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Safavid order

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The Safavid order, also called the Safaviyya (Persian:صفویه‎), was a tariqa (Sufi order) founded by the Kurdish mystic Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334). It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty. While initially founded under the Shafi'i school of Sunni Islam, later adoptions of Shi'i concepts such as the notion of the Imamate by the children and grandchildren of Safi-ad-din Ardabili resulted in the order ultimately becoming associated with Twelverism.

Contents

Safī al-Din grew up in Ardabil, but left it for lack of adequate teachers, traveling to Shiraz and then Gilan. In Gilan, he became the disciple of Zahed Gilani, leader of the Zahidī Sufi order. He eventually became Zahid's chief disciple and married his daughter. Upon Zahed Gilani's death, the Zahidiyyah came under Safī ad-Din's leadership and was renamed the Safawiyyah.

Safī al-Din's importance is attested in two letters by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani. In one, Rashid al-Din pledges an annual offering of foodstuffs. In the other, Rashid al-Din writes to his son, the governor of Ardabil, advising him to show proper consideration to the sheikh.

After Safī al-Din's death, leadership of the order passed to his son, Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā, and subsequently passed down from father to son. By the mid-fifteenth century, the Safawiyyah changed in character and became militant under Shaykh Junayd and Shaykh Haydar, launching jihads against the Christians of Georgia. The later Safawiyyah is considered "ghulat", meaning it had messianic beliefs about its leadership and Shi'ite antinomian practices outside of the orthodox norm of Twelver Islam.

Haydar's grandson, Ismail, further altered the nature of the order when he founded the Safavid empire in 1501 and proclaimed Twelver Shi'ism the state religion, at which point he imported ulama largely from Lebanon and Syria to make the Safavid practices orthodox.

  1. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1345, Sheikh Safi al-Din
  2. "Imamzadah Shaykh Ṣafi al-Din Ardabili | Exterior view of Shaykh Safi Tomb. The courtyard wall of Chilakhana courtyard appears in the background, while the Haramkhana is seen in the right foreground".
  3. Newman, Andrew J., Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, (I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2006), 152.
  4. R.M. Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Archived 2009-05-29 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Iranica
  5. V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shāh Ismā‘īl I," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 10/4 (1942): 1006–53.
  6. G. E. Browne, Literary History of Persia, vol. 4, 33–4.
  7. Floor, Willem; Herzig, Edmund (2015). Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I.B.Tauris. p. 20. ISBN 978-1780769905. In fact, at the start of the Safavid period Twelver Shi'ism was imported into Iran largely from Syria and Mount Lebanon (...)
  8. Savory, Roger (2007). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0521042512.
  9. Abisaab, Rula. "JABAL ʿĀMEL". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved15 May 2016.
  10. Alagha, Joseph Elie (2006). The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology and Political Program. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-9053569108.

Safavid order
Safavid order Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Safaviyya This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Safavid order news newspapers books scholar JSTOR September 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Safavid order also called the Safaviyya Persian صفویه was a tariqa Sufi order 1 2 founded by the Kurdish 3 4 5 mystic Safi ad din Ardabili 1252 1334 It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty While initially founded under the Shafi i school of Sunni Islam later adoptions of Shi i concepts such as the notion of the Imamate by the children and grandchildren of Safi ad din Ardabili resulted in the order ultimately becoming associated with Twelverism Contents 1 Founder and foundation 2 Growth of the order 3 See also 4 ReferencesFounder and foundation EditSafi al Din grew up in Ardabil but left it for lack of adequate teachers traveling to Shiraz and then Gilan In Gilan he became the disciple of Zahed Gilani leader of the Zahidi Sufi order He eventually became Zahid s chief disciple and married his daughter Upon Zahed Gilani s death the Zahidiyyah came under Safi ad Din s leadership and was renamed the Safawiyyah Safi al Din s importance is attested in two letters by Rashid al Din Hamadani In one Rashid al Din pledges an annual offering of foodstuffs In the other Rashid al Din writes to his son the governor of Ardabil advising him to show proper consideration to the sheikh 6 Growth of the order EditAfter Safi al Din s death leadership of the order passed to his son Sadr al Din Musa and subsequently passed down from father to son By the mid fifteenth century the Safawiyyah changed in character and became militant under Shaykh Junayd and Shaykh Haydar launching jihads against the Christians of Georgia The later Safawiyyah is considered ghulat meaning it had messianic beliefs about its leadership and Shi ite antinomian practices outside of the orthodox norm of Twelver Islam Haydar s grandson Ismail further altered the nature of the order when he founded the Safavid empire in 1501 and proclaimed Twelver Shi ism the state religion at which point he imported ulama largely from Lebanon and Syria to make the Safavid practices orthodox 7 8 9 10 See also EditSafavid dynasty family tree Safvat as safa Safavid dynasty Musha sha iyyah a rival Shi a sectReferences Edit https whc unesco org en list 1345 Sheikh Safi al Din Imamzadah Shaykh Ṣafi al Din Ardabili Exterior view of Shaykh Safi Tomb The courtyard wall of Chilakhana courtyard appears in the background while the Haramkhana is seen in the right foreground Newman Andrew J Safavid Iran Rebirth of a Persian Empire I B Tauris amp Co Ltd 2006 152 R M Savory Ebn Bazzaz Archived 2009 05 29 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Iranica V Minorsky The Poetry of Shah Isma il I Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies University of London 10 4 1942 1006 53 G E Browne Literary History of Persia vol 4 33 4 Floor Willem Herzig Edmund 2015 Iran and the World in the Safavid Age I B Tauris p 20 ISBN 978 1780769905 In fact at the start of the Safavid period Twelver Shi ism was imported into Iran largely from Syria and Mount Lebanon Savory Roger 2007 Iran Under the Safavids Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 30 ISBN 978 0521042512 Abisaab Rula JABAL ʿAMEL Encyclopaedia Iranica Retrieved 15 May 2016 Alagha Joseph Elie 2006 The Shifts in Hizbullah s Ideology Religious Ideology Political Ideology and Political Program Amsterdam Amsterdam University Press p 20 ISBN 978 9053569108 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Safavid order amp oldid 1051629048, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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