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Saint John, New Brunswick

Not to be confused with St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.
For other uses, see Saint John (disambiguation).

Saint John is a seaport city of the Atlantic Ocean located on the Bay of Fundy in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada, established by royal charter on May 18, 1785, during the reign of King George III. The port is Canada's third largest port by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk, break bulk, containers, and cruise. The city was the most populous in New Brunswick until the 2016 census, when it was overtaken by Moncton. It is currently the second-largest city in the province, with a population of 67,575 over an area of 315.96 km2 (121.99 sq mi).

Saint John
City of Saint John
Ville de Saint John (French)
Clockwise: Saint John skyline, Germain Street row houses, City Market, St. Martins covered bridge, Reversing Falls, Imperial Theatre
Seal
Coat of arms
Nickname(s):
Motto(s):
"O Fortunati Quorum Jam Moenia Surgunt"
(Latin for, "O Fortunate Ones Whose Walls Are Now Rising."
or "O Happy They, Whose Promised Walls Already Rise")
Saint John
Location of Saint John
Show map of Canada
Saint John
Saint John (New Brunswick)
Show map of New Brunswick
Coordinates:45°16′50″N66°04′34″W /45.28056°N 66.07611°W /45.28056; -66.07611Coordinates: 45°16′50″N66°04′34″W /45.28056°N 66.07611°W /45.28056; -66.07611
CountryCanada
ProvinceNew Brunswick
Historic countriesKingdom of France
Kingdom of England
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
CountySaint John
ParishCity of Saint John
Founded onJune 24, 1604
Major Settlement Started1783
IncorporationMay 18, 1785 (1785-05-18)
Named forSaint John River
Government
MayorDonna Reardon
• Governing bodySaint John City Council
MPsWayne Long
MLAsTrevor Holder, Gerry Lowe, Dorothy Shephard, Glen Savoie
Area
• Land315.96 km2 (121.99 sq mi)
• Urban
58.27 km2 (22.50 sq mi)
• Metro
3,509.62 km2 (1,355.07 sq mi)
Highest elevation
80.8 m (265.1 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
City67,575
• Density213.8/km2 (554/sq mi)
Urban
58,341
• Urban density1,001.2/km2 (2,593/sq mi)
Metro
126,202
• Metro density35.9/km2 (93/sq mi)
• Pop2011-2016
0.5%
• Dwellings
33,530
Demonym(s)Saint Johner, Saint-Jeannois(e), Johner (colloquial)
Time zoneUTC−04:00 (AST)
• Summer (DST)UTC−03:00 (ADT)
Canadian Postal code
E2K, E2L, E2J, And E2P
Area code(s)506
Telephone exchanges202, 214, 333, 343, 557–8, 592, 608, 631–640, 642–654, 657–8, 663, 672, 674, 693–4, 696, 721, 977
Highways Route 1
Route 7
Route 100
Route 111
Route 820
Route 825
NTS Map21G8 Saint John
GNBC CodeDAEGW
GDP (Saint John CMA)CA$6.4 billion (2016)
GDP per capita (Saint John CMA)CA$51,021 (2016)
Websitewww.saintjohn.ca

French colonist Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604 (the feast of St. John the Baptist) and is where the Saint John River gets its name although Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik peoples lived in the region for thousands of years prior calling the river Wolastoq. The Saint John area was an important area for trade and defence for Acadia during the French colonial era and Fort La Tour, in the city's harbour, was a pivotal battleground during the Acadian Civil War.

After over a century of ownership disputes over the land surrounding Saint John between the French and English, the English deported the French colonists in 1755 and constructed Fort Howe above the harbour in 1779. In 1785, the City of Saint John was established by uniting the two towns of Parrtown and Carleton on each side of the harbour after the arrival of thousands of refugees from the American Revolution who wished to remain British and were forced to leave their U.S. homes. Over the next century, waves of immigration via Partridge Island, especially during the Great Famine, would fundamentally change the city's demographics and culture.

Contents

The area has been the home of peoples of the Wabanaki Confederacy for thousands of years. The northwestern coastal region of the Bay of Fundy inhabited by the Passamaquoddy Nation, while the Saint John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Wolastoqiyik Nation. The Mi'kmaq also ventured into the Saint John area regularly as the harbour and coast was an important hunting ground for seals. The area around the harbour, where the city is, has been traditionally called Menahkwesk by the Wolastoqiyik people, who still live in and around the city today. In pre-colonial times the Wolastoqiyik lived in mostly self-sustaining villages living largely off bass, sturgeon, salmon, corn, wild roots and berries.

Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour in 1604, though he did not settle the area. Saint John was a key area for trade and defence for Acadia during the French colonial era. Moreover, Fort La Tour in the city's harbour, was a pivotal battleground during the Acadian Civil War. The region was conquered by the British after a century of English and French warfare by the end of the Seven Years' War. After being incorporated as a city in 1785 with an influx of Black and White British Loyalists from the northern of the former Thirteen Colonies and also immigrants from Ireland and Italy, the city grew as a global hub for shipping and shipbuilding. After the partitioning of the colony of Nova Scotia in 1784, the new colony of New Brunswick was thought to be named 'New Ireland' with the capital to be in Saint John before being vetoed by George III. In 1851 the city cemented itself as a global shipbuilding hub when the Marco Polo, built from a Saint John yard, became the fastest in the world.

However, as the city grew in strategic importance to English power and capital, unrest grew among many of its working class. Black Saint Johners were forbidden from trade, fishing and voting, thus the majority of the city's Black community settled in Portland (the city's north end), which later became amalgamated with Saint John. From 1840 to 1860 sectarian violence was rampant in Saint John, as tensions grew in reaction to poor living conditions of poor Irish Catholics resulting in some of the worst urban riots in Canadian history. The city experienced a cholera outbreak in 1854 with the death of over 1,500 people, as well as a great fire in 1877 that destroyed 40% of the city and left 20,000 people homeless with damage exceeding $10 million (a modern value of approximately $256 million).

Notable firsts

A blacksmith shop near Saint John Harbour in the late 19th century
  • 1785: Saint John becomes the first incorporated city in what would become Canada.
  • 1785: First quarantine station in North America, Partridge Island, established by the city's charter. In the early 19th century, it greeted sick and dying Irish immigrants arriving with inhospitable conditions.
  • 1820: The first chartered bank in Canada, the Bank of New Brunswick.
  • Canada's oldest publicly funded high school, Saint John High School.
  • 1838: The first penny newspaper in the Empire, the tri-weekly Saint John News, was established.
  • 1842: Canada's first public museum, originally known as the Gesner Museum, named after its Nova Scotian founder Abraham Gesner, the first modern commercial producer of kerosene. The museum is now known as the New Brunswick Museum.
  • 1851: Marco Polo ship launched. She carried emigrants and passengers to Australia from England and was the first vessel to make the trip in under six months.
  • 1849: Canada's first labour union, the Laborer's Benevolent Association (now ILA local 273) was formed when Saint John's longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday. One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell, which would announce the beginning and end of the labourers' 10-hour workday.
  • 1854: The automated steam foghorn was invented by Robert Foulis.
  • 1867: Saint John's Paris Crew rowing team became Canada's first international sporting champions when they defeated England at the International Regatta in Paris, France.
  • 1870: Canada's first Y.W.C.A. was established.
  • 1870: First Knights of Pythias in British Empire.
  • 1872: Monitor top railroad cars in the world invented by James Ferguson. The original model is in the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John.
  • 1880: First clockwork time bomb developed in 1880.
  • 1906: The first public playground in Canada was inaugurated.
  • 1907: The first orchestra to accompany a silent moving picture, on the North American continent, was in the old nickel theatre.
  • 1918: One of the first police unions in Canada, the Saint John Police Protective Association, was formed in Saint John.
  • 1918: Saint Johner Dr. William F. Roberts becomes the first Health Minister in the British Empire.
  • 1969: The University of New Brunswick, Saint John Campus opened. Colin B. Mackay (University of New Brunswick President, Fredericton, 1953 - 1969), appointed G. Forbes Elliot to take the lead on the project in 1964. Since 1993, it has been the Home of the UNB Saint John Seawolves, varsity programs in Soccer, Volleyball and Basketball, competing in the Atlantic Collegiate Athletic Association and the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association.
  • 2010: Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark, the first Geopark in North America and centred around Saint John, is formed.
Martello Tower, Saint John

Physical geography

Covered bridges dot the Greater Saint John region.

Situated in the south-central portion of the province, along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River, the city is split by the south-flowing river and the east side is bordered on the north by the Kennebecasis River where it meets the Saint John River at Grand Bay. Saint John Harbour, where the two rivers meet the Bay of Fundy, is a deep water port and ice-free all year long. Partridge Island is in the harbour. The city land area is 315.96 km2 (121.99 sq mi), and the metropolitan area covers 3,509.62 km2 (1,355.07 sq mi).

Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark, the first Geopark in North America, is centred around Saint John. The Geopark has been recognized by UNESCO as having exceptional geological significance. The park contains rock formations that date back to the Precambrian era and some of the rocks may be a billion years old.

The Saint John River itself flows into the Bay of Fundy through a narrow gorge several hundred metres wide at the centre of the city. It contains a unique phenomenon called the Reversing Falls where the diurnal tides of the bay reverse the water flow of the river for several kilometres. A series of underwater ledges at the narrowest point of this gorge also create a series of rapids.

The topography surrounding Saint John is hilly; a result of the influence of two coastal mountain ranges which run along the Bay of Fundy – the St. Croix Highlands and the Caledonia Highlands. The soil throughout the region is extremely rocky with frequent granite outcrops. The coastal plain hosts numerous freshwater lakes in the eastern, western and northern parts of the city.

In Saint John the height difference from low to high tide is approximately 8 metres (28 ft) due to the funnelling effect of the Bay of Fundy as it narrows. The Reversing Falls in Saint John, actually an area of strong rapids, provides one example of the power of these tides; at every high tide, ocean water is pushed through a narrow gorge in the middle of the city and forces the Saint John River to reverse its flow for several hours.

Neighbourhoods

Climate

Saint John
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
139
−3
−14
94
−2
−13
118
2
−7
104
8
−1
118
15
4
101
20
8
102
22
12
90
22
12
117
18
8
125
12
3
134
6
−2
149
0
−10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
5.5
27
8
3.7
29
9
4.6
36
19
4.1
47
30
4.6
59
39
4
67
47
4
72
53
3.5
72
53
4.6
64
46
4.9
53
37
5.3
43
28
5.9
33
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

The climate of Saint John is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The Bay of Fundy never fully freezes, thus moderating the winter temperatures compared with inland locations. Even so, with the prevailing wind blowing from the west (from land to sea), the average January temperature is about −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). Summers are usually warm to hot, and daytime temperatures often exceed 25 °C (77 °F). The highest temperature recorded in a given year is usually 30 or 31 °C (86 or 88 °F). The confluence of cold Bay of Fundy air and inland warmer temperatures often creates onshore winds that bring periods of fog and cooler temperatures during the summer months.

Precipitation in Saint John totals about 1,295 mm (51.0 in) annually and is well distributed throughout the year, although the late autumn and early winter are typically the wettest time of year. Snowfalls can often be heavy, but rain is as common as snow in winter, and it is not unusual for the ground to be snow-free even in mid-winter.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Saint John was 34.4 °C (94 °F) on June 22, 1941, August 15, 1944, and August 22, 1976. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −36.7 °C (−34 °F) on February 11, 1948.

Climate data for Saint John Airport, elevation: 103 m (338 ft), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1871−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 16.8 13.3 17.8 23.8 35.4 38.0 40.3 40.3 39.4 28.3 24.0 19.8 40.3
Record high °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
13.3
(55.9)
17.5
(63.5)
22.8
(73.0)
33.0
(91.4)
34.4
(93.9)
33.7
(92.7)
34.4
(93.9)
33.9
(93.0)
28.9
(84.0)
21.7
(71.1)
16.4
(61.5)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.4
(36.3)
8.5
(47.3)
15.0
(59.0)
19.6
(67.3)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
18.2
(64.8)
12.3
(54.1)
6.4
(43.5)
0.5
(32.9)
10.3
(50.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−7.1
(19.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
3.7
(38.7)
9.5
(49.1)
14.0
(57.2)
17.1
(62.8)
16.8
(62.2)
13.0
(55.4)
7.6
(45.7)
2.3
(36.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
5.2
(41.4)
Average low °C (°F) −13.3
(8.1)
−12.6
(9.3)
−7.4
(18.7)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.9
(39.0)
8.4
(47.1)
11.6
(52.9)
11.2
(52.2)
7.7
(45.9)
2.8
(37.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
−9.3
(15.3)
0.0
(32.0)
Record low °C (°F) −33.2
(−27.8)
−36.7
(−34.1)
−30
(−22)
−16.7
(1.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.1
(34.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
−16.9
(1.6)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−36.7
(−34.1)
Record low wind chill −44.8 −44.4 −39.5 −26.1 −13.9 −2.6 0.0 0.0 −5.7 −12.9 −25.9 −41.9 −44.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 123.5
(4.86)
91.0
(3.58)
108.2
(4.26)
105.3
(4.15)
109.8
(4.32)
101.0
(3.98)
88.4
(3.48)
81.7
(3.22)
105.6
(4.16)
116.4
(4.58)
134.1
(5.28)
130.4
(5.13)
1,295.5
(51.00)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 66.1
(2.60)
49.0
(1.93)
66.6
(2.62)
85.7
(3.37)
108.5
(4.27)
101.0
(3.98)
88.4
(3.48)
81.7
(3.22)
105.6
(4.16)
115.8
(4.56)
123.7
(4.87)
84.0
(3.31)
1,076
(42.36)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 64.3
(25.3)
48.4
(19.1)
44.4
(17.5)
20.0
(7.9)
1.2
(0.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.2)
10.8
(4.3)
49.9
(19.6)
239.6
(94.3)
Average precipitation days(≥ 0.2 mm) 16.2 12.8 14.0 13.9 13.7 12.9 11.5 10.5 10.5 11.9 14.4 15.6 157.9
Average rainy days(≥ 0.2 mm) 6.7 5.3 7.6 11.0 13.6 12.9 11.5 10.5 10.5 11.7 12.5 8.3 122.1
Average snowy days(≥ 0.2 cm) 12.9 10.2 9.4 5.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.9 10.2 52.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 124.9 124.5 149.9 165.9 199.0 211.6 225.9 216.8 181.9 147.8 97.0 102.0 1,947.3
Percent possible sunshine 44.0 42.6 40.7 41.0 43.2 45.3 47.7 49.6 48.3 43.4 33.8 37.4 43.1
Source: Environment Canada
  • Courtney Bay Smokestacks (each 106.7 m (350 ft))
  • Brunswick Square (80.8 m (265 ft)) 19-storey office building with 511,032 sq ft (47,476.4 m2) which was built in 1976. It is the largest office building in New Brunswick in terms of square footage and second in Atlantic Canada behind the Maritime Centre in Halifax.
  • Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Gothic style Catholic cathedral, construction began in 1853, its spire rises to 70.1 m (230 ft))
  • City Hall (55.2 m (181 ft)) 15-storey office building (165,000 sq ft (15,300 m2))
  • Brunswick House (52 m (171 ft)) 14-storey office building (103,000 sq ft (9,600 m2))
  • Irving Building (50 m (160 ft)) 14-storey office building
  • Harbourside Senior Citizens Housing Complex (43 m (141 ft)) 12-storey apartment building
  • Harbour Building (37 m (121 ft)) 10-storey office building
  • Mercantile Centre (30 m (98 ft)) 7-storey office building (106,600 sq ft (9,900 m2))
  • Chateau Saint John 8-storey hotel (112 rooms)
  • City Market (built in 1876, oldest city market in North America, with an original ship's hull roof design)
  • Loyalist House (built in 1817)
  • Irving Oil Headquarters (2019) 11-storey office building

Population

The population of the city declined from the 1970s to the early 21st century. This trend reversed itself and the city's population increased in the 2011 census, but then declined again by 2016. Saint John was New Brunswick's largest city until 2016.

Historical populations
YearPop.±%
18258,488
183612,073+42.2%
184219,281+59.7%
185022,745+18.0%
186127,317+20.1%
187128,805+5.4%
188126,127−9.3%
189124,184−7.4%
190140,711+68.3%
191142,511+4.4%
192147,166+11.0%
193147,514+0.7%
194150,084+5.4%
195150,779+1.4%
196155,153+8.6%
197189,039+61.4%
198180,521−9.6%
198676,381−5.1%
199174,969−1.8%
199672,494−3.3%
200169,661−3.9%
200668,043−2.3%
201170,063+3.0%
201667,575−3.6%

Metropolitan area

In 2011, the population of the Greater Saint John area was 127,761, of whom 49% were male and 51% female. Children under fifteen accounted for approximately 16% of the population. People 65 and over accounted for approximately 15% of the population. When the census was taken in May 2011 the population of the Saint John metropolitan area was 127,761 compared with 122,389 in 2006.

Ethnicity and religion

Partridge Island immigration station

Historically, as one of Canada's main ports, Saint John has been a centre for immigration from all over the world. The city was incorporated in the late 1700s after more than 3,300 Black Loyalist refugees came to Saint John along with more than 10,000 White refugees after the American Revolution. In the years between 1815 and 1867, when immigration of that era passed its peak, more than 150,000 immigrants from Ireland came to Saint John dramatically changing the city.

Those who came in the earlier period were largely tradesmen, and many stayed in Saint John, becoming the backbone of its builders. But when the Great Famine of Ireland raged between 1845 and 1849, huge waves of famine refugees flooded the city's shores. It is estimated that between 1845 and 1847, some 30,000 arrived, more people than were living in the city at the time. In 1847, dubbed "Black 47", one of the worst years of the famine, some 16,000 immigrants, most of them from Ireland, arrived at Partridge Island, the immigration and quarantine station at the mouth of Saint John Harbour.

As of the 2016 census, approximately 87.7% of the residents were white, while 7% were visible minorities and 5.3% were aboriginal. The largest visible minority groups were Black (2.1%), Chinese (1.4%), Arab (0.9%), and South Asian (0.7%). 5% of Saint Johners are francophone.

With regard to religion, 89.2% identify as Christian (47.6% Protestant, 40.3% Roman Catholic, and 1.3% other Christian, mostly Orthodox and independent churches). 10.1% state no religious affiliation, and other religions including Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism together comprise less than 1%.

Saint John is one of five chartered cities in Canada, giving it unique legislative powers.

Responsibility

Saint John is governed by a body of elected officials, referred to as "Common Council", whose responsibilities include:

  • Setting the city operational budget
  • Setting the City Water utility budget/ rates
  • Enacting and amending by-laws
  • Rezoning and land-use permissions of properties in Saint John.
  • Setting the capital budget for the city
  • Acting as the Board of Directors for the corporation "City of Saint John"
  • Appointing persons to city staff and commissions
  • Overseeing the operation of city commissions and departments

Composition

The Common Council consists of:

  • The Mayor, who runs at-large, acts as Chairman of the Board.
  • Two at-large Common Councillors.
  • Two Common Councillors, from each of the city's four wards.

One is elected by the council to serve as Deputy Mayor.

As of 2021, the council's members are:

  • Mayor: Donna Reardon
  • Deputy Mayor: John MacKenzie (Ward 2)
  • Councillors at Large: Gary Sullivan, Brent Harris
  • Ward 1: Greg Norton, Joanna Killen
  • Ward 2: Barry Ogden, John MacKenzie
  • Ward 3: Gerry Lowe, David Hickey
  • Ward 4: Greg Stewart, Paula Radwan

In the October 9, 2007 Plebiscite, it was decided that as of the May 2008 quadrennial municipal elections, the city will be divided into four wards of approximately equal population, with two councillors to be elected by the voters in that ward, and two councillors to be elected at large.

Colsen Cove generating station
The Old Post Office

Saint John derived its economy from maritime industries such as shipping, fishing and shipbuilding. Saint John has a long history of shipbuilding at the city's dry dock, which is one of the largest in the world. Since 2003 shipbuilding has ended on the scale it once was, forcing the city to adopt a new economic strategy. The University of New Brunswick, the New Brunswick Museum and the New Brunswick Community College are important institutions, and along with Radian6, Horizon Health Network and many others, they are a part of Saint John's fast-growing research and information-technology sectors. As the city moves away from its industrial past it now begins to capitalize on the growing sector of tourism, hosting over 1.5 million visitors a year and 200,000 cruise ship visitors a year, creating a renaissance in the city's historic downtown (locally known as uptown). Many small businesses have moved into Uptown and large scale waterfront developments are underway, such as the Fundy Quay (condo, hotel and office space), Saint John Law Courts, and the Three Sisters Harbourfront condos.

Arts and culture

The arts and culture sector plays a large role in Saint John's economy. The Imperial Theatre is home to the highly acclaimed Saint John Theatre Company, and the Symphony New Brunswick and hosts a large collection of plays, concerts and other stage productions year-round. Harbour Station entertainment complex is home to the Saint John Sea Dogs of the QMJHL and the Saint John Riptide of the NBL.

Art galleries in Saint John cover the uptown, more than any other Atlantic Canadian city.[citation needed] Artists like Miller Brittain and Fred Ross have made Uptown Saint John their home, and now the torch has been passed to artists like Gerard Collins, Cliff Turner and Peter Salmon and their respective galleries. Uptown art galleries also include the Paris Crew, Trinity Galleries, Citadel Gallery, Handworks Gallery and the Saint John Arts Centre (SJAC). The SJAC in the Carnegie Building hosts art exhibits, workshops, local songwriters' circles and other shows too small to be featured at the grand Imperial Theatre.

Heavy industry

Saint John maintains industrial infrastructure in the city's East side such as Canada's largest oil refinery as well as the country's largest dry dock. Capitalist K.C. Irving and his family built his unfettered industrial conglomerate in the city by buying up mills, shipyards, media outlets, and other industrial infrastructure during the 20th century, and still continue to this day. Today Irving dominates the city and province with stakes in oil, forestry, shipbuilding, media and transportation. Irving companies remain dominant employers in the region with North America's first deepwater oil terminal, a pulp mill, a paper mill and a tissue paper plant.

Other important economic activity in the city is generated by the Port of Saint John.

Saint John has a long history of brewers, such as Simeon Jones, The Olands, and James Ready. The city is now home to Moosehead Breweries, James Ready Brewing Co., Big Tide Brewing Co., Picaroon's and other craft brewers. The Moosehead Brewery (established in 1867, is Canada's only nationally distributed independent brewery [M. Nicholson]), James Ready Brewing Co., the New Brunswick Power Corporation which operates three electrical generating stations in the region including the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, Bell Aliant which operates out of the former New Brunswick Telephone headquarters, the Horizon Health Network, which operates 5 hospitals in the Saint John area, and numerous information technology companies. There are also a number of call centres which were established in the 1990s under provincial government incentives.

View from Fort Howe of the Saint John skyline prior to Peel Plaza

Maritime industries

Main article: Port of Saint John

Saint John is a major Canadian port, and the only city on the Bay of Fundy. Until the first decade of the 21st century, Canada's largest shipyard (Irving Shipbuilding) had been an important employer in the city. During the 1980s-early 1990s the shipyard was responsible for building 9 of the 12 Halifax-class multi-purpose patrol frigates for the Canadian Navy. However, the Irving family closed the shipyard in 2003 and centralized in Halifax leaving the Saint John dry dock sitting idle.

Ecological research on surrounding marine life of the Bay of Fundy and the Saint John and Kennebecasis Rivers is centred in the city. The University of New Brunswick's Marine Biology department in Saint John as well as local NGO's and the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans heads the majority of research and monitoring work on marine life and environments.

Traditional fisheries (lobster, scallops etc.) still make up the livelihood for many Saint Johners today. Aquaculture, primarily Atlantic Salmon farming, has grown to be a major employer in the region as the decline of other traditional wild fisheries has unfolded in recent decades. Cooke Aquaculture, one of the largest companies in the industry is headquartered in Saint John.

Prior to the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959, the Port of Saint John functioned as the winter port for Montreal, Quebec when shipping was unable to traverse the sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River. The Canadian Pacific Railway opened a line to Saint John from Montreal in 1889 across the state of Maine and transferred the majority of its trans-Atlantic passenger and cargo shipping to the port during the winter months. The port fell into decline following the seaway opening and the start of year-round icebreaker services in the 1960s. In 1994 CPR left Saint John when it sold the line to shortline operator New Brunswick Southern Railway. The Canadian National Railway still services Saint John with a secondary mainline from Moncton. Despite these setbacks, Port Saint John is the largest port by volume in Eastern Canada, at about 28 million metric tonnes of cargo per year, including containers and bulk cargo.

Military

Besides being the location of several historical forts, such as Fort Howe, Fort Dufferin, Fort Latour, and the Carleton Martello Tower, Saint John is the location of a number of reserve units of the Canadian Forces.

Canada's first trade union

Saint John is often described as the birthplace of unionism in Canada and is one of the few pre-capitalist colonial settlements in North America. The city has a history of labour achievements and sparked the Canadian labour movement with Canada's first trade union, the Labourers' Benevolent Association (now International Longshoremen's Association Local 273). In 1849 the union was formed when Saint John's longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday. One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell, which would announce the beginning and end of the labourers' 10-hour workday. As the bell shears were hardly finished when capitalists and merchants in the city objected to the bell and successfully lobbied city hall to keep the bell from being put up. But then, citizens and longshoremen defied the order and erected a larger bell and merchants withdrew their opposition to the "Labourers' Bell". ILA Local 273 remain one of the city's strongest trade unions to this day.

The Saint John Street Railwaymen's strike and riot of 1914

1914 Saint John Railwaymen's Strike riot

The 1914 Saint John street railway strike (sometimes called the Saint John street railwaymen's strike) was a strike by workers on the street railway system in the city which lasted from July 22 to 24, 1914, with rioting by Saint John inhabitants occurring on July 23 and 24. The strike was important for shattering the image of Saint John as a conservative town dominated primarily by ethnic and religious (rather than class) divisions, and highlighting tensions between railway industrialists and the local working population.

October 14, 1976: The Saint John General Strike

The Saint John General Strike of 1976 was a result of the Bill C-73 passed by Prime Minister of Canada, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, and the House of Commons in Ottawa on October 14, 1975. This bill limited wage increases to 8% the first year, 6% the second year, and 4% the third year after its enactment. Most provinces of Canada accepted the bill by spring of 1976, but within eighteen months they began to withdraw from the program. After its introduction in 1975, it was not until 1976 that the Anti-Inflation Board (AIB) began to roll back workers' wages. The employees of Irving Pulp and Paper, members of the Canadian Paper Workers Union, were among the first to experience the roll backs implemented by the AIB. The paper workers were required to give back to the employer 9.8% of their previous wage increase the first year, and 11% the second year. The Atlantic Sugar Refinery workers of the Bakery and Confectionary Workers International Union of America soon felt the burden as well. The majority of workers within Saint John were influenced by the AIB by January 1976. On February 5, 1976, the Saint John District and the Labour Council held a conference to plan an organized opposition to the AIB. Fifty-two people came to the meeting as representatives of twenty-six unions in Saint John. The council was led by the Labour Council president, George Vair. They began by educating those present on wage control legislation, but swiftly transitioned into rallying and demonstrating in opposition throughout the city. Five thousand marched from numerous ends of the town to King Square. All major industries in Saint John were shut down.

The Irving Oil Refinery strike, 1994–1996

On May 12, 1994, at 4:30 pm, members of Local 691 of the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers (CEP) union at the Irving Oil Ltd. Refinery went on strike. At this time the refinery's management took over its operations. Irving had argued the refinery might have to shut down and had to bring in a bevy of rollbacks to the workers’ pay and benefits and other changes to the collective agreement. Local 691 argued Irving simply wished to lengthen the work week without paying workers overtime rates. The strike lasted 27 months and was based on Irving's demands for flexibility of the workers to ensure the refinery was competitive. The strike is seen as symbolic of a rollback of labour and democratic collective bargaining rights that have been in decline across North America.

Looking east on the Saint John Throughway, right before the Harbour Bridge and the now closed (since 2011) toll plaza
A Saint John Transit bus in uptown

Air

Air service into Saint John is provided by the Saint John Airport/Aéroport de Saint John, near Loch Lomond 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9.2 mi) east northeast of the central business district or approximately 25 km (16 mi) by road northeast of the city centre. Flights are offered by Sunwing Airlines (seasonal) and Air Canada (Air Canada Express and Air Canada Rouge). In 2011, WestJet decided to withdraw from the Saint John Airport. Quebec-based Pascan Aviation announced its expansion into Saint John in late 2012, with direct flights from Saint John to Quebec City, Newfoundland, and other destinations beginning in September 2012. Porter Airlines flies once daily from Saint John, to Ottawa and Toronto Island Airport.

Highways

The main highway in the city is the Saint John Throughway (Route 1). Route 1 extends west to the United States border, and northeast towards both Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. A second major highway, Route 7, connects Saint John with Fredericton. There are two main road crossings over the Saint John River: the Harbour Bridge and the Reversing Falls Bridge, approximately 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) upstream.

Rail

The Reversing Falls Railway Bridge carries rail traffic for the New Brunswick Southern Railway on the route from Saint John to Maine. Saint John was serviced by the "Atlantic" Line of Via Rail passenger service. Passenger rail service in Saint John was discontinued in December 1994, although the Canadian National Railway and New Brunswick Southern Railway continue to provide freight service.

Port and ferries

Port Saint John is located where the Saint John River meets the Atlantic Ocean. Thus both the ocean and the river system is navigable from Saint John docks. Bay Ferries operates a ferry service, MV Fundy Rose, across the Bay of Fundy to Digby, Nova Scotia. The Summerville to Millidgeville Ferry, a free propeller (as opposed to cable) ferry service operated by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation, connects the Millidgeville neighbourhood with Summerville, New Brunswick, across the Kennebecasis River on the Kingston Peninsula.

Public transit

Saint John Transit is the largest transit system in New Brunswick in both area coverage and ridership. Bus service is provided by Saint John Transit (Greater Saint John Area) and Maritime Bus (Inter-city). Acadian Lines used to operate regular inter-city bus services between New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Bangor, as well as Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec (connecting with Orléans Express). Maritime Bus has since replaced Acadian Lines as the regional bus service.

The city has always been a traditional hub for the arts on the east coast, boasting many notable artists, actors and musicians, including Walter Pidgeon, Donald Sutherland, Louis B. Mayer, and Miller Brittain. What is considered the golden age of the Saint John arts community was during the post-war era from 1940 to 1970 when the city produced renowned artists and writers such as poet Kay Smith, painters Jack Humphrey, Miller Brittain, Bruno Bobak, Fred Ross, and sculptor John Hooper and folk-singer Tom Connors. Poet Bliss Carman once wrote about Saint John, "All the beauty and mystery Of life were there, adventure bold, Youth, and the glamour of the sea, And all its sorrows old."

Dance, music, and theatre

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  • Comhaltas Saint John: Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann was founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1951. Its mandate is to promote traditional Irish music and culture, and there are more than 400 branches around the world. The Saint John branch of Comhaltas is the easternmost chapter in Canada.
  • JP Collins Celtic Festival: is an Irish festival celebrating Saint John's Irish heritage. The festival is named for a young Irish doctor James Patrick Collins who worked on Partridge Island quarantine station tending to sick Irish immigrants before he died there himself.
  • Before the Mast: an a cappella men's vocal group that performs sea "shanties" from New Brunswick's past
  • InterAction Children's Theatre
  • New Brunswick Youth Orchestra
  • Open Arts – a series featuring post-classical and experimental music
  • Saint John Rotary Boys' Choir – a boys' choir founded in 1965
  • Saint John String Quartet – performs an annual chamber music concert series
  • Symphony New Brunswick (SNB)- the province's only professional quality symphony orchestra.
  • TD Station – Formerly Harbour Station, is a venue for large indoor concerts and events
  • The Imperial Theatre
  • Saint John Free Public Library, Library Millennium Artplace
  • Third Space Gallery
  • The Fundy Fringe Festival
  • The Atlantic Repertory Company
  • The Saint John Theatre Company
  • The BMO Studio Theatre

Museums

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National Historic sites

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  • Saint John is known for its pub and restaurant scene throughout uptown. Statistics Canada found the city has the third most pubs per capita in Canada.

  • The Imperial Theatre, a National Historic Site still hosting live performances

  • Fiddlehead sculpture at the Saint John Arts Centre in the city's uptown

  • Prince William Street, National Historic Site of Canada. The building in the foreground is the Bank of New Brunswick building, Canada's first bank established by Royal Charter.

Music

Early settlers influenced music in Saint John from the time the area had been a series of forts for the English and French colonists. Working class fishers, labourers and shipbuilders carried Maritime traditions and folk songs with kitchen parties and outdoor gatherings. But musical high culture was captured by the wealthy. New Brunswick's solicitor-general 1784–1808, Ward Chipman Sr was known to have fancy soirées at his home with all the latest songs from London. A notable Loyalist musician, Stephen Humbert, moved in 1783 from New Jersey to Saint John and opened a Sacred Vocal Music School. In 1801 Humbert published Union Harmony, the first Canadian music book in English. The Mechanics' Institute, built in 1840, was the first large-scale platform for comic opera and concerts. In 1950 The Saint John Symphony was founded by Kelsey Jones; by 1983 the organization became Symphony New Brunswick. Some musicians from Saint John include Berkley Chadwick, Stompin' Tom Connors, Ken Tobias, Blank Banshee, Stevedore Steve, Jane Coop, Bruce Holder, Frances James, the songwriter Michael F. Kelly, Ned Landry, the composer and teacher Edward Betts Manning, Paul Murray, Catherine McKinnon, Patricia Rideout, Philip Thomson, and the tenor and choir conductor Gordon Wry.

Music festivals have long been a part of the city's cultural scene. New Brunswick's Music Festival was held in Saint John every Spring in the early- to mid-20th century. As the city's music changed with the times, so did its festivals. Other popular festivals include the now defunct Festival By The Sea and Salty Jam catering to various genres of pop music.

The Area 506 music festival is held every New Brunswick Day long-weekend at Long Wharf on Saint John Harbour. The festival is set up with shipping containers from the port with vendors from New Brunswick companies to promote local business. A main stage area is also set up for night time shows with local acts as well as major groups. Major bands to have played Area 506 include Tegan and Sara, Stars, Bahamas, Interpol, and Arkells. Each year the festival also includes a bevy of bands coming out of the Saint John music scene. Quality Block Party music festival hosts independent New Brunswick musicians in smaller venues throughout uptown Saint John. The festival gets its name from the old quality block on Germain Street.

TD Station is home to the city's Quebec Major Junior hockey team, Saint John Sea Dogs, and the Saint John Riptide of the National Basketball League of Canada.

The following teams are based in Saint John:

The following sporting events have been held here:

The Commons at the University of New Brunswick

In 1964, the University of New Brunswick created UNB Saint John in buildings throughout the uptown CBD. In 1968, UNBSJ opened a new campus in the city's Tucker Park neighbourhood. This campus has undergone expansion over the years and is the fastest-growing component of the UNB system, with many new buildings constructed from the 1970s to the first decade of the 21st century. A trend in recent years has been a growth in the number of international students. The city also hosts a New Brunswick Community College campus in the East End of the city. There has also been a satellite campus of Dalhousie Medical School added within the UNBSJ campus in 2010, instructing 30 medical students each year.

In the fall of 2007, a report commissioned by the provincial government recommended UNBSJ and the NBCC be reformed and consolidated into a new polytechnic post-secondary institute. The proposal immediately came under heavy criticism and led to the organizing of several protests in the uptown area, citing the diminishment of UNB as a nationally accredited university, the reduction in accessibility to receive degrees – and these are only a couple of the reasons why the community was enraged by the recommendation. Support for keeping UNBSJ as it was, and expanding the university under its current structure, fell slightly below 90%. Seeing too much political capital would be lost, and several Saint John MPs were likely not to support the initiative if the policies recommended by the report were legislated, the government abandoned the commission's report and created an intra-provincial post-secondary commission.

Saint John is served by two school boards: Anglophone South School District schools and Francophone Sud School District (based out of Dieppe, New Brunswick) for the city's only Francophone school, Centre-Scolaire-Communautaire Samuel-de-Champlain. Saint John is also home to Canada's oldest publicly funded school, Saint John High School. The other high schools in the city are Harbour View High School, St. Malachy's High School, and Simonds High School.

Explanatory notes

  1. Based on station coordinates provided by Environment Canada, climate data recorded near downtown Saint John from January 1871 to September 1970, and at Saint John Airport from November 1946 to present.

References

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Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John New Brunswick Article Talk Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with St John s Newfoundland and Labrador For other uses see Saint John disambiguation Saint John is a seaport city of the Atlantic Ocean located on the Bay of Fundy in the province of New Brunswick Canada Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada established by royal charter on May 18 1785 during the reign of King George III 8 The port is Canada s third largest port by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk break bulk containers and cruise 9 The city was the most populous in New Brunswick until the 2016 census when it was overtaken by Moncton It is currently the second largest city in the province with a population of 67 575 over an area of 315 96 km2 121 99 sq mi 10 Saint JohnCityCity of Saint John Ville de Saint John French Clockwise Saint John skyline Germain Street row houses City Market St Martins covered bridge Reversing Falls Imperial TheatreSealCoat of armsNickname s Port City 1 Motto s O Fortunati Quorum Jam Moenia Surgunt Latin for O Fortunate Ones Whose Walls Are Now Rising or O Happy They Whose Promised Walls Already Rise Saint JohnLocation of Saint JohnShow map of CanadaSaint JohnSaint John New Brunswick Show map of New BrunswickCoordinates 45 16 50 N 66 04 34 W 45 28056 N 66 07611 W 45 28056 66 07611 Coordinates 45 16 50 N 66 04 34 W 45 28056 N 66 07611 W 45 28056 66 07611CountryCanadaProvinceNew BrunswickHistoric countriesKingdom of France Kingdom of England United Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandCountySaint JohnParishCity of Saint John 3 Founded onJune 24 1604 4 Major Settlement Started1783 4 IncorporationMay 18 1785 1785 05 18 Named forSaint John RiverGovernment MayorDonna Reardon Governing bodySaint John City Council MPsWayne Long MLAsTrevor Holder Gerry Lowe Dorothy Shephard Glen SavoieArea 2 5 6 Land315 96 km2 121 99 sq mi Urban58 27 km2 22 50 sq mi Metro3 509 62 km2 1 355 07 sq mi Highest elevation80 8 m 265 1 ft Lowest elevation0 m 0 ft Population 2016 City67 575 2 Density213 8 km2 554 sq mi Urban58 341 5 Urban density1 001 2 km2 2 593 sq mi Metro126 202 6 Metro density35 9 km2 93 sq mi Pop 2011 20160 5 Dwellings33 530Demonym s Saint Johner Saint Jeannois e Johner colloquial Time zoneUTC 04 00 AST Summer DST UTC 03 00 ADT Canadian Postal codeE2K E2L E2J And E2PArea code s 506Telephone exchanges202 214 333 343 557 8 592 608 631 640 642 654 657 8 663 672 674 693 4 696 721 977HighwaysRoute 1 Route 7 Route 100 Route 111 Route 820 Route 825NTS Map21G8 Saint JohnGNBC CodeDAEGWGDP Saint John CMA CA 6 4 billion 2016 7 GDP per capita Saint John CMA CA 51 021 2016 Websitewww wbr saintjohn wbr ca French colonist Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24 1604 the feast of St John the Baptist and is where the Saint John River gets its name although Mi kmaq and Wolastoqiyik peoples lived in the region for thousands of years prior calling the river Wolastoq The Saint John area was an important area for trade and defence for Acadia during the French colonial era and Fort La Tour in the city s harbour was a pivotal battleground during the Acadian Civil War 11 After over a century of ownership disputes over the land surrounding Saint John between the French and English the English deported the French colonists in 1755 and constructed Fort Howe above the harbour in 1779 In 1785 the City of Saint John was established by uniting the two towns of Parrtown and Carleton on each side of the harbour after the arrival of thousands of refugees from the American Revolution who wished to remain British and were forced to leave their U S homes Over the next century waves of immigration via Partridge Island especially during the Great Famine would fundamentally change the city s demographics and culture Contents 1 History 1 1 Notable firsts 2 Geography and climate 2 1 Physical geography 2 2 Neighbourhoods 2 3 Climate 3 Buildings and structures 4 Demography 4 1 Population 4 2 Metropolitan area 4 3 Ethnicity and religion 5 Municipal government Common Council 5 1 Responsibility 5 2 Composition 6 Economy 6 1 Arts and culture 6 2 Heavy industry 6 3 Maritime industries 6 4 Military 7 Labour 7 1 Canada s first trade union 7 2 The Saint John Street Railwaymen s strike and riot of 1914 7 3 October 14 1976 The Saint John General Strike 7 4 The Irving Oil Refinery strike 1994 1996 8 Transportation 8 1 Air 8 2 Highways 8 3 Rail 8 4 Port and ferries 8 5 Public transit 9 Culture 9 1 Dance music and theatre 9 2 Museums 9 3 National Historic sites 9 4 Music 10 Sport 11 Education 12 Media 13 Twin sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes 15 1 Explanatory notes 15 2 References 16 External linksHistory EditMain article History of Saint John New Brunswick The area has been the home of peoples of the Wabanaki Confederacy for thousands of years The northwestern coastal region of the Bay of Fundy inhabited by the Passamaquoddy Nation while the Saint John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Wolastoqiyik Nation The Mi kmaq also ventured into the Saint John area regularly as the harbour and coast was an important hunting ground for seals The area around the harbour where the city is has been traditionally called Menahkwesk by the Wolastoqiyik people who still live in and around the city today In pre colonial times the Wolastoqiyik lived in mostly self sustaining villages living largely off bass sturgeon salmon corn wild roots and berries 12 Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour in 1604 though he did not settle the area Saint John was a key area for trade and defence for Acadia during the French colonial era Moreover Fort La Tour in the city s harbour was a pivotal battleground during the Acadian Civil War 11 The region was conquered by the British after a century of English and French warfare by the end of the Seven Years War After being incorporated as a city in 1785 with an influx of Black and White British Loyalists from the northern of the former Thirteen Colonies and also immigrants from Ireland and Italy the city grew as a global hub for shipping and shipbuilding 8 After the partitioning of the colony of Nova Scotia in 1784 the new colony of New Brunswick was thought to be named New Ireland with the capital to be in Saint John before being vetoed by George III 13 In 1851 the city cemented itself as a global shipbuilding hub when the Marco Polo built from a Saint John yard became the fastest in the world 14 However as the city grew in strategic importance to English power and capital unrest grew among many of its working class Black Saint Johners were forbidden from trade fishing and voting thus the majority of the city s Black community settled in Portland the city s north end which later became amalgamated with Saint John 12 From 1840 to 1860 sectarian violence was rampant in Saint John as tensions grew in reaction to poor living conditions of poor Irish Catholics resulting in some of the worst urban riots in Canadian history 15 The city experienced a cholera outbreak in 1854 with the death of over 1 500 people 16 as well as a great fire in 1877 that destroyed 40 of the city and left 20 000 people homeless with damage exceeding 10 million a modern value of approximately 256 million 17 18 Notable firsts Edit The Marco Polo A blacksmith shop near Saint John Harbour in the late 19th century 1785 Saint John becomes the first incorporated city in what would become Canada 8 1785 First quarantine station in North America Partridge Island established by the city s charter 19 In the early 19th century it greeted sick and dying Irish immigrants arriving with inhospitable conditions 1820 The first chartered bank in Canada the Bank of New Brunswick Canada s oldest publicly funded high school Saint John High School 20 1838 The first penny newspaper in the Empire the tri weekly Saint John News was established 21 1842 Canada s first public museum originally known as the Gesner Museum named after its Nova Scotian founder Abraham Gesner the first modern commercial producer of kerosene The museum is now known as the New Brunswick Museum 1851 Marco Polo ship launched She carried emigrants and passengers to Australia from England and was the first vessel to make the trip in under six months 1849 Canada s first labour union the Laborer s Benevolent Association now ILA local 273 was formed when Saint John s longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell which would announce the beginning and end of the labourers 10 hour workday 22 1854 The automated steam foghorn was invented by Robert Foulis 23 1867 Saint John s Paris Crew rowing team became Canada s first international sporting champions when they defeated England at the International Regatta in Paris France 24 1870 Canada s first Y W C A was established 25 1870 First Knights of Pythias in British Empire 26 1872 Monitor top railroad cars in the world invented by James Ferguson The original model is in the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John 27 1880 First clockwork time bomb developed in 1880 28 1906 The first public playground in Canada was inaugurated 29 1907 The first orchestra to accompany a silent moving picture on the North American continent was in the old nickel theatre 30 1918 One of the first police unions in Canada the Saint John Police Protective Association was formed in Saint John 31 1918 Saint Johner Dr William F Roberts becomes the first Health Minister in the British Empire 32 1969 The University of New Brunswick Saint John Campus opened Colin B Mackay University of New Brunswick President Fredericton 1953 1969 appointed G Forbes Elliot to take the lead on the project in 1964 Since 1993 it has been the Home of the UNB Saint John Seawolves varsity programs in Soccer Volleyball and Basketball competing in the Atlantic Collegiate Athletic Association and the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association 2010 Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark the first Geopark in North America and centred around Saint John is formed 33 Geography and climate Edit Martello Tower Saint John Physical geography Edit Covered bridges dot the Greater Saint John region Situated in the south central portion of the province along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River the city is split by the south flowing river and the east side is bordered on the north by the Kennebecasis River where it meets the Saint John River at Grand Bay Saint John Harbour where the two rivers meet the Bay of Fundy is a deep water port and ice free all year long Partridge Island is in the harbour The city land area is 315 96 km2 121 99 sq mi and the metropolitan area covers 3 509 62 km2 1 355 07 sq mi 34 Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark the first Geopark in North America is centred around Saint John The Geopark has been recognized by UNESCO as having exceptional geological significance The park contains rock formations that date back to the Precambrian era and some of the rocks may be a billion years old The Saint John River itself flows into the Bay of Fundy through a narrow gorge several hundred metres wide at the centre of the city It contains a unique phenomenon called the Reversing Falls where the diurnal tides of the bay reverse the water flow of the river for several kilometres A series of underwater ledges at the narrowest point of this gorge also create a series of rapids The topography surrounding Saint John is hilly a result of the influence of two coastal mountain ranges which run along the Bay of Fundy the St Croix Highlands and the Caledonia Highlands The soil throughout the region is extremely rocky with frequent granite outcrops The coastal plain hosts numerous freshwater lakes in the eastern western and northern parts of the city In Saint John the height difference from low to high tide is approximately 8 metres 28 ft due to the funnelling effect of the Bay of Fundy as it narrows The Reversing Falls in Saint John actually an area of strong rapids provides one example of the power of these tides at every high tide ocean water is pushed through a narrow gorge in the middle of the city and forces the Saint John River to reverse its flow for several hours Neighbourhoods Edit South End Central Peninsula Uptown on the east side of Saint John Harbour and the area immediately opposite on the west side are the sites of the original city Now includes the central business district and the Trinity Royal Heritage Conservation Area which together are referred to as Uptown North End Portland Millidgeville mostly the former city of Portland formerly the site of ferry terminals It is the site of the city s only completely French school and community centre Centre Scolaire Communautaire Samuel de Champlain It includes one of Canada s largest urban parks Rockwood Park East Side east of the Courtney Bay contains commercial retail centres and residential subdivisions West Side west of the Saint John River is collectively referred to as West Side Suburbs include Rothesay Quispamsis Lancaster and Grand Bay Westfield Climate Edit Saint JohnClimate chart explanation J F M A M J J A S O N D 139 3 14 94 2 13 118 2 7 104 8 1 118 15 4 101 20 8 102 22 12 90 22 12 117 18 8 125 12 3 134 6 2 149 0 10Average max and min temperatures in CPrecipitation totals in mmSource Environment Canada 35 Imperial conversionJFMAMJJASOND 5 5 27 8 3 7 29 9 4 6 36 19 4 1 47 30 4 6 59 39 4 67 47 4 72 53 3 5 72 53 4 6 64 46 4 9 53 37 5 3 43 28 5 9 33 15Average max and min temperatures in FPrecipitation totals in inches The climate of Saint John is humid continental Koppen climate classification Dfb The Bay of Fundy never fully freezes thus moderating the winter temperatures compared with inland locations Even so with the prevailing wind blowing from the west from land to sea the average January temperature is about 8 2 C 17 2 F Summers are usually warm to hot and daytime temperatures often exceed 25 C 77 F The highest temperature recorded in a given year is usually 30 or 31 C 86 or 88 F The confluence of cold Bay of Fundy air and inland warmer temperatures often creates onshore winds that bring periods of fog and cooler temperatures during the summer months Precipitation in Saint John totals about 1 295 mm 51 0 in annually and is well distributed throughout the year although the late autumn and early winter are typically the wettest time of year Snowfalls can often be heavy but rain is as common as snow in winter and it is not unusual for the ground to be snow free even in mid winter The highest temperature ever recorded in Saint John was 34 4 C 94 F on June 22 1941 36 August 15 1944 37 and August 22 1976 38 The coldest temperature ever recorded was 36 7 C 34 F on February 11 1948 38 Climate data for Saint John Airport elevation 103 m 338 ft 1981 2010 normals extremes 1871 present a Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high humidex 16 8 13 3 17 8 23 8 35 4 38 0 40 3 40 3 39 4 28 3 24 0 19 8 40 3Record high C F 14 5 58 1 13 3 55 9 17 5 63 5 22 8 73 0 33 0 91 4 34 4 93 9 33 7 92 7 34 4 93 9 33 9 93 0 28 9 84 0 21 7 71 1 16 4 61 5 34 4 93 9 Average high C F 2 5 27 5 1 5 29 3 2 4 36 3 8 5 47 3 15 0 59 0 19 6 67 3 22 6 72 7 22 4 72 3 18 2 64 8 12 3 54 1 6 4 43 5 0 5 32 9 10 3 50 5 Daily mean C F 7 9 17 8 7 1 19 2 2 5 27 5 3 7 38 7 9 5 49 1 14 0 57 2 17 1 62 8 16 8 62 2 13 0 55 4 7 6 45 7 2 3 36 1 4 4 24 1 5 2 41 4 Average low C F 13 3 8 1 12 6 9 3 7 4 18 7 1 2 29 8 3 9 39 0 8 4 47 1 11 6 52 9 11 2 52 2 7 7 45 9 2 8 37 0 1 9 28 6 9 3 15 3 0 0 32 0 Record low C F 33 2 27 8 36 7 34 1 30 22 16 7 1 9 7 8 18 0 2 2 28 0 1 1 34 0 0 6 30 9 6 7 19 9 10 6 12 9 16 9 1 6 34 4 29 9 36 7 34 1 Record low wind chill 44 8 44 4 39 5 26 1 13 9 2 6 0 0 0 0 5 7 12 9 25 9 41 9 44 8Average precipitation mm inches 123 5 4 86 91 0 3 58 108 2 4 26 105 3 4 15 109 8 4 32 101 0 3 98 88 4 3 48 81 7 3 22 105 6 4 16 116 4 4 58 134 1 5 28 130 4 5 13 1 295 5 51 00 Average rainfall mm inches 66 1 2 60 49 0 1 93 66 6 2 62 85 7 3 37 108 5 4 27 101 0 3 98 88 4 3 48 81 7 3 22 105 6 4 16 115 8 4 56 123 7 4 87 84 0 3 31 1 076 42 36 Average snowfall cm inches 64 3 25 3 48 4 19 1 44 4 17 5 20 0 7 9 1 2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 10 8 4 3 49 9 19 6 239 6 94 3 Average precipitation days 0 2 mm 16 2 12 8 14 0 13 9 13 7 12 9 11 5 10 5 10 5 11 9 14 4 15 6 157 9Average rainy days 0 2 mm 6 7 5 3 7 6 11 0 13 6 12 9 11 5 10 5 10 5 11 7 12 5 8 3 122 1Average snowy days 0 2 cm 12 9 10 2 9 4 5 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 9 10 2 52 6Mean monthly sunshine hours 124 9 124 5 149 9 165 9 199 0 211 6 225 9 216 8 181 9 147 8 97 0 102 0 1 947 3Percent possible sunshine 44 0 42 6 40 7 41 0 43 2 45 3 47 7 49 6 48 3 43 4 33 8 37 4 43 1Source Environment Canada 38 39 40 41 42 Buildings and structures EditSee also List of tallest buildings in Saint John New Brunswick Saint John City Market Courtney Bay Smokestacks each 106 7 m 350 ft Brunswick Square 80 8 m 265 ft 19 storey office building with 511 032 sq ft 47 476 4 m2 which was built in 1976 It is the largest office building in New Brunswick in terms of square footage and second in Atlantic Canada behind the Maritime Centre in Halifax Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception Gothic style Catholic cathedral construction began in 1853 its spire rises to 70 1 m 230 ft City Hall 55 2 m 181 ft 15 storey office building 165 000 sq ft 15 300 m2 Brunswick House 52 m 171 ft 14 storey office building 103 000 sq ft 9 600 m2 43 Irving Building 50 m 160 ft 14 storey office building 44 Harbourside Senior Citizens Housing Complex 43 m 141 ft 12 storey apartment building Harbour Building 37 m 121 ft 10 storey office building Mercantile Centre 30 m 98 ft 7 storey office building 106 600 sq ft 9 900 m2 45 Chateau Saint John 8 storey hotel 112 rooms 46 City Market built in 1876 oldest city market in North America with an original ship s hull roof design Loyalist House built in 1817 Irving Oil Headquarters 2019 11 storey office buildingDemography EditPopulation Edit The population of the city declined from the 1970s to the early 21st century This trend reversed itself and the city s population increased in the 2011 census but then declined again by 2016 Saint John was New Brunswick s largest city until 2016 Historical populationsYearPop 18258 488 183612 073 42 2 184219 281 59 7 185022 745 18 0 186127 317 20 1 187128 805 5 4 188126 127 9 3 189124 184 7 4 190140 711 68 3 191142 511 4 4 192147 166 11 0 193147 514 0 7 194150 084 5 4 195150 779 1 4 196155 153 8 6 197189 039 61 4 198180 521 9 6 198676 381 5 1 199174 969 1 8 199672 494 3 3 200169 661 3 9 200668 043 2 3 201170 063 3 0 201667 575 3 6 Metropolitan area Edit In 2011 the population of the Greater Saint John area was 127 761 of whom 49 were male and 51 female Children under fifteen accounted for approximately 16 of the population People 65 and over accounted for approximately 15 of the population When the census was taken in May 2011 the population of the Saint John metropolitan area was 127 761 compared with 122 389 in 2006 47 Ethnicity and religion Edit Partridge Island immigration station Historically as one of Canada s main ports Saint John has been a centre for immigration from all over the world The city was incorporated in the late 1700s after more than 3 300 Black Loyalist refugees came to Saint John along with more than 10 000 White refugees after the American Revolution 48 In the years between 1815 and 1867 when immigration of that era passed its peak more than 150 000 immigrants from Ireland came to Saint John dramatically changing the city Those who came in the earlier period were largely tradesmen and many stayed in Saint John becoming the backbone of its builders But when the Great Famine of Ireland raged between 1845 and 1849 huge waves of famine refugees flooded the city s shores It is estimated that between 1845 and 1847 some 30 000 arrived more people than were living in the city at the time In 1847 dubbed Black 47 one of the worst years of the famine some 16 000 immigrants most of them from Ireland arrived at Partridge Island the immigration and quarantine station at the mouth of Saint John Harbour 49 As of the 2016 census approximately 87 7 of the residents were white while 7 were visible minorities and 5 3 were aboriginal The largest visible minority groups were Black 2 1 Chinese 1 4 Arab 0 9 and South Asian 0 7 5 of Saint Johners are francophone 50 With regard to religion 89 2 identify as Christian 47 6 Protestant 40 3 Roman Catholic and 1 3 other Christian mostly Orthodox and independent churches 10 1 state no religious affiliation and other religions including Islam Judaism Buddhism and Hinduism together comprise less than 1 Municipal government Common Council EditSee also List of mayors of Saint John New Brunswick Saint John is one of five chartered cities in Canada giving it unique legislative powers 51 Responsibility Edit Saint John is governed by a body of elected officials referred to as Common Council whose responsibilities include Setting the city operational budget Setting the City Water utility budget rates Enacting and amending by laws Rezoning and land use permissions of properties in Saint John Setting the capital budget for the city Acting as the Board of Directors for the corporation City of Saint John Appointing persons to city staff and commissions Overseeing the operation of city commissions and departmentsComposition Edit Main article Saint John City Council The Common Council consists of The Mayor who runs at large acts as Chairman of the Board Two at large Common Councillors Two Common Councillors from each of the city s four wards One is elected by the council to serve as Deputy Mayor As of 2021 the council s members are 52 Mayor Donna Reardon Deputy Mayor John MacKenzie Ward 2 Councillors at Large Gary Sullivan Brent Harris Ward 1 Greg Norton Joanna Killen Ward 2 Barry Ogden John MacKenzie Ward 3 Gerry Lowe David Hickey Ward 4 Greg Stewart Paula Radwan In the October 9 2007 Plebiscite it was decided that as of the May 2008 quadrennial municipal elections the city will be divided into four wards of approximately equal population with two councillors to be elected by the voters in that ward and two councillors to be elected at large Economy Edit Colsen Cove generating station The Old Post Office Saint John derived its economy from maritime industries such as shipping fishing and shipbuilding Saint John has a long history of shipbuilding at the city s dry dock which is one of the largest in the world Since 2003 shipbuilding has ended on the scale it once was forcing the city to adopt a new economic strategy The University of New Brunswick the New Brunswick Museum and the New Brunswick Community College are important institutions and along with Radian6 Horizon Health Network and many others they are a part of Saint John s fast growing research and information technology sectors As the city moves away from its industrial past it now begins to capitalize on the growing sector of tourism hosting over 1 5 million visitors a year and 200 000 cruise ship visitors a year creating a renaissance in the city s historic downtown locally known as uptown Many small businesses have moved into Uptown and large scale waterfront developments are underway such as the Fundy Quay condo hotel and office space Saint John Law Courts and the Three Sisters Harbourfront condos Arts and culture Edit The arts and culture sector plays a large role in Saint John s economy The Imperial Theatre is home to the highly acclaimed Saint John Theatre Company and the Symphony New Brunswick and hosts a large collection of plays concerts and other stage productions year round Harbour Station entertainment complex is home to the Saint John Sea Dogs of the QMJHL and the Saint John Riptide of the NBL Art galleries in Saint John cover the uptown more than any other Atlantic Canadian city citation needed Artists like Miller Brittain and Fred Ross have made Uptown Saint John their home and now the torch has been passed to artists like Gerard Collins Cliff Turner and Peter Salmon and their respective galleries Uptown art galleries also include the Paris Crew Trinity Galleries Citadel Gallery Handworks Gallery and the Saint John Arts Centre SJAC The SJAC in the Carnegie Building hosts art exhibits workshops local songwriters circles and other shows too small to be featured at the grand Imperial Theatre Heavy industry Edit Saint John maintains industrial infrastructure in the city s East side such as Canada s largest oil refinery as well as the country s largest dry dock Capitalist K C Irving and his family built his unfettered industrial conglomerate in the city by buying up mills shipyards media outlets and other industrial infrastructure during the 20th century and still continue to this day Today Irving dominates the city and province with stakes in oil forestry shipbuilding media and transportation Irving companies remain dominant employers in the region with North America s first deepwater oil terminal 53 a pulp mill a paper mill and a tissue paper plant Other important economic activity in the city is generated by the Port of Saint John 54 Saint John has a long history of brewers such as Simeon Jones The Olands and James Ready The city is now home to Moosehead Breweries James Ready Brewing Co Big Tide Brewing Co Picaroon s and other craft brewers The Moosehead Brewery established in 1867 is Canada s only nationally distributed independent brewery M Nicholson James Ready Brewing Co the New Brunswick Power Corporation which operates three electrical generating stations in the region including the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station Bell Aliant which operates out of the former New Brunswick Telephone headquarters the Horizon Health Network which operates 5 hospitals in the Saint John area 55 and numerous information technology companies There are also a number of call centres which were established in the 1990s under provincial government incentives View from Fort Howe of the Saint John skyline prior to Peel Plaza Maritime industries Edit Main article Port of Saint John Saint John is a major Canadian port and the only city on the Bay of Fundy Until the first decade of the 21st century Canada s largest shipyard Irving Shipbuilding had been an important employer in the city During the 1980s early 1990s the shipyard was responsible for building 9 of the 12 Halifax class multi purpose patrol frigates for the Canadian Navy However the Irving family closed the shipyard in 2003 and centralized in Halifax leaving the Saint John dry dock sitting idle Ecological research on surrounding marine life of the Bay of Fundy and the Saint John and Kennebecasis Rivers is centred in the city The University of New Brunswick s Marine Biology department in Saint John as well as local NGO s and the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans heads the majority of research and monitoring work on marine life and environments 56 Traditional fisheries lobster scallops etc still make up the livelihood for many Saint Johners today Aquaculture primarily Atlantic Salmon farming has grown to be a major employer in the region as the decline of other traditional wild fisheries has unfolded in recent decades Cooke Aquaculture one of the largest companies in the industry is headquartered in Saint John 57 Prior to the opening of the St Lawrence Seaway in 1959 the Port of Saint John functioned as the winter port for Montreal Quebec when shipping was unable to traverse the sea ice in the Gulf of St Lawrence and St Lawrence River The Canadian Pacific Railway opened a line to Saint John from Montreal in 1889 across the state of Maine and transferred the majority of its trans Atlantic passenger and cargo shipping to the port during the winter months The port fell into decline following the seaway opening and the start of year round icebreaker services in the 1960s In 1994 CPR left Saint John when it sold the line to shortline operator New Brunswick Southern Railway The Canadian National Railway still services Saint John with a secondary mainline from Moncton Despite these setbacks Port Saint John is the largest port by volume in Eastern Canada at about 28 million metric tonnes of cargo per year including containers and bulk cargo 58 Military Edit Besides being the location of several historical forts such as Fort Howe Fort Dufferin Fort Latour and the Carleton Martello Tower Saint John is the location of a number of reserve units of the Canadian Forces Naval Reserve HMCS Brunswicker 37 Canadian Brigade Group 3rd Field Artillery Regiment RCA Regimental headquarters and 115th Field Battery The Loyal Company Royal New Brunswick Regiment Carleton amp York B Company 37 Signal Regiment Det Saint John and 2 Squadron 37 Service Battalion Battalion headquarters and a composite logistics companyLabour EditCanada s first trade union Edit Saint John is often described as the birthplace of unionism in Canada and is one of the few pre capitalist colonial settlements in North America The city has a history of labour achievements and sparked the Canadian labour movement with Canada s first trade union the Labourers Benevolent Association now International Longshoremen s Association Local 273 In 1849 the union was formed when Saint John s longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell which would announce the beginning and end of the labourers 10 hour workday As the bell shears were hardly finished when capitalists and merchants in the city objected to the bell and successfully lobbied city hall to keep the bell from being put up But then citizens and longshoremen defied the order and erected a larger bell and merchants withdrew their opposition to the Labourers Bell ILA Local 273 remain one of the city s strongest trade unions to this day 59 The Saint John Street Railwaymen s strike and riot of 1914 Edit 1914 Saint John Railwaymen s Strike riot The 1914 Saint John street railway strike sometimes called the Saint John street railwaymen s strike 60 was a strike by workers on the street railway system in the city which lasted from July 22 to 24 1914 with rioting by Saint John inhabitants occurring on July 23 and 24 The strike was important for shattering the image of Saint John as a conservative town dominated primarily by ethnic and religious rather than class divisions and highlighting tensions between railway industrialists and the local working population October 14 1976 The Saint John General Strike Edit The Saint John General Strike of 1976 was a result of the Bill C 73 passed by Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau and the House of Commons in Ottawa on October 14 1975 This bill limited wage increases to 8 the first year 6 the second year and 4 the third year after its enactment Most provinces of Canada accepted the bill by spring of 1976 but within eighteen months they began to withdraw from the program After its introduction in 1975 it was not until 1976 that the Anti Inflation Board AIB began to roll back workers wages The employees of Irving Pulp and Paper members of the Canadian Paper Workers Union were among the first to experience the roll backs implemented by the AIB The paper workers were required to give back to the employer 9 8 of their previous wage increase the first year and 11 the second year The Atlantic Sugar Refinery workers of the Bakery and Confectionary Workers International Union of America soon felt the burden as well The majority of workers within Saint John were influenced by the AIB by January 1976 On February 5 1976 the Saint John District and the Labour Council held a conference to plan an organized opposition to the AIB Fifty two people came to the meeting as representatives of twenty six unions in Saint John The council was led by the Labour Council president George Vair They began by educating those present on wage control legislation but swiftly transitioned into rallying and demonstrating in opposition throughout the city Five thousand marched from numerous ends of the town to King Square All major industries in Saint John were shut down 61 The Irving Oil Refinery strike 1994 1996 Edit On May 12 1994 at 4 30 pm members of Local 691 of the Communications Energy and Paperworkers CEP union at the Irving Oil Ltd Refinery went on strike At this time the refinery s management took over its operations Irving had argued the refinery might have to shut down and had to bring in a bevy of rollbacks to the workers pay and benefits and other changes to the collective agreement Local 691 argued Irving simply wished to lengthen the work week without paying workers overtime rates The strike lasted 27 months and was based on Irving s demands for flexibility of the workers to ensure the refinery was competitive The strike is seen as symbolic of a rollback of labour and democratic collective bargaining rights that have been in decline across North America 62 Transportation Edit Looking east on the Saint John Throughway right before the Harbour Bridge and the now closed since 2011 toll plaza A Saint John Transit bus in uptown Air Edit Air service into Saint John is provided by the Saint John Airport Aeroport de Saint John near Loch Lomond 8 nautical miles 15 km 9 2 mi east northeast of the central business district 63 or approximately 25 km 16 mi by road northeast of the city centre Flights are offered by Sunwing Airlines seasonal and Air Canada Air Canada Express and Air Canada Rouge In 2011 WestJet decided to withdraw from the Saint John Airport Quebec based Pascan Aviation announced its expansion into Saint John in late 2012 with direct flights from Saint John to Quebec City Newfoundland and other destinations beginning in September 2012 Porter Airlines flies once daily from Saint John to Ottawa and Toronto Island Airport 64 Highways Edit The main highway in the city is the Saint John Throughway Route 1 Route 1 extends west to the United States border and northeast towards both Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia A second major highway Route 7 connects Saint John with Fredericton There are two main road crossings over the Saint John River the Harbour Bridge and the Reversing Falls Bridge approximately 1 nautical mile 1 9 km upstream Rail Edit The Reversing Falls Railway Bridge carries rail traffic for the New Brunswick Southern Railway on the route from Saint John to Maine Saint John was serviced by the Atlantic Line of Via Rail passenger service Passenger rail service in Saint John was discontinued in December 1994 although the Canadian National Railway and New Brunswick Southern Railway continue to provide freight service Port and ferries Edit Port Saint John is located where the Saint John River meets the Atlantic Ocean Thus both the ocean and the river system is navigable from Saint John docks 65 Bay Ferries operates a ferry service MV Fundy Rose across the Bay of Fundy to Digby Nova Scotia The Summerville to Millidgeville Ferry a free propeller as opposed to cable ferry service operated by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation connects the Millidgeville neighbourhood with Summerville New Brunswick across the Kennebecasis River on the Kingston Peninsula Public transit Edit Saint John Transit is the largest transit system in New Brunswick in both area coverage and ridership 66 Bus service is provided by Saint John Transit Greater Saint John Area and Maritime Bus Inter city Acadian Lines used to operate regular inter city bus services between New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Bangor as well as Riviere du Loup Quebec connecting with Orleans Express Maritime Bus has since replaced Acadian Lines as the regional bus service 67 Culture EditThe city has always been a traditional hub for the arts on the east coast boasting many notable artists actors and musicians including Walter Pidgeon Donald Sutherland Louis B Mayer and Miller Brittain What is considered the golden age of the Saint John arts community was during the post war era from 1940 to 1970 when the city produced renowned artists and writers such as poet Kay Smith painters Jack Humphrey Miller Brittain Bruno Bobak Fred Ross and sculptor John Hooper and folk singer Tom Connors Poet Bliss Carman once wrote about Saint John All the beauty and mystery Of life were there adventure bold Youth and the glamour of the sea And all its sorrows old 68 Dance music and theatre Edit This section is in list format but may read better as prose You can help by converting this section if appropriate Editing help is available July 2020 Comhaltas Saint John Comhaltas Ceoltoiri Eireann was founded in Dublin Ireland in 1951 Its mandate is to promote traditional Irish music and culture and there are more than 400 branches around the world The Saint John branch of Comhaltas is the easternmost chapter in Canada JP Collins Celtic Festival is an Irish festival celebrating Saint John s Irish heritage The festival is named for a young Irish doctor James Patrick Collins who worked on Partridge Island quarantine station tending to sick Irish immigrants before he died there himself Before the Mast an a cappella men s vocal group that performs sea shanties from New Brunswick s past InterAction Children s Theatre New Brunswick Youth Orchestra Open Arts a series featuring post classical and experimental music Saint John Rotary Boys Choir a boys choir founded in 1965 Saint John String Quartet performs an annual chamber music concert series Symphony New Brunswick SNB the province s only professional quality symphony orchestra TD Station Formerly Harbour Station is a venue for large indoor concerts and events The Imperial Theatre Saint John Free Public Library Library Millennium Artplace Third Space Gallery The Fundy Fringe Festival The Atlantic Repertory Company The Saint John Theatre Company The BMO Studio TheatreMuseums Edit This section is in list format but may read better as prose You can help by converting this section if appropriate Editing help is available July 2020 Hatheway Labour Exhibit Centre 69 Barbour s General Store New Brunswick Black History Society 70 Carleton Martello Tower Fort Howe Loyalist House New Brunswick Museum Saint John Firefighters Museum 71 Saint John Jewish Historical MuseumNational Historic sites Edit This section is in list format but may read better as prose You can help by converting this section if appropriate Editing help is available July 2020 Carleton Martello Tower Fort Charnisay also sometimes called Fort Menagoueche Fort Howe Imperial Theatre Loyalist House Saint John City Market Partridge Island Saint John County Prince William Streetscape Bank of New Brunswick Fort La Tour Saint John is known for its pub and restaurant scene throughout uptown Statistics Canada found the city has the third most pubs per capita in Canada 72 The Imperial Theatre a National Historic Site still hosting live performances Fiddlehead sculpture at the Saint John Arts Centre in the city s uptown Prince William Street National Historic Site of Canada The building in the foreground is the Bank of New Brunswick building Canada s first bank established by Royal Charter Music Edit Early settlers influenced music in Saint John from the time the area had been a series of forts for the English and French colonists Working class fishers labourers and shipbuilders carried Maritime traditions and folk songs with kitchen parties and outdoor gatherings But musical high culture was captured by the wealthy New Brunswick s solicitor general 1784 1808 Ward Chipman Sr was known to have fancy soirees at his home with all the latest songs from London A notable Loyalist musician Stephen Humbert moved in 1783 from New Jersey to Saint John and opened a Sacred Vocal Music School In 1801 Humbert published Union Harmony the first Canadian music book in English The Mechanics Institute built in 1840 was the first large scale platform for comic opera and concerts In 1950 The Saint John Symphony was founded by Kelsey Jones by 1983 the organization became Symphony New Brunswick Some musicians from Saint John include Berkley Chadwick Stompin Tom Connors Ken Tobias Blank Banshee Stevedore Steve 73 Jane Coop Bruce Holder Frances James the songwriter Michael F Kelly Ned Landry the composer and teacher Edward Betts Manning Paul Murray Catherine McKinnon Patricia Rideout Philip Thomson and the tenor and choir conductor Gordon Wry 74 Music festivals have long been a part of the city s cultural scene New Brunswick s Music Festival was held in Saint John every Spring in the early to mid 20th century 75 As the city s music changed with the times so did its festivals Other popular festivals include the now defunct Festival By The Sea 76 and Salty Jam 77 catering to various genres of pop music The Area 506 music festival is held every New Brunswick Day long weekend at Long Wharf on Saint John Harbour The festival is set up with shipping containers from the port with vendors from New Brunswick companies to promote local business A main stage area is also set up for night time shows with local acts as well as major groups Major bands to have played Area 506 include Tegan and Sara Stars Bahamas Interpol and Arkells Each year the festival also includes a bevy of bands coming out of the Saint John music scene 78 Quality Block Party music festival hosts independent New Brunswick musicians in smaller venues throughout uptown Saint John The festival gets its name from the old quality block on Germain Street 79 Sport Edit TD Station is home to the city s Quebec Major Junior hockey team Saint John Sea Dogs and the Saint John Riptide of the National Basketball League of Canada The following teams are based in Saint John The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League s Saint John Sea Dogs 2011 Canadian Hockey League Memorial Cup Champions The National Basketball League of Canada s Saint John Riptide The New Brunswick Rugby Union s Saint John Irish The New Brunswick Rugby Union s Saint John Trojans The New Brunswick Senior Baseball League s Saint John Alpines The following sporting events have been held here The Saint John Flames of the AHL played here from 1993 to 2003 winning the Calder Cup in 2000 2001 1999 amp 2014 World Curling Championships 1998 World Junior Figure Skating Championships 1997 AHL All Star Game 1995 Skate Canada International 1988 World Blitz Chess Championship 80 1985 Canada GamesEducation Edit The Commons at the University of New Brunswick In 1964 the University of New Brunswick created UNB Saint John in buildings throughout the uptown CBD In 1968 UNBSJ opened a new campus in the city s Tucker Park neighbourhood This campus has undergone expansion over the years and is the fastest growing component of the UNB system with many new buildings constructed from the 1970s to the first decade of the 21st century A trend in recent years has been a growth in the number of international students The city also hosts a New Brunswick Community College campus in the East End of the city There has also been a satellite campus of Dalhousie Medical School added within the UNBSJ campus in 2010 instructing 30 medical students each year In the fall of 2007 a report commissioned by the provincial government recommended UNBSJ and the NBCC be reformed and consolidated into a new polytechnic post secondary institute The proposal immediately came under heavy criticism and led to the organizing of several protests in the uptown area citing the diminishment of UNB as a nationally accredited university the reduction in accessibility to receive degrees and these are only a couple of the reasons why the community was enraged by the recommendation Support for keeping UNBSJ as it was and expanding the university under its current structure fell slightly below 90 Seeing too much political capital would be lost and several Saint John MPs were likely not to support the initiative if the policies recommended by the report were legislated the government abandoned the commission s report and created an intra provincial post secondary commission Saint John is served by two school boards Anglophone South School District schools and Francophone Sud School District based out of Dieppe New Brunswick for the city s only Francophone school Centre Scolaire Communautaire Samuel de Champlain Saint John is also home to Canada s oldest publicly funded school Saint John High School The other high schools in the city are Harbour View High School St Malachy s High School and Simonds High School Media EditMain article Media in Saint John New BrunswickTwin sister cities Edit Koper Slovenia 81 82 Shantou Guangdong China 83 See also Edit Canada portal List of people from Saint John New BrunswickNotes EditExplanatory notes Edit Based on station coordinates provided by Environment Canada climate data recorded near downtown Saint John from January 1871 to September 1970 and at Saint John Airport from November 1946 to present References Edit Common Council Minutes February 8 2016 a b Census Profile 2016 Census Saint John New Brunswick Statistics Canada Retrieved 24 August 2019 Territorial Divisions Act section 27 a The Province of New Brunswick through the Queen s Printer Retrieved 7 February 2016 a b McGahan Elizabeth W Saint John a b Census Profile 2016 Census Saint John Population centre New Brunswick Statistics Canada Retrieved 24 August 2019 a b Census Profile 2016 Census Saint John Census metropolitan area New Brunswick Statistics Canada Retrieved 24 August 2019 Table 36 10 0468 01 Gross domestic product GDP at basic prices by census metropolitan area CMA x 1 000 000 Statistics Canada Archived from the original on 22 January 2021 Retrieved 27 April 2021 a b c Saint John NB Canadian Encyclopedia Retrieved 12 June 2017 Port Saint John reports 2016 tonnage Archived from the original on 28 July 2017 Retrieved 23 July 2017 Census Profile 2016 Census www12 statcan gc ca Statistics Canada Retrieved 5 January 2020 a b MacDonald 1983 Fortune amp La Tour The civil war in Acadia Toronto Methuen a b Saint John Canadian Encyclopedia Retrieved 26 July 2020 Winslow Papers The Partition of Nova Scotia lib unb ca The Ship Marco Polo Retrieved 30 July 2017 Winder Gordon M 2000 Trouble in the North End The Geography of Social Violence in Saint John 1840 1860 Acadiensis XXIX 2 Spring 27 Bilson Geoffrey 1974 The Cholera Epidemic in Saint John N B 1854 Acadiensis 4 1 85 99 Collins Donald 20 June 2002 Weary city resurfaces from ashes In the weeks and months following the Great Fire of 1877 Saint John people and businesses persevered newbrunswick net Telegraph Journal New Brunswick Retrieved 25 June 2014 Scientific American St John N B Burned Munn amp Company 7 July 1877 p 3 Canada s First City Saint John Saint John N B Lingley Printing 1962 p 30 Van Horn Celinda Principal s Message Saint John High School Retrieved 30 May 2016 John Quinpool First Things in Acadia Halifax 1936 p 122 For Whom The Bells Toll Hatheway Labour Exhibit Center Famous Glaswegians Robert Foulis Jr Glasgow Guide Retrieved 24 August 2019 Irving Margaret Paris Crew The Canadian Encyclopedia Retrieved 10 July 2017 YWCA Canada Our History PDF YWCA Canada Retrieved 24 August 2019 William D Kennedy Pythian History Part 1 1904 p 52 The Commissioners of Patents Journal Great Britain Patent Office 1872 Saint John My New Brunswick My New Brunswick 8 August 2016 Retrieved 9 June 2017 Mabel Peters Playground Dedicated The Official Site of The City of Saint John Le Site Officiel de The City of Saint John Saint John Firsts www saintjohnlifeonyourterms ca Archived from the original on August 27 2017 Retrieved June 9 2017 Greg Marquis The history of policing in the Maritime provinces themes and prospects Huban History Review June 1990 New Brunswick s 20th century pioneer in physical distancing CBC Retrieved 14 April 2020 The Geology stonehammergeopark com UNESCO Retrieved 27 June 2017 Census Profile 2016 Census www12 statcan gc ca Statistics Canada Retrieved 3 January 2021 Saint John A Canadian Climate Normals 1971 2000 Environment Canada Retrieved 30 September 2013 Daily Data Report for June 1941 Canadian Climate Data Environment Canada 22 September 2015 Retrieved 26 June 2016 Daily Data Report for August 1944 Canadian Climate Data Environment Canada 22 September 2015 Retrieved 26 June 2016 a b c Saint John A Canadian Climate Normals 1981 2010 Environment Canada Retrieved 12 May 2014 Saint John A Canadian Climate Normals 1981 2010 Environment Canada Archived from the original on 31 October 2020 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Saint John Canadian Climate Data Environment Canada Retrieved 26 June 2016 Hourly Data Report for March 21 2012 Canadian Climate Data Environment Canada Retrieved 26 June 2016 Daily Data Report for March 2012 Canadian Climate Data Environment Canada Retrieved 26 June 2016 Commercial Properties Archived from the original on April 19 2012 JD Irving Canada www cbre ca Home www chateausaintjohn ca Canada Government of Canada Statistics Saint John New Brunswick Census metropolitan area Focus on Geography Series Census 2011 www12 statcan gc ca Retrieved 29 December 2016 Before Willie O Ree New Brunswick s surprising black history contributions CBC Retrieved 10 November 2019 Thomas P Power ed The Irish in Atlantic Canada 1780 1900 Fredericton NB New Ireland Press 1991 Saint John Population centre New Brunswick and New Brunswick Province Statistics Canada Retrieved 26 June 2020 Is Charter City Status a Solution for Financing City Services in Canada Or is that a Myth PDF University of Calgary Retrieved 21 August 2018 Mayor and Common Council Saint John Retrieved 10 December 2021 Saint John Port World Port Source Retrieved 10 January 2019 Port Saint John www sjport com Facilities Hospitals Horizon Health Services Retrieved 26 August 2019 Hospitals in the Saint John Region Charlotte County Hospital Grand Manan Hospital Saint John Regional Hospital St Joseph s Hospital and Sussex Health Centre Marine Biology UNB Retrieved 11 July 2020 Cooke Seafood Retrieved 11 July 2020 Port Saint John Retrieved 5 April 2019 For Whom The Bells Toll Hatheway Labour Exhibit Center Retrieved 6 May 2017 Babcock Robert H January 1982 The Saint John Street Railwaymen s Strike and Riot 1914 Acadiensis University of New Brunswick 11 2 ISSN 0044 5851 Retrieved 13 May 2016 Canadian workers strike against wage controls 1976 Retrieved 6 May 2017 Steuter Erin Martin Geoff The Myth of the Competitive Challenge The Irving Oil Refinery Strike 1994 96 and the Canadian Petroleum Industry Retrieved 6 May 2017 Canada Flight Supplement Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020 PASCAN Aviation confirms its schedule of flights from Saint John NB starting September 17 Canada Newswire Archived from the original on April 2 2015 Retrieved August 9 2012 Facilities and Operations Port Saint John Retrieved 11 April 2020 Organization Saint John Transit Retrieved 15 June 2021 UARB names bus company to replace Acadian Lines Rogers Retrieved 11 April 2020 Saint John City of Firsts Maclean s Frank amp Ella Hatheway Labour Exhibit Centre New Brunswick Black History Society Visit the Saint John Firefighter s Museum Cheers Saint John Port City Has Third Most Bars Per Capita In Country Acadia Broadcasting Ltd Archived from the original on 5 February 2018 Retrieved 4 February 2018 Stevedore Steve writer of Lester the Lobster dead at 80 Retrieved 30 July 2017 Music in Saint John Retrieved 30 July 2017 Archived copy Maclean s Archived from the original on 13 November 2019 Retrieved 13 November 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Annual Festivals Retrieved 13 November 2019 Archived copy Uptown Saint John Archived from the original on 13 November 2019 Retrieved 13 November 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Saint John waterfront transformed into shipping container village for Area 506 festival Retrieved 2 August 2017 Quality Block Party vies for status as destination festival CBC Retrieved 8 April 2018 Goodman David 20 February 1988 World Champion Eliminated From Blitz Chess Tournament Associated Press Retrieved 26 January 2017 Report Visit of the Honourable Noel A Kinsella Speaker of the Senate and a Parliamentary Delegation to the Holy See Romania and Slovenia PDF Parliament of Canada p 17 Archived from the original PDF on 14 February 2017 Retrieved 10 January 2019 Saint John The city has a twin on the Adriatic Sea Retrieved 10 January 2019 Government of Canada Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada Canada China Twinning Relationships External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Saint John New Brunswick Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saint John New Brunswick Official website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saint John New Brunswick amp oldid 1060787749, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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