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Sardar

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Sardar (Persian:سردار‎, Persian pronunciation: , 'commander', literally 'headmaster'), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats. It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group. It is used as a Persian synonym of the Arabic title Emir.

Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Pakistani President Sardar Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.

The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardār (سردار) and have been historically used across Persia (Iran), the Ottoman Empire and Turkey (as "Serdar"), Mesopotamia (now Iraq), Syria, South Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal), the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Balkans and Egypt (as "Sirdar").

The term sardar was used by Sikh leaders and generals who held important positions in various Sikh Misls of the Sikh Empire. The sardar is still used by Sikhs widely. In India and its neighbouring countries, respected Sikh males are called sardars. Sardar was also used to refer to generals of the Maratha Empire. After the decline of feudalism, sardar later indicated a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an army military rank. As a military rank, a sardar typically marked the Commander-in-Chief or the highest-ranking military officer in an army, akin to the modern Field Marshal, General of the Army or Chief of Army. The more administrative title Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor-General or Chief Minister of a remote province, akin to a British Viceroy.

In Himalayan mountaineering, a sirdar is a local leader of the Sherpas. Among other duties, he records the heights reached by each Sherpa, which factors into their compensation.

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  • In the Hazara Division of Pakistan, the word Sardar is used by the Karlal tribe before their names, traditionally, to stress their upper-caste status, e.g., Sardar Muhammad Aslam, Sardar Haider Zaman etc.
  • In the small district of Sudhanoti, Kashmir, Sardar is used by the hybrid Sudhan tribe. Also, Poonch families in this region use Sardar at the beginning of their names.
  • Similarly Sardar is used by Khattar tribe noble men, native to the districts of Attock and adjacent areas of Rawalpindi.
  • Sardar was used for important political, tribal, military and religious officers rankings by the Sikhs during the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  • In Persian, Sardar i-Azam was occasionally used as an alternative title for the Shahanshah's Head of government, normally styled Vazir i-Azam, notably in 1904-06 for a Qajar prince, Prince Major General Abdol Majid Mirza.
  • Vallabhbhai Patel, the first Deputy Prime Minister of India was referred to as Sardar Patel; he is also now known as the "Iron Man of India".
  • Sadr-e-Riyasat was the title of one Constitutional Head of State of the princely state of Kashmir, Yuvaraj Shri Karan Singhji Bahadur, who was appointed as Heir Apparent in 1931. After his father had acceded to India, ending the sovereign Monarchy, Regent in 1949 to 1956. Sardar-i-Riyasat 1956 to 1965 (succeeded on the death of his father as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, 1961, no longer carrying any hereditary power), next Governor of the Indian constitutive State of Jammu and Kashmir 1965 to 1967.
  • Mohammed Daoud Khan of Afghanistan had the title of Sardar as President.
  • Saparmurat Niyazov, the authoritarian ruler of Turkmenistan in 1990—2006, carried a few glorifying titles, one of which was Serdar (“Leader”).
  • Sardar Sulakhan Singh Puar of Sikh Empire had the title of Sardar. Among Sikhs, Sardar is the title used by Sikh nobles, Military leaders & village chiefs.
A Sikh sardar
  • The term Sardar is today most commonly used to refer to adult male followers of the religion of Sikhism, as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have honorably served in many high-ranking positions within the Indian Army. Notable examples include Generals Joginder Jaswant Singh and Harbaksh Singh.
  • In Himalayan mountaineering, a Sirdar is the local leader of the Sherpas and porters. Among other duties, he records the heights reached by individual Sherpas, which dictates the amounts the Sherpas will be paid.
  • HMS Sirdar was a World War II Royal Navy submarine.
  • "Siridar" is a title of planetary rulers in Frank Herbert's Dune. The Padishah Emperor's elite troops are also called the Sardaukar.
  1. "Jackie Kennedy receives horse from governor of Pakistan - Mar 23, 1962 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-17.
  2. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911)."Sirdar" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 154.
  3. Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964).Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208 223.
  4. "Royal Kapurthala Dynasty History".
  5. Cummings, Sally N. (2010). Symbolism and Power in Central Asia: Politics of the Spectacular. Milton, United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0415575676.
  6. www.thesardarco.com. "What is a Sardar?". The Sardar Co. Retrieved2020-04-03.
  7. Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964).Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.

Sardar
Sardar Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Sadr i Riyasat This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Sardar news newspapers books scholar JSTOR November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message For other uses see Sardar disambiguation Sardar Persian سردار Persian pronunciation saerˈdɑr commander literally headmaster also spelled as Sirdar Sardaar Shordar or Serdar is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes noblemen and other aristocrats It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group It is used as a Persian synonym of the Arabic title Emir Sardar I Azam Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c 1920s Pakistani President Sardar Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding Sardar 1 Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha the last Ottoman Serdar i Azam Serdar Janko Vukotic of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardar سردار and have been historically used across Persia Iran the Ottoman Empire and Turkey as Serdar Mesopotamia now Iraq Syria South Asia Pakistan India Bangladesh and Nepal the Caucasus Central Asia the Balkans and Egypt as Sirdar 2 The term sardar was used by Sikh leaders and generals who held important positions in various Sikh Misls of the Sikh Empire The sardar is still used by Sikhs widely In India and its neighbouring countries respected Sikh males are called sardars Sardar was also used to refer to generals of the Maratha Empire After the decline of feudalism sardar later indicated a Head of State a Commander in chief and an army military rank As a military rank a sardar typically marked the Commander in Chief or the highest ranking military officer in an army akin to the modern Field Marshal General of the Army or Chief of Army The more administrative title Sirdar Bahadur denoted a Governor General or Chief Minister of a remote province akin to a British Viceroy In Himalayan mountaineering a sirdar is a local leader of the Sherpas 3 Among other duties he records the heights reached by each Sherpa which factors into their compensation Contents 1 Princes 2 Noblemen 3 Aristocrats 4 Head of state 5 Military title 6 Modern usage 7 See also 8 ReferencesPrinces EditSeveral princely states in British India have been ruled by a prince styled Sardar For example the Prince of Lahore used the title Sardar citation needed Sardars of these princely states hold a primogeniture hereditary title similar to British hereditary peers The Kapurthala State have been ruled by kings of state styled Sardar For example the king of Kapurthala used the title of Sardar 4 Noblemen EditIn Baluchistan the title Sardar marked the chief of his tribe In the Royal Afghan Kingdom the original Nishan i Sardari Order of the Leader founded by King Amanullah in 1923 was bestowed for exceptional service to the Crown by the Afghan monarch Recipients enjoyed the titles of Sardar i Ala or Sardar i Ali before their names and also received grants of land The original Order was disbanded in 1929 and was later revived by King Muhammad Zahir Shah In Ottoman Turkey Serdar was a rank in Bosnia Eyalet with Herzegovina Eyalet later Bosnia Vilayet encompassing entire Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of Montenegro and Serbia as well as in other parts Ottoman Montenegro Serbia and other lands Serdar was also used in the Principality of Montenegro and the Principality of Serbia as an honorary title below that of Vojvoda For example Janko Vukotic who was a military leader and former prime minister of Montenegro with title of Serdar However this were not noble titles as there was no nobility in Serbia and Montenegro and no hereditary titles apart from those borne by members of the reigning families of both countries In Persia Sardar i Bozorg was the title of both Hossein Khan Sardar and his brother Hasan Khan Qajar Both were uncles of Agha Khan Qajar the King Emperor of Persia and the Commander in chief under Emperor Fat h Ali Shah Qajar in the Russo Persian Wars of 1804 and 1826 In Punjab the Village chiefs Military Generals Noble Personalities are called Sardars it s used among both Muslims and Sikhs The early feudal Maratha Empire prior to Peshwa administration 1674 1749 used the title Sardar to identify an imperial court minister with military and diplomatic functions If granted land jagir the title Sardar also marked a feudal superior responsible for administration defense and taxing of the granted territory equivalent to the European title Count from the French comte meaning the companion or delegate to the Emperor that administered a county These Sardars of the early Maratha Empire were life peers the title was not hereditary If the Sardar was appointed to Commander in Chief of all Maratha forces the style Senapati was used in combination e g Sardar Senapati or Sarsenapati Khanderao Yesajirao Dabhade The title Senapati is a primogeniture hereditary title as is evidenced by the current Senapati Shrimant Sardar Padmasenraje Dabhade of Talegaon Dabhade In the Maratha Empire the more administrative role of Sirdar Bahadur denoted a Governor General or Chief Minister of a remote province this best equates to a Mughal Subahdar or British Viceroy in function and rank The title Sirdar was used by Englishmen to describe native noblemen in British India e g Sirdars of the Deccan Aristocrats EditIn the Hazara Division of Pakistan the word Sardar is used by the Karlal tribe before their names traditionally to stress their upper caste status e g Sardar Muhammad Aslam Sardar Haider Zaman etc In the small district of Sudhanoti Kashmir Sardar is used by the hybrid Sudhan tribe Also Poonch families in this region use Sardar at the beginning of their names Similarly Sardar is used by Khattar tribe noble men native to the districts of Attock and adjacent areas of Rawalpindi Sardar was used for important political tribal military and religious officers rankings by the Sikhs during the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Head of state EditIn Persian Sardar i Azam was occasionally used as an alternative title for the Shahanshah s Head of government normally styled Vazir i Azam notably in 1904 06 for a Qajar prince Prince Major General Abdol Majid Mirza Vallabhbhai Patel the first Deputy Prime Minister of India was referred to as Sardar Patel he is also now known as the Iron Man of India Sadr e Riyasat was the title of one Constitutional Head of State of the princely state of Kashmir Yuvaraj Shri Karan Singhji Bahadur who was appointed as Heir Apparent in 1931 After his father had acceded to India ending the sovereign Monarchy Regent in 1949 to 1956 Sardar i Riyasat 1956 to 1965 succeeded on the death of his father as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir 1961 no longer carrying any hereditary power next Governor of the Indian constitutive State of Jammu and Kashmir 1965 to 1967 Mohammed Daoud Khan of Afghanistan had the title of Sardar as President Saparmurat Niyazov the authoritarian ruler of Turkmenistan in 1990 2006 carried a few glorifying titles one of which was Serdar Leader 5 Sardar Sulakhan Singh Puar of Sikh Empire had the title of Sardar Among Sikhs Sardar is the title used by Sikh nobles Military leaders amp village chiefs Military title Edit A Sikh sardar Bhakti Thapa a Gorkhali Sardar The later Maratha Empire under Peshwa administration 1749 1818 used the title Sardar to denote a Field Marshal or General of the Army Sirdar was the official title of the British Commander in Chief of the Anglo Egyptian army 2 The title Serdar is also common amongst Ottomans in referring to a Commander in Chief The Serbs adopted this usage from the Ottomans e g Serdar Janko Vukotic In Turkish Serdar or Serdar i Ekrem was the title of the Commander in Chief in several military operations throughout the Ottoman Empire history In Afghanistan Sardar i Salar meant Field Marshal or General of the Army In Iran Sardar is used to address Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps high ranking officers see List of senior officers of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards During the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh the term Sardar became even more common as a title given to Sikh men Although it was officially reserved to address a high ranking official or a commanding chief such as a general or officer 6 Modern usage EditThe term Sardar is today most commonly used to refer to adult male followers of the religion of Sikhism as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have honorably served in many high ranking positions within the Indian Army Notable examples include Generals Joginder Jaswant Singh and Harbaksh Singh In Himalayan mountaineering a Sirdar is the local leader of the Sherpas and porters 7 Among other duties he records the heights reached by individual Sherpas which dictates the amounts the Sherpas will be paid HMS Sirdar was a World War II Royal Navy submarine Siridar is a title of planetary rulers in Frank Herbert s Dune The Padishah Emperor s elite troops are also called the Sardaukar See also EditList of Ottoman Grand Viziers Mankari Zamindar Jagirdar Feudalism in Pakistan Balochistan Baloch tribes Mazhabi Sikh Sardar Sherpa References Edit Jackie Kennedy receives horse from governor of Pakistan Mar 23 1962 HISTORY com history com Archived from the original on 2016 03 17 a b Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Sirdar Encyclopaedia Britannica 25 11th ed Cambridge University Press p 154 Sayre Woodrow Wilson 1964 Four Against Everest Englewood Cliffs NJ USA Prentice Hall Library of Congress Catalog Card No 64 15208 223 Royal Kapurthala Dynasty History Cummings Sally N 2010 Symbolism and Power in Central Asia Politics of the Spectacular Milton United Kingdom Routledge pp 91 92 ISBN 978 0415575676 www thesardarco com What is a Sardar The Sardar Co Retrieved 2020 04 03 Sayre Woodrow Wilson 1964 Four Against Everest Englewood Cliffs NJ USA Prentice Hall p 223 Library of Congress Catalog Card No 64 15208 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sardar amp oldid 1054084719 Head of state, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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