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Matthew the Apostle

Matthew the Apostle, also known as Saint Matthew and possibly as Levi, was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. According to Christian traditions, he was also one of the four Evangelists as author of the Gospel of Matthew, and thus is also known as Matthew the Evangelist, a claim rejected by the majority of modern biblical scholars, though the "traditional authorship still has its defenders."

Saint
Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Evangelist, miniature from the Grandes Heures of Anne of Brittany, Queen consort of France (1477–1514)
Apostle, Evangelist, and Martyr
Born1st century AD
Capernaum
Died1st century AD
near Hierapolis or Ethiopia, relics in Salerno, Italy
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church
Catholic Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Oriental Orthodoxy
Church of the East
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Feast21 September (Western Christianity)
22 October (Coptic Orthodox)
16 November (Eastern Christianity)
AttributesAngel
PatronageAccountants; Salerno, Italy; bankers; tax collectors; perfumers; civil servants
Major worksGospel of Matthew

The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, and was one of the witnesses of the Ascension of Jesus. Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries.

Contents

Matthew in a painted miniature from a volume of Armenian Gospels dated 1609, held by the Bodleian Library

Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus, Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9:9 and Matthew 10:3 as a publican (KJV) or tax collector (NIV) who, while sitting at the "receipt of custom" in Capernaum, was called to follow Jesus.[Matthew 9:9][Mark 2:15–17][Luke 5:29] He is also listed among the twelve, but without identification of his background, in Mark 3:18, Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13. In passages parallel to Matthew 9:9, both Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27 describe Jesus' calling of the tax collector Levi, the son of Alphaeus, but Mark and Luke never explicitly equate this Levi with the Matthew named as one of the twelve.

According to the Gospels, Matthew was a 1st-century Galilean (presumably born in Galilee, which was not part of Judea or the Roman Judaea province), the son of Alphaeus. As a tax collector, he would probably not have been literate, and certainly could not write highly educated Greek. His fellow Jews would have despised him for what was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force.

After his call, Matthew invited Jesus for a feast. On seeing this, the Scribes and the Pharisees criticized Jesus for eating with tax collectors and sinners. This prompted Jesus to answer, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."[Mark 2:17][Luke 5:32]

The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, and was one of the witnesses of the Ascension of Jesus. Afterwards, the disciples withdrew to an upper room (Acts 1:10–14)(traditionally the Cenacle) in Jerusalem. The disciples remained in and about Jerusalem and proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah.

In the Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin 43a), "Mattai" is one of five disciples of "Jeshu".

Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus (Against Heresies 3.1.1) and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries. Ancient writers are not in agreement as to which other countries these are. The Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr, although this was rejected by Heracleon, a Gnostic Christian viewed as a heretic, as early as the second century.

Main article: Gospel of Matthew
Saint Matthew and the Angel (1661) by Rembrandt

The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, and the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the second century. The tradition that the author was the disciple Matthew begins with the early Christian bishop Papias of Hierapolis (c. AD 60–163), who is cited by the Church historian Eusebius (AD 260–340), as follows: "Matthew collected the oracles (logia: sayings of or about Jesus) in the Hebrew language (Hebraïdi dialektōi), and each one interpreted (hērmēneusen – perhaps "translated") them as best he could."

On the surface, this has been taken to imply that Matthew's Gospel itself was written in Hebrew or Aramaic by the apostle Matthew and later translated into Greek, but nowhere does the author claim to have been an eyewitness to events, and Matthew's Greek "reveals none of the telltale marks of a translation". Scholars have put forward several theories to explain Papias: perhaps Matthew wrote two gospels, one, now lost, in Hebrew, the other our Greek version; or perhaps the logia was a collection of sayings rather than the gospel; or by dialektōi Papias may have meant that Matthew wrote in the Jewish style rather than in the Hebrew language. The consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, and it is generally accepted that Matthew was written in Greek, not in Aramaic or Hebrew. Therefore, while the traditional authorship still has its defenders, the majority of mainstream Bible scholars rejects the Matthean authorship of the gospel.

According to Maurice Casey, Matthew the Apostle did indeed write a collection of sayings of Jesus in Aramaic, which was independent of the current Gospel of Matthew, possibly written by another Matthew or Matthias in the early church. According to Gerd Theissen, Matthew the Apostle was the author of the Q source.

Saint Matthew (1713–1715) by Camillo Rusconi, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran in Rome

In the 3rd century, Jewish–Christian gospels attributed to Matthew were used by Jewish–Christian groups such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites. Fragments of these gospels survive in quotations by Jerome, Epiphanius and others. Most academic study follows the distinction of Gospel of the Nazarenes (36 fragments), Gospel of the Ebionites (7 fragments), and Gospel of the Hebrews (7 fragments) found in Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha. Critical commentators generally regard these texts as having been composed in Greek and related to Greek Matthew. A minority of commentators consider them to be fragments of a lost Aramaic- or Hebrew-language original.

The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew is a 7th-century compilation of three other texts: the Gospel of James, the Flight into Egypt, and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.

Origen said the first Gospel was written by Matthew. This Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and translated into Greek, but the Greek copy was lost. The Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea. The Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for Jerome which he used in his work. Matthew's Gospel was called the Gospel according to the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles and it was once believed that it was the original to the Greek Matthew found in the Bible. However, this has been challenged by modern biblical scholars such as Bart D. Ehrman and James R. Edwards. See also the two-source hypothesis.

Jerome relates that Matthew was supposed by the Nazarenes to have composed their Gospel of the Hebrews though Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis consider this simply a revised version of the canonical Gospel. This Gospel has been partially preserved in the writings of the Church Fathers, said to have been written by Matthew. Epiphanius does not make his own the claim about a Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew, a claim that he merely attributes to the heretical Ebionites.

Matthew is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran and Anglican churches (see St. Matthew's Church). His feast day is celebrated on 21 September in the West and 16 November in the East. (Those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar would keep the day on 29 November of the modern Gregorian calendar, being 16 November in the Julian calendar.) He is also commemorated by the Orthodox, together with the other Apostles, on 30 June (13 July), the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles. His tomb is located in the crypt of Salerno Cathedral in southern Italy. Matthew is remembered in the Church of England with a Festival on 21 September.

Like the other evangelists, Matthew is often depicted in Christian art with one of the four living creatures of Revelation 4:7. The one that accompanies him is in the form of a winged man. The three paintings of Matthew by Caravaggio in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, where he is depicted as called by Christ from his profession as a tax gatherer, are among the landmarks of Western art.

The Quran speaks of Jesus' disciples but does not mention their names, instead referring to them as "helpers to the work of Allah". Muslim exegesis and Quran commentary, however, name them and include Matthew amongst the disciples. Muslim exegesis preserves the tradition that Matthew and Andrew were the two disciples who went to Ethiopia to preach the message of God.

Notes

  1. Biblical Hebrew:מַתִּתְיָהוּ‎, romanized: Mattityahu, shortened toמַתִּיMatti (whence Arabic:مَتَّى‎, romanized: Mattā), meaning "Gift of YHWH";
    Aramaic:ܡܰܬ݁ܰܝ‎, romanized: Mattai; Koinē Greek:Μαθθαῖος, Maththaîos orΜατθαῖος, Matthaîos; Coptic:ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, romanized: Mattheos; Latin: Matthaeus
  2. Eusebius, "History of the Church" 3.39.14–17, c. 325 CE, Greek text 16: "ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἱστόρηται τῷ Παπίᾳ περὶ τοῦ Μάρκου· περὶ δὲ τοῦ Ματθαῖου ταῦτ’ εἴρηται· Ματθαῖος μὲν οὖν Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ τὰ λόγια συνετάξατο, ἡρμήνευσεν δ’ αὐτὰ ὡς ἧν δυνατὸς ἕκαστος. Various English translations published, standard reference translation by Philip Schaff at CCEL: "[C]oncerning Matthew he [Papias] writes as follows: 'So then(963) Matthew wrote the oracles in the Hebrew language, and every one interpreted them as he was able.'(964)" Online version includes footnotes 963 and 964 by Schaff.
    Irenaeus of Lyons (died c. 202 CE) makes a similar comment, possibly also drawing on Papias, in his Against Heresies, Book III, Chapter 1, "Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect"

Citations

  1. Easton 1897. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEaston1897 (help)
  2. "Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle, Washington, D.C". Stmatthewscathedral.org. 21 September 2013. Retrieved10 July 2014.
  3. Allison 2010, p. 27.
  4. Jacquier 1911.
  5. Ehrman 1999, p. 45.
  6. Ehrman 2009, p. 56.
  7. "Saint Matthew". franciscanmedia.org. Franciscan Media. Retrieved21 September 2020.
  8. Freedman 2001, p. 130–133, 201.
  9. Schneemelcher 2003, p. 17.
  10. Lardner 1838, p. 299.
  11. Bock 2002, p. 164.
  12. Orr 1915, p. 2009.
  13. Harrington 1991, p. 8.
  14. Nolland 2005, p. 16.
  15. Martin 2012.
  16. Turner 2008, p. 15–16.
  17. Bingham 1998, p. 64.
  18. Hagner 1986, p. 281.
  19. Ehrman 1999, p. 43.
  20. Muddiman & Barton 2010, p. 27.
  21. Casey 2010.
  22. Theissen 2003.
  23. Vielhauer & Strecker 2003, p. 542.
  24. Edwards 2009, p. 18.
  25. Repschinski 2000, p. 14.
  26. Nicholson 1879, p. 82.
  27. Saint Jerome 2000, p. 10.
  28. Hultgren & Haggmark 1996, p. 122.
  29. Nicholson 1879, p. 26.
  30. Dods 1858, p. iv.
  31. Harrison 1964, p. 152.
  32. Edwards 2009, p. 245.
  33. Mills & Wilson 2003, p. 942.
  34. Epiphanius of Salamis 1987, p. 129.
  35. ELCA 2006, p. 57.
  36. "The Calendar". The Church of England. Retrieved27 March 2021.
  37. Quran 3:49–53
  38. Noegel & Wheeler 2003, p. 86.

Sources

Further reading

Commentaries

Wikimedia Commons has media related toSaint Matthew.

Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Apostle Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Saint Matthew Matthew the Apostle a also known as Saint Matthew and possibly as Levi was according to the New Testament one of the twelve apostles of Jesus According to Christian traditions he was also one of the four Evangelists as author of the Gospel of Matthew and thus is also known as Matthew the Evangelist a claim rejected by the majority of modern biblical scholars though the traditional authorship still has its defenders 3 Saint Matthew the ApostleMatthew the Evangelist miniature from the Grandes Heures of Anne of Brittany Queen consort of France 1477 1514 Apostle Evangelist and MartyrBorn1st century AD Capernaum 1 Died1st century AD near Hierapolis or Ethiopia relics in Salerno ItalyVenerated inEastern Orthodox Church Catholic Church Eastern Catholic Churches Oriental Orthodoxy Church of the East Anglican Communion LutheranismCanonizedPre CongregationFeast21 September Western Christianity 22 October Coptic Orthodox 16 November Eastern Christianity AttributesAngelPatronageAccountants Salerno Italy bankers tax collectors perfumers civil servants 2 Major worksGospel of Matthew The New Testament records that as a disciple he followed Jesus and was one of the witnesses of the Ascension of Jesus Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea before going to other countries Contents 1 In the New Testament 2 Early life 3 Ministry 4 Matthew s Gospel 5 Non canonical or apocryphal gospels 6 Veneration 7 In Islam 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 10 1 Notes 10 2 Citations 10 3 Sources 10 4 Further reading 10 4 1 Commentaries 11 External linksIn the New Testament Edit Matthew in a painted miniature from a volume of Armenian Gospels dated 1609 held by the Bodleian Library Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9 9 and Matthew 10 3 as a publican KJV or tax collector NIV who while sitting at the receipt of custom in Capernaum was called to follow Jesus Matthew 9 9 Mark 2 15 17 Luke 5 29 He is also listed among the twelve but without identification of his background in Mark 3 18 Luke 6 15 and Acts 1 13 In passages parallel to Matthew 9 9 both Mark 2 14 and Luke 5 27 describe Jesus calling of the tax collector Levi the son of Alphaeus but Mark and Luke never explicitly equate this Levi with the Matthew named as one of the twelve Early life EditAccording to the Gospels Matthew was a 1st century Galilean presumably born in Galilee which was not part of Judea or the Roman Judaea province the son of Alphaeus 4 As a tax collector he would probably not have been literate and certainly could not write highly educated Greek 5 6 His fellow Jews would have despised him for what was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force 7 After his call Matthew invited Jesus for a feast On seeing this the Scribes and the Pharisees criticized Jesus for eating with tax collectors and sinners This prompted Jesus to answer I came not to call the righteous but sinners to repentance Mark 2 17 Luke 5 32 Ministry EditThe New Testament records that as a disciple he followed Jesus and was one of the witnesses of the Ascension of Jesus Afterwards the disciples withdrew to an upper room Acts 1 10 14 8 traditionally the Cenacle in Jerusalem 4 The disciples remained in and about Jerusalem and proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah In the Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 43a Mattai is one of five disciples of Jeshu 9 Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus Against Heresies 3 1 1 and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea before going to other countries Ancient writers are not in agreement as to which other countries these are 4 The Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr 10 11 although this was rejected by Heracleon a Gnostic Christian viewed as a heretic as early as the second century 12 Matthew s Gospel EditMain article Gospel of Matthew Saint Matthew and the Angel 1661 by Rembrandt The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous the author is not named within the text and the superscription according to Matthew was added some time in the second century 13 14 The tradition that the author was the disciple Matthew begins with the early Christian bishop Papias of Hierapolis c AD 60 163 15 who is cited by the Church historian Eusebius AD 260 340 as follows Matthew collected the oracles logia sayings of or about Jesus in the Hebrew language Hebraidi dialektōi and each one interpreted hermeneusen perhaps translated them as best he could 16 b 17 On the surface this has been taken to imply that Matthew s Gospel itself was written in Hebrew or Aramaic by the apostle Matthew and later translated into Greek but nowhere does the author claim to have been an eyewitness to events and Matthew s Greek reveals none of the telltale marks of a translation 18 13 Scholars have put forward several theories to explain Papias perhaps Matthew wrote two gospels one now lost in Hebrew the other our Greek version or perhaps the logia was a collection of sayings rather than the gospel or by dialektōi Papias may have meant that Matthew wrote in the Jewish style rather than in the Hebrew language 16 The consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it and it is generally accepted that Matthew was written in Greek not in Aramaic or Hebrew 19 Therefore while the traditional authorship still has its defenders the majority of mainstream Bible scholars rejects the Matthean authorship of the gospel 20 3 According to Maurice Casey Matthew the Apostle did indeed write a collection of sayings of Jesus in Aramaic which was independent of the current Gospel of Matthew possibly written by another Matthew or Matthias in the early church 21 According to Gerd Theissen Matthew the Apostle was the author of the Q source 22 Non canonical or apocryphal gospels Edit Saint Matthew 1713 1715 by Camillo Rusconi Archbasilica of St John Lateran in Rome In the 3rd century Jewish Christian gospels attributed to Matthew were used by Jewish Christian groups such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites Fragments of these gospels survive in quotations by Jerome Epiphanius and others Most academic study follows the distinction of Gospel of the Nazarenes 36 fragments Gospel of the Ebionites 7 fragments and Gospel of the Hebrews 7 fragments found in Schneemelcher s New Testament Apocrypha Critical commentators generally regard these texts as having been composed in Greek and related to Greek Matthew 23 A minority of commentators consider them to be fragments of a lost Aramaic or Hebrew language original The Gospel of Pseudo Matthew is a 7th century compilation of three other texts the Gospel of James the Flight into Egypt and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas Origen said the first Gospel was written by Matthew 24 25 This Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and translated into Greek but the Greek copy was lost The Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea The Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for Jerome 26 which he used in his work 27 Matthew s Gospel was called the Gospel according to the Hebrews 28 or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles 29 30 and it was once believed that it was the original to the Greek Matthew found in the Bible 31 However this has been challenged by modern biblical scholars such as Bart D Ehrman and James R Edwards 32 19 See also the two source hypothesis 33 34 Jerome relates that Matthew was supposed by the Nazarenes to have composed their Gospel of the Hebrews 27 though Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis consider this simply a revised version of the canonical Gospel This Gospel has been partially preserved in the writings of the Church Fathers said to have been written by Matthew 33 Epiphanius does not make his own the claim about a Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew a claim that he merely attributes to the heretical Ebionites 34 Veneration EditMatthew is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Lutheran 35 and Anglican churches see St Matthew s Church His feast day is celebrated on 21 September in the West and 16 November in the East Those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar would keep the day on 29 November of the modern Gregorian calendar being 16 November in the Julian calendar He is also commemorated by the Orthodox together with the other Apostles on 30 June 13 July the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles His tomb is located in the crypt of Salerno Cathedral in southern Italy Matthew is remembered in the Church of England with a Festival on 21 September 36 Like the other evangelists Matthew is often depicted in Christian art with one of the four living creatures of Revelation 4 7 The one that accompanies him is in the form of a winged man The three paintings of Matthew by Caravaggio in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome where he is depicted as called by Christ from his profession as a tax gatherer are among the landmarks of Western art In Islam EditThe Quran speaks of Jesus disciples but does not mention their names instead referring to them as helpers to the work of Allah 37 Muslim exegesis and Quran commentary however name them and include Matthew amongst the disciples 38 Muslim exegesis preserves the tradition that Matthew and Andrew were the two disciples who went to Ethiopia to preach the message of God Gallery Edit Saint Matthew in the Ebbo Gospels St Matthew writing the Gospel with an angel holding the volume an Islamic miniature c 1530 by Kesu Das for the Mughal king The Calling of St Matthew 1599 1600 Caravaggio Saint Matthew and the Angel by Guido Reni 1620 1630 Stained glass depiction of Saint Matthew at St Matthew s German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston South Carolina A terracotta sculptural model Giuseppe Bernardi The Crypt at Salerno CathedralSee also EditMark the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist John the Apostle Saint Matthew the Apostle patron saint archiveReferences EditNotes Edit Biblical Hebrew מ ת ת י הו romanized Mattityahu shortened to מ ת י Matti whence Arabic م ت ى romanized Matta meaning Gift of YHWH Aramaic ܡ ܬ ܝ romanized Mattai Koine Greek Ma88aῖos Maththaios or Mat8aῖos Matthaios Coptic ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ romanized Mattheos Latin Matthaeus Eusebius History of the Church 3 39 14 17 c 325 CE Greek text 16 taῦta mὲn oὖn ἱstorhtai tῷ Papiᾳ perὶ toῦ Markoy perὶ dὲ toῦ Mat8aῖoy taῦt eἴrhtai Mat8aῖos mὲn oὖn Ἑbraidi dialektῳ tὰ logia syneta3ato ἡrmhneysen d aὐtὰ ὡs ἧn dynatὸs ἕkastos Various English translations published standard reference translation by Philip Schaff at CCEL C oncerning Matthew he Papias writes as follows So then 963 Matthew wrote the oracles in the Hebrew language and every one interpreted them as he was able 964 Online version includes footnotes 963 and 964 by Schaff Irenaeus of Lyons died c 202 CE makes a similar comment possibly also drawing on Papias in his Against Heresies Book III Chapter 1 Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect Citations Edit Easton 1897 sfn error no target CITEREFEaston1897 help Cathedral of St Matthew the Apostle Washington D C Stmatthewscathedral org 21 September 2013 Retrieved 10 July 2014 a b Allison 2010 p 27 a b c Jacquier 1911 Ehrman 1999 p 45 Ehrman 2009 p 56 Saint Matthew franciscanmedia org Franciscan Media Retrieved 21 September 2020 Freedman 2001 p 130 133 201 Schneemelcher 2003 p 17 Lardner 1838 p 299 Bock 2002 p 164 Orr 1915 p 2009 a b Harrington 1991 p 8 Nolland 2005 p 16 Martin 2012 a b Turner 2008 p 15 16 Bingham 1998 p 64 Hagner 1986 p 281 a b Ehrman 1999 p 43 Muddiman amp Barton 2010 p 27 Casey 2010 Theissen 2003 Vielhauer amp Strecker 2003 p 542 Edwards 2009 p 18 Repschinski 2000 p 14 Nicholson 1879 p 82 a b Saint Jerome 2000 p 10 Hultgren amp Haggmark 1996 p 122 Nicholson 1879 p 26 Dods 1858 p iv Harrison 1964 p 152 Edwards 2009 p 245 a b Mills amp Wilson 2003 p 942 a b Epiphanius of Salamis 1987 p 129 ELCA 2006 p 57 The Calendar The Church of England Retrieved 27 March 2021 Quran 3 49 53 Noegel amp Wheeler 2003 p 86 Sources Edit Bartlet James Vernon 1911 Matthew St In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 17 11th ed Cambridge University Press Allison Dale C Jr 22 April 2010 Muddiman John Barton John eds The Gospels Oxford University Press p 27 ISBN 978 0 19 958025 5 Bingham D Jeffrey 1998 Irenaeus Use of Matthew s Gospel in Adversus Haereses Peeters Publishers ISBN 978 90 6831 964 4 Bock Darrell L 2002 Studying the Historical Jesus A Guide to Sources and Methods Baker Academic ISBN 978 1 58558 596 0 Davies William David Finkelstein Louis 1984 The Cambridge History of Judaism Volume 2 The Hellenistic Age Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 21929 7 Dods John Bovee 1858 Gibson Smith ed The Gospel of Jesus G Smith Gospel of the Apostles Easton Matthew George 1897 Matthew Easton s Bible Dictionary New and revised ed T Nelson and Sons Edwards James R 2009 The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition Wm B Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 978 0 8028 6234 1 Ehrman Bart D 23 September 1999 Jesus Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium Oxford University Press p 45 ISBN 978 0 19 802888 8 Ehrman Bart D 2009 A Brief Introduction to the New Testament Oxford University Press p 56 ISBN 978 0 19 536934 2 Lesser Festivals Commemorations and Occasions Evangelical Lutheran Worship Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 2006 ISBN 978 0 8066 5672 4 via Augsburg Fortress Epiphanius of Salamis 1987 The Panarion of Ephiphanius of Salamis Book I sects 1 46 Translated by Frank Williams Brill ISBN 90 04 07926 2 Freedman David Noel 2001 The Anchor Bible Reference Library Doubleday Harrison Everett Falconer 1964 Introduction to the New Testament Wm B Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 9780802847867 Hezser Catherine 2001 Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine Mohr Siebeck ISBN 978 3 16 147546 7 Hultgren Arland J Haggmark Steven A 1996 The Earliest Christian Heretics Readings from Their Opponents Fortress Press ISBN 978 0 8006 2963 2 Jacquier Eugene 1911 St Matthew In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia 10 New York Robert Appleton Company Saint Jerome 2000 Thomas P Halton ed On Illustrious Men The Fathers of the Church Volume 100 CUA Press ISBN 978 0813201009 Lardner Nathaniel 1838 St Matthew Apostle and Evangelist The Works of Nathaniel Lardner 5 W Ball Martin Dale B 2012 Introduction to New Testament History and Literature PDF oyc yale edu Yale University Retrieved 21 September 2020 Marx Werner G April June 1979 Money Matters in Matthew Bibliotheca Sacra 136 542 148 157 Mills Watson E Wilson Richard F 2003 Mercer Commentary on the New Testament Mercer University Press ISBN 978 0 86554 864 0 Muddiman John Barton John 2010 The Gospels Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 958025 5 Nicholson E B 1879 The Gospel according to the Hebrews its fragments tr and annotated with a critical analysis of the evidence relating to it Noegel Scott B Wheeler Brandon M 2003 Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism Lanham MD Scarecrow Press Roman amp Littlefield ISBN 978 0810843059 Orr James ed 1915 Matthew The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Chicago The Howard Severance Co Repschinski Boris 2000 The Controversy Stories in the Gospel of Matthew Their Redaction Form und sic Relevance for the Relationship Between the Matthean Community and Formative Judaism Vandenhoeck amp Ruprecht ISBN 978 3 525 53873 9 Schneemelcher Wilhelm ed 2003 New Testament Apocrypha Writings relating to the Apostles Apocalypses and related subjects Translated by Robert McLachlan Wilson Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0 664 22722 7 Theissen Gerd 2003 The New Testament History Literature Religion T amp T Clark ISBN 978 0 567 08949 6 Vielhauer Philipp Strecker Georg 2003 Schneemelcher Wilhelm ed New Testament Apocrypha Writings relating to the Apostles Apocalypses and related subjects Translated by Robert McLachlan Wilson Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0 664 22722 7 Further reading Edit Aune David E ed 2001 The Gospel of Matthew in current study Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 4673 0 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Aune David E 1987 The New Testament in its literary environment Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0 664 25018 8 Beaton Richard C 2005 How Matthew Writes In Bockmuehl Markus Hagner Donald A eds The Written Gospel Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 521 83285 4 Browning W R F 2004 Oxford Dictionary of the Bible Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 860890 5 Burkett Delbert 2002 An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 00720 7 Casey Maurice 2010 Jesus of Nazareth An Independent Historian s Account of His Life and Teaching Continuum ISBN 978 0 567 64517 3 Clarke Howard W 2003 The Gospel of Matthew and Its Readers Indiana University Press ISBN 978 0 253 34235 5 Cross Frank L Livingstone Elizabeth A eds 2005 1997 Matthew Gospel acc to St The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 3 ed Oxford University Press p 1064 ISBN 978 0 19 280290 3 Archived from the original on 23 September 2015 Retrieved 14 November 2015 Dunn James D G 2003 Jesus Remembered Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 3931 2 Ehrman Bart D 2012 Did Jesus Exist The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth HarperCollins ISBN 978 0 06 220460 8 Fuller Reginald H 2001 Biblical Theology In Metzger Bruce M Coogan Michael D eds The Oxford Guide to Ideas amp Issues of the Bible Oxford University Press ISBN 9780195149173 Hagner D A 1986 Matthew Gospel According to In Bromiley Geoffrey W ed International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Vol 3 K P Wm B Eerdmans pp 280 8 ISBN 978 0 8028 8163 2 Harris Stephen L 1985 Understanding the Bible Palo Alto Mayfield Kowalczyk A 2008 The influence of typology and texts of the Old Testament on the redaction of Matthew s Gospel Bernardinum ISBN 978 83 7380 625 2 Kupp David D 1996 Matthew s Emmanuel Divine Presence and God s People in the First Gospel Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 57007 7 Levine Amy Jill 2001 Visions of kingdoms From Pompey to the first Jewish revolt In Coogan Michael D ed The Oxford History of the Biblical World Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 513937 2 Levison J Pope Levison P 2009 Christology In Dyrness William A Karkkainen Veli Matti eds Global Dictionary of Theology InterVarsity Press ISBN 9780830878116 Luz Ulrich 2005 Studies in Matthew Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 3964 0 Luz Ulrich 1995 The Theology of the Gospel of Matthew Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 43576 5 McMahon Christopher 2008 Introduction to the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles In Ruff Jerry ed Understanding the Bible A Guide to Reading the Scriptures Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780884898528 Morris Leon 1986 New Testament Theology Zondervan ISBN 978 0 310 45571 4 Peppard Michael 2011 The Son of God in the Roman World Divine Sonship in Its Social and Political Context Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199753703 Perkins Pheme 28 July 1998 The Synoptic Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles Telling the Christian Story The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation ISBN 0521485932 in Kee Howard Clark ed 1997 The Cambridge companion to the bible part 3 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 48593 7 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Saldarini Anthony 2003 Matthew Eerdmans commentary on the Bible ISBN 0802837115 in Dunn James D G Rogerson John William 2003 Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 3711 0 Saldarini Anthony 1994 Matthew s Christian Jewish Community University of Chicago Press ISBN 978 0 226 73421 7 Sanford Christopher B 2005 Matthew Christian Rabbi Author House ISBN 9781420883718 Scholtz Donald 2009 Jesus in the Gospels and Acts Introducing the New Testament Saint Mary s Press ISBN 9780884899556 Senior Donald 2001 Directions in Matthean Studies The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study Studies in Memory of William G Thompson S J ISBN 0802846734 in Aune David E ed 2001 The Gospel of Matthew in current study Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 4673 0 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Senior Donald 1996 What are they saying about Matthew PaulistPress ISBN 978 0 8091 3624 7 Stanton Graham 1993 A gospel for a new people studies in Matthew Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0 664 25499 5 Strecker Georg 2000 1996 Theology of the New Testament Walter de Gruyter ISBN 978 0 664 22336 6 Tuckett Christopher Mark 2001 Christology and the New Testament Jesus and His Earliest Followers Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 9780664224318 Van de Sandt H W M 2005 Introduction Matthew and the Didache Two Documents from the Same Jewish Christian Milieu ISBN 9023240774 in Van de Sandt H W M ed 2005 Matthew and the Didache Royal Van Gorcum amp Fortress Press ISBN 978 90 232 4077 8 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Weren Wim 2005 The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community Matthew and the Didache Two Documents from the Same Jewish Christian Milieu ISBN 9023240774 in Van de Sandt H W M ed 2005 Matthew and the Didache Royal Van Gorcum amp Fortress Press ISBN 978 90 232 4077 8 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Commentaries Edit Allison D C 2004 Matthew A Shorter Commentary T amp T Clark ISBN 978 0 567 08249 7 Davies W D Allison D C 2004 Matthew 1 7 T amp T Clark ISBN 978 0 567 08355 5 Davies W D Allison D C 1991 Matthew 8 18 T amp T Clark ISBN 978 0 567 08365 4 Davies W D Allison D C 1997 Matthew 19 28 T amp T Clark ISBN 978 0 567 08375 3 Duling Dennis C 2010 The Gospel of Matthew In Aune David E ed The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament Wiley Blackwell ISBN 978 1 4051 0825 6 France R T 2007 The Gospel of Matthew Eerdmans p 19 ISBN 978 0 8028 2501 8 Harrington Daniel J 1991 The Gospel of Matthew Liturgical Press ISBN 9780814658031 Keener Craig S 1999 A commentary on the Gospel of Matthew Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 3821 6 Luz Ulrich 1992 Matthew 1 7 a commentary Fortress Press ISBN 978 0 8006 9600 9 Luz Ulrich 2001 Matthew 8 20 a commentary Fortress Press ISBN 978 0 8006 6034 5 Luz Ulrich 2005 Matthew 21 28 a commentary Fortress Press ISBN 978 0 8006 3770 5 Morris Leon 1992 The Gospel according to Matthew Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 85111 338 8 Nolland John 2005 The Gospel of Matthew A Commentary on the Greek Text Eerdmans ISBN 0802823890 Turner David L 2008 Matthew Baker ISBN 978 0 8010 2684 3 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Matthew St Matthew the Apostle from The Golden Legend Apostle and Evangelist Matthew Orthodox icon and synaxarion Benedict XVI Matthew General audience 30 August 2006 The Caravaggio Effect Matthew the ApostleCalling of Matthew Life of Jesus Ministry EventsPreceded by Hometown Rejection of Jesus Physician heal thyself New Testament Events Succeeded by New Wine into Old Wineskins Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Matthew the Apostle amp oldid 1053099779, 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