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Saint Maurice

This article is about a Roman Legion leader. For other uses, see Saint-Maurice (disambiguation).

Saint Maurice (also Moritz, Morris, or Mauritius; Coptic:Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲙⲱⲣⲓⲥ) was an Egyptian military leader who headed the legendary Theban Legion of Rome in the 3rd century, and is one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that martyred group. He is the patron saint of several professions, locales, and kingdoms.

Saint Maurice
Saint Maurice (center) by Matthias Grünewald c. 16th century
Martyr
Bornc. 3rd century
Thebes, Egypt
Diedc. 287
Agaunum, Alpes Graiae et Vallis Poeninae
Venerated in
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrineAbbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum (until 961), Magdeburg Cathedral (961-present)
Feast
  • September 22 (Catholic)
  • December 27 (Orthodox)
  • Thout 25 (Coptic Orthodox)
Attributesbanner; soldier; soldier being executed with other soldiers, knight; sub-saharan African in full armour, bearing a standard and a palm; knight in armour with a red cross on his breast, which is the badge of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Patronagealpine troops; Appenzell Innerrhoden; armies; armorers; Burgundians; Carolingian dynasty; Austria; clothmakers; cramps; dyers; gout; House of Savoy; infantrymen; Lombards; Merovingian dynasty; Piedmont, Italy; Pontifical Swiss Guards; Saint-Maurice, Switzerland; St. Moritz;Sardinia; soldiers; Stadtsulza, Germany; swordsmiths; weavers; Holy Roman Emperors

Contents

Early life

According to the hagiographical material, Maurice was an Egyptian, born in AD 250 in Thebes, an ancient city in Upper Egypt that was the capital of the New Kingdom of Egypt (1575-1069 BC). He was brought up in the region of Thebes (Luxor).

Career

Maurice became a soldier in the Roman army. He was gradually promoted until he became the commander of the Theban legion, thus leading approximately a thousand men. He was an acknowledged Christian at a time when early Christianity was considered to be a threat to the Roman Empire. Yet, he moved easily within the pagan society of his day.

The legion, entirely composed of Christians, had been called from Thebes in Egypt to Gaul to assist Emperor Maximian in defeating a revolt by the bagaudae. The Theban Legion was dispatched with orders to clear the Great St Bernard Pass across the Alps. Before going into battle, they were instructed to offer sacrifices to the pagan gods and pay homage to the emperor. Maurice pledged his men's military allegiance to Rome. He stated that service to God superseded all else. He said that to engage in wanton slaughter was inconceivable to Christian soldiers. He and his men refused to worship Roman deities.

Martyrdom

However, when Maximian ordered them to harass some local Christians, they refused. Ordering the unit to be punished, Maximian had every tenth soldier killed, a military punishment known as decimation. More orders followed, the men refused compliance as encouraged by Maurice, and a second decimation was ordered. In response to the Theban Christians' refusal to attack fellow Christians, Maximian ordered all the remaining members of his legion to be executed. The place in Switzerland where this occurred, known as Agaunum, is now Saint-Maurice, Switzerland, site of the Abbey of St. Maurice.

So reads the earliest account of their martyrdom, contained in the public letter which Bishop Eucherius of Lyon (c. 434–450), addressed to his fellow bishop, Salvius. Alternative versions[citation needed] have the legion refusing Maximian's orders only after discovering innocent Christians had inhabited a town they had just destroyed, or that the emperor had them executed when they refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods.

Veneration

Saint Maurice became a patron saint of the German Holy Roman Emperors. In 926, Henry the Fowler (919–936), even ceded the present Swiss canton of Aargau to the abbey, in return for Maurice's lance, sword and spurs. The sword and spurs of Saint Maurice were part of the regalia used at coronations of the Austro-Hungarian emperors until 1916, and among the most important insignia of the imperial throne. In addition, some of the emperors were anointed before the Altar of Saint Maurice at St. Peter's Basilica. In 929, Henry the Fowler held a royal court gathering (Reichsversammlung) at Magdeburg. At the same time the Mauritius Kloster in honor of Maurice was founded. In 961, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, was building and enriching Magdeburg Cathedral, which he intended for his own tomb. To that end,

in the year 961 of the Incarnation and in the 25th year of his reign, in the presence of all of the nobility, on the vigil of Christmas, the body of St. Maurice was conveyed to him at Regensburg along with the bodies of some of the saint's companions and portions of other saints. Having been sent to Magdeburg, these relics were received with great honour by a gathering of the entire populace of the city and of their fellow countrymen. They are still venerated there, to the salvation of the homeland.

Maurice is traditionally depicted in full armor, in Italy emblazoned with a red cross. In folk culture he has become connected with the legend of the Holy Lance, which he is supposed to have carried into battle; his name is engraved on the Holy Lance of Vienna, one of several relics claimed as the spear that pierced Jesus' side on the cross. Saint Maurice gives his name to the town St. Moritz as well as to numerous places called Saint-Maurice in French speaking countries. The Indian Ocean island state of Mauritius was named after Maurice, Prince of Orange, and not directly after Maurice himself.

Over 650 religious foundations dedicated to Saint Maurice can be found in France and other European countries. In Switzerland alone, seven churches or altars in Aargau, six in the Canton of Lucerne, four in the Canton of Solothurn, and one in Appenzell Innerrhoden can be found (in fact, his feast day is a cantonal holiday in Appenzell Innerrhoden). Particularly notable among these are the Church and Abbey of Saint-Maurice-en-Valais, the Church of Saint Moritz in the Engadin, and the Monastery Chapel of Einsiedeln Abbey, where his name continues to be greatly revered. Several orders of chivalry were established in his honor as well, including the Order of the Golden Fleece, Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and the Order of Saint Maurice. Additionally, fifty-two towns and villages in France have been named in his honor.

Maurice was also the patron saint of a Catholic parish and church in the 9th Ward of New Orleans and including part of the town of Arabi in St. Bernard Parish. The church was constructed in 1856, but was devastated by the winds and flood waters of Hurricane Katrina on 29 August 2005; the copper-plated steeple was blown off the building. The church was subsequently deconsecrated in 2008, and the local diocese put it up for sale in 2011. By 2014, a local attorney had purchased the property for a local arts organization, after which the building served as both an arts venue and the worship space for a Baptist church that had been displaced following the hurricane.

On 19 July 1941, Pope Pius XII declared Saint Maurice to be patron Saint of the Italian Army's Alpini (mountain infantry corps). The Alpini have celebrated Maurice's feast every year since then.

The Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria does not mention Saint Maurice, although there are several Coptic churches named for him.

Apparition

The Our Lady of Laus apparitions included an apparition of Saint Maurice. He appeared in an antique episcopal vestment and told Benoîte Rencurel that he was the one to whom the nearby chapel was dedicated, that he would fetch her some water (before drawing some water out of a well she had not seen), that she should go down to a certain valley to escape the local guard and see the Blessed Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus, and that Mary was both in Heaven and could appear on Earth.

Coptic icon of St.Maurice and Theban Legion

Patronage

Maurice is the patron saint of the Duchy of Savoy (France) and of the Valais (Switzerland) as well as of soldiers, swordsmiths, armies, and infantrymen. In 1591 Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy arranged the triumphant return of part of the relics of Saint Maurice from the monastery of Agaune in Valais.

He is also the patron saint of weavers and dyers. Manresa (Spain), Piedmont (Italy), Montalbano Jonico (Italy), Schiavi di Abruzzo (Italy), Stadtsulza (Germany) and Coburg (Germany) have chosen St. Maurice as their patron saint as well. St Maurice is also the patron saint of the Brotherhood of Blackheads, a historical military order of unmarried merchants in present-day Estonia and Latvia. In September 2008, certain relics of Maurice were transferred to a new reliquary and rededicated in Schiavi di Abruzzo (Italy).

He is also the patron saint of the town of Coburg in Bavaria, Germany. He is shown there as a man of colour especially on manhole covers as well as on the city coat of arms. There he is called "Coburger Mohr" (engl.: "Coburg Moor").

Portrayal

St. Maurice began being portrayed as a dark-complexioned African in the 12th century. The oldest surviving image that depicts Saint Maurice as a black African in knight's armor was sculpted in mid-13th century for Magdeburg Cathedral; there it is displayed next to the grave of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. Jean Devisse, The Image of the Black in Western Art, laid out the documentary sources for the saint's popularity and documented it with illustrative examples.

When the new cathedral was built under Archbishop Albert II of Käfernberg (served 1205–32), a relic said to be the head of Maurice was procured from the Holy Land.

The image of Saint Maurice has been examined in detail by Gude Suckale-Redlefsen, who demonstrated that this image of Maurice has existed since Maurice's first depiction in Germany between the Weser and the Elbe, and spread to Bohemia, where it became associated with the imperial ambitions of the House of Luxembourg. According to Suckale-Redlefsen, the image of Maurice reached its apogee during the years 1490 to 1530.

Images of the saint died out in the mid-sixteenth century, undermined, Suckale-Redlefsen suggests, by the developing Atlantic slave trade. "Once again, as in the early Middle Ages, the color black had become associated with spiritual darkness and cultural 'otherness'". There is an oil on wood painting of Maurice by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553) in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Main article: Theban Legion

There is a difference of opinion among researchers as to whether or not the story of the Theban Legion is based on historical fact, and if so, to what extent. The account by Eucherius of Lyon is classed by Bollandist Hippolyte Delehaye among the historical romances. Donald F. O'Reilly, in Lost Legion Rediscovered, argues that evidence from coins, papyrus, and Roman army lists support the story of the Theban Legion.

Denis Van Berchem, of the University of Geneva, proposed that Eucherius' presentation of the legend of the Theban legion was a literary production, not based on a local tradition. The monastic accounts themselves do not specifically state that all the soldiers were collectively executed; the twelfth century bishop Otto of Freising wrote in his Chronica de duabus civitatibus that many of the legionaries escaped and only some were executed at Agaunum, though the others were later apprehended and put to death at Galliae Bonna and Colonia Aggripina.

  1. Atiya, Azia S., ed. The Coptic Encyclopedia, volume 5, p. 1572. New York, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1991. ISBN 0-02-897034-9.
  2. Mershman, Francis. "St. Maurice," The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 10. New York City: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 6 Mar. 2013
  3. "Maurice – Our Patron Saint".
  4. Thietmar of Merseburg (2001). Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg. David A. Warner (tr., ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-7190-4925-3.
  5. Butler's Lives of the Saints, New Full Edition, September, p.206. Collegeville, MN:The Liturgical Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8146-2385-9.
  6. McCausland, Phil (15 October 2014). "St. Maurice in the Lower 9th to host installation, and worshipers have a place". The New Orleans Advocate. Retrieved1 August 2020.
  7. Pope, John. "Archdiocese of New Orleans will sell or lease 13 empty properties, including 7 churches". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011. Retrieved1 August 2020.
  8. MacCash, Doug (10 August 2015). "9th Ward Improv Opera marks the 10th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved1 August 2020.
  9. Esercito Italiano: I Patroni delle Armi Corpi e Specialità - Gli Alpini
  10. "Saint Maurice of Theba". Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Jersey City, NJ: St. Mark's Coptic Orthodox Church. 1992. Retrieved1 August 2020.
  11. "Saint Maurice". Coptic Orthodox Diocese of Los Angeles. Retrieved1 August 2020.
  12. "Saint Maurice". Pomona, CA: Saint Maurice Coptic Orthodox Church. Retrieved1 August 2020.
  13. "Our Lady of Laus", Magnificat Vol. XL, No. 5 and Vol. XXXVI, No. 5.
  14. Vester, Matthew (2013). Sabaudian Studies: Political Culture, Dynasty, and Territory (1400–1700). Truman State University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-61248-094-7.
  15. Rannu, Elena. 1993. The Living Past of Tallinn. 3rd ed. Tallinn: Perioodika Publishers. pp. 23-29.
  16. "Stadtwappen: Coburger Mohr (Heiliger Mauritius) | Ferienwohnung Müller" (in German). 2021-01-18. Retrieved2021-03-02.
  17. "Saint Maurice ca. 1520-25". Metropolitan Museum of Art. RetrievedFebruary 16, 2020.
  18. Suckale-Redlefsen and Robert Suckale ,(c1987), Mauritius der heilige Mohr/ The Black Saint Maurice,Houston, Texas, Menil Foundation, page 19.
  19. Hampton, Grace; Devisse, Jean; Mollat, Michel (1981). "[Review] The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II". The Journal of Negro History. The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 66, No. 1. 66 (1): 51–55. doi:10.2307/2716883. JSTOR 2716883.
  20. Selzer, Linda Furgerson (1999). "Reading the painterly text: Clarence Major's 'The Slave Trade: View from the Middle Passage". African American Review. African American Review, Vol. 33, No. 2. 33 (2): 209–229. doi:10.2307/2901275. JSTOR 2901275. Retrieved2007-08-22.
  21. Suckale-Redlefsen and Robert Suckale, Mauritius der heilige Mohr/ The Black Saint Maurice. English translation of foreword and introduction by Genoveva Nitz. (Houston/Zurich) 1988. A catalogue of 205 images of St. Maurice is included.
  22. Dorothy Gillerman, reviewing Suckale-Redlefsen 1988 in Speculum 65.3 (July 1990:764 ).
  23. "Lucas Cranach the Elder and Workshop - Saint Maurice - The Metropolitan Museum of Art".
  24. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Ursus".
  25. O'Reilly, Donald F., Lost Legion Recovered, Pen & Sword Military, 2011 ISBN 9781848843783
  26. Van Berchem, Denis, The Martyrdom of the Theban Legion, Basel, 1956.
  27. Ottonis episcopi frisingensis Chronica; sive, Historia de duabus civitatibus. Ed. Adolf Hofmeister, Hannoverae Impensis Bibliopolii Hahniani Hanover (1912). Bk. III, Chapter XLIII, pp. 176-177.
  28. Donald F. O'Reilly. The Theban Legion of St. Maurice. Vigiliae Christianae. Vol. 32, No. 3, Sep., 1978.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSaint Maurice.
Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article aboutSaint Maurice.

Saint Maurice
Saint Maurice Language Watch Edit This article is about a Roman Legion leader For other uses see Saint Maurice disambiguation Saint Maurice also Moritz Morris or Mauritius Coptic Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲙⲱⲣⲓⲥ was an Egyptian military leader who headed the legendary Theban Legion of Rome in the 3rd century and is one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that martyred group He is the patron saint of several professions locales and kingdoms Saint MauriceSaint Maurice center by Matthias Grunewald c 16th centuryMartyrBornc 3rd century Thebes EgyptDiedc 287 Agaunum Alpes Graiae et Vallis PoeninaeVenerated inCoptic Orthodoxy Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox ChurchCanonizedPre CongregationMajor shrineAbbey of St Maurice Agaunum until 961 Magdeburg Cathedral 961 present FeastSeptember 22 Catholic December 27 Orthodox Thout 25 Coptic Orthodox Attributesbanner soldier soldier being executed with other soldiers knight sub saharan African in full armour bearing a standard and a palm knight in armour with a red cross on his breast which is the badge of the Order of Saints Maurice and LazarusPatronagealpine troops Appenzell Innerrhoden 1 armies armorers Burgundians Carolingian dynasty 1 Austria clothmakers 2 cramps dyers gout House of Savoy 1 infantrymen Lombards Merovingian dynasty 1 Piedmont Italy Pontifical Swiss Guards Saint Maurice Switzerland St Moritz 1 Sardinia soldiers Stadtsulza Germany swordsmiths weavers Holy Roman Emperors Contents 1 Biography 1 1 Early life 1 2 Career 1 3 Martyrdom 2 Legacy 2 1 Veneration 2 2 Apparition 2 3 Patronage 2 4 Portrayal 3 Historicity 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksBiography EditEarly life Edit According to the hagiographical material Maurice was an Egyptian born in AD 250 in Thebes an ancient city in Upper Egypt that was the capital of the New Kingdom of Egypt 1575 1069 BC He was brought up in the region of Thebes Luxor Career Edit Maurice became a soldier in the Roman army He was gradually promoted until he became the commander of the Theban legion thus leading approximately a thousand men He was an acknowledged Christian at a time when early Christianity was considered to be a threat to the Roman Empire Yet he moved easily within the pagan society of his day The legion entirely composed of Christians had been called from Thebes in Egypt to Gaul to assist Emperor Maximian in defeating a revolt by the bagaudae 2 The Theban Legion was dispatched with orders to clear the Great St Bernard Pass across the Alps Before going into battle they were instructed to offer sacrifices to the pagan gods and pay homage to the emperor Maurice pledged his men s military allegiance to Rome He stated that service to God superseded all else He said that to engage in wanton slaughter was inconceivable to Christian soldiers He and his men refused to worship Roman deities 3 Martyrdom Edit However when Maximian ordered them to harass some local Christians they refused Ordering the unit to be punished Maximian had every tenth soldier killed a military punishment known as decimation More orders followed the men refused compliance as encouraged by Maurice and a second decimation was ordered In response to the Theban Christians refusal to attack fellow Christians Maximian ordered all the remaining members of his legion to be executed The place in Switzerland where this occurred known as Agaunum is now Saint Maurice Switzerland site of the Abbey of St Maurice So reads the earliest account of their martyrdom contained in the public letter which Bishop Eucherius of Lyon c 434 450 addressed to his fellow bishop Salvius Alternative versions citation needed have the legion refusing Maximian s orders only after discovering innocent Christians had inhabited a town they had just destroyed or that the emperor had them executed when they refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods Legacy EditVeneration Edit Saint Maurice became a patron saint of the German Holy Roman Emperors In 926 Henry the Fowler 919 936 even ceded the present Swiss canton of Aargau to the abbey in return for Maurice s lance sword and spurs The sword and spurs of Saint Maurice were part of the regalia used at coronations of the Austro Hungarian emperors until 1916 and among the most important insignia of the imperial throne In addition some of the emperors were anointed before the Altar of Saint Maurice at St Peter s Basilica 1 In 929 Henry the Fowler held a royal court gathering Reichsversammlung at Magdeburg At the same time the Mauritius Kloster in honor of Maurice was founded In 961 Otto I Holy Roman Emperor was building and enriching Magdeburg Cathedral which he intended for his own tomb To that end in the year 961 of the Incarnation and in the 25th year of his reign in the presence of all of the nobility on the vigil of Christmas the body of St Maurice was conveyed to him at Regensburg along with the bodies of some of the saint s companions and portions of other saints Having been sent to Magdeburg these relics were received with great honour by a gathering of the entire populace of the city and of their fellow countrymen They are still venerated there to the salvation of the homeland 4 Maurice is traditionally depicted in full armor in Italy emblazoned with a red cross In folk culture he has become connected with the legend of the Holy Lance which he is supposed to have carried into battle his name is engraved on the Holy Lance of Vienna one of several relics claimed as the spear that pierced Jesus side on the cross Saint Maurice gives his name to the town St Moritz as well as to numerous places called Saint Maurice in French speaking countries The Indian Ocean island state of Mauritius was named after Maurice Prince of Orange and not directly after Maurice himself Over 650 religious foundations dedicated to Saint Maurice can be found in France and other European countries In Switzerland alone seven churches or altars in Aargau six in the Canton of Lucerne four in the Canton of Solothurn and one in Appenzell Innerrhoden can be found in fact his feast day is a cantonal holiday in Appenzell Innerrhoden 1 Particularly notable among these are the Church and Abbey of Saint Maurice en Valais the Church of Saint Moritz in the Engadin and the Monastery Chapel of Einsiedeln Abbey where his name continues to be greatly revered Several orders of chivalry were established in his honor as well including the Order of the Golden Fleece Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus and the Order of Saint Maurice 1 Additionally fifty two towns and villages in France have been named in his honor 5 Maurice was also the patron saint of a Catholic parish and church in the 9th Ward of New Orleans and including part of the town of Arabi in St Bernard Parish The church was constructed in 1856 but was devastated by the winds and flood waters of Hurricane Katrina on 29 August 2005 the copper plated steeple was blown off the building The church was subsequently deconsecrated in 2008 and the local diocese put it up for sale in 2011 6 7 By 2014 a local attorney had purchased the property for a local arts organization after which the building served as both an arts venue and the worship space for a Baptist church that had been displaced following the hurricane 6 8 On 19 July 1941 Pope Pius XII declared Saint Maurice to be patron Saint of the Italian Army s Alpini mountain infantry corps 9 The Alpini have celebrated Maurice s feast every year since then The Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria does not mention Saint Maurice although there are several Coptic churches named for him 10 11 12 Apparition Edit The Our Lady of Laus apparitions included an apparition of Saint Maurice He appeared in an antique episcopal vestment and told Benoite Rencurel that he was the one to whom the nearby chapel was dedicated that he would fetch her some water before drawing some water out of a well she had not seen that she should go down to a certain valley to escape the local guard and see the Blessed Virgin Mary mother of Jesus and that Mary was both in Heaven and could appear on Earth 13 Coptic icon of St Maurice and Theban Legion Patronage Edit Maurice is the patron saint of the Duchy of Savoy France and of the Valais Switzerland as well as of soldiers swordsmiths armies and infantrymen In 1591 Charles Emmanuel I Duke of Savoy arranged the triumphant return of part of the relics of Saint Maurice from the monastery of Agaune in Valais 14 He is also the patron saint of weavers and dyers Manresa Spain Piedmont Italy Montalbano Jonico Italy Schiavi di Abruzzo Italy Stadtsulza Germany and Coburg Germany have chosen St Maurice as their patron saint as well St Maurice is also the patron saint of the Brotherhood of Blackheads a historical military order of unmarried merchants in present day Estonia and Latvia 15 In September 2008 certain relics of Maurice were transferred to a new reliquary and rededicated in Schiavi di Abruzzo Italy He is also the patron saint of the town of Coburg in Bavaria Germany He is shown there as a man of colour especially on manhole covers as well as on the city coat of arms There he is called Coburger Mohr engl Coburg Moor 16 Portrayal Edit St Maurice began being portrayed as a dark complexioned African in the 12th century 17 The oldest surviving image that depicts Saint Maurice as a black African in knight s armor 18 was sculpted in mid 13th century for Magdeburg Cathedral there it is displayed next to the grave of Otto I Holy Roman Emperor Jean Devisse The Image of the Black in Western Art laid out the documentary sources for the saint s popularity and documented it with illustrative examples 19 20 When the new cathedral was built under Archbishop Albert II of Kafernberg served 1205 32 a relic said to be the head of Maurice was procured from the Holy Land The image of Saint Maurice has been examined in detail by Gude Suckale Redlefsen 21 who demonstrated that this image of Maurice has existed since Maurice s first depiction in Germany between the Weser and the Elbe and spread to Bohemia where it became associated with the imperial ambitions of the House of Luxembourg According to Suckale Redlefsen the image of Maurice reached its apogee during the years 1490 to 1530 Images of the saint died out in the mid sixteenth century undermined Suckale Redlefsen suggests by the developing Atlantic slave trade Once again as in the early Middle Ages the color black had become associated with spiritual darkness and cultural otherness 22 There is an oil on wood painting of Maurice by Lucas Cranach the Elder 1472 1553 in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art 23 Historicity EditMain article Theban Legion There is a difference of opinion among researchers as to whether or not the story of the Theban Legion is based on historical fact and if so to what extent The account by Eucherius of Lyon is classed by Bollandist Hippolyte Delehaye among the historical romances 24 Donald F O Reilly in Lost Legion Rediscovered argues that evidence from coins papyrus and Roman army lists support the story of the Theban Legion 25 Denis Van Berchem of the University of Geneva proposed that Eucherius presentation of the legend of the Theban legion was a literary production not based on a local tradition 26 The monastic accounts themselves do not specifically state that all the soldiers were collectively executed the twelfth century bishop Otto of Freising wrote in his Chronica de duabus civitatibus 27 that many of the legionaries escaped and only some were executed at Agaunum though the others were later apprehended and put to death at Galliae Bonna and Colonia Aggripina 28 Gallery Edit 13th Century Statue of Saint Maurice from the Magdeburg Cathedral that bears his name 18th century Baroque sculpture of Saint Maurice on the Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc which was a part of the Austrian Empire in that time now the Czech Republic The Martyrdom of Saint Maurice by El Greco 1580 82 Gothic relief ca 1320 of Saint Maurice on horseback on Eglise Saint Maurice in Soultz Haut Rhin France The Martyrdom of Saint Maurice by Romulo Cincinato 1583 Oil on canvas 540 x 288 cm Monasterio de San Lorenzo El Escorial Spain Cincinnato placed stronger emphasis on the execution scene which has been brought into the foreground Jean Hey Portrait of Francis de Chateaubriand Presented by St Maurice c 1500 Tempera on wood Glasgow Museums and Art Galleries Glasgow UK St Maurice as depicted on the City of Coburg s Coat of Arms The coat of arms of the Brotherhood of Blackheads featuring Saint Maurice See also Edit Biography portal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus St MoritzNotes Edit a b c d e f g h Atiya Azia S ed The Coptic Encyclopedia volume 5 p 1572 New York Macmillan Publishing Company 1991 ISBN 0 02 897034 9 a b Mershman Francis St Maurice The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 10 New York City Robert Appleton Company 1911 6 Mar 2013 Maurice Our Patron Saint Thietmar of Merseburg 2001 Ottonian Germany The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg David A Warner tr ed Manchester Manchester University Press p 104 ISBN 0 7190 4925 3 Butler s Lives of the Saints New Full Edition September p 206 Collegeville MN The Liturgical Press 1999 ISBN 0 8146 2385 9 a b McCausland Phil 15 October 2014 St Maurice in the Lower 9th to host installation and worshipers have a place The New Orleans Advocate Retrieved 1 August 2020 Pope John Archdiocese of New Orleans will sell or lease 13 empty properties including 7 churches The Times Picayune Archived from the original on 29 January 2011 Retrieved 1 August 2020 MacCash Doug 10 August 2015 9th Ward Improv Opera marks the 10th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina The Times Picayune Retrieved 1 August 2020 Esercito Italiano I Patroni delle Armi Corpi e Specialita Gli Alpini Saint Maurice of Theba Coptic Orthodox Church Network Jersey City NJ St Mark s Coptic Orthodox Church 1992 Retrieved 1 August 2020 Saint Maurice Coptic Orthodox Diocese of Los Angeles Retrieved 1 August 2020 Saint Maurice Pomona CA Saint Maurice Coptic Orthodox Church Retrieved 1 August 2020 Our Lady of Laus Magnificat Vol XL No 5 and Vol XXXVI No 5 Vester Matthew 2013 Sabaudian Studies Political Culture Dynasty and Territory 1400 1700 Truman State University Press p 151 ISBN 978 1 61248 094 7 Rannu Elena 1993 The Living Past of Tallinn 3rd ed Tallinn Perioodika Publishers pp 23 29 Stadtwappen Coburger Mohr Heiliger Mauritius Ferienwohnung Muller in German 2021 01 18 Retrieved 2021 03 02 Saint Maurice ca 1520 25 Metropolitan Museum of Art Retrieved February 16 2020 Suckale Redlefsen and Robert Suckale c1987 Mauritius der heilige Mohr The Black Saint Maurice Houston Texas Menil Foundation page 19 Hampton Grace Devisse Jean Mollat Michel 1981 Review The Image of the Black in Western Art Volume II The Journal of Negro History The Journal of Negro History Vol 66 No 1 66 1 51 55 doi 10 2307 2716883 JSTOR 2716883 Selzer Linda Furgerson 1999 Reading the painterly text Clarence Major s The Slave Trade View from the Middle Passage African American Review African American Review Vol 33 No 2 33 2 209 229 doi 10 2307 2901275 JSTOR 2901275 Retrieved 2007 08 22 Suckale Redlefsen and Robert Suckale Mauritius der heilige Mohr The Black Saint Maurice English translation of foreword and introduction by Genoveva Nitz Houston Zurich 1988 A catalogue of 205 images of St Maurice is included Dorothy Gillerman reviewing Suckale Redlefsen 1988 in Speculum 65 3 July 1990 764 Lucas Cranach the Elder and Workshop Saint Maurice The Metropolitan Museum of Art CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA St Ursus O Reilly Donald F Lost Legion Recovered Pen amp Sword Military 2011 ISBN 9781848843783 Van Berchem Denis The Martyrdom of the Theban Legion Basel 1956 Ottonis episcopi frisingensis Chronica sive Historia de duabus civitatibus Ed Adolf Hofmeister Hannoverae Impensis Bibliopolii Hahniani Hanover 1912 Bk III Chapter XLIII pp 176 177 Donald F O Reilly The Theban Legion of St Maurice Vigiliae Christianae Vol 32 No 3 Sep 1978 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Maurice Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article about Saint Maurice On the image of the Blackamoor in European Heraldry St Maurice David Wood The Origin of the Cult of St Maurice Saint Maurice from the Golden Legend Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saint Maurice amp oldid 1050814029, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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