fbpx
Wikipedia

Saint Paul, Minnesota

For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis–Saint Paul.

Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital of the U.S. state of Minnesota. It is the county seat of Ramsey County, the state's smallest in terms of area, second-most populous, and most densely populated county. Historically a major railroad and commercial center, the decline of those industries in the last half of the 20th century has changed the local economy and cultural identity of the city.

Saint Paul, Minnesota
City of Saint Paul
Seal
Nickname(s):
"the Capital City", "the Saintly City", "Pig's Eye", "STP", "Last City of the East"
Motto(s):
The most livable city in America*
Interactive map of St. Paul
Coordinates:44°56′39″N93°5′37″W /44.94417°N 93.09361°W /44.94417; -93.09361Coordinates: 44°56′39″N93°5′37″W /44.94417°N 93.09361°W /44.94417; -93.09361
CountryUnited States
StateMinnesota
CountyRamsey
IncorporatedMarch 4, 1854
Named forSt. Paul the Apostle
Government
MayorMelvin Carter (DFL)
• BodySaint Paul City Council
Area
• City56.20 sq mi (145.55 km2)
• Land51.98 sq mi (134.62 km2)
• Water4.22 sq mi (10.93 km2)
Elevation
795 ft (214 m)
Population
• City311,527
• RankCity: 63rd MN: 2nd
• Density5,993.20/sq mi (2,313.99/km2)
Metro
3,629,190 (US: 16th)
Demonym
Saint Paulite
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
• Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
55101–55108, 55114, 55116, 55117, 55119, 55130
Area code(s)651
FIPS code27-58000
Major airportMinneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport
Interstates
U.S. Routes
Public transportationMetro Transit
Websitestpaul.gov
* Current as of July 30, 2008.

As of 2020, its population was 311,527, making it the 63rd-largest city in the United States and the 11th-most populous in the Midwest. Most of the city lies east of the Mississippi River at the confluence with the Minnesota River. Minneapolis, the state's largest city, is across the river to the west. Together, they are known as the "Twin Cities". They are the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, home to over 3.6 million and the third-largest in the Midwest.

The Legislative Assembly of the Minnesota Territory established the Town of St. Paul as its capital near existing Dakota Sioux settlements in November 1849. It remained a town until 1854. The Dakota name for where Saint Paul is situated is "Imnizaska" for the "white rock" bluffs along the river. The city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home to the Minnesota Wild. Regionally, it is known for the Science Museum of Minnesota and its new soccer stadium, Allianz Field. As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul and Minneapolis are also known for their high literacy rate.

The first structure in what became St. Paul was constructed in 1838 at the entrance to Fountain Cave overlooking the Mississippi. It was a tavern belonging to Pigs Eye Parrant near where Randolph Avenue today meets the river bluff. Parrant's tavern was well known and the surrounding area came to be known as Pigs Eye. That lasted until the Catholic missionary Lucien Galtier arrived in 1840. He did not care for Parrant, his tavern, or the name "Pigseye". Galtier's arrival coincided with Parrant's eviction from Fountain Cave and the building of a log chapel near where steamboats had an easy landing. Galtier named the chapel St. Paul's, making it known that the settlement was then to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". While "Pigs Eye" was no longer the settlement's name, it came to refer to wetlands and two islands south of the city's center. The original town was laid out on two plats covering 240 acres. The first plat was filed in the Territory of Wisconsin, the second in the Territory of Minnesota. The boundaries were Elm Street, 7th Street, Wacouta Street, and the river. Between 1849 and 1887, the boundaries were expanded 14 times to their present extent. As the region grew the city became the seat of an archdiocese that built St. Paul's Cathedral, overlooking the downtown.

Contents

A burial mound at Indian Mounds Park

Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about 2,000 years ago. From the early 17th century to 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after being displaced from their ancestral grounds by Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe. The Dakota called the area Imniza-Ska ("white cliffs") for its exposed white sandstone cliffs on the river's eastern side. The Imniza-Ska were full of caves that were useful to the Dakota. The explorer Jonathan Carver documented the historic Wakan tipi in the bluff below the burial mounds in 1767. In the Menominee language St. Paul was called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods.

After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, U.S Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike negotiated approximately 100,000 acres (40,000 ha; 160 sq mi) of land from the indigenous Dakota in 1805 to establish a fort. A military reservation was intended for the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers on both sides of the Mississippi up to Saint Anthony Falls. All of what is now the Highland park neighborhood was included in this. Pike planned a second military reservation at the confluence of the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers. In 1819 Fort Snelling was built at the Minnesota and Mississippi confluence. The 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all tribal lands east of the Mississippi to the U.S. government. Chief Little Crow V moved his village, Kaposia, from south of Mounds Park across the river a few miles onto Dakota land. Fur traders, explorers, and settlers came to the area for the fort's security. Many were French-Canadians who predated American pioneers by some time. A whiskey trade flourished among the squatters and the fort's commander evicted them all from the fort's reservation. Fur trader turned bootlegger "Pig's Eye" Parrant, who set up business just outside the reservation, particularly irritated the commander. By the early 1840s, a community had developed nearby that locals called Pig's Eye (French: L'Œil du Cochon) or Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1842 a raiding party of Ojibwe attacked the Kaposia encampment south of St. Paul. A battle ensued where a creek drained into wetlands two miles south of Wakan Tipi. The creek was thereafter called Battle Creek and is today parkland. In the 1840s-70s the Métis brought their oxen and Red River Carts down Kellogg Street to Lambert's landing to send buffalo hides to market from the Red River of the North. St. Paul was the southern terminus of the Red River Trails. In 1840 Pierre Bottineau became a prominent resident with a claim near the settlement's center.

Joe Rolette was responsible for preventing the capital of Minnesota from moving to Saint Peter.

In 1841, Catholic missionary Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the French Canadians at Mendota. He had a chapel he named for St. Paul built on the bluff above the riverboat landing downriver from Fort Snelling. Galtier informed the settlers that they were to adopt the chapel's name for the settlement and cease the use of "Pigs Eye". In 1847, New York educator Harriet Bishop moved to the settlement and opened the city's first school. The Minnesota Territory was created in 1849 with Saint Paul as the capital. The U.S. Army made the territory's first improved road, Point Douglas Fort Ripley Military Road, in 1850. It passed through what became St. Paul neighborhoods. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter, but Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the text of the bill and went into hiding, preventing the move. States were mandated to create militias to augment federal forces. St. Paul was the territory's first community to do so when it established the Pioneer Guard in 1856. On May 11, 1858, Minnesota gained statehood as the 32nd state, with Saint Paul its capital. When the Civil War broke out, the state learned Governor Ramsey had volunteered a regiment to fight the South. Communities across the state sent their militias as volunteers for the regiment. St. Paul sent its Pioneer Guard to form A and C Companies of the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. Josias Redgate King of the St. Paul Pioneer Guard is credited with being the first man to volunteer for the Union in the Civil War. Ramsey's telegraphed message back to Minnesota brought the Pioneer Guard to the St. Paul armory on April 15. King was the first to step forward and sign his name.

Stereoscopic view of St. Paul
Red river ox cart and driver in St. Paul

The year 1858 saw more than 1,000 steamboats service Saint Paul, making it a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Geography was a primary reason the city became a transportation hub. The location was the last good point to land riverboats coming upriver due to the river valley's topography. For a time, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Fort Snelling was important to St. Paul from the start. Direct access from St. Paul did not happen until the 7th bridge was built in 1880. Before that, there was a cable ferry crossing dating to at latest the 1840s. Once streetcars appeared, a new bridge to St. Paul was built in 1904. Until the town built its first jail the fort's brig served St. Paul.

Minnesota's first execution took place in St. Paul in 1860. A woman named Ann Bilansky was sentenced to hang. The state legislature voted to commute her sentence to life imprisonment, but Governor Ramsey vetoed that and issued her death warrant. She was the only woman ever executed in Minnesota. In 1906 the hanging of William Williams was botched in St. Paul, becoming a strangulation that took 14 minutes. The news of the botched execution brought an end to capital punishment in Minnesota.

Industrialist James J. Hill founded his railroad empire in St. Paul. The Great Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific Railway were both headquartered in St. Paul until they merged with the Burlington Northern. Today they are part of the BNSF Railway.

Prostitution was against both state and city law, but a system in St. Paul dating to 1863 made it quasi-legitimate. The madam of a brothel would appear in court once a month to pay a fine for operating a disorderly house. Post-Civil War St. Paul developed two districts of vice. The more infamous was "under the hill" on and around Eagle Street. In the 1870s the town had gained a reputation for being tough. It had twice Minneapolis's number of brothels, dozens more saloons, and one more brewery. By the mid-1880s it had 14 brothels and a few "cigar store" front operations. The city's most famous "high-end" madam was Nina Clifford. She ran her brothel until her death in 1929. A chandelier from it was mounted in the mayor's office when it was razed.

In 1887 the Minnesota Reserve National Guard was made the Guard's 3rd Infantry Regiment headquartered at the St. Paul Armory. Company C was made up of men from the city. For the Spanish-American War the Regiment was redesignated 14th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. Company E was men from Merriam Park. The Spanish–American War saw the trans-Atlantic ocean liner SS St. Paul converted and commissioned into the United States Navy as an auxiliary cruiser. She was the first ship in the navy to bear the city's name. She was decommissioned and returned to her owners only to be conscripted again for WWI, after which she was again decommissioned and scrapped. When hostilities broke out with Spain, volunteers were requested from the states. Minnesota quickly had enough to form four units, the 12th-15th Minnesota Infantry Regiments. Of these, only the 13th was deployed to the Philippines. Companies C, D, E & H were from St. Paul and saw heavy combat in Manila.

In 1900 an Irishman, John O'Connor, became chief of the St. Paul police and was known on the street as "the Big Fellow". That year he instituted the "O'Connor Layover Agreement" and made an effort to inform criminals of its existence. St. Paul police would ignore any transgressions of the law that took place outside their jurisdiction as long as criminals "checked in" when they arrived in town. There were three conditions to the agreement: check in with the police; pay a "donation" to the chief; and commit no crimes in St. Paul. Check-in was at the Savoy Hotel downtown. A great deal of "business" was taken care of at the "Green Lantern" speakeasy near the train station in Lowertown. It was also known for illegal gaming. More got done in the caves across the river from downtown. In 1930 the local mob even arranged that St. Paul's new police chief would be Tom Brown. The "Agreement" lasted through the prohibition until 1935. In that time St. Paul welcomed Al Capone, John Dillinger, Billie Frechette, Ma Barker, Baby Face Nelson, Alvin Karpis, Machine Gun Kelly, Kid Cann and many of their Irish associates. To skirt the Layover rules Barker's gang resided a block outside of the city on Robert Street. Karpis said, “There was probably never before as complete a gathering of criminals in one room in the United States, as there was in the Green Lantern on New Year's Eve in 1931. There were escapees from every U.S. Penitentiary. I was dazzled.” Bonnie and Clyde are also known to have called on the city. According to crime historian Paul Maccabee, the only criminal there is no record of visiting St. Paul during the Layover period is Pretty Boy Floyd. In 1933 the St. Paul police department closed St. Paul's doors to organized crime.

On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing $1.78 million ($51.27 million today) in damages and ripping spans from the High Bridge.

When the United States entered World War I, Minnesota's National Guard was activated. To fill the void, the state created the Minnesota Home Guard. St. Paul provided the men of Companies A-D of the 1st Home Guard Battalion. It also provided the men for Companies A, B, Hq, and the band of the 16th Battalion, the first African American unit formed in Minnesota. Because of the bigotry the men experienced at enlistment, they insisted their officers be black. When the war ended the Home guard was disbanded, but the community supported incorporating the 16th into the National Guard. Instead, in April 1919, the Minnesota legislature approved the formation of the First Infantry Battalion of the Minnesota Militia with the men of the 16th.

In 1917, the Twin City Rapid Transit Company (TCRTC) fired 57 men identified as leaders of the streetcar drivers' vote to unionize. Other drivers walked off the job to show their support and rioting took place in St. Paul. Many non-union drivers were injured and numerous streetcars were vandalized. The Home Guard was called out and the strike was broken, with 800 losing their jobs. The riots led to the formation of the Farmer-Labor coalition, often cited as one of the most successful third parties in U.S. history. It later merged with the state Democratic Party to form the DFL.

Minnesota senator Andrew Volstead had his office in what is now the Landmark Center. In 1919 he wrote the Volstead Act there, which began Prohibition. Also around that time, the citizens of St. Paul signed a petition requesting that Congress create a national cemetery in the region. It took time, but in 1937 Congress responded by creating Fort Snelling National Cemetery.

In 1920, a St. Paul councilman, the Commissioner of Safety, Aloysius Smith, asked the St. Paul Police to create a youth safety program for schools. At first it was just public schools, but program administrator Sergeant Frank Hetznecker went to the archdiocese to ask if the parochial schools wanted to be involved, and they did. Cathedral School headmistress Sister Carmela Hanggi was a strong supporter of the program. In February 1921 the first student-monitored school patrol crossing took place on Kellogg Boulevard, by Cathedral students. The school patrol Sam Browne belt with badge that became synonymous with school patrol across the country came from the St. Paul program.

On the morning of December 7, 1941, the USS Ward was manned by reservists of Minnesota's naval militia. It had a crew of 115, of whom 85 were from St. Paul. That morning they were stationed at the entrance to Pearl Harbor. A periscope was sighted trailing a freighter and the Ward took action, becoming the first Americans to fire their weapons in WWII combat. The Ward's No. 3 gun is displayed on the State Capitol grounds. WWII saw the second USS St. Paul commissioned as a Baltimore-class cruiser. That ship's bell is on display in Saint Paul's city hall.

During the 1960s, in conjunction with urban renewal, Saint Paul razed neighborhoods west of downtown for the creation of the interstate freeway system. From 1959 to 1961, the Rondo Neighborhood was demolished for the construction of Interstate 94. The loss of that African American enclave brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities. The annual Rondo Days celebration commemorates the African American community.

Downtown St. Paul had skyscraper-building booms beginning in the 1970s. Because the city center is directly beneath the flight path into the airport across the river there is a height restriction for all construction. The tallest buildings, such as Galtier Plaza (Jackson and Sibley Towers), The Pointe of Saint Paul condominiums, and the city's tallest building, Wells Fargo Place (formerly Minnesota World Trade Center), were constructed in the late 1980s. In the 1990s and 2000s, the tradition of bringing new immigrant groups to the city continued. As of 2004, nearly 10% of the city's population were recent Hmong immigrants from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar. Saint Paul is the location of the Hmong Archives.

The Meeker Island Lock and Dam was the first lock and dam on the Mississippi River in 1902.

Saint Paul's history and growth as a landing port are tied to water. The city's defining physical characteristic, the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, was carved into the region during the last ice age, as were the steep river bluffs and dramatic palisades on which the city is built. Receding glaciers and Lake Agassiz forced torrents of water from a glacial river that undercut the river valleys. The city is situated in east-central Minnesota.

The Mississippi River forms a municipal boundary on part of the city's west, southwest, and southeast sides. Minneapolis, the state's largest city, lies to the west. Falcon Heights, Lauderdale, Roseville, and Maplewood are north, with Maplewood lying to the east. The cities of West Saint Paul and South Saint Paul are to the south, as are Lilydale, Mendota, and Mendota Heights, across the river from the city. The city's largest lakes are Pig's Eye Lake, which is part of the Mississippi, Lake Phalen, and Lake Como. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 56.18 square miles (145.51 km2), of which 51.98 square miles (134.63 km2) is land and 4.20 square miles (10.88 km2) is water.

The Parks and Recreation department is responsible for 160 parks and 41 recreation centers. The city ranked #2 in park access and quality, after only Minneapolis, in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land.

Neighborhoods

Saint Paul's Department of Planning and Economic Development divides Saint Paul into seventeen Planning Districts, created in 1979 to allow neighborhoods to participate in governance and use Community Development Block Grants. With a funding agreement directly from the city, the councils share a pool of funds. The councils have significant land-use control, a voice in guiding development, and they organize residents. The boundaries are adjusted depending on population changes; as such, they sometimes overlap established neighborhoods. Though these neighborhoods changed over time, preservationists have saved many of their historically significant structures.

The city's 17 Planning Districts are:

The city skyline from the southwest in the winter

Saint Paul has a continental climate typical of the Upper Midwestern United States. Winters are frigid and snowy, while summers are warm to hot and humid. On the Köppen climate classification, Saint Paul falls in the hot summer humid continental climate zone (Dfa). The city experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and fog.

Due to its northerly location and lack of large bodies of water to moderate the air, Saint Paul is sometimes subjected to cold Arctic air masses, especially during late December, January, and February. The average annual temperature of 46.5 °F (8.1 °C) gives the Minneapolis−Saint Paul metropolitan area the coldest annual mean temperature of any major metropolitan area in the continental U.S.

Climate data for St. Paul Downtown Airport, Minnesota (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1872–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 58
(14)
64
(18)
83
(28)
93
(34)
99
(37)
101
(38)
104
(40)
104
(40)
101
(38)
90
(32)
78
(26)
63
(17)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C) 23.9
(−4.5)
28.7
(−1.8)
41.7
(5.4)
56.8
(13.8)
68.9
(20.5)
78.5
(25.8)
82.6
(28.1)
80.4
(26.9)
72.4
(22.4)
58.0
(14.4)
42.1
(5.6)
28.6
(−1.9)
55.2
(12.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 16.3
(−8.7)
20.8
(−6.2)
33.1
(0.6)
47.0
(8.3)
58.9
(14.9)
68.8
(20.4)
73.3
(22.9)
71.1
(21.7)
62.9
(17.2)
49.0
(9.4)
34.6
(1.4)
21.7
(−5.7)
46.5
(8.1)
Average low °F (°C) 8.6
(−13.0)
12.9
(−10.6)
24.6
(−4.1)
37.2
(2.9)
48.9
(9.4)
59.2
(15.1)
64.0
(17.8)
61.7
(16.5)
53.4
(11.9)
40.0
(4.4)
27.1
(−2.7)
14.8
(−9.6)
37.7
(3.2)
Record low °F (°C) −41
(−41)
−33
(−36)
−26
(−32)
6
(−14)
23
(−5)
34
(1)
45
(7)
39
(4)
28
(−2)
8
(−13)
−25
(−32)
−39
(−39)
−41
(−41)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.48
(12)
0.52
(13)
1.43
(36)
2.58
(66)
3.97
(101)
4.63
(118)
3.97
(101)
4.10
(104)
3.08
(78)
2.47
(63)
1.32
(34)
0.65
(17)
29.20
(742)
Average precipitation days(≥ 0.01 in) 4.0 4.3 7.1 10.6 12.7 13.0 9.9 10.0 9.6 9.2 6.2 4.9 101.5
Source 1: NOAA
Source 2: The Weather Channel
Historical population
Census Pop.
18501,112
186010,401835.3%
187020,03092.6%
188041,473107.1%
1890133,156221.1%
1900163,06522.5%
1910214,74431.7%
1920234,6989.3%
1930271,60615.7%
1940287,7365.9%
1950311,3498.2%
1960313,4110.7%
1970309,980−1.1%
1980270,230−12.8%
1990272,2350.7%
2000287,1515.5%
2010285,068−0.7%
2020311,5279.3%
U.S. Decennial Census
Demographic profile 2010 2000 1990 1970
White 60.1% 67.0% 82.3% 95.4%
Non-Hispanic 55.9% 64.0% 80.4% 93.6%
Black or African American 15.7% 11.7% 7.4% 3.5%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9.6% 7.9% 4.2% 2.1%
Asian 15.0% 12.4% 7.1% 0.2%
Map of racial distribution in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:White,Black,Asian,Hispanic (of any race), or Other (yellow)

The earliest known inhabitants from about 400 A.D. were members of the Hopewell tradition who buried their dead in mounds (now Indian Mounds Park) on the river bluffs. The next known inhabitants were the Mdewakanton Dakota in the 17th century who fled their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake in central Minnesota in response to westward expansion of the Ojibwe nation. The Ojibwe later occupied the north (east) bank of the Mississippi River.

By 1800, French-Canadian explorers came through the region and attracted fur traders to the area. Fort Snelling and Pig's Eye Tavern also brought the first Yankees from New England and English, Irish, and Scottish immigrants who had enlisted in the army and settled nearby after discharge. These early settlers and entrepreneurs built houses on the heights north of the river. The first wave of immigration came with the Irish, who settled at Connemara Patch along the Mississippi, named for their home, Connemara, Ireland. The Irish became prolific in politics, city governance, and public safety, much to the chagrin of the Germans and French who had grown into the majority. In 1850, the first of many groups of Swedish immigrants passed through Saint Paul on their way to farming communities in northern and western regions of the territory. A large group settled in Swede Hollow, which later became home to Poles, Italians, and Mexicans. The last Swedish presence moved up Saint Paul's East Side along Payne Avenue in the 1950s.

Of people who specified European ancestry in the 2005–07 American Community Survey of St. Paul, 26.4% were German, 13.8% Irish, 8.4% Norwegian, 7.0% Swedish, and 6.2% English. There is also a visible community of people of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, representing 4.2% of the population. By the 1980s, the Thomas-Dale area, once an Austro-Hungarian enclave known as Frogtown (German: Froschburg), became home to Vietnamese people who had left their war-torn country. A settlement program for the Hmong diaspora came soon after, and by 2000, the Saint Paul Hmong were the largest urban contingent in the United States. Mexican immigrants have settled in Saint Paul's West Side since the 1930s, and have grown enough that Mexico opened a foreign consulate in 2005.

The majority of residents claiming religious affiliation are Christian, split between the Roman Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations. The Roman Catholic presence comes from Irish, German, Scottish, and French Canadian settlers, who in time were bolstered by Hispanic immigrants. There are Jewish synagogues such as Mount Zion Temple and relatively small populations of Hindus, Muslims, and Buddhists. The city has been dubbed "paganistan" due to its large Wiccan population.

As of the 2005–07 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 66.5% of Saint Paul's population, of whom 62.1% were non-Hispanic whites, down from 93.6% in 1970. Blacks or African Americans made up 13.9% of the population, of whom 13.5% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.8%, of whom 0.6% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 12.3%, of whom 12.2% were non-Hispanic. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1%. People of other races made up 3.4%, of whom 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 3.1%, of whom 2.6% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 8.7%.

As of the 2000 U.S. Census, there were 287,151 people, 112,109 households, and 60,999 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 67.0% White, 11.7% African American, 1.1% Native American, 12.4% Asian (mostly Hmong), 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.8% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 7.9% of the population.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 285,068 people, 111,001 households, and 59,689 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,484.2 inhabitants per square mile (2,117.5/km2). There were 120,795 housing units at an average density of 2,323.9 per square mile (897.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 60.1% white, 15.7% African American, 1.1% Native American, 15.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 9.6% of the population.

There were 111,001 households, of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.1% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.2% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.33.

The median age in the city was 30.9 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 13.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.6% were from 25 to 44; 22.6% were from 45 to 64; and 9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female.

The Minneapolis–Saint Paul–Bloomington area employs 1,570,700 people in the private sector as of July 2008, 82.43% of whom work in private service providing-related jobs.

Major corporations headquartered in Saint Paul include Ecolab, a chemical and cleaning product company that the Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal named in 2008 as the eighth-best place to work in the Twin Cites for companies with 1,000 full-time Minnesota employees, and Securian Financial Group Inc.

The 3M Company moved to St. Paul in 1910. It built a art deco headquarters at 900 Bush that still stands. Headquarters operations moved to the Maplewood campus in 1964. 3M manufacturing continued for a couple more decades until all St. Paul operations ceased.

The city was home to the Ford Motor Company's Twin Cities Assembly Plant, which opened in 1924 and closed at the end of 2011. The plant was in Highland Park on the Mississippi River, adjacent to Lock and Dam No. 1, Mississippi River, which generates hydroelectric power. The site is now being cleared of buildings and tested for contamination to prepare for redevelopment. The lead developer, the Ryan Company, has released a proposed set of zoning changes that will shape how the land will be used.

Saint Paul has financed city development with tax increment financing (TIF). In 2018, it had 55 TIF districts. Projects that have benefited from TIF funding include the St. Paul Saints stadium, and the affordable housing along the Twin Cities Metro Green Line.

Como Park Zoo and Conservatory is a free public greenhouse and urban zoo open year-round.

Every January, Saint Paul hosts the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, a tradition that began in 1886 when a New York reporter called Saint Paul "another Siberia". The organizers had a model in the Montreal Winter Carnival the year before. Architect A. C. Hutchinson designed the Montreal ice castle and was hired to design St. Paul's first. The event has now been held 135 times with an attendance of 350,000. It includes an ice sculpting competition, a snow sculpting competition, a medallion treasure hunt, food, activities, and an ice palace when it can be arranged. The Como Zoo and Conservatory and adjoining Japanese Garden are popular year-round. The historic Landmark Center in downtown Saint Paul hosts cultural and arts organizations. The city's recreation sites include Indian Mounds Park, Battle Creek Regional Park, Harriet Island Regional Park, Highland Park, the Wabasha Street Caves, Lake Como, Lake Phalen, and Rice Park, as well as several areas abutting the Mississippi River. The Irish Fair of Minnesota is held annually at the Harriet Island Pavilion area. The country's largest Hmong American sports festival, the Freedom Festival, is held the first weekend of July at McMurray Field near Como Park.

The city is associated with the Minnesota State Fair in neighboring Falcon Heights just west of Como Park. The fair dates to before statehood. With the competing interests of Minneapolis and St. Paul, it was held on "neutral ground" between both. That area refused to become part of St. Paul or Roseville and became Falcon Heights in the 1950s. The University of Minnesota Saint Paul Campus is actually in Falcon Heights.

Fort Snelling is often identified as being in St. Paul but is actually its own unorganized territory. The eastern part of Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory (MSP included) has a St. Paul mailing address. The western side has a Minneapolis ZIP code.

The Minnesota Centennial Showboat was anchored in the Mississippi River along Harriet Island.

Saint Paul is the birthplace of cartoonist Charles M. Schulz, who lived in Merriam Park from infancy until 1960. Schulz's Peanuts inspired giant, decorated sculptures around the city, a Chamber of Commerce promotion in the late 1990s. Other notable residents include writer F. Scott Fitzgerald and playwright August Wilson, who premiered many of the ten plays in his Pittsburgh Cycle at the local Penumbra Theater.

The Ordway Center for the Performing Arts hosts theater productions and the Minnesota Opera is a founding tenant. RiverCentre, attached to Xcel Energy Center, serves as the city's convention center. The city has contributed to the music of Minnesota and the Twin Cities music scene through various venues. Great jazz musicians have passed through the influential Artists' Quarter, first established in the 1970s in Whittier, Minneapolis, and moved to downtown Saint Paul in 1994. Artists' Quarter also hosts the Soapboxing Poetry Slam, home of the 2009 National Poetry Slam Champions. At The Black Dog, in Lowertown, many French or European jazz musicians (Evan Parker, Tony Hymas, Benoît Delbecq, François Corneloup) have met Twin Cities musicians and started new groups touring in Europe. Groups and performers such as Fantastic Merlins, Dean Magraw/Davu Seru, Merciless Ghosts, and Willie Murphy are regulars. The Turf Club in Midway has been a music scene landmark since the 1940s. Saint Paul is also the home base of the internationally acclaimed Rose Ensemble. As an Irish stronghold, the city boasts popular Irish pubs with live music, such as Shamrocks, The Dubliner, and until its closure in 2019, O'Gara's. The internationally acclaimed Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra is the nation's only full-time professional chamber orchestra. The Minnesota Centennial Showboat on the Mississippi River began in 1958 with Minnesota's first centennial celebration.

Saint Paul hosts a number of museums, including the University of Minnesota's Goldstein Museum of Design, the Minnesota Children's Museum, the Schubert Club Museum of Musical Instruments, the Minnesota Museum of American Art, the Traces Center for History and Culture, the Minnesota History Center, the Alexander Ramsey House, the James J. Hill House, the Minnesota Transportation Museum, the Science Museum of Minnesota, and the Twin City Model Railroad Museum.

The Xcel Energy Center hosts hockey and other professional sports in addition to concerts and other events.

The Saint Paul division of Parks and Recreation runs over 1,500 organized sports teams.

Saint Paul hosts a number of professional, semi-professional, and amateur sports teams. The Minnesota Wild play their home games in downtown Saint Paul's Xcel Energy Center, which opened in 2000. The Wild brought the NHL back to Minnesota for the first time since 1993, when the Minnesota North Stars left the state for Dallas, Texas. (The World Hockey Association's Minnesota Fighting Saints played in Saint Paul from 1972 to 1977.) Citing the history of hockey in the Twin Cities and teams at all levels, Sports Illustrated called Saint Paul the new Hockeytown U.S.A. in 2007.

The Xcel Energy Center, a multipurpose entertainment and sports venue, can host concerts and accommodate nearly all sporting events. It occupies the site of the demolished Saint Paul Civic Center. The Xcel Energy Center hosts the Minnesota high school boys hockey tournament, the Minnesota high school girls' volleyball tournament, and concerts throughout the year. In 2004, it was named the best overall sports venue in the US by ESPN.

Two Circus Juventas students on silks

The St. Paul Saints are the city's Minor League Baseball team, which plays in the Triple-A East as an affiliate of the Minnesota Twins. There have been several different teams called the Saints over the years. Founded in 1884, they were shut down in 1961 after the Minnesota Twins moved to Bloomington. The Saints were brought back in 1993 as an independent baseball team in the Northern League, moving to the American Association in 2006. They joined affiliated baseball in 2021. Their home games are played at the open-air CHS Field in downtown's Lowertown Historic District. Four noted Major League All-Star baseball players are natives of Saint Paul: Hall of Fame outfielder Dave Winfield, Hall of Fame infielder Paul Molitor, Hall of Fame pitcher Jack Morris, and first baseman Joe Mauer. The all-black St. Paul Colored Gophers played four seasons in Saint Paul from 1907 to 1911.

The St. Paul Twin Stars of the National Premier Soccer League play their home games at Macalester Stadium. St. Paul's first curling club was founded in 1888. The current club, the St. Paul Curling Club, was founded in 1912 and is the largest curling club in the United States. The Minnesota RollerGirls are a flat-track roller derby league based in the Roy Wilkins Auditorium. Minnesota's oldest athletic organization, the Minnesota Boat Club, resides in the Mississippi River on Raspberry Island. Saint Paul is also home to Circus Juventas, the largest circus arts school in North America.

On March 25, 2015, Major League Soccer announced that it had awarded its 23rd MLS franchise to Minnesota United FC, a team from the lower-level North American Soccer League. Bill McGuire and his ownership group, which includes Jim Pohlad of the Minnesota Twins, Glen Taylor of the Minnesota Timberwolves, former Minnesota Wild investor Glen Nelson, and his daughter Wendy Carlson Nelson of the Carlson hospitality company, had intended to build a privately financed soccer-specific stadium in Downtown Minneapolis near the Minneapolis Farmer's Market. But their plan was met with heavy opposition from former Minneapolis Mayor Betsy Hodges, who said her city was suffering from "stadium fatigue" after building three stadiums for the Minnesota Twins, Minnesota Vikings and the Minnesota Golden Gophers, within a six-year span. On July 1, 2015, after failing to reach an agreement with the city of Minneapolis, McGuire and his partners turned their focus to Saint Paul.

On October 23, 2015, Bill McGuire of Minnesota United FC and former Saint Paul Mayor Chris Coleman announced that a privately financed soccer-specific stadium would be built on the vacant Metro Transit bus barn site in Saint Paul's Midway neighborhood near the intersection of Snelling Avenue and University Avenue. It is midway between downtown Saint Paul and downtown Minneapolis. The stadium, Allianz Field, opened in April 2019 and seats 19,400. The team began playing in the MLS in 2017.

On May 15, 2018, the Minnesota Whitecaps joined the Premier Hockey Federation (the former National Women's Hockey League) as its fifth franchise. Founded in 2004, the team originally played in the Western Women's Hockey League before going independent in 2010 when that league folded. The Whitecaps play their home games at TRIA Rink, a 1,200-seat arena and practice facility in downtown Saint Paul. The team began playing in the PHF in 2018.

The Timberwolves, Twins, Vikings, and Lynx all play in Minneapolis.

Saint Paul has a variant of the strong mayor–council form of government. The mayor is the chief executive and chief administrative officer of the city and the seven-member city council is its legislative body. The mayor is elected by the entire city, while members of the city council are elected from seven different geographic wards of approximately equal population. Both the mayor and council members serve four-year terms. The current mayor is Melvin Carter (DFL), Saint Paul's first African-American mayor. Aside from Norm Coleman, who became a Republican during his second term, Saint Paul has not elected a Republican mayor since 1952.

The city is also the county seat of Ramsey County, named for Alexander Ramsey, the state's first governor. The county once spanned much of the present-day metropolitan area and was originally to be named Saint Paul County after the city. Today it is geographically the smallest county and the most densely populated. Ramsey is the only home rule county in Minnesota; the seven-member Board of Commissioners appoints a county manager whose office is in the combination city hall/county courthouse along with the Minnesota Second Judicial Courts. The nearby Law Enforcement Center houses the Ramsey County Sheriff's office.

State and federal

Saint Paul is the capital of Minnesota. The city hosts the capitol building, designed by Saint Paul resident Cass Gilbert, and the House and Senate office buildings. The Minnesota Governor's Residence, which is used for some state functions, is on Summit Avenue. The Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (affiliated with the Democratic Party) is headquartered in Saint Paul. Numerous state departments and services are also headquartered in Saint Paul, such as the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

The city is split into four Minnesota Senate districts (64, 65, 66 and 67) and eight Minnesota House of Representatives districts (64A, 64B, 65A, 65B, 66A, 66B, 67A and 67B), all of which are held by Democrats.

Saint Paul is the heart of Minnesota's 4th congressional district, represented by Democrat Betty McCollum. The district has been in DFL hands without interruption since 1949. Minnesota is represented in the US Senate by Democrat Amy Klobuchar, a former Hennepin County Attorney, and Democrat Tina Smith, former Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota.

Minnesota House and Senate districts
Senate House
Name First elected Party Name First elected Party
64 Dick Cohen 1986 DFL 64A Kaohly Her 2018 DFL
64B Dave Pinto 2014 DFL
65 Sandy Pappas 1990 DFL 65A Rena Moran 2010 DFL
65B Carlos Mariani 1990 DFL
66 John Marty* 1992 DFL 66A John Lesch 2002 DFL
66B Alice Hausman* 1989 DFL
67 Foung Hawj 2012 DFL 67A Tim Mahoney 1998 DFL
67B Jay Xiong 2018 DFL

*District also includes Falcon Heights, Lauderdale and Roseville.

1930s-era students at Hamline University taking finals

Saint Paul is second in the United States in the number of higher education institutions per capita, behind Boston. Higher education institutions that call Saint Paul home include three public and eight private colleges and universities and five post-secondary institutions. Well-known colleges and universities include the Saint Catherine University, Concordia University, Hamline University, Macalester College, and the University of St. Thomas. Metropolitan State University and Saint Paul College, which focus on non-traditional students, are based in Saint Paul, as well as a law school, Mitchell Hamline School of Law.

The Saint Paul Public Schools district is the state's largest school district and serves approximately 39,000 students. The district is extremely diverse with students from families speaking 90 different languages, although only five languages are used for most school communication: English, Spanish, Hmong, Karen, and Somali. The district runs 82 different schools, including 52 elementary schools, 12 middle schools, seven high schools, ten alternative schools, and one special education school, employing over 6,500 teachers and staff. The school district also oversees community education programs for pre-K and adult learners, including Early Childhood Family Education, GED Diploma, language programs, and various learning opportunities for community members of all ages. In 2006, Saint Paul Public Schools celebrated its 150th anniversary. Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute.

A variety of K-12 private, parochial, and public charter schools are also represented in the city. In 1992, Saint Paul became the first city in the US to sponsor and open a charter school, now found in most states across the nation. Saint Paul is currently home to 21 charter schools as well as 38 private schools. The Saint Paul Public Library system includes a central library, twelve branch locations, and a bookmobile.

Minnesota Public Radio headquarters in downtown Saint Paul

Residents of Saint Paul can receive 10 broadcast television stations, five of which broadcast from within Saint Paul. One daily newspaper, the St. Paul Pioneer Press, two weekly neighborhood newspapers, the East Side Review and City Pages (owned by The Star Tribune Company), and several monthly or semimonthly neighborhood papers serve the city. It was the only city in the United States with a population of 250,000 or more to see an increase in circulation of Sunday newspapers in 2007. Several media outlets based in neighboring Minneapolis also serve the Saint Paul community, including the Star Tribune. Saint Paul is home to Minnesota Public Radio (MPR), a three-format system that broadcasts on nearly 40 stations around the Midwest. MPR locally delivers news and information, classical, and The Current (which plays a wide variety of music). The station has 110,000 regional members and more than 800,000 listeners each week throughout the Upper Midwest, the largest audience of any regional public radio network. Also operating as part of American Public Media, MPR's programming reaches five million listeners, most notably through Live from Here, hosted by Chris Thile (previously known as A Prairie Home Companion, hosted by Garrison Keillor, who also lives in the city). The Fitzgerald Theater, renamed in 1994 for Saint Paul native and novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, is home to the show.

Interstate and roadways

Interstate Highways
Interstate 35E
Interstate 94

US Highways
US 10
US 52
US 61

Minnesota Highways
Highway 5
Highway 51
Highway 280

I-94 as it enters downtown Saint Paul from the west

Residents use Interstate 35E running north–south and Interstate 94 running east–west. Trunk highways include U.S. Highway 52, Minnesota State Highway 280, and Minnesota State Highway 5. St. Paul has several unique roads such as Ayd Mill Road, Phalen Boulevard and Shepard Road/Warner Road, which diagonally follow particular geographic features in the city. Biking is also gaining popularity, due to the creation of more paved bike lanes that connect to other bike routes throughout the metropolitan area and the creation of Nice Ride Minnesota, a seasonally operated nonprofit bicycle sharing and rental system that has over 1,550 bicycles and 170 stations in both Minneapolis and St. Paul. Downtown St. Paul has a five-mile (8 km) enclosed skyway system over 25 city blocks. The 563-mile (906 km) Avenue of the Saints connects St. Paul with St. Louis, Missouri.

The layout of city streets and roads has often drawn complaints. While he was Governor of Minnesota, Jesse Ventura appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman, and remarked that the streets were designed by "drunken Irishmen". He later apologized, though people had been complaining about the fractured grid system for more than a century by that point. Some of the city's road design is the result of the curve of the Mississippi River, hilly topography, conflicts between developers of different neighborhoods in the early city, and grand plans only half-realized. Outside of downtown, the roads are less confusing, but most roads are named, rather than numbered, increasing the difficulty for non-natives to navigate.

Mass transit

Metro Transit provides bus service and light rail in the Minneapolis–St. Paul area. The METRO Green Line is an 11-mile (18 km) light rail line that connects downtown St. Paul to downtown Minneapolis with 14 stations in St. Paul. The Green Line runs west along University Avenue, through the University of Minnesota campus, until it links up and then shares stations with the METRO Blue Line in downtown Minneapolis. Construction began in November 2010 and the line began service on June 14, 2014. Roughly 45,000 people rode on the first day; an average 28,000 riders are expected per day.

Metro Transit opened the METRO A Line, Minneapolis–St. Paul's first arterial bus rapid transit line, along Snelling Avenue and Ford Parkway. The A Line connects the METRO Blue Line at 46th Street station to Rosedale Center with a connection at the Green Line Snelling Avenue station. The A Line is the first in a series of planned arterial bus rapid transit lines and is set to open in early 2016.

Railroad

Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and Seattle stops twice daily in each direction at the newly renovated Saint Paul Union Depot. Ridership on the train increased about 6% from 2005 to over 505,000 in fiscal year 2007. A Minnesota Department of Transportation study found that increased daily service to Chicago should be economically viable, especially if it originates in St. Paul and does not experience delays from the rest of the western route of the Empire Builder. Saint Paul is the site of the Pig's Eye Yard, a major freight classification yard for Canadian Pacific Railway. As of 2003, the yard handled over 1,000 freight cars per day. Both Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe run trains through the yard, though they are not classified at Pig's Eye. Burlington Northern Santa Fe operates the large Northtown Yard in Minneapolis, which handles about 600 cars per day. There are several other small yards located around the city.

Saint Paul Downtown Airport (Holman Field)

Airports

Holman Airfield is across the river from downtown St. Paul. Lamprey Lake was there until the Army Corps of Engineers filled it with dredgings starting in the early 1920s. Northwest Airlines began initial operations from Holman in 1926. During WWII Northwest had a contract to install upgraded radar systems in B-24s, employing 5,000 at the airfield. After WWII, Holman Airfield competed with the Speedway Field for the Twin Cities' growing aviation industry and lost out in the end. Today Holman is a reliever airport run by the Metropolitan Airports Commission. It is home to Minnesota's Air National Guard and a flight training school and is tailored to local corporate aviation. There are three runways, with the Holman Field Administration Building and Riverside Hangar on the National Register of Historic Places. The historical importance of the original Northwest Airlines building was realized only after demolition commenced.

For the most part St. Paul's aviation needs are served by the Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP), which sits on 2,930 acres (11.9 km2) in the Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory bordering the city to the southwest. MSP serves 17 commercial passenger airlines and is the hub of Delta Air Lines, Mesaba Airlines and Sun Country Airlines.

Saint Paul's sister cities are:

Medal of Honor recipients:

  1. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. RetrievedJuly 26, 2020.
  2. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. RetrievedNovember 13, 2012.
  3. "The City of Saint Paul – Official website". The City of Saint Paul. 2008. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  4. "Ramsey County". Metro MSP. Minneapolis Regional Chamber Development Foundation. 2008. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  5. "The St. Paul and Pacific was a pioneering railroad in Minnesota, if not a very successful one (at least, at first)". MinnPost. January 30, 2017. RetrievedNovember 6, 2021.
  6. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". RetrievedMay 21, 2020.
  7. "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas on July 1, 2018 Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018". U.S. Census Bureau. June 1, 2018. RetrievedJune 1, 2018.[dead link] Alt URL[permanent dead link]
  8. Fun Facts, Visit St. Paul, Official Convention and Visitors Bureau webpage, 175 West Kellogg Boulevard,Suite 502, Saint Paul, MN [1]
  9. "Stars Can't Go Home Again". CBS Sports. Associated Press. December 17, 2000. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  10. "National Science Foundation Selects Museum of Science, Boston to Head $20 Million Network for Public Engagement with Nanotechnology" (Press release). Materials Research Society. 2008. Archived from the original on May 18, 2009.
  11. Capital City Partnership (2006). "A City Where People Work". Capital City Partnership. Archived from the original on April 27, 2008. RetrievedAugust 15, 2008.
  12. Minneapolis ranked most literate city Archived September 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Star Tribune. April 20, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  13. Galtier, Rev. Lucien (1908). Father Galtier to Bishop Grace, Prairie du Chien January 14, 1846. pp. 184–190.
  14. Saint Paul's Survey History, Surveyor's Office: Saint Paul Minnesota web site
  15. Trimble, Steve (July 2, 2000). "A Short history of Indian Mounds Park". Neighborhood Pride Celebration. daytonsbluff.org. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. RetrievedDecember 7, 2006.
  16. "Indian Mounds Park". Mississippi National River and recreation Area. National Park Service. Archived from the original on January 18, 2011. RetrievedDecember 20, 2010.
  17. Morrison, Mark (2008). "Dakota Life". City of Bloomington. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008.
  18. Stephen Return Riggs; James Owen Dorsey (1892). A Dakota-English Dictionary. University of Michigan. p. 197. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008. imniza ska.
  19. "Lambert's Landing". National Park Services. July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. RetrievedJuly 28, 2008.
  20. Hoffman, Mike. "Menominee Place Names in Wisconsin". The Menominee Clans Story. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. RetrievedOctober 6, 2018.
  21. "The Treaty Story". Minnesota History Center. 1999. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009.
  22. "Treaty with the Sioux, 1837". Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Oklahoma State University Library. September 29, 1837. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. RetrievedJuly 15, 2016.
  23. 1983 Survey Dist 1.pdf - Historic Saint Paul, Historic Saint Paul website, 400 Landmark Center, 75 West 5th Street, Saint Paul, MN [2]
  24. Kappler, Charles J., Washington: GPO, ed. (1904). "Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties". II (Treaties, 1778–1883). Oklahoma State University Library.Cite journal requires |journal= (). and "Treaty with the Sioux". September 29, 1837. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. and "Treaty with the Sioux—Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands". July 23, 1851. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. and "Treaty With the Sioux—Mdewakanton and Wapahkoota Bands". August 5, 1851. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. RetrievedJune 26, 2007.
  25. Schaper, Julie; Horwitz, Steven (2006).Twin Cities Noir. New York, New York: Akashic Books. pp. 16. ISBN 978-1-888451-97-9. RetrievedJuly 28, 2008.
  26. Carver's Cave- Subterranean Twin Cities, Ramsey County History, G.A. Brick, p.17 [3]
  27. Pierre Bottineau, GENi, Joe Eickhoff, July 2020
  28. "Overview of the Cathedral". Cathedral of Saint Paul. 2004. Archived from the original on August 6, 2007.
  29. Mougel, Patricia (June 2007). "Catholicisme dans le Midwest Lucien Galtier et l'origine du nom de la capitale du Minnesota"(PDF) (in French). Reflets de l'étoile du nord. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 9, 2008. RetrievedJuly 28, 2008.
  30. Gilman, Rhonda R. (1989). The Story of Minnesota's Past. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 99–104. ISBN 978-0-87351-267-1.
  31. MNDOT Historic Roadside Development Structures Inventory, RA-SPC-2928
  32. "Rolette, Jr., Joseph "Joe"". Minnesota Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislature. Archived from the original on December 29, 2008. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  33. Leehan, Brian (February 6, 2019). "King, Josias R. (1832–1916)". MNOpedia. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  34. Wingerd, Mary Lethert. "Separated at Birth: The Sibling Rivalry of Minneapolis and St. Paul". Organization of American Historians. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. RetrievedNovember 19, 2007.
  35. "Minnesota - Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. RetrievedNovember 15, 2018.
  36. February 13, 1906: Minnesota's last legal execution: The botched execution of William Williams caused renewed fervor against the death penalty, MINNPOST website, By R.L. Cartwright, Feb. 12, 2013, MinnPost, P.O. Box 18438, Mpls, MN 55418 [4]
  37. Keeping the Peace Crime, Vice, and Police Work,in St. Paul 1869-74, Joel Best, Minnesota History, Summer 1981, Minnesota Historical Society, St Paul, Mn, p.246 [5]
  38. Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883, Joel Best, Ohio State University Press • Columbus 1998, [6]
  39. Scholten, Alexandra (August 4, 2020). "Clifford, Nina (1851–1929)". MNopedia.
  40. O'Connor, Robert. "The big fellow and the cardinal". 3am Magazine. RetrievedOctober 26, 2017.
  41. The 13th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, Kyle Ward, The Spanish–American War Centennial Website [7]
  42. The Gangster Era in St Paul, Sharon Park, Minnpost, 2015
  43. The Green Lantern Saloon – St. Paul, Minnesota, The Irish Mob website, Owen Forsyth, Apr 14, 2019 [8]
  44. Crime and Corruption in St. Paul, Mn 1900-1930s, Michael Cooper, Medium.com webpage, Aug 2015 [9]
  45. Paul Maccabee Crime Interview 3/18/03, South Dakota Public Broadcasting, 555 N. Dakota St., Vermillion, SD, [10]
  46. "St. Paul, Minneapolis and other cities in Minnesota suffer from gale". GenDisasters.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2007. RetrievedMarch 28, 2008.
  47. ADJUTANT GENERAL: NATIONAL GUARD: Inventory of Its Home Guard Record, Minnesota Historical Society, 345 W. Kellogg Blvd., St. Paul, MN 55102 [11]
  48. Sixteenth Battalion, Minnesota Home Guard,DeCarlo, Peter, MNopedia, Minnesota Historical Society.[12]
  49. How the 1917 streetcar riots shook St. Paul and reshaped Minnesota politics, St Paul Pioneer Press, Nick Woltman, December 2, 2017 [13]
  50. 1917 Twin City Rapid Transit Company Street Railway Strike, MNHS website, Minnesota Historical Society 345 W. Kellogg Blvd. St. Paul, MN 55102 [14]
  51. Fort Snelling National Cemetery, National Cemetery Administration, updated 17 July 2017 [15]
  52. Origins of the School Safety Patrol, 1921, MNOPEDIA, Minnesota Historical Society website, Eric W. Weber, St. Paul, Minnesota, published: October 29, 2012,[16]
  53. So Minnesota: St. Paul nun created world's first school safety patrol, Channel 5 News, Joe Mazan, Published: September 17, 2019 12:00 AM [17]
  54. Wreckage of USS Ward whose St Paul crew fired first shot of WWII, Wyat Olsen, PP Twin Cities, Dec 2017
  55. "Rondo Neighborhood & the Building of I-94". Minnesota Historical Society. 2008. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. RetrievedJuly 2, 2008.
  56. Davis, F. James (1965). "The Effects of a Freeway Displacement on Racial Housing Segregation in a Northern City". Phylon. 26 (3): 209–215. doi:10.2307/273848. JSTOR 273848.
  57. "Rondo Days official site". Rondo Avenue Inc. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. RetrievedAugust 3, 2008.
  58. "Tallest skyscrapers of Saint Paul". Emporis. 2008. Archived from the original on May 18, 2007. RetrievedAugust 15, 2008.
  59. "Hmong Refugee Resettlement". Minnesota Council of Non-Profits. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. RetrievedMarch 28, 2008.
  60. Moua, Teng. "Hmong Archives Reaches a Milestone". Hmong Today. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. RetrievedDecember 18, 2010.
  61. "Mississippi: River Facts". U.S. National Park Service. August 14, 2006. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. RetrievedJuly 28, 2008.
  62. "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. RetrievedNovember 13, 2012.
  63. Havens, Chris (October 31, 2007). "In St. Paul, they're passionate about parks". Star Tribune. pp. AA1. ISSN 0895-2825. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. RetrievedNovember 4, 2007.
  64. "ParkScore". www.parkscore.tpl.org. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. RetrievedMay 23, 2018.
  65. Medcalf, Myron P. (September 11, 2007). "St. Paul's neighborhood councils scrutinize their financial status". Star Tribune. pp. B4 Local.
  66. "District Councils". City of Saint Paul. 2008. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
  67. "Saint Paul Participation". Citizen Participation Project Case Studies. Citizen Participation Project. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. RetrievedNovember 10, 2007.
  68. Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rubel, Franz (June 2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. RetrievedDecember 15, 2010.[permanent dead link]
  69. 45.4 °F for 1971 through 2000 per U.S. Census Archived January 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine who cites "Normals 1971–2000". National Climatic Data Center. Archived from the original on April 1, 2007. RetrievedMarch 25, 2007. or 44.6 °F (7.0 °C) per Fisk, Charles (March 3, 2007). "Minneapolis-Saint Paul Area Daily Climatological History of Temperature, Precipitation, and Snowfall, A Year-by-Year Graphical Portrayal (1820–present)". Archived from the original on May 18, 2007. RetrievedMarch 25, 2007.
  70. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. RetrievedJune 22, 2021.
  71. "Station: St Paul Downtown AP, MN". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. RetrievedJune 22, 2021.
  72. "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information". The Weather Channel. August 2011. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. RetrievedJuly 28, 2008.
  73. United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". RetrievedJune 9, 2014.
  74. "St. Paul (city), Minnesota". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008.
  75. "Race and Hispanic or Latino: 2000". United States Census Bureau.
  76. "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. RetrievedApril 20, 2012.
  77. From 15% sample
  78. Lanegran, David A. (2001). "From Swede Hollow to Arlington Hills, From Snoose Boulevard to Minnehaha Parkway: Swedish Neighborhoods of the Twin Cities"(PDF). Macalester College. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 24, 2008. RetrievedJuly 28, 2008.
  79. "District 7: Thomas-Dale or Frogtown". Ramsey County Historical Society. 2005. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008.
  80. Kenworthy, Tom (November 29, 2004). "Hmong get closer look since shootings". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 11, 2017.
  81. "Hmong Resettlement Revisited". Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services. June 2004. Archived from the original on August 23, 2007. RetrievedNovember 4, 2007.
  82. "Saint Paul Ethnic Population Growth". City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. RetrievedNovember 6, 2007.
  83. Toness, Bianca Vazquez (May 24, 2005). "Mexican consulate opens in June". Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on September 18, 2006. RetrievedNovember 6, 2007.
  84. "Ramsey County, Minnesota". Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States, 2000. Association of Religion Data Archives. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. RetrievedDecember 21, 2010.
  85. Gihring, Tim (April 2009). "Welcome to Paganistan". Minnesota Monthly. Archived from the original on September 8, 2011. RetrievedMay 23, 2011.
  86. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. RetrievedJanuary 31, 2008.
  87. "Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor. August 26, 2008. RetrievedAugust 26, 2008. This data may not be directly reproducible via this link. BLS.gov Archived September 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Select "27 Minnesota" and "33460 Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN-WI" and all subsectors.
  88. Orrick, Dave (July 28, 2008). "Downtown goal: Fill storefronts — at least for now". Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  89. Johnson, Kim (August 20, 2008). "Business Journal names Best Places to Work". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. RetrievedAugust 26, 2008.
  90. Abbe, Mary (July 21, 2008). "Same old struggles at the MMAA". Star Tribune. Chris Harte. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. RetrievedJuly 21, 2008.
  91. "Lock and Dam 1". St. Paul District. US Army Corps of Engineers. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. RetrievedAugust 27, 2008.
  92. Melo, Frederick (July 21, 2014). "With Ford plant gone, St. Paul leaders seek model development". twincities.com. Pioneer Press. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 9, 2014.
  93. Mohan, Menaka; Richardson, Mike. "Updated Staff Review of Ryan Companies' (Ryan) Proposed Amendments to the Ford Site Zoning and Public Realm Master Plan"(PDF). City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original(PDF) on November 24, 2018. RetrievedNovember 23, 2018.
  94. "Frederick Melo: You don't know TIF!". Twin Cities. April 14, 2018. Archived from the original on April 15, 2018. RetrievedApril 15, 2018.
  95. Ice Palaces in Montreal 1883-89, The Ice Cubicle, [18] Archived October 14, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  96. "History of the Saint Paul Winter Carnival". St Paul Winter Carnival. 2008. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. RetrievedJuly 2, 2008.
  97. "Harry F. Schroeder, Jr. The Kid After Whom Charles M. Schulz Named His Beethoven-Loving Character in His "Peanuts" Cartoon". Delehanty – Sullivan – Kinsman – Schroeder Family History Workspace. 2006. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012.
  98. "Saint Paul kicks off encore to the successful 'Peanuts on Parade' summer art project". PRnewswire.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. RetrievedAugust 13, 2008.
  99. "John Vachon: A Register of His Papers in the Library of Congress". Prepared by Connie L. Cartledge. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. RetrievedOctober 10, 2007.CS1 maint: others (link)
  100. "Ordway Center for the Performing Arts". Ordway Center for the Performing Arts. 2006. Archived from the original on December 5, 2006. RetrievedDecember 7, 2006.
  101. Berryman, Don (April 21, 2004). "Artists' Quarter". Jazz Police. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  102. Gelhhar, Jenny (2007). "The Turf Club". Features. Saint Paul Almanac. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. RetrievedJuly 30, 2008.
  103. "History of the Rose Ensemble". Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. RetrievedNovember 23, 2008.
  104. Belcamino, Kristi. "O'Gara's Bar and Grill, a landmark St. Paul institution, won't reopen". Twin Cities.com. St. Paul Pioneer Press. RetrievedMarch 23, 2021.
  105. "Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra Three concerts". University of Chicago. 2008. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008.
  106. "Minnesota Centennial Showboat!". University of Minnesota. July 3, 2008. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. RetrievedJuly 29, 2008.
  107. "Goldstein Museum of Design". College of Design. Regents of the University of Minnesota. 2008. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. RetrievedJuly 31, 2008.
  108. "Hours, Parking, and Directions". Visitor Information. Minnesota Children's Museum. 2010. Archived from the original on December 13, 2010. RetrievedDecember 19, 2010.
  109. Ong, Bao (July 31, 2006). "Carlson's legacy: Schubert Club: Thanks to him, once-tiny arts group attracts top artists to Twin Cities". Pioneer Press. Archived from the original(registration required) on December 31, 2008. RetrievedJuly 31, 2008.
  110. "Schubert Club Museum of Musical Instruments". The Schubert Club. 2008. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. RetrievedJuly 31, 2008.
  111. Wyant, Carissa (July 26, 2008). "St. Paul art museum loses director; searches for new home". Minneapolis St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals, Inc. Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. RetrievedJuly 25, 2008.
  112. Abbe, Mary (July 21, 2008). "Same old struggles at the MMAA". Star Tribune. Chris Harte. p. 1. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. RetrievedJuly 21, 2008.
  113. "St. Paul Culture: Museums". M.R. Danielson Advertising Associates. 2002. Archived from the original on October 31, 2007. RetrievedDecember 7, 2006.
  114. Schulman, Andrew. "St. Paul takes SI Sportstown Honors for the Land of 10,000 Lakes". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. RetrievedOctober 30, 2007.
  115. Farber, Michael (December 4, 2007). "In Search of... Hockeytown U.S.A". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. RetrievedAugust 5, 2008.
  116. "About Xcel Energy Center". Minnesota Twins. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. RetrievedOctober 30, 2007.
  117. Mayo, Jonathan (February 12, 2021). "MLB Announces New Minors Teams, Leagues". Major League Baseball. RetrievedFebruary 12, 2021.
  118. "St. Paul Baseball History". St. Paul Saints. Archived from the original on July 17, 2006. RetrievedAugust 13, 2008.
  119. Sheldon, Mark (February 7, 2003). "Colored Gophers made history". MLB.com. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. RetrievedOctober 30, 2007.
  120. "About Us". St. Paul Twin Stars. Archived from the original on July 12, 2014. RetrievedDecember 19, 2010.
  121. "About the St. Paul Curling Club". Saint Paul Curling Club. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007.
  122. "Minnesota Boat Club". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. RetrievedAugust 28, 2008.
  123. Pioneer Press staff (June 19, 2012). "Tickets for Circus Juventas summer show announced". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. RetrievedOctober 4, 2014.
  124. Ervin, Phil (May 19, 2015). "MLS fight won, Minnesota United still going through 'process' of financing facility". Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. RetrievedOctober 24, 2015.
  125. "MLS Turns to St. Paul After United FC Misses Stadium Deadline for Expansion Rights". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. RetrievedOctober 24, 2015.
  126. "Fast Facts". mnufc.com. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017.
  127. Gonzalez, Roger (March 12, 2017). "Look: Minnesota United plays first MLS home match in the pouring snow". Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. RetrievedSeptember 5, 2018.
  128. Wawrow, John (September 7, 2021). "NWHL Rebrands to 'Premier Hockey Federation' to Promote Inclusivity, Inspire Youth". WNBC.
  129. Thiede, Dana (May 15, 2018). "MN Whitecaps join National Women's Hockey League". kare11.com.
  130. Ayala, Erica; Murphy, Mike (June 27, 2018). "The Whitecaps will call TRIA Rink home". theicegarden.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. RetrievedSeptember 5, 2018.
  131. "2018–19 NWHL Schedule Released". nwhl.zone. August 26, 2018. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. RetrievedSeptember 5, 2018.
  132. "Professional Sports". Meet Minneapolis. 2011. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. RetrievedFebruary 14, 2011.
  133. Quarstad, Brian (October 30, 2011). "NSC Minnesota Stars Win the 2011 NASL Championship". Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. RetrievedOctober 24, 2015.
  134. "Minnesota United crowned 2014 NASL spring champion". Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. RetrievedSeptember 15, 2019.
  135. "Description of Saint Paul's Form of Government". 2008 Mayor's Proposed Budget. City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original(pdf) on December 11, 2008. RetrievedNovember 10, 2007.
  136. "Sec. 2.01. Chief executive". Administrative Code. City of Saint Paul. RetrievedNovember 10, 2007.[dead link]
  137. "Sec. 4.01. Legislative power". Saint Paul City Charter. City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. RetrievedNovember 11, 2007.
  138. "Sec. 2.01. Elective officials". Saint Paul City Charter. City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. RetrievedNovember 11, 2007.
  139. "Sec. 4.01.2. Initial districts". Saint Paul City Charter. City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. RetrievedNovember 10, 2007.
  140. "Sec. 2.02. Terms". Saint Paul City Charter. City of Saint Paul. Archived from the original on February 17, 2003. RetrievedNovember 10, 2007.
  141. Ostermeier, Eric J. "Twin Cities Mayoral Historical Overview"(PDF). Center for the Study of Politics and Governance. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 25, 2008. RetrievedJanuary 1, 2008.
  142. "Ramsey County Home Rule Charter". Ramsey County. 2008. Archived from the original on October 18, 2008.
  143. "Ramsey County Building Locations". Ramsey County. 2008. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008.
  144. "Minnesota Senate Maps & Data". Geographic Information Services. Minnesota State Legislature. 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. RetrievedJuly 24, 2008.
  145. "Minnesota House Maps & Data". Geographic Information Services. Minnesota State Legislature. 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. RetrievedJuly 24, 2008.
  146. El Nasser, Haya (April 11, 2004). "Most livable? Depends on your definition". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. RetrievedOctober 16, 2007.
  147. "Post-Secondary Schools". Minnesota Department of Education. 2005. Archived from the original on December 12, 2006. RetrievedMarch 24, 2007.
  148. Saint Paul Public Schools. "About Us". Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. RetrievedJune 8, 2007.
  149. "Open Enrollment". Minnesota Department of Education. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. RetrievedNovember 19, 2010.
  150. "Charter School Facts". MN Association of Charter Schools. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. RetrievedNovember 6, 2007.
  151. Minnesota Department of Education (2005). "Alphabetical List of Nonpublic Schools". Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. and "Charter Schools". 2005. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. RetrievedJune 8, 2007.
  152. "Find a Location". Saint Paul Public Library. 2021. RetrievedNovember 5, 2021.
  153. Wyant, Carissa (November 5, 2007). "Report: Daily newspaper circulation falls over 2%". Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 19, 2011.
  154. "Stations". Minnesota Public Radio. 2008. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. RetrievedAugust 27, 2008.
  155. "Company Information". Minnesota Public Radio. 2008. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. RetrievedAugust 27, 2008.
  156. "The Fitzgerald Theater". Minnesota Public Radio. 2008. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. RetrievedAugust 15, 2008.
  157. "Bike-n-Ride by bus". Metro Transit. Archived from the original on August 20, 2007. RetrievedSeptember 20, 2007.
  158. "Nice Ride Minnesota: Ambitious plans set for 2014 season". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. RetrievedNovember 16, 2013.
  159. Gill, N.S. "Skyways: Downtown Minneapolis and St. Paul Skyways". About.com. About, Inc., The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. RetrievedMarch 15, 2007.
  160. Khoo, Michael (December 15, 2002). "The days of Jesse". Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 16, 2007.
  161. "Gov. Ventura Stumbles". New York Times. February 6, 1999. Archived from the original on June 7, 2010. RetrievedSeptember 16, 2007.
  162. L. Empson, Donald (2006). The Street Where You Live. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 17. ISBN 978-0-8166-4729-3.
  163. "Central Corridor next steps and timeline". Metropolitan Council. April 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. RetrievedApril 11, 2007.
  164. Murphy, Esme. "Talking Points: Green Line Opening Hailed A Big Success". Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. RetrievedJune 17, 2014.
  165. "A-Line". Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. RetrievedAugust 25, 2015.
  166. "St. Paul-Minneapolis, MN (MSP)". Amtrak. Archived from the original on April 4, 2007. RetrievedApril 26, 2007.
  167. Sommerhauser, Mark (July 24, 2008). "Mayors claim more riders should spur more service on Amtrak line". The Winona Daily News. Lee Enterprises. Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. RetrievedJuly 25, 2008.
  168. Moore, Janet (September 23, 2018). "Additional Twin Cities-Chicago rail service viable, study finds". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 24, 2018. RetrievedNovember 23, 2018.
  169. Rhodes, Michael (2003). North American Railyards. Saint Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7603-1578-1.
  170. Rhodes, Michael (2003). North American Railyards. Saint Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7603-1578-1.
  171. "St. Paul Downtown Airport". Metropolitan Airports Commission. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. RetrievedNovember 19, 2007.
  172. "Airlines". MSP Airport (mspairport.com). Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. RetrievedJune 17, 2021.
  173. "Pilot Groups". Air Line Pilots Association. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. RetrievedMarch 15, 2007.
  174. "Sister Cities and States of Minnesota". mn.gov. Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. RetrievedOctober 13, 2020.
  175. "St. Paul adds new sister city, Mogadishu. About a dozen others have that designation". twincities.com. Twin Cities Pioneer Press. May 10, 2019. RetrievedOctober 13, 2020.
Saint Paul, Minnesotaat Wikipedia's sister projects

Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul Minnesota Article Talk Language Watch Edit For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area see Minneapolis Saint Paul Saint Paul abbreviated St Paul is the capital of the U S state of Minnesota It is the county seat of Ramsey County the state s smallest in terms of area second most populous and most densely populated county 4 Historically a major railroad and commercial center the decline of those industries in the last half of the 20th century has changed the local economy and cultural identity of the city 5 Saint Paul MinnesotaState capital cityCity of Saint PaulClockwise from the top the Saint Paul Cathedral the Minnesota State Capitol the Marjorie McNeely Conservatory and the historic James J Hill HouseFlagSealNickname s the Capital City the Saintly City Pig s Eye STP Last City of the East Motto s The most livable city in America Interactive map of St PaulCoordinates 44 56 39 N 93 5 37 W 44 94417 N 93 09361 W 44 94417 93 09361 Coordinates 44 56 39 N 93 5 37 W 44 94417 N 93 09361 W 44 94417 93 09361Country United StatesState MinnesotaCountyRamseyIncorporatedMarch 4 1854Named forSt Paul the ApostleGovernment MayorMelvin Carter DFL BodySaint Paul City CouncilArea 1 City56 20 sq mi 145 55 km2 Land51 98 sq mi 134 62 km2 Water4 22 sq mi 10 93 km2 Elevation795 ft 214 m Population 2020 2 City311 527 RankCity 63rd MN 2nd Density5 993 20 sq mi 2 313 99 km2 Metro3 629 190 US 16th DemonymSaint PauliteTime zoneUTC 6 CST Summer DST UTC 5 CDT ZIP Codes55101 55108 55114 55116 55117 55119 55130Area code s 651FIPS code27 58000Major airportMinneapolis Saint Paul International AirportInterstatesU S RoutesPublic transportationMetro TransitWebsitestpaul gov Current as of July 30 2008 3 As of 2020 its population was 311 527 making it the 63rd largest city in the United States and the 11th most populous in the Midwest 6 Most of the city lies east of the Mississippi River at the confluence with the Minnesota River Minneapolis the state s largest city is across the river to the west Together they are known as the Twin Cities They are the core of Minneapolis Saint Paul metropolitan area home to over 3 6 million and the third largest in the Midwest 7 The Legislative Assembly of the Minnesota Territory established the Town of St Paul as its capital near existing Dakota Sioux settlements in November 1849 It remained a town until 1854 The Dakota name for where Saint Paul is situated is Imnizaska for the white rock bluffs along the river 8 The city is known for the Xcel Energy Center home to the Minnesota Wild 9 Regionally it is known for the Science Museum of Minnesota 10 and its new soccer stadium Allianz Field As a business hub of the Upper Midwest it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab 11 Saint Paul and Minneapolis are also known for their high literacy rate 12 The first structure in what became St Paul was constructed in 1838 at the entrance to Fountain Cave overlooking the Mississippi It was a tavern belonging to Pigs Eye Parrant near where Randolph Avenue today meets the river bluff Parrant s tavern was well known and the surrounding area came to be known as Pigs Eye That lasted until the Catholic missionary Lucien Galtier arrived in 1840 He did not care for Parrant his tavern or the name Pigseye Galtier s arrival coincided with Parrant s eviction from Fountain Cave and the building of a log chapel near where steamboats had an easy landing Galtier named the chapel St Paul s making it known that the settlement was then to be called by that name as Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated this monosyllable is short sounds good it is understood by all Christian denominations 13 While Pigs Eye was no longer the settlement s name it came to refer to wetlands and two islands south of the city s center The original town was laid out on two plats covering 240 acres 14 The first plat was filed in the Territory of Wisconsin the second in the Territory of Minnesota The boundaries were Elm Street 7th Street Wacouta Street and the river Between 1849 and 1887 the boundaries were expanded 14 times to their present extent As the region grew the city became the seat of an archdiocese that built St Paul s Cathedral overlooking the downtown Contents 1 History 2 Geography 2 1 Neighborhoods 3 Climate 4 Demographics 4 1 2010 census 5 Economy 6 Culture 7 Sports 8 Government and politics 8 1 State and federal 9 Education 10 Media 11 Transportation 11 1 Interstate and roadways 11 2 Mass transit 11 3 Railroad 11 4 Airports 12 Sister cities 13 Notable people 14 See also 15 References 16 External linksHistory EditMain article History of Saint Paul Minnesota A burial mound at Indian Mounds Park Burial mounds in present day Indian Mounds Park suggest the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about 2 000 years ago 15 16 From the early 17th century to 1837 the Mdewakanton Dakota a tribe of the Sioux lived near the mounds after being displaced from their ancestral grounds by Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe 15 17 The Dakota called the area Imniza Ska white cliffs for its exposed white sandstone cliffs on the river s eastern side 18 19 The Imniza Ska were full of caves that were useful to the Dakota The explorer Jonathan Carver documented the historic Wakan tipi in the bluff below the burial mounds in 1767 In the Menominee language St Paul was called Saenepan Menikan which means ribbon silk or satin village suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods 20 After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase U S Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike negotiated approximately 100 000 acres 40 000 ha 160 sq mi of land from the indigenous Dakota in 1805 to establish a fort A military reservation was intended for the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers on both sides of the Mississippi up to Saint Anthony Falls All of what is now the Highland park neighborhood was included in this Pike planned a second military reservation at the confluence of the St Croix and Mississippi rivers 21 In 1819 Fort Snelling was built at the Minnesota and Mississippi confluence The 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all tribal lands east of the Mississippi to the U S government 22 Chief Little Crow V moved his village Kaposia from south of Mounds Park across the river a few miles onto Dakota land 23 24 Fur traders explorers and settlers came to the area for the fort s security Many were French Canadians who predated American pioneers by some time A whiskey trade flourished among the squatters and the fort s commander evicted them all from the fort s reservation Fur trader turned bootlegger Pig s Eye Parrant who set up business just outside the reservation particularly irritated the commander 25 19 By the early 1840s a community had developed nearby that locals called Pig s Eye French L Œil du Cochon or Pig s Eye Landing after Parrant s popular tavern 25 In 1842 a raiding party of Ojibwe attacked the Kaposia encampment south of St Paul A battle ensued where a creek drained into wetlands two miles south of Wakan Tipi 26 The creek was thereafter called Battle Creek and is today parkland In the 1840s 70s the Metis brought their oxen and Red River Carts down Kellogg Street to Lambert s landing to send buffalo hides to market from the Red River of the North St Paul was the southern terminus of the Red River Trails In 1840 Pierre Bottineau became a prominent resident with a claim near the settlement s center 27 Joe Rolette was responsible for preventing the capital of Minnesota from moving to Saint Peter In 1841 Catholic missionary Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the French Canadians at Mendota He had a chapel he named for St Paul built on the bluff above the riverboat landing downriver from Fort Snelling 28 29 Galtier informed the settlers that they were to adopt the chapel s name for the settlement and cease the use of Pigs Eye 25 In 1847 New York educator Harriet Bishop moved to the settlement and opened the city s first school 30 The Minnesota Territory was created in 1849 with Saint Paul as the capital The U S Army made the territory s first improved road Point Douglas Fort Ripley Military Road in 1850 It passed through what became St Paul neighborhoods 31 In 1857 the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter but Joe Rolette a territorial legislator stole the text of the bill and went into hiding preventing the move 32 States were mandated to create militias to augment federal forces St Paul was the territory s first community to do so when it established the Pioneer Guard in 1856 On May 11 1858 Minnesota gained statehood as the 32nd state with Saint Paul its capital When the Civil War broke out the state learned Governor Ramsey had volunteered a regiment to fight the South Communities across the state sent their militias as volunteers for the regiment St Paul sent its Pioneer Guard to form A and C Companies of the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Josias Redgate King of the St Paul Pioneer Guard is credited with being the first man to volunteer for the Union in the Civil War Ramsey s telegraphed message back to Minnesota brought the Pioneer Guard to the St Paul armory on April 15 King was the first to step forward and sign his name 33 Stereoscopic view of St Paul Red river ox cart and driver in St Paul The year 1858 saw more than 1 000 steamboats service Saint Paul 30 making it a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory Geography was a primary reason the city became a transportation hub The location was the last good point to land riverboats coming upriver due to the river valley s topography For a time Saint Paul was called The Last City of the East 34 Fort Snelling was important to St Paul from the start Direct access from St Paul did not happen until the 7th bridge was built in 1880 Before that there was a cable ferry crossing dating to at latest the 1840s Once streetcars appeared a new bridge to St Paul was built in 1904 Until the town built its first jail the fort s brig served St Paul Minnesota s first execution took place in St Paul in 1860 A woman named Ann Bilansky was sentenced to hang The state legislature voted to commute her sentence to life imprisonment but Governor Ramsey vetoed that and issued her death warrant She was the only woman ever executed in Minnesota 35 In 1906 the hanging of William Williams was botched in St Paul becoming a strangulation that took 14 minutes 35 The news of the botched execution brought an end to capital punishment in Minnesota 36 Industrialist James J Hill founded his railroad empire in St Paul The Great Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific Railway were both headquartered in St Paul until they merged with the Burlington Northern Today they are part of the BNSF Railway 34 Prostitution was against both state and city law but a system in St Paul dating to 1863 made it quasi legitimate 37 38 The madam of a brothel would appear in court once a month to pay a fine for operating a disorderly house 37 Post Civil War St Paul developed two districts of vice 39 The more infamous was under the hill on and around Eagle Street 39 In the 1870s the town had gained a reputation for being tough 38 It had twice Minneapolis s number of brothels dozens more saloons 38 and one more brewery By the mid 1880s it had 14 brothels and a few cigar store front operations 38 The city s most famous high end madam was Nina Clifford 39 40 She ran her brothel until her death in 1929 A chandelier from it was mounted in the mayor s office when it was razed 39 In 1887 the Minnesota Reserve National Guard was made the Guard s 3rd Infantry Regiment headquartered at the St Paul Armory Company C was made up of men from the city For the Spanish American War the Regiment was redesignated 14th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Company E was men from Merriam Park The Spanish American War saw the trans Atlantic ocean liner SS St Paul converted and commissioned into the United States Navy as an auxiliary cruiser She was the first ship in the navy to bear the city s name She was decommissioned and returned to her owners only to be conscripted again for WWI after which she was again decommissioned and scrapped When hostilities broke out with Spain volunteers were requested from the states Minnesota quickly had enough to form four units the 12th 15th Minnesota Infantry Regiments Of these only the 13th was deployed to the Philippines Companies C D E amp H were from St Paul and saw heavy combat in Manila 41 In 1900 an Irishman John O Connor became chief of the St Paul police and was known on the street as the Big Fellow 42 That year he instituted the O Connor Layover Agreement and made an effort to inform criminals of its existence 42 St Paul police would ignore any transgressions of the law that took place outside their jurisdiction as long as criminals checked in when they arrived in town 43 There were three conditions to the agreement check in with the police pay a donation to the chief and commit no crimes in St Paul 42 Check in was at the Savoy Hotel downtown 43 A great deal of business was taken care of at the Green Lantern speakeasy near the train station in Lowertown It was also known for illegal gaming 43 More got done in the caves across the river from downtown In 1930 the local mob even arranged that St Paul s new police chief would be Tom Brown The Agreement lasted through the prohibition until 1935 42 In that time St Paul welcomed Al Capone 43 John Dillinger Billie Frechette Ma Barker Baby Face Nelson Alvin Karpis Machine Gun Kelly Kid Cann and many of their Irish associates 42 To skirt the Layover rules Barker s gang resided a block outside of the city on Robert Street Karpis said There was probably never before as complete a gathering of criminals in one room in the United States as there was in the Green Lantern on New Year s Eve in 1931 There were escapees from every U S Penitentiary I was dazzled 44 Bonnie and Clyde are also known to have called on the city According to crime historian Paul Maccabee the only criminal there is no record of visiting St Paul during the Layover period is Pretty Boy Floyd 45 In 1933 the St Paul police department closed St Paul s doors to organized crime 42 On August 20 1904 severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings causing 1 78 million 51 27 million today in damages and ripping spans from the High Bridge 46 When the United States entered World War I Minnesota s National Guard was activated To fill the void the state created the Minnesota Home Guard St Paul provided the men of Companies A D of the 1st Home Guard Battalion 47 It also provided the men for Companies A B Hq and the band of the 16th Battalion the first African American unit formed in Minnesota 48 Because of the bigotry the men experienced at enlistment they insisted their officers be black 48 When the war ended the Home guard was disbanded but the community supported incorporating the 16th into the National Guard Instead in April 1919 the Minnesota legislature approved the formation of the First Infantry Battalion of the Minnesota Militia with the men of the 16th 48 In 1917 the Twin City Rapid Transit Company TCRTC fired 57 men identified as leaders of the streetcar drivers vote to unionize Other drivers walked off the job to show their support and rioting took place in St Paul 49 Many non union drivers were injured and numerous streetcars were vandalized 49 The Home Guard was called out and the strike was broken with 800 losing their jobs 50 The riots led to the formation of the Farmer Labor coalition often cited as one of the most successful third parties in U S history It later merged with the state Democratic Party to form the DFL 49 Minnesota senator Andrew Volstead had his office in what is now the Landmark Center In 1919 he wrote the Volstead Act there which began Prohibition Also around that time the citizens of St Paul signed a petition requesting that Congress create a national cemetery in the region 51 It took time but in 1937 Congress responded by creating Fort Snelling National Cemetery 51 In 1920 a St Paul councilman the Commissioner of Safety Aloysius Smith asked the St Paul Police to create a youth safety program for schools 52 At first it was just public schools but program administrator Sergeant Frank Hetznecker went to the archdiocese to ask if the parochial schools wanted to be involved and they did 52 Cathedral School headmistress Sister Carmela Hanggi was a strong supporter of the program 53 In February 1921 the first student monitored school patrol crossing took place on Kellogg Boulevard by Cathedral students The school patrol Sam Browne belt with badge that became synonymous with school patrol across the country came from the St Paul program 52 On the morning of December 7 1941 the USS Ward was manned by reservists of Minnesota s naval militia 54 It had a crew of 115 of whom 85 were from St Paul That morning they were stationed at the entrance to Pearl Harbor A periscope was sighted trailing a freighter and the Ward took action becoming the first Americans to fire their weapons in WWII combat The Ward s No 3 gun is displayed on the State Capitol grounds WWII saw the second USS St Paul commissioned as a Baltimore class cruiser That ship s bell is on display in Saint Paul s city hall During the 1960s in conjunction with urban renewal Saint Paul razed neighborhoods west of downtown for the creation of the interstate freeway system 55 From 1959 to 1961 the Rondo Neighborhood was demolished for the construction of Interstate 94 The loss of that African American enclave brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities 56 The annual Rondo Days celebration commemorates the African American community 57 Downtown St Paul had skyscraper building booms beginning in the 1970s Because the city center is directly beneath the flight path into the airport across the river there is a height restriction for all construction The tallest buildings such as Galtier Plaza Jackson and Sibley Towers The Pointe of Saint Paul condominiums and the city s tallest building Wells Fargo Place formerly Minnesota World Trade Center were constructed in the late 1980s 58 In the 1990s and 2000s the tradition of bringing new immigrant groups to the city continued As of 2004 nearly 10 of the city s population were recent Hmong immigrants from Vietnam Laos Cambodia Thailand and Myanmar 59 Saint Paul is the location of the Hmong Archives 60 Geography Edit The Meeker Island Lock and Dam was the first lock and dam on the Mississippi River in 1902 Saint Paul s history and growth as a landing port are tied to water The city s defining physical characteristic the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers was carved into the region during the last ice age as were the steep river bluffs and dramatic palisades on which the city is built Receding glaciers and Lake Agassiz forced torrents of water from a glacial river that undercut the river valleys 61 The city is situated in east central Minnesota The Mississippi River forms a municipal boundary on part of the city s west southwest and southeast sides Minneapolis the state s largest city lies to the west Falcon Heights Lauderdale Roseville and Maplewood are north with Maplewood lying to the east The cities of West Saint Paul and South Saint Paul are to the south as are Lilydale Mendota and Mendota Heights across the river from the city The city s largest lakes are Pig s Eye Lake which is part of the Mississippi Lake Phalen and Lake Como According to the United States Census Bureau the city has a total area of 56 18 square miles 145 51 km2 of which 51 98 square miles 134 63 km2 is land and 4 20 square miles 10 88 km2 is water 62 The Parks and Recreation department is responsible for 160 parks and 41 recreation centers 63 The city ranked 2 in park access and quality after only Minneapolis in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land 64 Neighborhoods Edit Main article Neighborhoods of Saint Paul Saint Paul s Department of Planning and Economic Development divides Saint Paul into seventeen Planning Districts created in 1979 to allow neighborhoods to participate in governance and use Community Development Block Grants With a funding agreement directly from the city the councils share a pool of funds 65 The councils have significant land use control a voice in guiding development and they organize residents 66 The boundaries are adjusted depending on population changes as such they sometimes overlap established neighborhoods 67 Though these neighborhoods changed over time preservationists have saved many of their historically significant structures The city s 17 Planning Districts are Sunray Battle Creek Highwood Greater East Side West Side Dayton s Bluff Payne Phalen North End Thomas Dale Frogtown Summit University West Seventh Como Park Hamline Midway Saint Anthony Park Union Park Macalester Groveland Highland Park Summit Hill DowntownClimate EditSee also Climate of the Twin Cities and Climate of Minnesota The city skyline from the southwest in the winter Saint Paul has a continental climate typical of the Upper Midwestern United States Winters are frigid and snowy while summers are warm to hot and humid On the Koppen climate classification Saint Paul falls in the hot summer humid continental climate zone Dfa The city experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events including snow sleet ice rain thunderstorms tornadoes and fog 68 Due to its northerly location and lack of large bodies of water to moderate the air Saint Paul is sometimes subjected to cold Arctic air masses especially during late December January and February The average annual temperature of 46 5 F 8 1 C gives the Minneapolis Saint Paul metropolitan area the coldest annual mean temperature of any major metropolitan area in the continental U S 69 Climate data for St Paul Downtown Airport Minnesota 1991 2020 normals extremes 1872 present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high F C 58 14 64 18 83 28 93 34 99 37 101 38 104 40 104 40 101 38 90 32 78 26 63 17 104 40 Average high F C 23 9 4 5 28 7 1 8 41 7 5 4 56 8 13 8 68 9 20 5 78 5 25 8 82 6 28 1 80 4 26 9 72 4 22 4 58 0 14 4 42 1 5 6 28 6 1 9 55 2 12 9 Daily mean F C 16 3 8 7 20 8 6 2 33 1 0 6 47 0 8 3 58 9 14 9 68 8 20 4 73 3 22 9 71 1 21 7 62 9 17 2 49 0 9 4 34 6 1 4 21 7 5 7 46 5 8 1 Average low F C 8 6 13 0 12 9 10 6 24 6 4 1 37 2 2 9 48 9 9 4 59 2 15 1 64 0 17 8 61 7 16 5 53 4 11 9 40 0 4 4 27 1 2 7 14 8 9 6 37 7 3 2 Record low F C 41 41 33 36 26 32 6 14 23 5 34 1 45 7 39 4 28 2 8 13 25 32 39 39 41 41 Average precipitation inches mm 0 48 12 0 52 13 1 43 36 2 58 66 3 97 101 4 63 118 3 97 101 4 10 104 3 08 78 2 47 63 1 32 34 0 65 17 29 20 742 Average precipitation days 0 01 in 4 0 4 3 7 1 10 6 12 7 13 0 9 9 10 0 9 6 9 2 6 2 4 9 101 5Source 1 NOAA 70 71 Source 2 The Weather Channel 72 Demographics EditHistorical populationCensus Pop 18501 112 186010 401835 3 187020 03092 6 188041 473107 1 1890133 156221 1 1900163 06522 5 1910214 74431 7 1920234 6989 3 1930271 60615 7 1940287 7365 9 1950311 3498 2 1960313 4110 7 1970309 980 1 1 1980270 230 12 8 1990272 2350 7 2000287 1515 5 2010285 068 0 7 2020311 5279 3 U S Decennial Census 73 Main article Demographics of Saint Paul Demographic profile 2010 74 2000 75 1990 76 1970 76 White 60 1 67 0 82 3 95 4 Non Hispanic 55 9 64 0 80 4 93 6 77 Black or African American 15 7 11 7 7 4 3 5 Hispanic or Latino of any race 9 6 7 9 4 2 2 1 77 Asian 15 0 12 4 7 1 0 2 Map of racial distribution in Minneapolis St Paul 2010 U S Census Each dot is 25 people White Black Asian Hispanic of any race or Other yellow The earliest known inhabitants from about 400 A D were members of the Hopewell tradition who buried their dead in mounds now Indian Mounds Park on the river bluffs The next known inhabitants were the Mdewakanton Dakota in the 17th century who fled their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake in central Minnesota in response to westward expansion of the Ojibwe nation 17 The Ojibwe later occupied the north east bank of the Mississippi River By 1800 French Canadian explorers came through the region and attracted fur traders to the area Fort Snelling and Pig s Eye Tavern also brought the first Yankees from New England and English Irish and Scottish immigrants who had enlisted in the army and settled nearby after discharge These early settlers and entrepreneurs built houses on the heights north of the river The first wave of immigration came with the Irish who settled at Connemara Patch along the Mississippi named for their home Connemara Ireland The Irish became prolific in politics city governance and public safety much to the chagrin of the Germans and French who had grown into the majority In 1850 the first of many groups of Swedish immigrants passed through Saint Paul on their way to farming communities in northern and western regions of the territory A large group settled in Swede Hollow which later became home to Poles Italians and Mexicans The last Swedish presence moved up Saint Paul s East Side along Payne Avenue in the 1950s 78 Of people who specified European ancestry in the 2005 07 American Community Survey of St Paul 26 4 were German 13 8 Irish 8 4 Norwegian 7 0 Swedish and 6 2 English There is also a visible community of people of Sub Saharan African ancestry representing 4 2 of the population By the 1980s the Thomas Dale area once an Austro Hungarian enclave known as Frogtown German Froschburg became home to Vietnamese people who had left their war torn country A settlement program for the Hmong diaspora came soon after and by 2000 the Saint Paul Hmong were the largest urban contingent in the United States 79 80 81 Mexican immigrants have settled in Saint Paul s West Side since the 1930s and have grown enough that Mexico opened a foreign consulate in 2005 82 83 The majority of residents claiming religious affiliation are Christian split between the Roman Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations The Roman Catholic presence comes from Irish German Scottish and French Canadian settlers who in time were bolstered by Hispanic immigrants There are Jewish synagogues such as Mount Zion Temple and relatively small populations of Hindus Muslims and Buddhists 84 The city has been dubbed paganistan due to its large Wiccan population 85 As of the 2005 07 American Community Survey White Americans made up 66 5 of Saint Paul s population of whom 62 1 were non Hispanic whites down from 93 6 in 1970 76 Blacks or African Americans made up 13 9 of the population of whom 13 5 were non Hispanic blacks American Indians made up 0 8 of whom 0 6 were non Hispanic Asian Americans made up 12 3 of whom 12 2 were non Hispanic Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0 1 People of other races made up 3 4 of whom 0 2 were non Hispanic Individuals from two or more races made up 3 1 of whom 2 6 were non Hispanic In addition Hispanics and Latinos made up 8 7 As of the 2000 U S Census 86 there were 287 151 people 112 109 households and 60 999 families residing in the city The racial makeup of the city was 67 0 White 11 7 African American 1 1 Native American 12 4 Asian mostly Hmong 0 1 Pacific Islander 3 8 from other races and 3 9 from two or more races Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 7 9 of the population 2010 census Edit As of the 2010 census 2 there were 285 068 people 111 001 households and 59 689 families residing in the city The population density was 5 484 2 inhabitants per square mile 2 117 5 km2 There were 120 795 housing units at an average density of 2 323 9 per square mile 897 3 km2 The racial makeup of the city was 60 1 white 15 7 African American 1 1 Native American 15 0 Asian 0 1 Pacific Islander 3 9 from other races and 4 2 from two or more races Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 9 6 of the population There were 111 001 households of which 30 4 had children under the age of 18 living with them 34 1 were married couples living together 14 8 had a female householder with no husband present 4 9 had a male householder with no wife present and 46 2 were non families 35 8 of all households were made up of individuals and 8 5 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 2 47 and the average family size was 3 33 The median age in the city was 30 9 years 25 1 of residents were under the age of 18 13 9 were between the ages of 18 and 24 29 6 were from 25 to 44 22 6 were from 45 to 64 and 9 were 65 years of age or older The gender makeup of the city was 48 9 male and 51 1 female Economy Edit The Ford Motor Company s Twin Cities Assembly Plant in 2006 The Minneapolis Saint Paul Bloomington area employs 1 570 700 people in the private sector as of July 2008 82 43 of whom work in private service providing related jobs 87 Major corporations headquartered in Saint Paul include Ecolab a chemical and cleaning product company 88 that the Minneapolis St Paul Business Journal named in 2008 as the eighth best place to work in the Twin Cites for companies with 1 000 full time Minnesota employees 89 and Securian Financial Group Inc 90 The 3M Company moved to St Paul in 1910 It built a art deco headquarters at 900 Bush that still stands Headquarters operations moved to the Maplewood campus in 1964 3M manufacturing continued for a couple more decades until all St Paul operations ceased The city was home to the Ford Motor Company s Twin Cities Assembly Plant which opened in 1924 and closed at the end of 2011 The plant was in Highland Park on the Mississippi River adjacent to Lock and Dam No 1 Mississippi River which generates hydroelectric power 91 The site is now being cleared of buildings and tested for contamination to prepare for redevelopment 92 The lead developer the Ryan Company has released a proposed set of zoning changes that will shape how the land will be used 93 Saint Paul has financed city development with tax increment financing TIF In 2018 it had 55 TIF districts Projects that have benefited from TIF funding include the St Paul Saints stadium and the affordable housing along the Twin Cities Metro Green Line 94 Culture Edit Como Park Zoo and Conservatory is a free public greenhouse and urban zoo open year round Every January Saint Paul hosts the Saint Paul Winter Carnival a tradition that began in 1886 when a New York reporter called Saint Paul another Siberia The organizers had a model in the Montreal Winter Carnival the year before Architect A C Hutchinson designed the Montreal ice castle and was hired to design St Paul s first 95 The event has now been held 135 times with an attendance of 350 000 It includes an ice sculpting competition a snow sculpting competition a medallion treasure hunt food activities and an ice palace when it can be arranged 96 The Como Zoo and Conservatory and adjoining Japanese Garden are popular year round The historic Landmark Center in downtown Saint Paul hosts cultural and arts organizations The city s recreation sites include Indian Mounds Park Battle Creek Regional Park Harriet Island Regional Park Highland Park the Wabasha Street Caves Lake Como Lake Phalen and Rice Park as well as several areas abutting the Mississippi River The Irish Fair of Minnesota is held annually at the Harriet Island Pavilion area The country s largest Hmong American sports festival the Freedom Festival is held the first weekend of July at McMurray Field near Como Park The city is associated with the Minnesota State Fair in neighboring Falcon Heights just west of Como Park The fair dates to before statehood With the competing interests of Minneapolis and St Paul it was held on neutral ground between both That area refused to become part of St Paul or Roseville and became Falcon Heights in the 1950s The University of Minnesota Saint Paul Campus is actually in Falcon Heights Fort Snelling is often identified as being in St Paul but is actually its own unorganized territory The eastern part of Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory MSP included has a St Paul mailing address The western side has a Minneapolis ZIP code The Minnesota Centennial Showboat was anchored in the Mississippi River along Harriet Island Saint Paul is the birthplace of cartoonist Charles M Schulz who lived in Merriam Park from infancy until 1960 97 Schulz s Peanuts inspired giant decorated sculptures around the city a Chamber of Commerce promotion in the late 1990s 98 Other notable residents include writer F Scott Fitzgerald and playwright August Wilson who premiered many of the ten plays in his Pittsburgh Cycle at the local Penumbra Theater 99 The Ordway Center for the Performing Arts hosts theater productions and the Minnesota Opera is a founding tenant 100 RiverCentre attached to Xcel Energy Center serves as the city s convention center The city has contributed to the music of Minnesota and the Twin Cities music scene through various venues Great jazz musicians have passed through the influential Artists Quarter first established in the 1970s in Whittier Minneapolis and moved to downtown Saint Paul in 1994 101 Artists Quarter also hosts the Soapboxing Poetry Slam home of the 2009 National Poetry Slam Champions At The Black Dog in Lowertown many French or European jazz musicians Evan Parker Tony Hymas Benoit Delbecq Francois Corneloup have met Twin Cities musicians and started new groups touring in Europe Groups and performers such as Fantastic Merlins Dean Magraw Davu Seru Merciless Ghosts and Willie Murphy are regulars The Turf Club in Midway has been a music scene landmark since the 1940s 102 Saint Paul is also the home base of the internationally acclaimed Rose Ensemble 103 As an Irish stronghold the city boasts popular Irish pubs with live music such as Shamrocks The Dubliner and until its closure in 2019 O Gara s 104 The internationally acclaimed Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra is the nation s only full time professional chamber orchestra 105 The Minnesota Centennial Showboat on the Mississippi River began in 1958 with Minnesota s first centennial celebration 106 Saint Paul hosts a number of museums including the University of Minnesota s Goldstein Museum of Design 107 the Minnesota Children s Museum 108 the Schubert Club Museum of Musical Instruments 109 110 the Minnesota Museum of American Art 111 112 the Traces Center for History and Culture 113 the Minnesota History Center the Alexander Ramsey House the James J Hill House the Minnesota Transportation Museum the Science Museum of Minnesota and the Twin City Model Railroad Museum Sports EditMain articles Sports in Minneapolis Saint Paul and Sports in Minnesota The Xcel Energy Center hosts hockey and other professional sports in addition to concerts and other events The Saint Paul division of Parks and Recreation runs over 1 500 organized sports teams 114 Saint Paul hosts a number of professional semi professional and amateur sports teams The Minnesota Wild 9 play their home games in downtown Saint Paul s Xcel Energy Center which opened in 2000 The Wild brought the NHL back to Minnesota for the first time since 1993 when the Minnesota North Stars left the state for Dallas Texas 9 The World Hockey Association s Minnesota Fighting Saints played in Saint Paul from 1972 to 1977 Citing the history of hockey in the Twin Cities and teams at all levels Sports Illustrated called Saint Paul the new Hockeytown U S A in 2007 115 The Xcel Energy Center a multipurpose entertainment and sports venue can host concerts and accommodate nearly all sporting events It occupies the site of the demolished Saint Paul Civic Center The Xcel Energy Center hosts the Minnesota high school boys hockey tournament the Minnesota high school girls volleyball tournament and concerts throughout the year In 2004 it was named the best overall sports venue in the US by ESPN 116 Two Circus Juventas students on silks The St Paul Saints are the city s Minor League Baseball team which plays in the Triple A East as an affiliate of the Minnesota Twins 117 There have been several different teams called the Saints over the years Founded in 1884 they were shut down in 1961 after the Minnesota Twins moved to Bloomington The Saints were brought back in 1993 as an independent baseball team in the Northern League moving to the American Association in 2006 They joined affiliated baseball in 2021 Their home games are played at the open air CHS Field in downtown s Lowertown Historic District 118 Four noted Major League All Star baseball players are natives of Saint Paul Hall of Fame outfielder Dave Winfield Hall of Fame infielder Paul Molitor Hall of Fame pitcher Jack Morris and first baseman Joe Mauer The all black St Paul Colored Gophers played four seasons in Saint Paul from 1907 to 1911 119 The St Paul Twin Stars of the National Premier Soccer League play their home games at Macalester Stadium 120 St Paul s first curling club was founded in 1888 The current club the St Paul Curling Club was founded in 1912 and is the largest curling club in the United States 121 The Minnesota RollerGirls are a flat track roller derby league based in the Roy Wilkins Auditorium Minnesota s oldest athletic organization the Minnesota Boat Club resides in the Mississippi River on Raspberry Island 122 Saint Paul is also home to Circus Juventas the largest circus arts school in North America 123 On March 25 2015 Major League Soccer announced that it had awarded its 23rd MLS franchise to Minnesota United FC a team from the lower level North American Soccer League Bill McGuire and his ownership group which includes Jim Pohlad of the Minnesota Twins Glen Taylor of the Minnesota Timberwolves former Minnesota Wild investor Glen Nelson and his daughter Wendy Carlson Nelson of the Carlson hospitality company had intended to build a privately financed soccer specific stadium in Downtown Minneapolis near the Minneapolis Farmer s Market But their plan was met with heavy opposition from former Minneapolis Mayor Betsy Hodges who said her city was suffering from stadium fatigue after building three stadiums for the Minnesota Twins Minnesota Vikings and the Minnesota Golden Gophers within a six year span 124 On July 1 2015 after failing to reach an agreement with the city of Minneapolis McGuire and his partners turned their focus to Saint Paul 125 On October 23 2015 Bill McGuire of Minnesota United FC and former Saint Paul Mayor Chris Coleman announced that a privately financed soccer specific stadium would be built on the vacant Metro Transit bus barn site in Saint Paul s Midway neighborhood near the intersection of Snelling Avenue and University Avenue It is midway between downtown Saint Paul and downtown Minneapolis The stadium Allianz Field opened in April 2019 and seats 19 400 126 The team began playing in the MLS in 2017 127 On May 15 2018 the Minnesota Whitecaps joined the Premier Hockey Federation the former National Women s Hockey League 128 as its fifth franchise 129 Founded in 2004 the team originally played in the Western Women s Hockey League before going independent in 2010 when that league folded The Whitecaps play their home games at TRIA Rink a 1 200 seat arena and practice facility in downtown Saint Paul 130 The team began playing in the PHF in 2018 131 The Timberwolves Twins Vikings and Lynx all play in Minneapolis 132 Professional sports in Saint Paul Club Sport League Venue capacity ChampionshipsMinnesota Wild Ice hockey National Hockey League Xcel Energy Center 17 954 Minnesota Whitecaps Ice hockey Premier Hockey Federation TRIA Rink 1 200 Clarkson Cup 2010 Isobel Cup 2019Minnesota United FC Soccer Major League Soccer Allianz Field 19 400 NASL 2011 133 and 2014 134 Minnesota Wind Chill Ultimate American Ultimate Disc League Sea Foam Stadium 3 500 St Paul Saints Baseball Triple A East CHS Field 7 210 NL 1993 1995 1996 and 2004 AA 2019Government and politics EditMain articles Government and politics in Saint Paul Minnesota and List of mayors of Saint Paul Minnesota Minnesota State Capitol Saint Paul has a variant of the strong mayor council form of government 135 The mayor is the chief executive and chief administrative officer of the city and the seven member city council is its legislative body 136 137 The mayor is elected by the entire city while members of the city council are elected from seven different geographic wards of approximately equal population 138 139 Both the mayor and council members serve four year terms 140 The current mayor is Melvin Carter DFL Saint Paul s first African American mayor Aside from Norm Coleman who became a Republican during his second term Saint Paul has not elected a Republican mayor since 1952 141 Saint Paul City Hall and Ramsey County Courthouse The city is also the county seat of Ramsey County named for Alexander Ramsey the state s first governor The county once spanned much of the present day metropolitan area and was originally to be named Saint Paul County after the city Today it is geographically the smallest county and the most densely populated 4 Ramsey is the only home rule county in Minnesota the seven member Board of Commissioners appoints a county manager whose office is in the combination city hall county courthouse along with the Minnesota Second Judicial Courts 142 143 The nearby Law Enforcement Center houses the Ramsey County Sheriff s office State and federal Edit See also Minnesota Legislature and Politics of Minnesota Federal representation Saint Paul is the capital of Minnesota The city hosts the capitol building designed by Saint Paul resident Cass Gilbert and the House and Senate office buildings The Minnesota Governor s Residence which is used for some state functions is on Summit Avenue The Minnesota Democratic Farmer Labor Party affiliated with the Democratic Party is headquartered in Saint Paul Numerous state departments and services are also headquartered in Saint Paul such as the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources The city is split into four Minnesota Senate districts 64 65 66 and 67 and eight Minnesota House of Representatives districts 64A 64B 65A 65B 66A 66B 67A and 67B all of which are held by Democrats 144 145 Saint Paul is the heart of Minnesota s 4th congressional district represented by Democrat Betty McCollum The district has been in DFL hands without interruption since 1949 Minnesota is represented in the US Senate by Democrat Amy Klobuchar a former Hennepin County Attorney and Democrat Tina Smith former Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota Minnesota House and Senate districtsSenate HouseName First elected Party Name First elected Party64 Dick Cohen 1986 DFL 64A Kaohly Her 2018 DFL64B Dave Pinto 2014 DFL65 Sandy Pappas 1990 DFL 65A Rena Moran 2010 DFL65B Carlos Mariani 1990 DFL66 John Marty 1992 DFL 66A John Lesch 2002 DFL66B Alice Hausman 1989 DFL67 Foung Hawj 2012 DFL 67A Tim Mahoney 1998 DFL67B Jay Xiong 2018 DFL District also includes Falcon Heights Lauderdale and Roseville Education EditMain article Education in Saint Paul Minnesota 1930s era students at Hamline University taking finals Saint Paul is second in the United States in the number of higher education institutions per capita behind Boston 146 Higher education institutions that call Saint Paul home include three public and eight private colleges and universities and five post secondary institutions Well known colleges and universities include the Saint Catherine University Concordia University Hamline University Macalester College and the University of St Thomas Metropolitan State University and Saint Paul College which focus on non traditional students are based in Saint Paul as well as a law school Mitchell Hamline School of Law 147 The Saint Paul Public Schools district is the state s largest school district and serves approximately 39 000 students The district is extremely diverse with students from families speaking 90 different languages although only five languages are used for most school communication English Spanish Hmong Karen and Somali The district runs 82 different schools including 52 elementary schools 12 middle schools seven high schools ten alternative schools and one special education school employing over 6 500 teachers and staff The school district also oversees community education programs for pre K and adult learners including Early Childhood Family Education GED Diploma language programs and various learning opportunities for community members of all ages In 2006 Saint Paul Public Schools celebrated its 150th anniversary 148 Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota s open enrollment statute 149 A variety of K 12 private parochial and public charter schools are also represented in the city In 1992 Saint Paul became the first city in the US to sponsor and open a charter school now found in most states across the nation 150 Saint Paul is currently home to 21 charter schools as well as 38 private schools 151 The Saint Paul Public Library system includes a central library twelve branch locations and a bookmobile 152 Media EditMain article Media in the Twin Cities Minnesota Public Radio headquarters in downtown Saint Paul Residents of Saint Paul can receive 10 broadcast television stations five of which broadcast from within Saint Paul One daily newspaper the St Paul Pioneer Press two weekly neighborhood newspapers the East Side Review and City Pages owned by The Star Tribune Company and several monthly or semimonthly neighborhood papers serve the city It was the only city in the United States with a population of 250 000 or more to see an increase in circulation of Sunday newspapers in 2007 153 Several media outlets based in neighboring Minneapolis also serve the Saint Paul community including the Star Tribune Saint Paul is home to Minnesota Public Radio MPR a three format system that broadcasts on nearly 40 stations 154 around the Midwest MPR locally delivers news and information classical and The Current which plays a wide variety of music The station has 110 000 regional members and more than 800 000 listeners each week throughout the Upper Midwest the largest audience of any regional public radio network 155 Also operating as part of American Public Media MPR s programming reaches five million listeners most notably through Live from Here hosted by Chris Thile previously known as A Prairie Home Companion hosted by Garrison Keillor who also lives in the city 155 The Fitzgerald Theater renamed in 1994 for Saint Paul native and novelist F Scott Fitzgerald is home to the show 156 Transportation EditInterstate and roadways Edit Interstate Highways Interstate 35E Interstate 94 US Highways US 10 US 52 US 61 Minnesota Highways Highway 5 Highway 51 Highway 280 I 94 as it enters downtown Saint Paul from the west Residents use Interstate 35E running north south and Interstate 94 running east west Trunk highways include U S Highway 52 Minnesota State Highway 280 and Minnesota State Highway 5 St Paul has several unique roads such as Ayd Mill Road Phalen Boulevard and Shepard Road Warner Road which diagonally follow particular geographic features in the city Biking is also gaining popularity due to the creation of more paved bike lanes that connect to other bike routes throughout the metropolitan area 157 and the creation of Nice Ride Minnesota a seasonally operated nonprofit bicycle sharing and rental system that has over 1 550 bicycles and 170 stations in both Minneapolis and St Paul 158 Downtown St Paul has a five mile 8 km enclosed skyway system over 25 city blocks 159 The 563 mile 906 km Avenue of the Saints connects St Paul with St Louis Missouri The layout of city streets and roads has often drawn complaints While he was Governor of Minnesota Jesse Ventura appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman 160 and remarked that the streets were designed by drunken Irishmen 161 He later apologized though people had been complaining about the fractured grid system for more than a century by that point 161 Some of the city s road design is the result of the curve of the Mississippi River hilly topography conflicts between developers of different neighborhoods in the early city and grand plans only half realized Outside of downtown the roads are less confusing but most roads are named rather than numbered increasing the difficulty for non natives to navigate 162 Mass transit Edit See also Metro Transit Minnesota Metro Transit provides bus service and light rail in the Minneapolis St Paul area The METRO Green Line is an 11 mile 18 km light rail line that connects downtown St Paul to downtown Minneapolis with 14 stations in St Paul The Green Line runs west along University Avenue through the University of Minnesota campus until it links up and then shares stations with the METRO Blue Line in downtown Minneapolis Construction began in November 2010 and the line began service on June 14 2014 163 Roughly 45 000 people rode on the first day an average 28 000 riders are expected per day 164 Metro Transit opened the METRO A Line Minneapolis St Paul s first arterial bus rapid transit line along Snelling Avenue and Ford Parkway The A Line connects the METRO Blue Line at 46th Street station to Rosedale Center with a connection at the Green Line Snelling Avenue station The A Line is the first in a series of planned arterial bus rapid transit lines and is set to open in early 2016 165 Railroad Edit Amtrak s Empire Builder between Chicago and Seattle stops twice daily in each direction at the newly renovated Saint Paul Union Depot 166 Ridership on the train increased about 6 from 2005 to over 505 000 in fiscal year 2007 167 A Minnesota Department of Transportation study found that increased daily service to Chicago should be economically viable especially if it originates in St Paul and does not experience delays from the rest of the western route of the Empire Builder 168 Saint Paul is the site of the Pig s Eye Yard a major freight classification yard for Canadian Pacific Railway 169 As of 2003 the yard handled over 1 000 freight cars per day 169 Both Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe run trains through the yard though they are not classified at Pig s Eye 169 Burlington Northern Santa Fe operates the large Northtown Yard in Minneapolis which handles about 600 cars per day 170 There are several other small yards located around the city Saint Paul Downtown Airport Holman Field Airports Edit Holman Airfield is across the river from downtown St Paul Lamprey Lake was there until the Army Corps of Engineers filled it with dredgings starting in the early 1920s Northwest Airlines began initial operations from Holman in 1926 During WWII Northwest had a contract to install upgraded radar systems in B 24s employing 5 000 at the airfield After WWII Holman Airfield competed with the Speedway Field for the Twin Cities growing aviation industry and lost out in the end Today Holman is a reliever airport run by the Metropolitan Airports Commission It is home to Minnesota s Air National Guard and a flight training school and is tailored to local corporate aviation There are three runways with the Holman Field Administration Building and Riverside Hangar on the National Register of Historic Places 171 The historical importance of the original Northwest Airlines building was realized only after demolition commenced For the most part St Paul s aviation needs are served by the Minneapolis Saint Paul International Airport MSP which sits on 2 930 acres 11 9 km2 in the Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory bordering the city to the southwest MSP serves 17 commercial passenger airlines 172 and is the hub of Delta Air Lines Mesaba Airlines and Sun Country Airlines 173 Sister cities EditSaint Paul s sister cities are 174 175 Changsha China Ciudad Romero El Salvador Culiacan Mexico Djibouti City Djibouti George South Africa Manzanillo Mexico Modena Italy Mogadishu Somalia Nagasaki Japan from 1955 the oldest sister city in Japan Neuss Germany Novosibirsk Russia Tiberias IsraelNotable people EditWalter Abel 1898 1987 actor Loni Anderson born 1946 actress Louie Anderson born 1953 comedian Wendell Anderson 1933 2016 U S Senator Richard Arlen 1899 1976 actor Merrill Ashley born 1950 ballet dancer and repetiteur Roger Awsumb 1928 2002 TV show host Casey Jones Azayamankawin c 1803 c 1873 canoe ferry operator and entrepreneur known as Old Bets Harry Blackmun 1908 1999 US Supreme Court Associate Justice grew up in St Paul Winfield S Braddock 1848 1920 Wisconsin State Assemblyman Herb Brooks 1937 2003 hockey coach Warren E Burger 1907 1995 US Supreme Court Chief Justice Melva Clemaire 1874 1937 soprano singer Kevin Eakin born 1981 NFL football player Sarah K England physiologist and biophysicist Eyedea 1981 2010 rap artist F Scott Fitzgerald 1896 1940 author Rollin Glewwe 1933 2020 Minnesota state senator and businessman Josh Hartnett born 1978 actor Mitch Hedberg February 24 1968 March 29 2005 comedian Hippo Campus indie rock band Paul Holmgren born 1955 NHL hockey player general manager president of Philadelphia Flyers 2014 present Timothy M Kaine born 1958 United States Senator from Virginia former governor of Virginia Rachel Keller born 1992 actress Allan Kingdom born 1993 rap artist Jim Lange 1932 2014 TV presenter game show host and disc jockey Sunisa Lee born 2003 Olympic gymnast and gold medalist Tony Levine born 1972 football coach Joe Mauer born 1983 MLB baseball player Ryan McDonagh born 1989 NHL hockey player Kate Millett 1934 2017 scholar author feminist Paul Molitor born 1956 MLB baseball player Jack Morris born 1955 MLB baseball player LeRoy Neiman 1921 2012 artist Kyle Okposo born 1988 NHL hockey player Bruce Olson born 1941 missionary Tim Pawlenty born 1960 former Governor of Minnesota Alfred E Perlman 1902 1983 president of New York Central Railroad and its successor Penn Central Isaac Rosefelt born 1985 American Israeli basketball player for Maccabi Ashdod in the Israeli Basketball Premier League Charles M Schulz 1922 2000 cartoonist born in Minneapolis grew up in St Paul Chad Smith born 1961 drummer of the Red Hot Chili Peppers since 1988 born in St Paul Terrell Suggs Kansas City Chiefs defensive end linebacker Frances Tarbox 1874 1959 composer Fred Tschida born 1949 artist born in Saint Paul Lindsey Vonn born 1984 Olympic skier and gold medalist DeWitt Wallace 1889 1981 magazine publisher and co founder of Reader s Digest Dave Winfield born 1951 MLB baseball player Medal of Honor recipients Civil War Private Marshall Sherman Co C 1st Minnesota captured the flag of the 28th Virginia Infantry at Gettysburg Indian Wars Pvt John Tracy G Co 8th Cavalry Chiricahua Mountains Arizona Apache War Indian Wars Charles H Welch I Co 9th Cavalry Buffalo soldiers Ghost Dance War Spanish American War Captain Jesse Dyer USMC Vera Cruz Mexico World War II Captain Richard Fleming USMC VMA 241 Squadron for whom Fleming Field is named Korean War Lt Colonel John Page U S Army Battle of Chosin ReservoirSee also Edit Geography portal North America portal United States portal Minneapolis Saint PaulReferences Edit 2019 U S Gazetteer Files United States Census Bureau Retrieved July 26 2020 a b U S Census website United States Census Bureau Retrieved November 13 2012 The City of Saint Paul Official website The City of Saint Paul 2008 Archived from the original on August 28 2008 Retrieved July 30 2008 a b Ramsey County Metro MSP Minneapolis Regional Chamber Development Foundation 2008 Archived from the original on July 8 2008 Retrieved July 30 2008 The St Paul and Pacific was a pioneering railroad in Minnesota if not a very successful one at least at first MinnPost January 30 2017 Retrieved November 6 2021 Population and Housing Unit Estimates Retrieved May 21 2020 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas on July 1 2018 Population Estimates April 1 2010 to July 1 2018 U S Census Bureau June 1 2018 Retrieved June 1 2018 dead link Alt URL permanent dead link Fun Facts Visit St Paul Official Convention and Visitors Bureau webpage 175 West Kellogg Boulevard Suite 502 Saint Paul MN 1 a b c Stars Can t Go Home Again CBS Sports Associated Press December 17 2000 Archived from the original on December 11 2008 Retrieved July 30 2008 National Science Foundation Selects Museum of Science Boston to Head 20 Million Network for Public Engagement with Nanotechnology Press release Materials Research Society 2008 Archived from the original on May 18 2009 Capital City Partnership 2006 A City Where People Work Capital City Partnership Archived from the original on April 27 2008 Retrieved August 15 2008 Minneapolis ranked most literate city Archived September 6 2017 at the Wayback Machine Star Tribune April 20 2015 Retrieved February 6 2019 Galtier Rev Lucien 1908 Father Galtier to Bishop Grace Prairie du Chien January 14 1846 pp 184 190 Saint Paul s Survey History Surveyor s Office Saint Paul Minnesota web site a b Trimble Steve July 2 2000 A Short history of Indian Mounds Park Neighborhood Pride Celebration daytonsbluff org Archived from the original on May 1 2011 Retrieved December 7 2006 Indian Mounds Park Mississippi National River and recreation Area National Park Service Archived from the original on January 18 2011 Retrieved December 20 2010 a b Morrison Mark 2008 Dakota Life City of Bloomington Archived from the original on May 1 2008 Stephen Return Riggs James Owen Dorsey 1892 A Dakota English Dictionary University of Michigan p 197 Retrieved July 30 2008 imniza ska a b Lambert s Landing National Park Services July 27 2006 Archived from the original on September 25 2008 Retrieved July 28 2008 Hoffman Mike Menominee Place Names in Wisconsin The Menominee Clans Story Archived from the original on October 5 2018 Retrieved October 6 2018 The Treaty Story Minnesota History Center 1999 Archived from the original on January 5 2009 Treaty with the Sioux 1837 Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties Oklahoma State University Library September 29 1837 Archived from the original on December 1 2008 Retrieved July 15 2016 1983 Survey Dist 1 pdf Historic Saint Paul Historic Saint Paul website 400 Landmark Center 75 West 5th Street Saint Paul MN 2 Kappler Charles J Washington GPO ed 1904 Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties II Treaties 1778 1883 Oklahoma State University Library Cite journal requires journal help and Treaty with the Sioux September 29 1837 Archived from the original on December 1 2008 and Treaty with the Sioux Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands July 23 1851 Archived from the original on June 16 2008 and Treaty With the Sioux Mdewakanton and Wapahkoota Bands August 5 1851 Archived from the original on July 11 2007 Retrieved June 26 2007 a b c Schaper Julie Horwitz Steven 2006 Twin Cities Noir New York New York Akashic Books pp 16 ISBN 978 1 888451 97 9 Retrieved July 28 2008 Carver s Cave Subterranean Twin Cities Ramsey County History G A Brick p 17 3 Pierre Bottineau GENi Joe Eickhoff July 2020 Overview of the Cathedral Cathedral of Saint Paul 2004 Archived from the original on August 6 2007 Mougel Patricia June 2007 Catholicisme dans le Midwest Lucien Galtier et l origine du nom de la capitale du Minnesota PDF in French Reflets de l etoile du nord Archived from the original PDF on September 9 2008 Retrieved July 28 2008 a b Gilman Rhonda R 1989 The Story of Minnesota s Past Saint Paul Minnesota Minnesota Historical Society Press pp 99 104 ISBN 978 0 87351 267 1 MNDOT Historic Roadside Development Structures Inventory RA SPC 2928 Rolette Jr Joseph Joe Minnesota Legislators Past amp Present Minnesota Legislature Archived from the original on December 29 2008 Retrieved July 30 2008 Leehan Brian February 6 2019 King Josias R 1832 1916 MNOpedia Retrieved July 7 2021 Material was copied from this source which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4 0 International License a b Wingerd Mary Lethert Separated at Birth The Sibling Rivalry of Minneapolis and St Paul Organization of American Historians Archived from the original on July 7 2012 Retrieved November 19 2007 a b Minnesota Death Penalty Information Center Deathpenaltyinfo org Retrieved November 15 2018 February 13 1906 Minnesota s last legal execution The botched execution of William Williams caused renewed fervor against the death penalty MINNPOST website By R L Cartwright Feb 12 2013 MinnPost P O Box 18438 Mpls MN 55418 4 a b Keeping the Peace Crime Vice and Police Work in St Paul 1869 74 Joel Best Minnesota History Summer 1981 Minnesota Historical Society St Paul Mn p 246 5 a b c d Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St Paul 1865 1883 Joel Best Ohio State University Press Columbus 1998 6 a b c d Scholten Alexandra August 4 2020 Clifford Nina 1851 1929 MNopedia O Connor Robert The big fellow and the cardinal 3am Magazine Retrieved October 26 2017 The 13th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Kyle Ward The Spanish American War Centennial Website 7 a b c d e f The Gangster Era in St Paul Sharon Park Minnpost 2015 a b c d The Green Lantern Saloon St Paul Minnesota The Irish Mob website Owen Forsyth Apr 14 2019 8 Crime and Corruption in St Paul Mn 1900 1930s Michael Cooper Medium com webpage Aug 2015 9 Paul Maccabee Crime Interview 3 18 03 South Dakota Public Broadcasting 555 N Dakota St Vermillion SD 10 St Paul Minneapolis and other cities in Minnesota suffer from gale GenDisasters com Archived from the original on October 22 2007 Retrieved March 28 2008 ADJUTANT GENERAL NATIONAL GUARD Inventory of Its Home Guard Record Minnesota Historical Society 345 W Kellogg Blvd St Paul MN 55102 11 a b c Sixteenth Battalion Minnesota Home Guard DeCarlo Peter MNopedia Minnesota Historical Society 12 a b c How the 1917 streetcar riots shook St Paul and reshaped Minnesota politics St Paul Pioneer Press Nick Woltman December 2 2017 13 1917 Twin City Rapid Transit Company Street Railway Strike MNHS website Minnesota Historical Society 345 W Kellogg Blvd St Paul MN 55102 14 a b Fort Snelling National Cemetery National Cemetery Administration updated 17 July 2017 15 a b c Origins of the School Safety Patrol 1921 MNOPEDIA Minnesota Historical Society website Eric W Weber St Paul Minnesota published October 29 2012 16 So Minnesota St Paul nun created world s first school safety patrol Channel 5 News Joe Mazan Published September 17 2019 12 00 AM 17 Wreckage of USS Ward whose St Paul crew fired first shot of WWII Wyat Olsen PP Twin Cities Dec 2017 Rondo Neighborhood amp the Building of I 94 Minnesota Historical Society 2008 Archived from the original on February 4 2013 Retrieved July 2 2008 Davis F James 1965 The Effects of a Freeway Displacement on Racial Housing Segregation in a Northern City Phylon 26 3 209 215 doi 10 2307 273848 JSTOR 273848 Rondo Days official site Rondo Avenue Inc Archived from the original on May 1 2008 Retrieved August 3 2008 Tallest skyscrapers of Saint Paul Emporis 2008 Archived from the original on May 18 2007 Retrieved August 15 2008 Hmong Refugee Resettlement Minnesota Council of Non Profits Archived from the original on February 2 2008 Retrieved March 28 2008 Moua Teng Hmong Archives Reaches a Milestone Hmong Today Archived from the original on May 15 2011 Retrieved December 18 2010 Mississippi River Facts U S National Park Service August 14 2006 Archived from the original on January 6 2009 Retrieved July 28 2008 US Gazetteer files 2010 United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on July 2 2012 Retrieved November 13 2012 Havens Chris October 31 2007 In St Paul they re passionate about parks Star Tribune pp AA1 ISSN 0895 2825 Archived from the original on November 2 2007 Retrieved November 4 2007 ParkScore www parkscore tpl org Archived from the original on May 24 2018 Retrieved May 23 2018 Medcalf Myron P September 11 2007 St Paul s neighborhood councils scrutinize their financial status Star Tribune pp B4 Local District Councils City of Saint Paul 2008 Archived from the original on February 11 2009 Saint Paul Participation Citizen Participation Project Case Studies Citizen Participation Project Archived from the original on December 9 2007 Retrieved November 10 2007 Kottek Markus Grieser Jurgen Beck Christoph Rudolf Bruno Rubel Franz June 2006 World Map of the Koppen Geiger climate classification updated Meteorologische Zeitschrift 15 3 259 263 Bibcode 2006MetZe 15 259K doi 10 1127 0941 2948 2006 0130 Retrieved December 15 2010 permanent dead link 45 4 F for 1971 through 2000 per U S Census Archived January 3 2007 at the Wayback Machine who cites Normals 1971 2000 National Climatic Data Center Archived from the original on April 1 2007 Retrieved March 25 2007 or 44 6 F 7 0 C per Fisk Charles March 3 2007 Minneapolis Saint Paul Area Daily Climatological History of Temperature Precipitation and Snowfall A Year by Year Graphical Portrayal 1820 present Archived from the original on May 18 2007 Retrieved March 25 2007 NowData NOAA Online Weather Data National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved June 22 2021 Station St Paul Downtown AP MN U S Climate Normals 2020 U S Monthly Climate Normals 1991 2020 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved June 22 2021 Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information The Weather Channel August 2011 Archived from the original on May 10 2008 Retrieved July 28 2008 United States Census Bureau Census of Population and Housing Retrieved June 9 2014 St Paul city Minnesota State amp County QuickFacts U S Census Bureau Archived from the original on September 16 2008 Race and Hispanic or Latino 2000 United States Census Bureau a b c Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places Earliest Census to 1990 U S Census Bureau Archived from the original on August 12 2012 Retrieved April 20 2012 a b From 15 sample Lanegran David A 2001 From Swede Hollow to Arlington Hills From Snoose Boulevard to Minnehaha Parkway Swedish Neighborhoods of the Twin Cities PDF Macalester College Archived from the original PDF on July 24 2008 Retrieved July 28 2008 District 7 Thomas Dale or Frogtown Ramsey County Historical Society 2005 Archived from the original on April 11 2008 Kenworthy Tom November 29 2004 Hmong get closer look since shootings USA Today Archived from the original on June 30 2012 Retrieved September 11 2017 Hmong Resettlement Revisited Bridging Refugee Youth and Children s Services June 2004 Archived from the original on August 23 2007 Retrieved November 4 2007 Saint Paul Ethnic Population Growth City of Saint Paul Archived from the original on January 16 2009 Retrieved November 6 2007 Toness Bianca Vazquez May 24 2005 Mexican consulate opens in June Minnesota Public Radio Archived from the original on September 18 2006 Retrieved November 6 2007 Ramsey County Minnesota Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States 2000 Association of Religion Data Archives Archived from the original on December 5 2010 Retrieved December 21 2010 Gihring Tim April 2009 Welcome to Paganistan Minnesota Monthly Archived from the original on September 8 2011 Retrieved May 23 2011 U S Census website United States Census Bureau Retrieved January 31 2008 Databases Tables amp Calculators by Subject Bureau of Labor Statistics U S Department of Labor August 26 2008 Retrieved August 26 2008 This data may not be directly reproducible via this link BLS gov Archived September 12 2008 at the Wayback Machine Select 27 Minnesota and 33460 Minneapolis St Paul Bloomington MN WI and all subsectors Orrick Dave July 28 2008 Downtown goal Fill storefronts at least for now Pioneer Press MediaNews Group Archived from the original on August 3 2008 Retrieved July 30 2008 Johnson Kim August 20 2008 Business Journal names Best Places to Work Minneapolis St Paul Business Journal American City Business Journals Archived from the original on May 19 2009 Retrieved August 26 2008 Abbe Mary July 21 2008 Same old struggles at the MMAA Star Tribune Chris Harte p 3 Archived from the original on September 18 2008 Retrieved July 21 2008 Lock and Dam 1 St Paul District US Army Corps of Engineers Archived from the original on December 6 2008 Retrieved August 27 2008 Melo Frederick July 21 2014 With Ford plant gone St Paul leaders seek model development twincities com Pioneer Press Archived from the original on October 18 2014 Retrieved September 9 2014 Mohan Menaka Richardson Mike Updated Staff Review of Ryan Companies Ryan Proposed Amendments to the Ford Site Zoning and Public Realm Master Plan PDF City of Saint Paul Archived from the original PDF on November 24 2018 Retrieved November 23 2018 Frederick Melo You don t know TIF Twin Cities April 14 2018 Archived from the original on April 15 2018 Retrieved April 15 2018 Ice Palaces in Montreal 1883 89 The Ice Cubicle 18 Archived October 14 2020 at the Wayback Machine History of the Saint Paul Winter Carnival St Paul Winter Carnival 2008 Archived from the original on May 17 2008 Retrieved July 2 2008 Harry F Schroeder Jr The Kid After Whom Charles M Schulz Named His Beethoven Loving Character in His Peanuts Cartoon Delehanty Sullivan Kinsman Schroeder Family History Workspace 2006 Archived from the original on July 29 2012 Saint Paul kicks off encore to the successful Peanuts on Parade summer art project PRnewswire co uk Archived from the original on May 27 2012 Retrieved August 13 2008 John Vachon A Register of His Papers in the Library of Congress Prepared by Connie L Cartledge Manuscript Division Library of Congress 2006 Archived from the original on September 30 2007 Retrieved October 10 2007 CS1 maint others link Ordway Center for the Performing Arts Ordway Center for the Performing Arts 2006 Archived from the original on December 5 2006 Retrieved December 7 2006 Berryman Don April 21 2004 Artists Quarter Jazz Police Archived from the original on July 5 2008 Retrieved July 30 2008 Gelhhar Jenny 2007 The Turf Club Features Saint Paul Almanac Archived from the original on January 6 2009 Retrieved July 30 2008 History of the Rose Ensemble Archived from the original on December 22 2008 Retrieved November 23 2008 Belcamino Kristi O Gara s Bar and Grill a landmark St Paul institution won t reopen Twin Cities com St Paul Pioneer Press Retrieved March 23 2021 Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra Three concerts University of Chicago 2008 Archived from the original on May 31 2008 Minnesota Centennial Showboat University of Minnesota July 3 2008 Archived from the original on June 25 2008 Retrieved July 29 2008 Goldstein Museum of Design College of Design Regents of the University of Minnesota 2008 Archived from the original on June 25 2008 Retrieved July 31 2008 Hours Parking and Directions Visitor Information Minnesota Children s Museum 2010 Archived from the original on December 13 2010 Retrieved December 19 2010 Ong Bao July 31 2006 Carlson s legacy Schubert Club Thanks to him once tiny arts group attracts top artists to Twin Cities Pioneer Press Archived from the original registration required on December 31 2008 Retrieved July 31 2008 Schubert Club Museum of Musical Instruments The Schubert Club 2008 Archived from the original on September 21 2008 Retrieved July 31 2008 Wyant Carissa July 26 2008 St Paul art museum loses director searches for new home Minneapolis St Paul Business Journal American City Business Journals Inc Archived from the original on August 1 2008 Retrieved July 25 2008 Abbe Mary July 21 2008 Same old struggles at the MMAA Star Tribune Chris Harte p 1 Archived from the original on September 18 2008 Retrieved July 21 2008 St Paul Culture Museums M R Danielson Advertising Associates 2002 Archived from the original on October 31 2007 Retrieved December 7 2006 Schulman Andrew St Paul takes SI Sportstown Honors for the Land of 10 000 Lakes Sports Illustrated Archived from the original on October 7 2007 Retrieved October 30 2007 Farber Michael December 4 2007 In Search of Hockeytown U S A Sports Illustrated Archived from the original on May 11 2008 Retrieved August 5 2008 About Xcel Energy Center Minnesota Twins Archived from the original on August 12 2007 Retrieved October 30 2007 Mayo Jonathan February 12 2021 MLB Announces New Minors Teams Leagues Major League Baseball Retrieved February 12 2021 St Paul Baseball History St Paul Saints Archived from the original on July 17 2006 Retrieved August 13 2008 Sheldon Mark February 7 2003 Colored Gophers made history MLB com Archived from the original on January 17 2008 Retrieved October 30 2007 About Us St Paul Twin Stars Archived from the original on July 12 2014 Retrieved December 19 2010 About the St Paul Curling Club Saint Paul Curling Club Archived from the original on February 16 2007 Minnesota Boat Club Archived from the original on May 11 2008 Retrieved August 28 2008 Pioneer Press staff June 19 2012 Tickets for Circus Juventas summer show announced St Paul Pioneer Press Archived from the original on January 15 2016 Retrieved October 4 2014 Ervin Phil May 19 2015 MLS fight won Minnesota United still going through process of financing facility Archived from the original on December 11 2015 Retrieved October 24 2015 MLS Turns to St Paul After United FC Misses Stadium Deadline for Expansion Rights Minneapolis St Paul Business Journal Archived from the original on July 5 2015 Retrieved October 24 2015 Fast Facts mnufc com Archived from the original on July 12 2017 Gonzalez Roger March 12 2017 Look Minnesota United plays first MLS home match in the pouring snow Archived from the original on September 5 2018 Retrieved September 5 2018 Wawrow John September 7 2021 NWHL Rebrands to Premier Hockey Federation to Promote Inclusivity Inspire Youth WNBC Thiede Dana May 15 2018 MN Whitecaps join National Women s Hockey League kare11 com Ayala Erica Murphy Mike June 27 2018 The Whitecaps will call TRIA Rink home theicegarden com Archived from the original on September 5 2018 Retrieved September 5 2018 2018 19 NWHL Schedule Released nwhl zone August 26 2018 Archived from the original on September 5 2018 Retrieved September 5 2018 Professional Sports Meet Minneapolis 2011 Archived from the original on December 1 2008 Retrieved February 14 2011 Quarstad Brian October 30 2011 NSC Minnesota Stars Win the 2011 NASL Championship Archived from the original on December 11 2015 Retrieved October 24 2015 Minnesota United crowned 2014 NASL spring champion Archived from the original on April 1 2019 Retrieved September 15 2019 Description of Saint Paul s Form of Government 2008 Mayor s Proposed Budget City of Saint Paul Archived from the original pdf on December 11 2008 Retrieved November 10 2007 Sec 2 01 Chief executive Administrative Code City of Saint Paul Retrieved November 10 2007 dead link Sec 4 01 Legislative power Saint Paul City Charter City of Saint Paul Archived from the original on December 14 2012 Retrieved November 11 2007 Sec 2 01 Elective officials Saint Paul City Charter City of Saint Paul Archived from the original on December 14 2012 Retrieved November 11 2007 Sec 4 01 2 Initial districts Saint Paul City Charter City of Saint Paul Archived from the original on December 14 2012 Retrieved November 10 2007 Sec 2 02 Terms Saint Paul City Charter City of Saint Paul Archived from the original on February 17 2003 Retrieved November 10 2007 Ostermeier Eric J Twin Cities Mayoral Historical Overview PDF Center for the Study of Politics and Governance Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs Archived from the original PDF on June 25 2008 Retrieved January 1 2008 Ramsey County Home Rule Charter Ramsey County 2008 Archived from the original on October 18 2008 Ramsey County Building Locations Ramsey County 2008 Archived from the original on December 21 2008 Minnesota Senate Maps amp Data Geographic Information Services Minnesota State Legislature 2007 Archived from the original on September 16 2008 Retrieved July 24 2008 Minnesota House Maps amp Data Geographic Information Services Minnesota State Legislature 2007 Archived from the original on September 16 2008 Retrieved July 24 2008 El Nasser Haya April 11 2004 Most livable Depends on your definition USA TODAY Archived from the original on October 15 2007 Retrieved October 16 2007 Post Secondary Schools Minnesota Department of Education 2005 Archived from the original on December 12 2006 Retrieved March 24 2007 Saint Paul Public Schools About Us Archived from the original on June 4 2007 Retrieved June 8 2007 Open Enrollment Minnesota Department of Education Archived from the original on August 26 2010 Retrieved November 19 2010 Charter School Facts MN Association of Charter Schools Archived from the original on October 24 2007 Retrieved November 6 2007 Minnesota Department of Education 2005 Alphabetical List of Nonpublic Schools Archived from the original on August 18 2007 and Charter Schools 2005 Archived from the original on June 1 2007 Retrieved June 8 2007 Find a Location Saint Paul Public Library 2021 Retrieved November 5 2021 Wyant Carissa November 5 2007 Report Daily newspaper circulation falls over 2 Archived from the original on November 3 2012 Retrieved September 19 2011 Stations Minnesota Public Radio 2008 Archived from the original on September 18 2008 Retrieved August 27 2008 a b Company Information Minnesota Public Radio 2008 Archived from the original on September 18 2008 Retrieved August 27 2008 The Fitzgerald Theater Minnesota Public Radio 2008 Archived from the original on September 18 2008 Retrieved August 15 2008 Bike n Ride by bus Metro Transit Archived from the original on August 20 2007 Retrieved September 20 2007 Nice Ride Minnesota Ambitious plans set for 2014 season Star Tribune Archived from the original on October 31 2013 Retrieved November 16 2013 Gill N S Skyways Downtown Minneapolis and St Paul Skyways About com About Inc The New York Times Company Archived from the original on November 5 2013 Retrieved March 15 2007 Khoo Michael December 15 2002 The days of Jesse Minnesota Public Radio Archived from the original on August 12 2012 Retrieved September 16 2007 a b Gov Ventura Stumbles New York Times February 6 1999 Archived from the original on June 7 2010 Retrieved September 16 2007 L Empson Donald 2006 The Street Where You Live University of Minnesota Press pp 17 ISBN 978 0 8166 4729 3 Central Corridor next steps and timeline Metropolitan Council April 2 2007 Archived from the original on September 29 2006 Retrieved April 11 2007 Murphy Esme Talking Points Green Line Opening Hailed A Big Success Archived from the original on October 22 2014 Retrieved June 17 2014 A Line Archived from the original on August 21 2015 Retrieved August 25 2015 St Paul Minneapolis MN MSP Amtrak Archived from the original on April 4 2007 Retrieved April 26 2007 Sommerhauser Mark July 24 2008 Mayors claim more riders should spur more service on Amtrak line The Winona Daily News Lee Enterprises Archived from the original on August 1 2008 Retrieved July 25 2008 Moore Janet September 23 2018 Additional Twin Cities Chicago rail service viable study finds Star Tribune Archived from the original on November 24 2018 Retrieved November 23 2018 a b c Rhodes Michael 2003 North American Railyards Saint Paul Minnesota MBI Publishing Company p 128 ISBN 978 0 7603 1578 1 Rhodes Michael 2003 North American Railyards Saint Paul Minnesota MBI Publishing Company p 16 ISBN 978 0 7603 1578 1 St Paul Downtown Airport Metropolitan Airports Commission Archived from the original on September 27 2007 Retrieved November 19 2007 Airlines MSP Airport mspairport com Archived from the original on June 4 2021 Retrieved June 17 2021 Pilot Groups Air Line Pilots Association Archived from the original on July 9 2007 Retrieved March 15 2007 Sister Cities and States of Minnesota mn gov Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development Retrieved October 13 2020 St Paul adds new sister city Mogadishu About a dozen others have that designation twincities com Twin Cities Pioneer Press May 10 2019 Retrieved October 13 2020 External links EditSaint Paul Minnesotaat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Official website Official Tourism site Visitor Information Lowertown The Rise of an Urban Village Documentary produced by Twin Cities PBS Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saint Paul Minnesota amp oldid 1055160335, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.