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Sahib

"Saheb" redirects here. For the city in Iran, see Saheb, Iran. For the administrative subdivision of Iran, see Saheb Rural District.
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Sahib or Saheb (, traditionally; Perso-Arab:صاحب, Devanagari: साहिब, Gurmukhi: ਸਾਹਿਬ, Bengali: সাহেব) is a word of Arabic origin meaning "companion". As a loanword, it has passed into several languages, including Persian, Kurdish, Turkish, Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkmen, Tajik, Crimean Tatar, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Pashto, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Rohingya and Somali. During mediaeval times, it was used as a term of address, either as an official title or an honorific. Now, in South and Central Asia, it's almost exclusively used to give respect to someone lower in social ladder or menial workers. For eg, people address drivers as driver saheb and so on. The honorific has largely been replaced with Sir. It is often shortened to saab.

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Sahibzada

Sahibzada is a princely style or title equivalent to, or referring to a young prince. This derivation using the Persian suffix -zada(h), literally 'born from' (or further male/female descendant; compare Shahzada) a Sahib, was also (part of) the formal style for some princes of the blood of Hindu and Muslim dynasties in the Indian sub-continent, e.g.:

  • Babu Saheb is a term used to denote the ancient noble rajput kshatriyas (warrior sons of a king) in northern Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Bengal
  • The sons of a ruling Nawab of Arcot (the head of the family; political pensioners, the only princely title still recognized by the Indian Republic) are styled: Sahibzada (personal name) Khan Bahadur, 'not' Nawabzada (literally 'son of the Nawab').
  • The sons of Guru Gobind Singh are known as Sahibzaadey
  • In Bahawalpur, Pakistan, the younger sons of the ruling Nawab/Amir are styled: Sahibzada (personal name) Khan Abassi; but the Heir Apparent: Nawabzada (personal name) Khan Abassi, Wali Ahad Bahadur.
  • In Baoni, the younger sons and other male descendants of the ruling Nawab, in the male line, were styled Sahibzada (personal name) Khan Bahadur, while the Heir Apparent was: Nawabzada (personal name) Khan, Wali Ahad Bahadur; either could be personally promoted to Nawab.
  • In Bhopal, the grandsons of the ruling Nawab were styled: Sahibzada (personal name) Khan, while the Heir Apparent was the Wali Ahad Bahadur, the younger sons: Nawab (personal name) Khan Bahadur.
  • In Jaora, more distant male relatives of the ruling Nawab then the sons (who were Nawabzada) were styled: Sahibzada (personal name) Khan.
  • In Khudadad, Tippu Sultan's grandsons and other male descendants of the sovereign Padshah bahadur were styled: Sahibzada (personal name), until in 1860 the colonial (British) Indian Government extended to them the existing style for sons of the ruling Nawab: Shahzada (personal name) Sahib.
  • In Malerkotla, where the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada (personal name) Khan Bahadur, the younger sons of the ruling Nawab were styled: Sahibzada (personal name) Khan Bahadur.
  • In Savanur, where sons of the ruling Nawab were Nawabzada, the other male descendants in the male line: Sahibzada (personal name) Khan Sahib, and the more remote male descendants of the ruler: Sardar (personal name) Khan Sahib.

This could be further combined, e.g.:

  • In Hyderabad Deccan, a state of the Nizam, every son of the ruler was fully styled Walashan Nawab (personal title), Sahibzada Mir (personal name) Khan Bahadur; in the case of the Heir Apparent, all this was followed by The Prince of Berar, with the style of His Highness, normally reserved for ruling princes with at least an 11 (later 9) guns-salute;
  • In Loharu, where the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada Mirza (personal name) Khan, both the younger sons, and male descendants, of a ruling Nawab, in the male line, were styled: Sahibzada Mirza (personal name) Khan.
  • In Sachin, the grandsons and other male descendants of the ruling Nawab, in the male line, were styled: Sahibzada Sidi (personal name) Khan Bahadur, while the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada Sidi (personal name) Khan Bahadur, Wali Ahad Sahib, and the other sons: Nawabzada Sidi (personal name) Khan Bahadur.
  • In Bengal, male members of Muslim zamindari families with distant connections to ruling or formerly ruling royal families, were styled Sahibzada if the head of the family was called sahib. It could be affixed to more titles or family names.
    • In Murshidabad (present title-seat of the royal house of Bengal), the other sons and male descendants of the reigning Nawab, in the male line: Sahibzada Sayyid (personal name) Mirza;
  • In Hangu, the grandsons of the male line of the ruling Sahib are styled as Sahibzada (personal name) Noor.

Wali-ahad Sahib

  • In Palanpur, the younger sons of the ruling Nawab, and other male descendants in the male line, were styled Sahibzada (personal name) Khan; but the Heir Apparent: Nawabzada (personal name) Khan, Wali-ahad Sahib.
  • In Junagadh, younger sons of the ruling Nawab and other male descendants in the male line, were styled ' Sahibzada' and (personal name) Khanji Babi.

Jam Sahib

  • Jam Sahib (Gujarati: જામ સાહેબ), is the title of the ruling prince of Nawanagar, now known as Jamnagar in Gujarat, an Indian princely state.

Sahib means "owner" in Arabic and was commonly used in the Indian Sub-continent as a courteous term in the way that "Mister" (also derived from the word "master") and "Mrs." (derived from the word "mistress") is used in the English language. It is still used today in the Sub-continent just as "Mister" and "Mrs.", and continues to be used today by English language speakers as a polite form of address.

"Sahib" is also appended to the names of holy places associated with the Sikh Gurus such as Nankana Sahib, Patna Sahib, Anandpur Sahib.

In the British Indian Army, a British officer would address a Viceroy's commissioned officer (i.e., a native Indian officer) as "<rank> sahib" or "<name> sahib". This form of address is still retained in the present-day army of independent India.

The term sahib was applied indiscriminately to any person whether Indian or Non-Indian. This included Europeans who arrived in the Sub-continent as traders in the 16th Century and hence the first mention of the word in European records is in 1673.

Pukka sahib was also a term used to signify genuine and legitimate authority, with pukka meaning "absolutely genuine".

Sahiba is the authentic form of address to be used for a female. Under the British Raj, however, the word used for female members of the establishment was adapted to memsahib, a variation of the English word "ma'am" having been added to the word sahib.

The same word is also appended to the names of Sikh gurus.

The term sahib (normally pronounced saab) was used on P&O vessels which had Indian and/or Pakistani crew to refer to officers, and in particular senior officers. On P&O Cruises and Princess Cruises vessels the term continued to be used by non-Indian/non-Pakistani junior officers to refer to the senior deck and engine officers for many years, even when no Indian or Pakistani crew featured in the ship's company.

Literary reference

This article contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles.(January 2020)

The term is used exclusively to refer to any white European on the Indian subcontinent, throughout Rudyard Kipling's 1901 novel Kim. Kim is ethnically a 'sahib', but was raised as a low-caste native boy. Most sahibs in the novel are British, but there is also a Russian and a Frenchman.

The term is used in a similar manner in George Orwell's essay "Shooting an Elephant", which is used to accentuate his isolation in Colonial Burma. (now Myanmar).

The term is used throughout the children's novel A Little Princess by Frances Hodgson Burnett.

In Herman Cyril McNeile's 1920 novel Bulldog Drummond, an Indian magician was performing tricks in front of a crowd and drew attention to a mysterious box.

  • 'You don't mean the fourth dimension, do you?' demanded a man incredulously.
  • 'I know not what you call it, sahib,' said the Indian quietly. 'But it is the power which renders visible or invisible at will.'

E.M. Forster also employed the term in his 1924 novel A Passage to India. His Anglo-Indian characters refer to the Collector as Burra Sahib, implying the respect felt for him.

The following dialogue in Dorothy Sayers's 1926 novel Clouds of Witness shows what the term implied in British society at the time.

  • Coroner: "What kind of a man was Captain Cathcart?"
  • Duke of Denver: "Well – he was a Sahib and all that. I don't know what he did before joining up in 1914. I think he lived on his income; his father was well off. Crack shot, good at games, and so on."

It is noteworthy that the character referred to had never been in India and had no connection with India.

It is used in Agatha Christie's 1934 novel Murder on the Orient Express in a similar way.

  • "About Miss Debenham," [Colonel Arbuthnot] said rather awkwardly. "You can take it from me that she's all right. She's a pukka sahib."
  • Flushing a little, he withdrew.
  • "What," asked Dr. Constantine with interest, "does a pukka sahib mean?"
  • "It means," said Poirot, "that Miss Debenham's father and brothers were at the same kind of school as Colonel Arbuthnot."

In Bruce Marshall's The World, the Flesh and Father Smith, the protagonist serves as a military chaplain in the trenches of WWI and gives absolution to soldiers and officers about to go into battle. A major tells him: "God's a bit hard on a chap at times. Still, I am sure God's too much of a Sahib to run a fellow in for ever and ever just because he got messed up with a bit of fluff" (i.e. had casual affairs with women).

Later, the same major is mortally wounded. As the priest is about to administer last rites, the major says: "It's all right, Father; I still think God is a Sahib".

Jim Davis uses the term in a 1983 Garfield comic strip in which Garfield refers to Jon Arbuckle as "sahib" after Jon asks Garfield to retrieve his newspaper, and again in a 1989 strip after Jon asks Garfield to go outside and see if it's still raining.

The term is frequently used throughout the short stories of Robert E. Howard, mostly by Indian or Arabic characters—e.g. a Sikh manservant addresses the guests of his employer as "sahib" in The Noseless Horror.

This title (pl. musāhibān), etymologically the active part. of to associate, or consort (with), means originally companion, associate, friend (the abstract term is musāhabat); not unlike the Hellenistic Greek Philos and the Latin Comes in the Roman empire, it became a title for a favourite (of a Sahib, especially a prince), and such 'personally close' positions as aide-de-camp, in some princely states even a Minister.

  • Burra sahib (Hindi:बड़ा साहब baṛā sāhab) "big man" or important person (Burra meaning big in Hindi)
  1. van Schaaik, Gerjan (1996). Studies in Turkish Grammar. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-3447038065.
  2. Ramaswal mi, N.S. (2003). Political History of Carnatic Under the Nawabs. India: Abhinav Publications. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-7017-191-1.
  3. Forster, E. M. A Passage to India. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1924. Print
  4. The World, the Flesh and Father Smith, Ch.IX-X.
  5. Davis, Jim. Garfield, 12 July 1983. <https://garfield.dale.ro/garfield-1983-july-12.html>

Sahib
Sahib Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Sahibzada Saheb redirects here For the city in Iran see Saheb Iran For the administrative subdivision of Iran see Saheb Rural District This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Sahib news newspapers books scholar JSTOR June 2008 Learn how and when to remove this template message Sahib or Saheb ˈ s ɑː h ɪ b traditionally ˈ s ɑː iː b Perso Arab صاحب Devanagari स ह ब Gurmukhi ਸ ਹ ਬ Bengali স হ ব is a word of Arabic origin meaning companion As a loanword it has passed into several languages including Persian Kurdish Turkish Kazakh Uzbek Turkmen Tajik Crimean Tatar 1 Urdu Hindi Punjabi Pashto Bengali Gujarati Marathi Rohingya and Somali During mediaeval times it was used as a term of address either as an official title or an honorific Now in South and Central Asia it s almost exclusively used to give respect to someone lower in social ladder or menial workers For eg people address drivers as driver saheb and so on The honorific has largely been replaced with Sir It is often shortened to saab Contents 1 Derived non ruling princes titles 1 1 Sahibzada 1 2 Wali ahad Sahib 1 3 Jam Sahib 2 Colonial and modern use 2 1 Literary reference 3 Musahib 4 Other compound titles 5 See also 6 ReferencesDerived non ruling princes titles EditSahibzada Edit Sahibzada is a princely style or title equivalent to or referring to a young prince 2 This derivation using the Persian suffix zada h literally born from or further male female descendant compare Shahzada a Sahib was also part of the formal style for some princes of the blood of Hindu and Muslim dynasties in the Indian sub continent e g Babu Saheb is a term used to denote the ancient noble rajput kshatriyas warrior sons of a king in northern Indian states of Bihar Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh and Bengal The sons of a ruling Nawab of Arcot the head of the family political pensioners the only princely title still recognized by the Indian Republic are styled Sahibzada personal name Khan Bahadur not Nawabzada literally son of the Nawab The sons of Guru Gobind Singh are known as Sahibzaadey In Bahawalpur Pakistan the younger sons of the ruling Nawab Amir are styled Sahibzada personal name Khan Abassi but the Heir Apparent Nawabzada personal name Khan Abassi Wali Ahad Bahadur In Baoni the younger sons and other male descendants of the ruling Nawab in the male line were styled Sahibzada personal name Khan Bahadur while the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada personal name Khan Wali Ahad Bahadur either could be personally promoted to Nawab In Bhopal the grandsons of the ruling Nawab were styled Sahibzada personal name Khan while the Heir Apparent was the Wali Ahad Bahadur the younger sons Nawab personal name Khan Bahadur In Jaora more distant male relatives of the ruling Nawab then the sons who were Nawabzada were styled Sahibzada personal name Khan In Khudadad Tippu Sultan s grandsons and other male descendants of the sovereign Padshah bahadur were styled Sahibzada personal name until in 1860 the colonial British Indian Government extended to them the existing style for sons of the ruling Nawab Shahzada personal name Sahib In Malerkotla where the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada personal name Khan Bahadur the younger sons of the ruling Nawab were styled Sahibzada personal name Khan Bahadur In Savanur where sons of the ruling Nawab were Nawabzada the other male descendants in the male line Sahibzada personal name Khan Sahib and the more remote male descendants of the ruler Sardar personal name Khan Sahib This could be further combined e g In Hyderabad Deccan a state of the Nizam every son of the ruler was fully styled Walashan Nawab personal title Sahibzada Mir personal name Khan Bahadur in the case of the Heir Apparent all this was followed by The Prince of Berar with the style of His Highness normally reserved for ruling princes with at least an 11 later 9 guns salute In Loharu where the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada Mirza personal name Khan both the younger sons and male descendants of a ruling Nawab in the male line were styled Sahibzada Mirza personal name Khan In Sachin the grandsons and other male descendants of the ruling Nawab in the male line were styled Sahibzada Sidi personal name Khan Bahadur while the Heir Apparent was Nawabzada Sidi personal name Khan Bahadur Wali Ahad Sahib and the other sons Nawabzada Sidi personal name Khan Bahadur In Bengal male members of Muslim zamindari families with distant connections to ruling or formerly ruling royal families were styled Sahibzada if the head of the family was called sahib It could be affixed to more titles or family names In Murshidabad present title seat of the royal house of Bengal the other sons and male descendants of the reigning Nawab in the male line Sahibzada Sayyid personal name Mirza In Hangu the grandsons of the male line of the ruling Sahib are styled as Sahibzada personal name Noor Wali ahad Sahib Edit In Palanpur the younger sons of the ruling Nawab and other male descendants in the male line were styled Sahibzada personal name Khan but the Heir Apparent Nawabzada personal name Khan Wali ahad Sahib In Junagadh younger sons of the ruling Nawab and other male descendants in the male line were styled Sahibzada and personal name Khanji Babi Jam Sahib Edit Jam Sahib Gujarati જ મ સ હ બ is the title of the ruling prince of Nawanagar now known as Jamnagar in Gujarat an Indian princely state Colonial and modern use EditSahib means owner in Arabic and was commonly used in the Indian Sub continent as a courteous term in the way that Mister also derived from the word master and Mrs derived from the word mistress is used in the English language It is still used today in the Sub continent just as Mister and Mrs and continues to be used today by English language speakers as a polite form of address Sahib is also appended to the names of holy places associated with the Sikh Gurus such as Nankana Sahib Patna Sahib Anandpur Sahib In the British Indian Army a British officer would address a Viceroy s commissioned officer i e a native Indian officer as lt rank gt sahib or lt name gt sahib This form of address is still retained in the present day army of independent India The term sahib was applied indiscriminately to any person whether Indian or Non Indian This included Europeans who arrived in the Sub continent as traders in the 16th Century and hence the first mention of the word in European records is in 1673 Pukka sahib was also a term used to signify genuine and legitimate authority with pukka meaning absolutely genuine Sahiba is the authentic form of address to be used for a female Under the British Raj however the word used for female members of the establishment was adapted to memsahib a variation of the English word ma am having been added to the word sahib The same word is also appended to the names of Sikh gurus The term sahib normally pronounced saab was used on P amp O vessels which had Indian and or Pakistani crew to refer to officers and in particular senior officers On P amp O Cruises and Princess Cruises vessels the term continued to be used by non Indian non Pakistani junior officers to refer to the senior deck and engine officers for many years even when no Indian or Pakistani crew featured in the ship s company Literary reference Edit This article contains a list of miscellaneous information Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles January 2020 The term is used exclusively to refer to any white European on the Indian subcontinent throughout Rudyard Kipling s 1901 novel Kim Kim is ethnically a sahib but was raised as a low caste native boy Most sahibs in the novel are British but there is also a Russian and a Frenchman The term is used in a similar manner in George Orwell s essay Shooting an Elephant which is used to accentuate his isolation in Colonial Burma now Myanmar The term is used throughout the children s novel A Little Princess by Frances Hodgson Burnett In Herman Cyril McNeile s 1920 novel Bulldog Drummond an Indian magician was performing tricks in front of a crowd and drew attention to a mysterious box You don t mean the fourth dimension do you demanded a man incredulously I know not what you call it sahib said the Indian quietly But it is the power which renders visible or invisible at will E M Forster also employed the term in his 1924 novel A Passage to India His Anglo Indian characters refer to the Collector as Burra Sahib implying the respect felt for him 3 The following dialogue in Dorothy Sayers s 1926 novel Clouds of Witness shows what the term implied in British society at the time Coroner What kind of a man was Captain Cathcart Duke of Denver Well he was a Sahib and all that I don t know what he did before joining up in 1914 I think he lived on his income his father was well off Crack shot good at games and so on It is noteworthy that the character referred to had never been in India and had no connection with India It is used in Agatha Christie s 1934 novel Murder on the Orient Express in a similar way About Miss Debenham Colonel Arbuthnot said rather awkwardly You can take it from me that she s all right She s a pukka sahib Flushing a little he withdrew What asked Dr Constantine with interest does a pukka sahib mean It means said Poirot that Miss Debenham s father and brothers were at the same kind of school as Colonel Arbuthnot In Bruce Marshall s The World the Flesh and Father Smith the protagonist serves as a military chaplain in the trenches of WWI and gives absolution to soldiers and officers about to go into battle A major tells him God s a bit hard on a chap at times Still I am sure God s too much of a Sahib to run a fellow in for ever and ever just because he got messed up with a bit of fluff i e had casual affairs with women Later the same major is mortally wounded As the priest is about to administer last rites the major says It s all right Father I still think God is a Sahib 4 Jim Davis uses the term in a 1983 Garfield comic strip in which Garfield refers to Jon Arbuckle as sahib after Jon asks Garfield to retrieve his newspaper 5 and again in a 1989 strip after Jon asks Garfield to go outside and see if it s still raining The term is frequently used throughout the short stories of Robert E Howard mostly by Indian or Arabic characters e g a Sikh manservant addresses the guests of his employer as sahib in The Noseless Horror Musahib EditThis title pl musahiban etymologically the active part of to associate or consort with means originally companion associate friend the abstract term is musahabat not unlike the Hellenistic Greek Philos and the Latin Comes in the Roman empire it became a title for a favourite of a Sahib especially a prince and such personally close positions as aide de camp in some princely states even a Minister Other compound titles EditBurra sahib Hindi बड स हब baṛa sahab big man or important person Burra meaning big in Hindi See also EditRaja Sahib compound royal style Rai Sahib compound royal title Thakur Sahib compound noble style Babu Saheb compound noble style Sahib i Subah or subahdar provincial governor notably in the Mughal empire Sahibzada Syed Faiz ul Hassan Shah 1911 1984 Pathan Khan or Khanzada Mirza Beg Baig Bey or Begzada Shah Shahzada Begzada Begzadi Khanzada Khanzadi Shahzada Shahzadi Sahabah Akhoondzada AkhoondzadiReferences Edit van Schaaik Gerjan 1996 Studies in Turkish Grammar Wiesbaden Harrassowitz Verlag pp 144 145 ISBN 978 3447038065 Ramaswal mi N S 2003 Political History of Carnatic Under the Nawabs India Abhinav Publications p 76 ISBN 978 81 7017 191 1 Forster E M A Passage to India New York Harcourt Brace 1924 Print The World the Flesh and Father Smith Ch IX X Davis Jim Garfield 12 July 1983 lt https garfield dale ro garfield 1983 july 12 html gt Platts dictionary here Musahib Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sahib amp oldid 1040784145 Sahibzada, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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