius House of Bourbon Parma None highest Next lower House of Bourbon Two Sicilies Royal Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit House of Bourbon Parma Ducal Royal Order of Saint LouisSash amp ribbon of the order Though the order is alleged to have been founded in its original form by Constantine the Great in Antiquity and then restored under later Byzantine emperors the actual origin of the order can be traced to the 16th century when it was founded by an Albanian family by the name Angelo Flavio Comneno Though this family extinct in 1698 claimed to be connected to the Byzantine Komnenos and Angelos dynasties such a familial connection cannot be proven The order being connected to the Byzantine Empire is fantasy as chivalric orders were completely unknown in the Byzantine world and as such much of the alleged history of the order was invented much later Outside the generally recognized line of grand masters from its origin in the 16th century to the present day there have been many people claiming to be grand masters who have been forgers and title seekers hoping to gain support for invented lines of descent from ancient and medieval nobility Contents 1 History 1 1 Origins 1 2 Farnese family male primogeniture 1 3 Claim by the House of Two Sicilies 1 4 Separate Parmesan Order from 1817 1 5 The Order under the House of Two Sicilies 2 Disputed succession further schism of the Order 2 1 Version led by Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria Hispano Neapolitan branch 2 2 Version led by Prince Carlo Duke of Castro Franco Neapolitan branch 2 3 Attempted reconciliation 2 4 Renewed schism 3 Ranks of the Order 3 1 Grades 3 2 Recipients 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliograhpy 7 External linksHistory EditSee also List of Grand Masters of the Constantinian Order of Saint GeorgeThis article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George news newspapers books scholar JSTOR November 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message Origins Edit The legendary origins of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George trace its foundation to an apocryphal order founded by Constantine the Great 7 Although it has sometimes been held that the order would have been restored created by the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos any claimed connection between chivalric orders and the Eastern Roman Empire are pure fantasy as chivalric orders in the modern Western sense were completely unknown in the Byzantine world At best any connection to some ancient group would be excessively indirect and abstracted 8 The order was actually founded by Albanian nobles of the Angelo Flavio Comneno family claiming connection to the Byzantine houses of Angelos and Komnenos in the 16th century attested in association with a man by the name Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno and his brother Paolo Angelo Flavio Comneno in 1545 In 1545 the brothers Andrea and Paolo were officially acknowledged as descendants of the Angeloi emperors a claim seen as doubtful today by Pope Paul III The brothers were also guaranteed the right to inherit territory in the former Byzantine Empire should such territory be recovered from the Ottomans 9 Their family remained grand masters of the order until 1698 when Giovanni Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno Lascaris Paleologo who also claimed the titles of Prince of Macedonia Duke of Thessaly and Count of Drivasto Durazzo etc upon his death assigned the order not to any living relatives but to Francesco Farnese the duke of Parma 10 Outside the generally recognized line of grand masters from its origin in the 17th century to the present day there have been many people claiming to be grand masters who have been forgers and title seekers hoping to gain support for invented lines of descent from ancient and medieval nobility 1 Farnese family male primogeniture Edit Its incorporation as a religious order of the Catholic Church hereditary in the House of Farnese and its heirs the Bourbons dates from the transfer to Francesco Farnese on 11 January 1698 an act confirmed in an imperial diploma Agnoscimus et notum facimus of the emperor Leopold I dated 5 August 1699 and the apostolic brief Sincerae Fidei issued by Pope Innocent XII on 24 October 1699 The Duke of Parma wearing the ceremonial robes of the order These confirmed the succession of the grand magistry to the Farnese family and its heirs as an ecclesiastical office therefore limited to males and crucially did not tie it to tenure of sovereignty of the Duchy of Parma Among the first major acts of the Farnese grand magistry were revised amended and expanded statutes issued on 25 May 1705 and confirmed in a papal brief dated 12 July 1706 both these confirmed the requirement that the grand magistry should pass by male primogeniture Following the order s contribution to Prince Eugene of Savoy s campaign to drive the Turks from the Balkans between 1716 and 1718 Pope Clement XI a former cardinal protector of the order confirmed the order as a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in the bull Militantis Ecclesiae of 27 May 1718 citation needed Knight Knight Commander Knight Grand Cross Claim by the House of Two Sicilies Edit With the death of the last male of the House of Farnese on 30 January 1731 the grand magistry was claimed by Charles eldest son of Elisabeth Farnese and King Philip V of Spain Charles also inherited the duchies of Parma and Piacenza from the Farnese After becoming king of Naples and Sicily in 1734 Charles was forced to surrender Parma to Austria in 1736 but he retained the Constantinian grand magistry On 16 October 1759 Charles abdicated the grand magistry ten days after abdicating the Italian Sovereignties to his second surviving son King Ferdinand IV and III of Naples and Sicily from 1815 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies The administration of the order was transferred from Parma to Naples in 1768 citation needed Despite the loss of its original basis of papal legitimacy the Order continued to function under Ferdinand I and his successor heads of the House of Bourbon Two Sicilies It has continued to do so after the fall of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies the view of the Bourbon Sicily family is that the grand magistry was never united with the Sicilian crown but remained independent Ferdinand s words in a decree of 8 March 1796 were In his the king s royal person there exists together two very distinct qualities the one of monarch of the Two Sicilies and the other of grand master of the illustrious royal and military Constantinian Order which though united gloriously in the same person form nonetheless at the same time two separate independent lordships Arms of the Spanish royal family as grand masters of the Constantinian Order Cathedral of Barcelona The succession of Ferdinand I as grand master was resented by some of the Parmesan nobility but when in 1748 Charles III s younger brother Philip succeeded as duke of Parma he explicitly recognised his brother Charles and later his nephew Ferdinand as grand master in a series of decrees and official acts Philip s son Ferdinand after becoming duke of Parma sent an emissary to the Spanish court to try and persuade the king of Spain to intervene with the king of Naples and Sicily and persuade the latter to give up the grand mastership but without success Separate Parmesan Order from 1817 Edit The Parmesan Constantinian Order was a new foundation instituted by Marie Louise Duchess of Parma in 1817 and following her death the duke of Lucca heir to the Bourbon Parma succession became duke of Parma under the terms of the Congress of Vienna and assumed the grand mastership which is today claimed by Prince Carlos Duke of Parma See the historical note authored by Paolo Conforte a senior officer of the Parma dynastic order who maintains that the Parma Order despite its late foundation is the successor of the original order this view was explicitly rejected by the Holy See in 1860 and in 1913 the Holy See did not respond to a request from the Parma ducal family to accord their order similar privileges to those granted to the order of which Prince Alfonso Count of Caserta was grand master The Order under the House of Two Sicilies Edit Portrait of Infante Francisco king of the Two Sicilies wearing the collar of the order In 1910 Pope Pius X appointed the first of three successive cardinal protectors and in 1913 approved a series of privileges for the chaplains of the order In 1915 Pope Benedict XV dedicated the Constantinian chapel in the basilica of Santa Croce al Flaminio which had been built with donations from the knights who included Monsignor Eugenio Pacelli later Pope Pius XII In 1916 the pope restored the church of Saint Anthony Abbot to the Order this church had originally been given to the Constantinian order along with the properties of the religious order of that name in 1777 but had been put under the direction of the archdiocese of Naples in 1861 citation needed In 1919 new statutes received papal approval and Cardinal Ranuzzi de Bianchi was appointed cardinal protector the last to hold this post Following the intervention of the grand magistry of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus in 1924 whose grand master the king of Italy objected to the awarding of the order to leading Italian noblemen the Holy See felt the close relationship with Prince Alfonso Count of Caserta might prove an obstacle to settling the Roman question It was therefore decided not to reappoint a successor to Cardinal Ranuzzi de Bianchi at his death in 1927 citation needed Disputed succession further schism of the Order Edit The template below POV is being considered for merging See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus The neutrality of this section is disputed Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met October 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message The succession to the grand magistry of this order has been disputed among as many as three branches of Bourbons since 1960 The dispute is rooted in different interpretations of the so called Act of Cannes of 14 December 1900 in which the count of Caserta s second son Prince Carlo grandfather of Infante Carlos Duke of Calabria promised that he would renounce his succession to the crown of the Two Sicilies in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of 1759 11 This decree required that if the king of Spain or his immediate heir should inherit the Two Sicilies crown he would renounce the latter to the next in line Whether the Pragmatic Decree applied to Prince Carlo s situation in 1900 and whether the grand magistry of the order was included in such a renunciation are both issues in dispute yet within the world of academia the latter has been almost without exception ruled in favour of the Hispano Neapolitan branch 12 The Act of Cannes literally states Before Us Don Alfonso de Borbon Count of Caserta Head of the Royal House and Dynasty of the Two Sicilies His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlos our beloved Son appears and declares that having to marry HRH Infanta Maria de las Mercedes Princess of Asturias and assuming by such marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince understands to renounce as by this Act solemnly renounces by himself and by his heirs and successors all the right and reason to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the assets of the Royal House that are in Italy and elsewhere and this according to our Laws constitutions and Family customs in execution of the Pragmatic Sanction of King Charles III our Augustus ancestor of October 6 1759 the prescriptions of which he freely and spontaneously declares to subscribe and obey He also declares in particular to renounce for himself his heirs and successors to the assets and values existing in Italy Vienna and Monaco Bavaria and destined by His Majesty King Francis II may God have welcomed his soul to the foundation of a majorat for the Head of the Dynasty and of the Family of the Two Sicilies and for the constitution of an endowment fund in favor of the Royal Princesses and granddaughters of our August Father King Ferdinand may God have welcomed his soul of marriageable age but preserving his rights to the part of the assets that were bequeathed to him by his late uncle King Francis II in the event that the Italian Government which improperly retains them makes the due restitution and the same everything that may arrive to him by other testamentary legacies Cannes December 14 1900 11 Supporters of the late Infante Carlos Duke of Calabria and his only son and heir Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria assert that Prince Carlo s renunciation was conditional on his actually inheriting both the Spanish and Two Sicilies crowns and or that even in that circumstances such a renunciation did not include the position of grand master of the Constantinian order which they regard as separate from the crown Indeed the Act of Cannes never mentioned the order at all although most authors argue that even if it had its grand magistry is by nature a trustee Farnesian dynastic legacy that is not linked in any shape or form to the throne of the Two Sicilies 13 The official Spanish branch website where headed by Prince Pedro asserts that the renunciation was conditioned on facts that never arose and that the order and the crown are governed by separate rules Further supporters of Infante Carlos argue that the Act of Cannes was legally defective and thus void citation needed The Infante Don Carlos died on the 5 October 2015 and was succeeded by his only son Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria Napoleon II wearing the cross of the order in his deathbed 1832 Supporters of Prince Carlo Duke of Castro reject all three positions advanced by Infante Carlos supporters and claim that the rival claimant s ancestor validly renounced both the crown of the Two Sicilies and the grand magistry 14 Each branch appoints a Roman Catholic cardinal as grand prior On 16 October 2012 the Vatican Secretary of State renewed its position that the Holy See does not recognise any order except the seven Papal Orders listed on their statement The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George was not one of those orders 15 Version led by Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria Hispano Neapolitan branch Edit Spaniards and Italians who have been granted the Constantinian Order by Infante Carlos Duke of Calabria and his heir Prince Pedro have applied for and received authorisation to wear the decorations of the order 16 In a decree of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs by the Introductor de Embajadores 28 November 2014 the Ministry stated that along with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre and the Royal Order of Saint Januarius of which Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria is also Grand Master la Sagrada y Militar Orden Constantiniana de San Jorge fueron tuteladas por la Corona de Espana o se hallan estrechamente vinculadas a su Historia tal y como preve en este sentido el Ministerio de Defensa en su Instruccion General 06 12 sobre autorizacion de uso de recompensas civiles y militares 17 the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George came under the protection of or were linked to the Crown and history of Spain as set forth by the Ministry of Defence in its General Instruction 06 12 on permission to wear civil and military awards The status of the Constantinian Order was again defined in a statement by the Introductor de Embajadores dated 2 June 2017 and issued in Spanish French and English the latter read Hereby Certifies That the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Royal Order of Saint Januarius are officially recognized by Spain as Orders historically tied to the Crown of Spain pursuant to the Ministry s Circular Order 4 2014 of 28 November The use of the insignias of these two Orders is subject to the appropriate authorization issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as stipulated by the Royal Decree of 5 June 1916 signed by the Introducer of Ambassadors Ambassador Secretary of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Civil Merit The Constantinian Order awarded by Prince Pedro is explicitly authorised to be worn by the governments of Italy and Mexico and citizens of the Netherlands have also been authorised to wear it The United States Department of the Army has included the Order among those for which authorisation may be given to wear the decorations on the official list of such awards under Spain Princess Marie Louise of Austria wearing the light blue sash of the order 1835 Version led by Prince Carlo Duke of Castro Franco Neapolitan branch Edit In the 1990s under the authority of Prince Carlo Duke of Castro the organization and activities of his version of the order were revived as the so called Delegation for Great Britain and Ireland of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George citation needed This version of the Order has appointed a British Catholic public relations advisor as its magistral delegate and has awarded him other honours 18 In August 2016 notable herald and then Vice Grand Chancellor of the Hispano Neapolitan branch Guy Stair Sainty stated that his order had no connection with this PR advisor nor with his business activities nor with the order of which he is described as delegate 19 The Italian and Hungarian governments among others have authorised members of the Franco Neapolitan branch bestowed by Prince Carlo Duke of Castro to wear the insignia 20 In 2011 the version of the Constantinian Order headed by the Duke of Castro became one of the 3 536 21 NGO s In 2011 12 some 600 organizations applied for consultative status On average between 100 and 150 applications are recommended by the Committee in each of its two sessions per year non governmental organizations to hold consultative status at the Economic and Social Council at the United Nations 22 The United Nations recognises the organisation as qualifying for this status without acknowledging its historical claims or any particular character as an Order of knighthood In 2016 the branch of the Order led by the Duke of Castro was involved in controversy over the election of Patricia Scotland as Commonwealth Secretary General 23 It was alleged that Scotland used the Order s awards to influence votes in her favour through reciprocal exchanges of honours 24 Investigations resulted in a knighthood granted to the Duke of Castro by the Governor General of Antigua being revoked 25 Attempted reconciliation Edit This section relies largely or entirely on a single source Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources Find sources Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George news newspapers books scholar JSTOR November 2016 On 24 January 2014 the day before the Blessed Beatification of the Venerable Servant of God Princess Maria Cristina of Savoy later Queen Maria Cristina Queen Consort of the Two Sicilies the two disputed heads of the house Prince Carlo Duke of Castro and Prince Pedro Duke of Noto on behalf of his father Prince Carlos Duke of Calabria signed an Act of Reconciliation at Naples Excelsior Hotel Portrait of king Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies wearing the cross of the order 1851 This act appeared to have ended the longstanding differences over the titles used by the two branches of the House of the Two Sicilies The signing of the act of reconciliation was done in the presence of the Duchesses of Noto and Castro the Duke of Noto s mother the Duchess of Calabria the Duke of Noto s sisters Maria and Ines and their husbands Archduke Simeon and Michele Carrelli Palombi their aunt Princess Teresa Marquesa de Laserma the Duke of Castro s sister Princess Napoleon Prince Casimiro of Bourbon Two Sicilies and his wife Princess Margherita and the Duke of Braganza Owing to his state of health the Infante Don Carlos Duke of Calabria was unable to attend the ceremony The Act stated that the two branches will recognize each other s titles for the present holders and their successors the titles of the senior Spanish line being Duke of Calabria Duke of Noto and Duke of Capua and of the junior line being Duke of Castro and Duchess of Palermo and Duchess of Capri which were accorded to the Duke and Duchess of Castro s two daughters The final intention was to work together to unite the Constantinian Order as well as perhaps share the grand mastership of the Two Sicilies Order of St Januarius the revival of the Order of Francis I has never been accepted by the senior Spanish line 26 Renewed schism Edit In May 2016 Prince Carlo unilaterally renounced the agreement citation needed and subsequently conferred the titles of Duchess of Calabria and Duchess of Noto on his daughters declaring the former to be the heiress to the headship of the Royal House and the Constantinian Grand Mastership This act has not been recognised by members of the branch descended from Prince Gabriel of Bourbon Two Sicilies The legality of this has been disputed by Prince Pedro on the grounds that the succession to the Two Sicilies crown was established in two international treaties Vienna 1737 and Naples 1759 as well as the Pragmatic Decree of 1759 and the nineteenth century Two Sicilies constitutions and therefore could not be changed by a unilateral act even by an undisputed head of the royal house The succession to the Constantinian Grand Mastership was confirmed by an Imperial Bull and a Papal Brief and by the Bull Militantis Ecclesiae and required that the Grand Mastership an ecclesiastical office in canon law could only be held by males and must pass by primogeniture to the heirs of the House of Farnese the purported change to the succession by Prince Carlo has not been approved by the Holy See Knights of the Hispano Neapolitan branch in the robes of the order greeting Cardinal Castrillon 2009Ranks of the Order EditGrades Edit Special Class This category created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro and are not considered part of the historical ranks of the Order Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar Knight Grand Cross Special ClassJusticeBailiff Knight Grand Cross with Collar of Justice Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Justice Knight Dame Grand Cross of Justice Knight Dame Grand Officer of Justice The rank of Commander was created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Commander of Justice The rank of Commander was created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame of Justice Lithography of the cross and neck insignia of the order 1893 Grace or Jure Sanguinis The name Grace was changed to Jure Sanguinis by Infante Alfonso Duke of Calabria when Grand Master Knight Dame Grand Cross of Grace or Jure Sanguinis Knight Dame Grand Commander of Grace The rank of Commander was created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Grand Officer of Grace Special Class a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Grand Officer of Grace a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame of Grace or Jure SanguinisMeritKnight Dame Grand Cross of Merit Knight Dame Grand Commander of Merit Special Class a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Grand Commander of Merit a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Grand Officer of Merit Special Class a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Grand Officer of Merit a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame Commander a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Knight Dame of MeritOfficeKnight Dame of OfficeMedalGold silver or bronze Special Class a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro 1st Class 2nd Class a rank created by the Order headed by the Duke of Castro Insignia Collar Knight sash Dame ribbonRibbon bars Justice Grand Cross Grace Grand Cross Merit Grand Cross Knight Dame of Office MedalRecipients Edit Extended contentBailiffs Grand CrossAngelo Bagnasco William Wakefield Baum Princess Beatrice of Bourbon Two Sicilies Andrew Bertie Giacomo Biffi Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent Carlo Caffarra Carl Duke of Wurttemberg Andrzej Ciechanowiecki Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo Prince Gabriel of Bourbon Two Sicilies Georg Duke of Hohenberg Prince Georg of Bavaria Otto von Habsburg Isabella II of Spain List of titles and honours of Juan Carlos I of Spain Letsie III Antonio Mennini J Michael Miller Gabriel Montalvo Higuera Vincent Nichols George StackDames Grand Crosses of JusticeInfanta Alicia Duchess of Calabria Princess Anne Duchess of Calabria Princess Beatrice of Saxe Coburg and Gotha Cayetana Fitz James Stuart 18th Duchess of Alba Frederica of Hanover Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark Princess Isabel Alfonsa of Bourbon Two Sicilies Cecile La Grenade Leonida Bagration of Mukhrani Infanta Margarita Duchess of Soria Princess Maria de los Dolores of Bourbon Two Sicilies Princess Maria de la Esperanza of Bourbon Two Sicilies Princess Maria di Grazia of Bourbon Two Sicilies Princess Maria Ludwiga Theresia of Bavaria Princess Maria de las Mercedes of Bourbon Two Sicilies Princess Michael of Kent List of titles and honours of Queen Sofia of Spain Princess Urraca of Bourbon Two Sicilies Victoria Eugenie of BattenbergOther or Unknown Classes of DamesPrincess Maria Adelaide of Savoy Genoa Cecile La Grenade Leonida Bagration of Mukhrani Marta Linares de Martinelli Georgina Fitzalan Howard Duchess of Norfolk Maria Clemencia Rodriguez Munera Barbara Tuge ErecinskaKnights Grand Crosses of JusticePrince Adalbert of Bavaria 1886 1970 Afonso Prince of Beira Gilberto Agustoni Albert 12th Prince of Thurn and Taxis Archduke Albrecht Duke of Teschen Alexander II of Russia Alexander Crown Prince of Yugoslavia Alfonso Duke of Anjou and Cadiz Infante Alfonso Duke of Galliera Alfred I Prince of Windisch Gratz Carlos Amigo Vallejo Princess Beatrice of Bourbon Two Sicilies Anthony Bevilacqua Boris III of Bulgaria Agostino Borromeo Henrique de Braganca Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria Antonio Canizares Llovera Carl Duke of Wurttemberg Dario Castrillon Hoyos Fernando Cento Giovanni Cheli Desmond Connell Constantine II of Greece Timothy M Dolan Eduard Prince of Anhalt Ernest Louis Grand Duke of Hesse Prince Eugenio Duke of Genoa Ferdinand I of Bulgaria Prince Ferdinand Duke of Castro Matthew Festing Franz Joseph I of Austria Archduke Franz Karl of Austria Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia Archduke Friedrich Duke of Teschen Friedrich Wilhelm Prince of Hohenzollern Georg Duke of Hohenberg Carlos Gereda y de Borbon Jozef Glemp Zenon Grocholewski Antonio Innocenti Infante Jaime Duke of Segovia Jean Count of Paris Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern List of titles and honours of Juan Carlos I of Spain Arcadio Larraona Saralegui Prince Laurent of Belgium Leopold II Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopold Prince of Salerno Prince Louis Count of Trani Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies Maria Theresa of Austria 1816 1867 Eduardo Martinez Somalo Edoardo Menichelli Klemens von Metternich Cormac Murphy O Connor Mario Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano Duarte Nuno Duke of Braganza Pietro Palazzini Paul of Greece Christopher de Paus Pedro II of Brazil Pedro Carlos of Orleans Braganza Prince Pedro Gastao of Orleans Braganza Geraud Michel de Pierredon Infanta Pilar Duchess of Badajoz Giuseppe Pizzardo Luigi Poggi Ugo Poletti Norberto Rivera Carrera Robert Hugo Duke of Parma Antonio Maria Rouco Varela Archduke Rudolf of Austria 1919 2010 Rudolf Crown Prince of Austria Carlo Emanuele Ruspoli 3rd Duke of Morignano John de Salis 9th Count de Salis Soglio Prince Seeiso of Lesotho Simeon Saxe Coburg Gotha Archduke Stephen of Austria Palatine of Hungary Carlos Fitz James Stuart 19th Duke of Alba Conrad Swan Luigi Traglia Augusto Vargas Alzamora Vittorio Emanuele Prince of Naples Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich of Russia William Albert 1st Prince of Montenuovo Thomas WinningKnights Commanders of JusticeCharles Guthrie Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank Mark Watson GandyKnights Grand Crosses of MeritCarlos Abascal Bertie Ahern Anthony Bailey PR advisor John Bruton Charlotte Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Salvatore Cuffaro Erich Feigl Arnaldo Forlani Giustino Fortunato 1777 1862 Elmar Mader Joaquin Navarro Valls Abel Pacheco Gianfranco Ravasi Fernando Areas Rifan Marcelo Sanchez Sorondo Jose Sarney Charles Savarin Giovanni TonucciKnights Commanders of MeritGabriele Albertini David Alton Heinrich VII Prince Reuss of Kostritz Paul Murphy Baron Murphy of Torfaen Enrico SalatiOther or Unknown Classes of KnightsJanos Ader Afonso Prince of Beira Giulio Andreotti Bernard Barsi Princess Beatrice of Bourbon Two Sicilies Carl Duke of Wurttemberg Matthaus Casimir von Collin John D Faris Prince Ferdinand Duke of Castro Georg Duke of Hohenberg Otto von Habsburg Jean Count of Paris Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern Prince Laurent of Belgium Nicholas Liverpool Prince Rupert Loewenstein Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies Maria Theresa of Austria 1816 1867 Ricardo Martinelli Mary McAleese Vincent McBrierty Mireya Moscoso Napoleon II Abel Pacheco Nicolae Petrescu Comnen Giuseppe Resnati Guy Stair Sainty Juan Manuel Santos Vittorio Emanuele Prince of NaplesGrand PriorsDomenico Pignatelli di Belmonte Dario Castrillon Hoyos Renato Martino Mario Francesco Pompedda Albert VanhoyeSee also EditRoyal Order of Francis I Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit Order of Saint George and Reunion Order of Saint JanuariusReferences Edit a b Nicol Donald M 2002 05 09 The Immortal Emperor The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos Last Emperor of the Romans Cambridge University Press p 120 ISBN 978 0 521 89409 8 The Institution Laws and Ceremonies of the Most Noble Order of the Garter Collected and Digested Into One Body Etc J Macock 1672 p 63 StackPath Sainty Guy Stair 2018 12 01 The Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Angeli Farnese and Bourbon families which governed it Boletin Oficial del Estado p 12 ISBN 978 84 340 2506 6 Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State Press release Pontifical Council for Social Communication 16 October 2012 Retrieved 27 November 2012 Aderno Fabio 22 October 2012 La Santa Sede e gli Ordini Cavallereschi doverosi chiarimenti Seconda parte Zenit in Italian Retrieved 22 August 2016 Sacred Military Constantinian Order Of Saint George Constantinianorder org Retrieved 13 November 2016 Nicol Donald M 2002 05 09 The Immortal Emperor The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos Last Emperor of the Romans Cambridge University Press p 121 ISBN 978 0 521 89409 8 Sainty Guy Stair 2018 12 01 The Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Angeli Farnese and Bourbon families which governed it Boletin Oficial del Estado p 58 ISBN 978 84 340 2506 6 Nicol Donald M 2002 05 09 The Immortal Emperor The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos Last Emperor of the Romans Cambridge University Press p 119 ISBN 978 0 521 89409 8 a b Lecanda Crooke 2012 p 475 Stair Sainty 2018 pp 363 363 Lecanda Crooke 2012 pp 481 483 Villareal de Alava 1964 pp 58 69sfnm error no target CITEREFVillareal de Alava1964 help Espana 1987 pp 70 77 Villareal de Alava 1964 pp 58 69 sfn error no target CITEREFVillareal de Alava1964 help History asserting that the Act of Cannes was a fully valid act of renunciation Realcasadiborbone it accessed 13 November 2016 Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State news va Pontifical Council for Social Communication 16 October 2012 Retrieved 27 November 2012 Vatican City VIS In response to frequent requests for information concerning the recognition by the Holy See of Equestrian Orders dedicated to the saints or to holy places the Secretariat of State considers it opportune to reiterate what has already been published namely that other than its own Equestrian Orders the Supreme Order of Christ the Order of the Golden Spur the Pian Order the Order of Saint Gregory the Great and the Order of Pope Saint Sylvester the Holy See recognises and supports only the Sovereign Military Order of Malta also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem The Holy See foresees no additions or innovations in this regard All other orders whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation are not recognised by the Holy See Furthermore the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy their ends or organisational structures To avoid any possible doubts even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so called ceremonies of investiture Gregor Gatscher Riedl In hoc signo vinces Zwischen religiosem Mythos und politischem Anspruch von Byzanz nach Neapel Die Geschichte des Heiligen Konstantinischen Ritterordens vom Heiligen Georg Vienna 2012 p 173 in German Orden Circular 4 2014 Instrucciones sobre el uso de condecoraciones extranjeras por ciudadanos espanoles 28 de noviembre de 2014 Website of Constantinian Order accessed 20 June 2016 Guy Stair Sainty vice grand chancellor of the Order As reported in http antiguaobserver com catholic order disowns honours awards to caribbean leaders Antigua Observer August 24 2016 The Order purportedly revived in the UK by Bailey is described on its website as the Delegation for Great Britain and Ireland however in a follow up email Guy Stair Sainty vice grand chancellor of the Order said it has no connection with Bailey his business activities or the order of which he is described as delegate Sainty explained that the Constantinian Order concentrates primarily on its Catholic mission and never exchanges its membership with anyone for any reason since this would be contrary to the statutes and character of the Order as a Catholic chivalric confraternal institution Neither are we interested in expensive entertainments nor in constant publicity which is why we have not issued any public statement until now when the good name of our Order has repeatedly been the subject of so much critical commentary he added Sainty went on to note that the grant of awards for interfaith services or whatever to the likes of President Assad of Syria and former President Saleh of Yemen and various state officials in other countries including the Caribbean has no worth The self evident conflict of interest between Mr Bailey s role as a businessman apparently acting on behalf of states for fees yet exchanging decorations of this controversial Constantinian Order and then claiming awards in return would appear to be entirely contrary to the spirit of this ancient Catholic institution he said Gregor Gatscher Riedl In hoc signo vinces Zwischen religiosem Mythos und politischem Anspruch von Byzanz nach Neapel Die Geschichte des Heiligen Konstantinischen Ritterordens vom Heiligen Georg Vienna 2012 p 172 Basic Facts about ECOSOC Status United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs NGO Branch csonet org Retrieved 13 November 2016 Currently 3 536 NGOs enjoy consultative status with ECOSOC as of November 2011 List of non governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council as of 1 September 2011 PDF E 2011 INF 4 ed New York United Nations Economic and Social Council 15 November 2011 p 65 Retrieved 27 November 2012 Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio 2011 enquiries thetablet co uk The Tablet w Order denies allegations it awarded knighthoods for political influence The Tablet Retrieved 2020 03 06 Corruption a none issue for the Caribbean just go to Mama Mia Dominica Patriot 2020 02 20 Retrieved 2020 03 06 Other Notices the Gazette Koenig Marlene Eislers 24 January 2014 RECONCILIATION IN THE HOUSE OF BOURBON TWO SICILIES Royalmusingblogspotcom blogspot com Retrieved 27 January 2014 Bibliograhpy EditEspana Gobierno de 1987 Informes Emitidos por Ministerio de Justicia Real Academia de Jurisprudencia y Legislacion Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores Instituto Salazar y Castro C S I C y Consejo de Estado Relativos al Titulo de Jefe de la Casa Real de Borbon Dos Sicilias y al Gran Maestrazgo de la Sagrada Militar Orden Constantiniana de San Jorge Graficas Arias Montano Mostoles Lecanda Crooke Inigo 2012 Analisis juridico de la legitimidad en la Jefatura de la Casa Real de Borbon Dos Sicilias y el Gran Maestrazgo de sus ordenes PDF Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heraldica y Genealogia Real Academia Matritense de Heraldica y Genealogia Stair Sainty Guy 2018 The Constantinian Order of Saint George Boletin Oficial del Estado ISBN 978 84 340 2506 6 Villareal de Alava Marquess of 1964 La Maison Royale des Deux Siciles l Ordre Constantinien de Saint Georges et l Ordre de Saint Janvier Altamira Talleres Graficos External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Hispano Neapolitan branch website Grand Master Prince Pedro Duke of Calabria Franco Neapolitan branch website Grand Master Prince Carlo Duke of Castro Sacred Angelic Imperial Constantinian Order of Saint George Grand Master Prince Carlos Duke of Parma Bourbon Parma branch s history of the order PDF file in Italian Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George amp oldid 1053395778, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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