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Safavid dynasty

Not to be confused with Saffarid dynasty.

The Safavid dynasty (; Persian:دودمان صفوی‎, romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin, but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran.

Safavid dynasty
Safavid flag after 1576
CountrySafavid Iran
Founded1501
FounderIsmail I (1501–1524)
Final rulerAbbas III (1732–1736)

The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Persian Gulf, and Mesopotamia.

Contents

The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be sayyids, family descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Iranian Kurdistan, and later moved to Iranian Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish dignitary, Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah.

According to historians, including Vladimir Minorsky and Roger Savory, the Safavids were of Turkicized Iranian origin:

From the evidence available at the present time, it is certain that the Safavid family was of indigenous Iranian stock, and not of Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed. It is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, where they adopted the Azari form of Turkish spoken there, and eventually settled in the small town of Ardabil sometimes during the eleventh century.

By the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire, the members of the family were Turkicized and Turkish-speaking, and some of the Shahs composed poems in their then-native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well.

The authority of the Safavids was religiously based, and their claim to legitimacy was founded on being direct male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and regarded by the Shiʻa as the first Imam.

Furthermore, the dynasty was from the very start thoroughly intermarried with both Pontic Greek as well as Georgian lines. In addition, from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501, the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both Circassian as well as again Georgian dignitaries, especially with the accession of Tahmasp I.

Safavid dynasty timeline

The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai. Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Ismail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived. A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses. Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian. He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry.

  • Savafid dynasty art
  1. *Afšār, ta·līf-i Iskandar Baig Turkmān. Zīr-i naẓar bā tanẓīm-i fihristhā wa muqaddama-i Īraǧ (2003). Tārīkh-i ʻʻālamārā-yi ʻʻAbbāsī (in Persian) (Čāp-i 3. ed.). Tihrān: Mu·assasa-i Intišārāt-i Amīr Kabīr. pp. 17, 18, 19, 79. ISBN 978-964-00-0818-8.
    • p. 17: dudmān-i safavīa
    • p. 18: khāndān-i safavīa
    • p. 19: sīlsīla-i safavīa
    • p. 79: sīlsīla-i alīa-i safavīa
  2. "SAFAVID DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica.
    • Matthee, Rudi. (2005). The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900. Princeton University Press. p. 18; "The Safavids, as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background (...)".
    • Savory, Roger. (2008). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 1. p. 8. "This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams."
    • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia; Matthee, Rudi. (2009). "Ṣafavid Dynasty". In Esposito, John L. (ed.) The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. "Of Kurdish ancestry, the Ṣafavids started as a Sunnī mystical order (...)"
    • Roemer, H.R. (1986). "The Safavid Period" in Jackson, Peter; Lockhart, Laurence. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214, 229
    • Blow, David (2009). Shah Abbas: The Ruthless King Who Became an Iranian Legend. I.B.Tauris. p. 3
    • Savory, Roger M.; Karamustafa, Ahmet T. (1998) ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ. Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6, pp. 628-636
    • Ghereghlou, Kioumars (2016). ḤAYDAR ṢAFAVI. Encyclopaedia Iranica
  3. Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-056-0, pp. 130–1
  4. Yarshater 2001, p. 493.
  5. Khanbaghi 2006, p. 130.
  6. Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29 (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond"
  7. Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties? RM Savory, Iran under the Safavids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3.
  8. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
  9. In the pre-Safavid written work Safvat as-Safa (oldest manuscripts from 1485 and 1491), the origin of the Safavids is tracted to Piruz Shah Zarin Kolah who is called a Kurd from Sanjan, while in the post-Safavid manuscripts, this portion has been excised and Piruz Shah Zarin Kollah is made a descendant of the Imams. R Savory, "Ebn Bazzaz" in Encyclopædia Iranica). In the Silsilat an-nasab-i Safawiya (composed during the reign of Shah Suleiman, 1667–94), by Hussayn ibn Abdal Zahedi, the ancestry of the Safavid was purported to be tracing back to Hijaz and the first Shiʻi Imam as follows: Shaykh Safi al-din Abul Fatah Eshaq ibn (son of) Shaykh Amin al-Din Jabrail ibn Qutb al-din ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al-Hafez ibn Awad ibn Firuz Shah Zarin Kulah ibn Majd ibn Sharafshah ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Seyyed Ja'afar ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Isma'il ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Ahmad 'Arabi ibn Seyyed Qasim ibn Seyyed Abul Qasim Hamzah ibn Musa al-Kazim ibn Ja'far As-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Imam Zayn ul-'Abedin ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Taleb Alayha as-Salam. There are differences between this and the oldest manuscript of Safwat as-Safa. Seyyeds have been added from Piruz Shah Zarin Kulah up to the first Shiʻi Imam and the nisba "Al-Kurdi" has been excised. The title/name "Abu Bakr" (also the name of the first Caliph and highly regarded by Sunnis) is deleted from Qutb ad-Din's name. ُSource: Husayn ibn Abdāl Zāhedī, 17th cent. Silsilat al-nasab-i Safavīyah, nasabnāmah-'i pādishāhān bā ʻuzmat-i Safavī, ta'līf-i Shaykh Husayn pisar-i Shaykh Abdāl Pīrzādah Zāhedī dar 'ahd-i Shāh-i Sulaymnān-i Safavī. Berlīn, Chāpkhānah-'i Īrānshahr, 1343 (1924), 116 pp. Original Persian: شیخ صفی الدین ابو الفتح اسحق ابن شیخ امین الدین جبرائیل بن قطب الدین ابن صالح ابن محمد الحافظ ابن عوض ابن فیروزشاه زرین کلاه ابن محمد ابن شرفشاه ابن محمد ابن حسن ابن سید محمد ابن ابراهیم ابن سید جعفر بن سید محمد ابن سید اسمعیل بن سید محمد بن سید احمد اعرابی بن سید قاسم بن سید ابو القاسم حمزه بن موسی الکاظم ابن جعفر الصادق ابن محمد الباقر ابن امام زین العابدین بن حسین ابن علی ابن ابی طالب علیه السلام.
  10. R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1977. p. 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids."
  11. RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed.
  12. RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Encyclopædia Iranica
  13. F. Daftary, "Intellectual Traditions in Islam", I.B.Tauris, 2001. p. 147: "But the origins of the family of Shaykh Safi al-Din go back not to Hijaz but to Kurdistan, from where, seven generations before him, Firuz Shah Zarin-kulah had migrated to Adharbayjan"
  14. Tamara Sonn. A Brief History of Islam, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 83, ISBN 1-4051-0900-9
  15. É. Á. Csató, B. Isaksson, C Jahani. Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2004, p. 228, ISBN 0-415-30804-6.
  16. Minorsky, V (2009). "Adgharbaydjan (Azarbaydjan)". In Berman, P; Bianquis, Th; Bosworth, CE; van Donzel, E; Henrichs, WP (eds.). Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd ed.). NL: Brill. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. After 907/1502, Adharbayjan became the chief bulwark and rallying ground of the Safawids, themselves natives of Ardabil and originally speaking the local Iranian dialect
  17. Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259.
  18. Savory, Roger (2007). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-521-04251-2. qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court, as did the Safavid shahs themselves; lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times
  19. Safavid dynasty at Encyclopædia Iranica, "The origins of the Safavids are clouded in obscurity. They may have been of Kurdish origin (see R. Savory, Iran Under the Safavids, 1980, p. 2; R. Matthee, "Safavid Dynasty" at iranica.com), but for all practical purposes they were Turkish-speaking and Turkified."
  20. John L. Esposito, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press US, 1999. pp 364: "To support their legitimacy, the Safavid dynasty of Iran (1501–1732) devoted a cultural policy to establish their regime as the reconstruction of the historic Iranian monarchy. To the end, they commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh, the Iranian national epic, such as this one made for Tahmasp in the 1520s."
  21. Ira Marvin Lapidus, A history of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd edition. pg 445: To bolster the prestige of the state, the Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions."
  22. Colin P. Mitchell, "Ṭahmāsp I" in Encyclopædia Iranica. "Shah Ṭahmāsp's own brother, Sām Mirzā, wrote the Taḏkera-yetoḥfa-ye sāmi, in which he mentioned 700 poets during the reigns of the first two Safavid rulers. Sām Mirzā himself was an ardent poet, writing 8,000 verses and a Šāh-nāma dedicated to his brother, Ṭahmāsp (see Sām Mirzā, ed. Homāyun-Farroḵ, 1969)."
  23. See: Willem Floor, Hasan Javadi(2009), The Heavenly Rose-Garden: A History of Shirvan & Daghestan by Abbas Qoli Aqa Bakikhanov, Mage Publishers, 2009. (see Sections on Safavids quoting poems of Shah Tahmasp I)
  24. Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London : Harvard University Press, 2002. p. 143: "It is true that during their revolutionary phase (1447–1501), Safavi guides had played on their descent from the family of the Prophet. The hagiography of the founder of the Safavi order, Shaykh Safi al-Din Safvat al-Safa written by Ibn Bazzaz in 1350-was tampered with during this very phase. An initial stage of revisions saw the transformation of Safavi identity as Sunni Kurds into Arab blood descendants of Muhammad."
  25. From Maternal side: Chatrina daughter of Theodora daughter of John IV of Trebizond son of Alexios IV of Trebizond son of Manuel III of Trebizond son of Alexios III of Trebizond son of Irene Palaiologina of Trebizond. From Paternal side: Shaykh Haydar son of Khadijeh Khatoon daughter of Ali Beyg son of Qara Yuluk Osman son of Maria daughter of Irene Palaiologina of Trebizond.
  26. V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shāh Ismā‘īl I", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 10/4 (1942): 1006–53.
  27. "Ismail Safavi" Encyclopædia Iranica
  28. E. Yarshater, Language of Azerbaijan, vii., Persian language of Azerbaijan", Encyclopædia Iranica, v, pp. 238–45, Online edition.
  29. Emeri "van" Donzel, Islamic Desk Reference, Brill Academic Publishers, 1994, p. 393.
  • Christoph Marcinkowski (tr.),Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  • Christoph Marcinkowski (tr., ed.),Mirza Rafi‘a's Dastur al-Muluk: A Manual of Later Safavid Administration. Annotated English Translation, Comments on the Offices and Services, and Facsimile of the Unique Persian Manuscript, Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, ISBN 983-9379-26-7.
  • Christoph Marcinkowski,From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century, Singapore, Pustaka Nasional, 2005, ISBN 9971-77-491-7.
  • "The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors", Adam Olearius, translated by John Davies (1662),
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Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Saffarid dynasty The Safavid dynasty ˈ s ae f e v ɪ d ˈ s ɑː Persian دودمان صفوی romanized Dudmane Safavi 1 pronounced d uːd ˈmɒːne saefaeˈviː was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736 2 The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin 3 but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman 4 Georgian 5 Circassian 6 7 and Pontic Greek 8 dignitaries From their base in Ardabil the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region 9 thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran 10 Safavid dynastySafavid flag after 1576CountrySafavid IranFounded1501FounderIsmail I 1501 1524 Final rulerAbbas III 1732 1736 The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736 and at their height they controlled all of what is now Iran Azerbaijan Republic Bahrain Armenia eastern Georgia parts of the North Caucasus Iraq Kuwait and Afghanistan as well as parts of Turkey Syria Pakistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Despite their demise in 1736 the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon checks and balances their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran as well as major parts of the Caucasus Anatolia the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia Contents 1 Genealogy ancestors of the Safavids and its multi cultural identity 2 Safavid Shahs of Iran 3 Mothers of Safavid Shahs 4 Culture 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External linksGenealogy ancestors of the Safavids and its multi cultural identitySee also Safavid dynasty family tree Safavid order Safvat as safa Silsilat al nasab i Safaviya Firuz Shah Zarrin Kolah and List of the mothers of the Safavid Shahs The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be sayyids 11 family descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim 12 There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Iranian Kurdistan 13 and later moved to Iranian Azerbaijan finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil Traditional pre 1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish dignitary Firuz Shah Zarrin Kolah 14 15 According to historians 16 17 including Vladimir Minorsky 18 and Roger Savory the Safavids were of Turkicized Iranian origin 19 From the evidence available at the present time it is certain that the Safavid family was of indigenous Iranian stock and not of Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed It is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan and later moved to Azerbaijan where they adopted the Azari form of Turkish spoken there and eventually settled in the small town of Ardabil sometimes during the eleventh century By the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire the members of the family were Turkicized and Turkish speaking 20 21 and some of the Shahs composed poems in their then native Turkish language Concurrently the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp 22 23 while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well 24 25 The authority of the Safavids was religiously based and their claim to legitimacy was founded on being direct male descendants of Ali 26 the cousin and son in law of Muhammad and regarded by the Shiʻa as the first Imam Furthermore the dynasty was from the very start thoroughly intermarried with both Pontic Greek as well as Georgian lines 27 In addition from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501 the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both Circassian as well as again Georgian dignitaries especially with the accession of Tahmasp I 6 7 Safavid Shahs of Iran Safavid dynasty timeline See also List of Safavid monarchs Ismail I 1501 1524 Tahmasp I 1524 1576 Ismail II 1576 1578 Mohammad Khodabanda 1578 1587 Abbas I 1587 1629 Safi 1629 1642 Abbas II 1642 1666 Suleiman I 1666 1694 Sultan Husayn I 1694 1722 Tahmasp II 1722 1732 Abbas III 1732 1736Mothers of Safavid ShahsMain article List of the mothers of the Safavid ShahsCultureThe Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad din Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen name of Khatai 28 Sam Mirza the son of Shah Ismail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived 29 A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet writing Azerbaijani verses 30 Sam Mirza the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry 31 Savafid dynasty art See alsoKhanates of the Caucasus List of Shi a Muslim dynasties Persianate states Safavid art Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam Trade in Iran s Safavid eraReferences Afsar ta lif i Iskandar Baig Turkman Zir i naẓar ba tanẓim i fihristha wa muqaddama i iraǧ 2003 Tarikh i ʻʻalamara yi ʻʻAbbasi in Persian Cap i 3 ed Tihran Mu assasa i Intisarat i Amir Kabir pp 17 18 19 79 ISBN 978 964 00 0818 8 p 17 dudman i safavia p 18 khandan i safavia p 19 silsila i safavia p 79 silsila i alia i safavia SAFAVID DYNASTY Encyclopaedia Iranica Matthee Rudi 2005 The Pursuit of Pleasure Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History 1500 1900 Princeton University Press p 18 The Safavids as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background Savory Roger 2008 EBN BAZZAZ Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol VIII Fasc 1 p 8 This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams Amoretti Biancamaria Scarcia Matthee Rudi 2009 Ṣafavid Dynasty In Esposito John L ed The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World Oxford University Press Of Kurdish ancestry the Ṣafavids started as a Sunni mystical order Roemer H R 1986 The Safavid Period in Jackson Peter Lockhart Laurence The Cambridge History of Iran Vol 6 The Timurid and Safavid Periods Cambridge University Press pp 214 229 Blow David 2009 Shah Abbas The Ruthless King Who Became an Iranian Legend I B Tauris p 3 Savory Roger M Karamustafa Ahmet T 1998 ESMAʿiL I ṢAFAWi Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol VIII Fasc 6 pp 628 636 Ghereghlou Kioumars 2016 ḤAYDAR ṢAFAVI Encyclopaedia Iranica Aptin Khanbaghi 2006 The Fire the Star and the Cross Minority Religions in Medieval and Early London amp New York IB Tauris ISBN 1 84511 056 0 pp 130 1 a b Yarshater 2001 p 493 a b Khanbaghi 2006 p 130 Anthony Bryer Greeks and Turkmens The Pontic Exception Dumbarton Oaks Papers Vol 29 1975 Appendix II Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties RM Savory Iran under the Safavids Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1980 p 3 Alireza Shapur Shahbazi 2005 The History of the Idea of Iran in Vesta Curtis ed Birth of the Persian Empire IB Tauris London p 108 Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians national idea The name Iran disappeared from official records of the Saffarids Samanids Buyids Saljuqs and their successor But one unofficially used the name Iran Eranshahr and similar national designations particularly Mamalek e Iran or Iranian lands which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam On the other hand when the Safavids not Reza Shah as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations In the pre Safavid written work Safvat as Safa oldest manuscripts from 1485 and 1491 the origin of the Safavids is tracted to Piruz Shah Zarin Kolah who is called a Kurd from Sanjan while in the post Safavid manuscripts this portion has been excised and Piruz Shah Zarin Kollah is made a descendant of the Imams R Savory Ebn Bazzaz in Encyclopaedia Iranica In the Silsilat an nasab i Safawiya composed during the reign of Shah Suleiman 1667 94 by Hussayn ibn Abdal Zahedi the ancestry of the Safavid was purported to be tracing back to Hijaz and the first Shiʻi Imam as follows Shaykh Safi al din Abul Fatah Eshaq ibn son of Shaykh Amin al Din Jabrail ibn Qutb al din ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al Hafez ibn Awad ibn Firuz Shah Zarin Kulah ibn Majd ibn Sharafshah ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Seyyed Ja afar ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Isma il ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Ahmad Arabi ibn Seyyed Qasim ibn Seyyed Abul Qasim Hamzah ibn Musa al Kazim ibn Ja far As Sadiq ibn Muhammad al Baqir ibn Imam Zayn ul Abedin ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Taleb Alayha as Salam There are differences between this and the oldest manuscript of Safwat as Safa Seyyeds have been added from Piruz Shah Zarin Kulah up to the first Shiʻi Imam and the nisba Al Kurdi has been excised The title name Abu Bakr also the name of the first Caliph and highly regarded by Sunnis is deleted from Qutb ad Din s name Source Husayn ibn Abdal Zahedi 17th cent Silsilat al nasab i Safaviyah nasabnamah i padishahan ba ʻuzmat i Safavi ta lif i Shaykh Husayn pisar i Shaykh Abdal Pirzadah Zahedi dar ahd i Shah i Sulaymnan i Safavi Berlin Chapkhanah i iranshahr 1343 1924 116 pp Original Persian شیخ صفی الدین ابو الفتح اسحق ابن شیخ امین الدین جبرائیل بن قطب الدین ابن صالح ابن محمد الحافظ ابن عوض ابن فیروزشاه زرین کلاه ابن محمد ابن شرفشاه ابن محمد ابن حسن ابن سید محمد ابن ابراهیم ابن سید جعفر بن سید محمد ابن سید اسمعیل بن سید محمد بن سید احمد اعرابی بن سید قاسم بن سید ابو القاسم حمزه بن موسی الکاظم ابن جعفر الصادق ابن محمد الباقر ابن امام زین العابدین بن حسین ابن علی ابن ابی طالب علیه السلام R M Savory Safavid Persia in Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton Peter Malcolm Holt Bernard Lewis The Cambridge History of Islam Cambridge University Press 1977 p 394 They Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids RM Savory Safavids Encyclopedia of Islam 2nd ed RM Savory Ebn Bazzaz Encyclopaedia Iranica F Daftary Intellectual Traditions in Islam I B Tauris 2001 p 147 But the origins of the family of Shaykh Safi al Din go back not to Hijaz but to Kurdistan from where seven generations before him Firuz Shah Zarin kulah had migrated to Adharbayjan Tamara Sonn A Brief History of Islam Blackwell Publishing 2004 p 83 ISBN 1 4051 0900 9 E A Csato B Isaksson C Jahani Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion Case Studies from Iranian Semitic and Turkic Routledge 2004 p 228 ISBN 0 415 30804 6 Minorsky V 2009 Adgharbaydjan Azarbaydjan In Berman P Bianquis Th Bosworth CE van Donzel E Henrichs WP eds Encyclopedia of Islam 2nd ed NL Brill Archived from the original on 2012 07 28 After 907 1502 Adharbayjan became the chief bulwark and rallying ground of the Safawids themselves natives of Ardabil and originally speaking the local Iranian dialect Roger M Savory Safavids in Peter Burke Irfan Habib Halil Inalcik History of Humanity Scientific and Cultural Development From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century Taylor amp Francis 1999 p 259 Savory Roger 2007 Iran Under the Safavids Cambridge University Press p 213 ISBN 978 0 521 04251 2 qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court as did the Safavid shahs themselves lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times Safavid dynasty at Encyclopaedia Iranica The origins of the Safavids are clouded in obscurity They may have been of Kurdish origin see R Savory Iran Under the Safavids 1980 p 2 R Matthee Safavid Dynasty at iranica com but for all practical purposes they were Turkish speaking and Turkified John L Esposito The Oxford History of Islam Oxford University Press US 1999 pp 364 To support their legitimacy the Safavid dynasty of Iran 1501 1732 devoted a cultural policy to establish their regime as the reconstruction of the historic Iranian monarchy To the end they commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh the Iranian national epic such as this one made for Tahmasp in the 1520s Ira Marvin Lapidus A history of Islamic Societies Cambridge University Press 2002 2nd edition pg 445 To bolster the prestige of the state the Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry painting and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions Colin P Mitchell Ṭahmasp I in Encyclopaedia Iranica Shah Ṭahmasp s own brother Sam Mirza wrote the Taḏkera yetoḥfa ye sami in which he mentioned 700 poets during the reigns of the first two Safavid rulers Sam Mirza himself was an ardent poet writing 8 000 verses and a Sah nama dedicated to his brother Ṭahmasp see Sam Mirza ed Homayun Farroḵ 1969 See Willem Floor Hasan Javadi 2009 The Heavenly Rose Garden A History of Shirvan amp Daghestan by Abbas Qoli Aqa Bakikhanov Mage Publishers 2009 see Sections on Safavids quoting poems of Shah Tahmasp I Kathryn Babayan Mystics Monarchs and Messiahs Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran Cambridge Massachusetts London Harvard University Press 2002 p 143 It is true that during their revolutionary phase 1447 1501 Safavi guides had played on their descent from the family of the Prophet The hagiography of the founder of the Safavi order Shaykh Safi al Din Safvat al Safa written by Ibn Bazzaz in 1350 was tampered with during this very phase An initial stage of revisions saw the transformation of Safavi identity as Sunni Kurds into Arab blood descendants of Muhammad From Maternal side Chatrina daughter of Theodora daughter of John IV of Trebizond son of Alexios IV of Trebizond son of Manuel III of Trebizond son of Alexios III of Trebizond son of Irene Palaiologina of Trebizond From Paternal side Shaykh Haydar son of Khadijeh Khatoon daughter of Ali Beyg son of Qara Yuluk Osman son of Maria daughter of Irene Palaiologina of Trebizond V Minorsky The Poetry of Shah Isma il I Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies University of London 10 4 1942 1006 53 Ismail Safavi Encyclopaedia Iranica E Yarshater Language of Azerbaijan vii Persian language of Azerbaijan Encyclopaedia Iranica v pp 238 45 Online edition Emeri van Donzel Islamic Desk Reference Brill Academic Publishers 1994 p 393 BibliographyBlow David 2009 Shah Abbas The Ruthless King Who Became an Iranian Legend I B Tauris ISBN 978 0857716767 Jackson Peter Lockhart Laurence eds 1986 The Timurid and Safavid Periods The Cambridge History of Iran 6 Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521200943 Khanbaghi Aptin 2006 The Fire the Star and the Cross Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran I B Tauris ISBN 978 1845110567 Mikaberidze Alexander 2015 Historical Dictionary of Georgia 2 ed Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 978 1442241466 Savory Roger 2007 Iran under the Safavids Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0521042512 Sicker Martin 2001 The Islamic World in Decline From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 978 0275968915 Yarshater Ehsan 2001 Encyclopaedia Iranica Routledge amp Kegan Paul ISBN 978 0933273566 Further readingChristoph Marcinkowski tr Persian Historiography and Geography Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran the Caucasus Central Asia India and Early Ottoman Turkey Singapore Pustaka Nasional 2003 ISBN 9971 77 488 7 Christoph Marcinkowski tr ed Mirza Rafi a s Dastur al Muluk A Manual of Later Safavid Administration Annotated English Translation Comments on the Offices and Services and Facsimile of the Unique Persian Manuscript Kuala Lumpur ISTAC 2002 ISBN 983 9379 26 7 Christoph Marcinkowski From Isfahan to Ayutthaya Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century Singapore Pustaka Nasional 2005 ISBN 9971 77 491 7 The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors Adam Olearius translated by John Davies 1662 External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to Safavid dynasty History of the Safavids on Iran Chamber Safavid dynasty Encyclopaedia Iranica by Rudi Matthee The History Files Rulers of Persia BBC History of Religion Iranian culture and history site Georgians in the Safavid administration Encyclopaedia Iranica Artistic and cultural history of the Safavids from the Metropolitan Museum of Art History of Safavid art A Study of the Migration of Shiʻi Works from Arab Regions to Iran at the Early Safavid Era Why is Safavid history important Iran Chamber Society Historiography During the Safawid Era IRAN ix RELIGIONS IN IRAN 2 Islam in Iran 2 3 Shiʿism in Iran Since the Safavids Safavid Period Encyclopaedia Iranica by Hamid Algar Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Safavid dynasty amp oldid 1052710361, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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