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Saint Peter

For other uses, see Saint Peter (disambiguation).

Saint Peter (died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon (()), Cephas (), or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and one of the first leaders of the early Church.

Pope Saint
Peter the Apostle
Saint Peter (c. 1610–1612) by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting Peter, vested in the pallium, and holding the Keys of Heaven.
ChurchEarly Christian
See
Papacy beganAD 30
Papacy endedBetween AD 64–68
Successor
Orders
Ordinationby Jesus Christ
Personal details
Birth nameShimon Bar Yonah (Hebrew: שמעון בר יונה) (Simeon, Simon)
Bornc. AD 1
Bethsaida, Gaulanitis, Syria, Roman Empire
DiedBetween AD 64–68
Vatican Hill, Rome, Italia, Roman Empire
ParentsJohn (or Jonah; Jona)
OccupationFisherman, clergyman
Sainthood
Feast day
Venerated inAll Christian denominations that venerate saints
CanonizedPre-Congregation
AttributesKeys of Heaven, Red Martyr, pallium, papal vestments, rooster, man crucified upside down, vested as an Apostle, holding a book or scroll, Cross of Saint Peter
PatronagePatronage list
ShrinesSt. Peter's Basilica

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero. He is traditionally counted as the first bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Diocese of Rome, but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his successors. According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter a special position in the Church.

In the New Testament, Peter appears repeatedly and prominently in all four gospels as well as the Acts of the Apostles. He is the brother of Saint Andrew, and both brothers were fishermen. The Gospel of Mark in particular was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. He is also mentioned, under either the name Peter or Cephas, in Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians and the Epistle to the Galatians. The New Testament also includes two general epistles, First Peter and Second Peter, that are traditionally attributed to him, but modern scholarship generally rejects the Petrine authorship of both.

Outside of the New Testament, several apocryphal books were later attributed to him, in particular the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter, although scholars believe these works to be pseudoepigrapha.

Contents

The New Testament presents Peter's original name as Simon (Σίμων Simōn, in Greek). In only two passages, his name is instead spelled "Simeon" (Συμεών in Greek). The variation possibly reflects "the well-known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child [i.e., Simeon] along with a similar sounding Greek/Roman name [in this case, Simon]".

He was later given by Jesus the name Cephas, from Aramaic כֵּיפָא (Kepha), literally meaning "rock" or "stone". In translations of the Bible from the original Greek, his name is maintained as Cephas in 9 occurrences in the New Testament, whereas in the vast majority of mentions (156 occurrences in the New Testament) he is called Πέτρος (Petros), from the Greek and Latin word for a rock or stone (petra) to which the masculine ending was added, rendered into English as Peter.

The precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed, some saying that its usual meaning is "rock" or "crag", others saying that it means rather "stone" and, particularly in its application by Jesus to Simon, like a "jewel", but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character. Both meanings, "stone" (jewel or hewn stone) and "rock", are indicated in dictionaries of Aramaic and Syriac. Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, ball, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; that in the Attic Greek petra denotes "grown rock, rocky range, cliff, grotto"; and that petros means "small stone, firestone, sling stone, moving boulder".

The combined nameΣίμων Πέτρος (Simon Peter) appears 19 times in the New Testament. In some Syriac documents he is called, in English translation, Simon Cephas.

Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee

Sources

The sources used to reconstruct the life of Peter can be divided in three groups:

In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early Church.

Accounts

Peter was a Jewish fisherman in Bethsaida (John 1:44). He was named Simon, son of Jonah or John. The three Synoptic Gospels recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum (Matthew 8:14–17, Mark 1:29–31, Luke 4:38); this passage clearly depicts Peter as being married or widowed. 1 Corinthians 9:5 has also been taken to imply that he was married.

The Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew (from the Maestà), c. 1308–1311

In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter (then Simon) was a fisherman along with his brother, Andrew, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John. The Gospel of John also depicts Peter fishing, even after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men" (Matthew 4:1819, Mark 1:16–17).

In the Confession of Peter he proclaims Jesus to be the Christ (Jewish Messiah), as described in the three Synoptic Gospels:Matthew 16:13–20,Mark 8:27–30 andLuke 9:18–21. It is there, in the area of Caesarea Philippi, that he receives from Jesus the name Cephas (Aramaic Kepha), or Peter (Greek Petros).

A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house.

In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret (Luke 5:3). Jesus then amazes Simon and his companions James and John (Andrew is not mentioned) by telling them to lower their nets, whereupon they catch a huge number of fish. Immediately after this, they follow him (Luke 5:4–11). The Gospel of John gives a comparable account of "The First Disciples" (John 1:35–42). In John, the readers are told that it was two disciples of John the Baptist (Andrew and an unnamed disciple) who heard John the Baptist announce Jesus as the "Lamb of God" and then followed Jesus. Andrew then went to his brother Simon, saying, "We have found the Messiah", and then brought Simon to Jesus.

Apostle Peter striking the High Priests' servant Malchus with a sword in the Garden of Gethsemane, by Giuseppe Cesari c. 1597

Three of the four gospels—Matthew, Mark and John—recount the story of Jesus walking on water. Matthew additionally describes Peter walking on water for a moment but beginning to sink when his faith wavers (Matthew 14:28–31).

At the beginning of the Last Supper, Jesus washed his disciples' feet. Peter initially refused to let Jesus wash his feet, but when Jesus told him: "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me", Peter replied: "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head" (John 13:2–11). The washing of feet is often repeated in the service of worship on Maundy Thursday by some Christian denominations.

The three Synoptic Gospels all mention that, when Jesus was arrested, one of his companions cut off the ear of a servant of the High Priest of Israel (Matthew 26:51, Mark 14:47, Luke 22:50). The Gospel of John also includes this event and names Peter as the swordsman and Malchus as the victim (John 18:10). Luke adds that Jesus touched the ear and miraculously healed it (Luke 22:49–51). This healing of the servant's ear is the last of the 37 miracles attributed to Jesus in the Bible.

Simon Peter was twice arraigned, with John, before the Sanhedrin and directly defied them (Acts 4:7–22, Acts 5:18–42). After receiving a vision from God that allowed for the eating of previously unclean animals, Peter takes a missionary journey to Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea (Acts 9:32–Acts 10:2), becoming instrumental in the decision to evangelise the Gentiles (Acts 10). Simon Peter applied the message of the vision on clean animals to the gentiles and follows his meeting with Cornelius the Centurion by claiming that "God shows no partiality"(Acts 10).

According to the Acts of the Apostles, Peter and John were sent from Jerusalem to Samaria (Acts 8:14). Peter/Cephas is mentioned briefly in the opening chapter of one of the Pauline epistles, Epistle to the Galatians, which mentions a trip by Paul the Apostle to Jerusalem where he meets Peter (Galatians 1:18). Peter features again in Galatians, fourteen years later, when Paul (now with Barnabas and Titus) returned to Jerusalem (Galatians 2:7-9). When Peter came to Antioch, Paul opposed Peter to his face "because he [Peter] was in the wrong" (Galatians 2:11).

Apostle Peter Released from Prison, Jacopo di Cione, 1370–1371 (Philadelphia Museum of Art)

Acts 12 narrates how Peter, who was in Jerusalem, was put into prison by Agrippa I (A.D. 42–44), but was rescued by an angel. After his liberation Peter left Jerusalem to go to "another place" (Acts 12:1–18). Concerning Peter's subsequent activity there is no further connected information from the extant sources, although there are short notices of certain individual episodes of his later life.

The Gospels and Acts portray Peter as the most prominent apostle, though he denied Jesus three times during the events of the crucifixion. According to the Christian tradition, Peter was the first disciple to whom Jesus appeared, balancing Peter's denial and restoring his position. Peter is regarded as the first leader of the early Church, though he was soon eclipsed in this leadership by James the Just, "the Brother of the Lord". Because Peter was the first to whom Jesus appeared, the leadership of Peter forms the basis of the Apostolic succession and the institutional power of orthodoxy, as the heirs of Peter, and he is described as "the rock" on which the church will be built.

Position among the apostles

St. Peter Preaching the Gospel in the Catacombs by Jan Styka

Peter is always listed first among the Twelve Apostles in the gospels and in the Book of Acts. He is also frequently mentioned in the gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents at which the others were not present, such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus, at the raising of Jairus' daughter and at the agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. Peter often confesses his faith in Jesus as the Messiah.

Peter is often depicted in the gospels as spokesman of all the Apostles. John Vidmar, a Catholic scholar, writes: "Catholic scholars agree that Peter had an authority that superseded that of the other apostles. Peter is their spokesman at several events, he conducts the election of Matthias, his opinion in the debate over converting Gentiles was crucial, etc.

The author of the Acts of the Apostles portrays Peter as the central figure within the early Christian community.

Denial of Jesus by Peter

The tears of Saint Peter, by El Greco, late 16th century
Main article: Denial of Peter
The Denial of Saint Peter, by Caravaggio, c. 1610

All four canonical gospels recount that, during the Last Supper, Jesus foretold that Peter would deny him three times before the following cockcrow ("before the cock crows twice" in Mark's account). The three Synoptics and John describe the three denials as follows:

  1. A denial when a female servant of the high priest spots Simon Peter, saying that he had been with Jesus. According to Mark (but not in all manuscripts), "the rooster crowed". Only Luke and John mention a fire by which Peter was warming himself among other people: according to Luke, Peter was "sitting"; according to John, he was "standing".
  2. A denial when Simon Peter had gone out to the gateway, away from the firelight, but the same servant girl (per Mark) or another servant girl (per Matthew) or a man (per Luke and also John, for whom, though, this is the third denial) told the bystanders he was a follower of Jesus. According to John, "the rooster crowed". The Gospel of John places the second denial while Peter was still warming himself at the fire, and gives as the occasion of the third denial a claim by someone to have seen him in the garden of Gethsemane when Jesus was arrested.
  3. A denial came when Peter's Galilean accent was taken as proof that he was indeed a disciple of Jesus. According to Matthew, Mark and Luke, "the rooster crowed". Matthew adds that it was his accent that gave him away as coming from Galilee. Luke deviates slightly from this by stating that, rather than a crowd accusing Simon Peter, it was a third individual. John does not mention the Galilean accent.

In the Gospel of Luke is a record of Christ telling Peter: "Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: but I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren." In a reminiscent scene in John's epilogue, Peter affirms three times that he loves Jesus.

Resurrection appearances

Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee

Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians contains a list of resurrection appearances of Jesus, the first of which is an appearance to Peter. Here, Paul apparently follows an early tradition that Peter was the first to see the risen Christ, which, however, did not seem to have survived to the time when the gospels were written.

In John's gospel, Peter is the first person to enter the empty tomb, although the women and the beloved disciple see it before him.[Jn. 20:1–9] In Luke's account, the women's report of the empty tomb is dismissed by the apostles, and Peter is the only one who goes to check for himself, running to the tomb. After seeing the graveclothes he goes home, apparently without informing the other disciples.[Lk. 24:1–12]

In the final chapter of the Gospel of John, Peter, in one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus, three times affirmed his love for Jesus, balancing his threefold denial, and Jesus reconfirmed Peter's position. The Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee is seen as the traditional site where Jesus Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and, according to Catholic tradition, established Peter's supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church.

Leader of the early Church

The Liberation of St. Peter from prison by an angel, by Giovanni Lanfranco, 1620–21

Peter was considered along with James the Just and John the Apostle as pillars of the Church. Legitimised by Jesus' appearance, Peter assumed leadership of the group of early followers, forming the Jerusalem ekklēsia mentioned by Paul. He was soon eclipsed in this leadership by James the Just, "the Brother of the Lord." According to Lüdemann, this was due to the discussions about the strictness of adherence to the Jewish Law, when the more conservative faction of James the Just took the overhand over the more liberal position of Peter, who soon lost influence. According to Dunn, this was not an "usurpation of power", but a consequence of Peter's involvement in missionary activities. The early Church historian Eusebius (c. AD 325) records Clement of Alexandria (c. AD 190) as saying:

For they say that Peter and James (the Greater) and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem.

James D. G. Dunn proposes that Peter was a "bridge-man" between the opposing views of Paul and James the Just [italics original]:

For Peter was probably in fact and effect the bridge-man (pontifex maximus!) who did more than any other to hold together the diversity of first-century Christianity. James the brother of Jesus and Paul, the two other most prominent leading figures in first-century Christianity, were too much identified with their respective "brands" of Christianity, at least in the eyes of Christians at the opposite ends of this particular spectrum.

Dunn 2001, p. 577, Ch. 32

Paul affirms that Peter had the special charge of being apostle to the Jews, just as he, Paul, was apostle to the Gentiles. Some argue James the Just was bishop of Jerusalem whilst Peter was bishop of Rome and that this position at times gave James privilege in some (but not all) situations.

"Rock" dialogue

In a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples (Matthew 16:13–19), Jesus asks, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" The disciples give various answers. When he asks "Who do you say that I am?", Simon Peter answers, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God." Jesus then declares:

Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Cephas (Peter) (Petros), and on this rock (petra) I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

A common view of Peter is provided by Jesuit Father Daniel J. Harrington, who suggests that Peter was an unlikely symbol of stability. While he was one of the first disciples called and was the spokesman for the group, Peter is also the exemplar of "little faith". InMatthew 14, Peter will soon have Jesus say to him, "O you of little faith, why did you doubt?", and he will eventually deny Jesus three times. Thus, in light of the Easter event, Peter became an exemplar of the forgiven sinner. Outside the Catholic Church, opinions vary as to the interpretation of this passage with respect to what authority and responsibility, if any, Jesus was giving to Peter.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church this passage is interpreted as not implying a special prominence to the person of Peter, but to Peter's position as representative of the Apostles. The word used for "rock" (petra) grammatically refers to "a small detachment of the massive ledge", not to a massive boulder. Thus, Orthodox Sacred Tradition understands Jesus' words as referring to the apostolic faith.

Saint Peter in Tears by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682)

Petros had not previously been used as a name, but in the Greek-speaking world it became a popular Christian name, after the tradition of Peter's prominence in the early Christian church had been established.

Apostolic succession

Main article: Apostolic succession

The leadership of Peter forms the basis of the Apostolic succession and the institutional power of orthodoxy, as the heirs of Peter, and is described as "the rock" on which the church will be built. Catholics refer to him as chief of the Apostles, as do the Eastern Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox. In Coptic Orthodox Church liturgy, he is once referred to as "prominent" or "head" among the Apostles, a title shared with Paul in the text (The Fraction of Fast and Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria). Some, including the Orthodox Churches, believe this is not the same as saying that the other Apostles were under Peter's orders.

Antioch

Main article: Incident at Antioch

According to the Epistle to the Galatians (2:11), Peter went to Antioch where Paul rebuked him for following the conservative line regarding the conversion of Gentiles, having meals separate from Gentiles. Subsequent tradition held that Peter had been the first Patriarch of Antioch. According to the writings of Origen and Eusebius in his Church History (III, 36) Peter had founded the church of Antioch.

Later accounts expand on the brief biblical mention of his visit to Antioch. The Liber Pontificalis (9th century) mentions Peter as having served as bishop of Antioch for seven years, and having potentially left his family in the Greek city before his journey to Rome. Claims of direct blood lineage from Simon Peter among the old population of Antioch existed in the 1st century and continue to exist today, notably by certain Semaan families of modern-day Syria and Lebanon. Historians have furnished other evidence of Peter's sojourn in Antioch.

The Clementine literature, a group of related works written in the fourth century but believed to contain materials from earlier centuries, relate information about Peter that may come from earlier traditions. One is that Peter had a group of 12 to 16 followers, whom the Clementine writings name. Another is that it provides an itinerary of Peter's route from Caesarea Maritima to Antioch, where he debated his adversary Simon Magus; during this journey he ordained Zacchaeus as the first bishop of Caesarea and Maro as the first bishop of Tripolis. Fred Lapham suggests the route recorded in the Clementine writings may have been taken from an earlier document mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion called "The Itinerary of Peter".

Corinth

Peter may have visited Corinth, and maybe there existed a party of "Cephas". First Corinthians suggests that perhaps Peter visited the city of Corinth, located at Greece, during their missions.[1Cor. 1:12]

Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his Epistle to the Roman Church under Pope Soter (A.D. 165–174), declares that Peter and Paul founded the Church of Rome and the Church of Corinth, and they have lived in Corinth for some time, and finally in Italy where they found death:

You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time.

The Apostles Peter and Paul, detail of cupola fresco by Correggio (1520–1524)

In a tradition of the early Church, Peter is said to have founded the Church in Rome with Paul, served as its bishop, authored two epistles, and then met martyrdom there along with Paul.

Papacy

Saint Peter portrayed as a Pope in the Nuremberg Chronicle

The Catholic Church speaks of the pope, the bishop of Rome, as the successor of Saint Peter. This is often interpreted to imply that Peter was the first Bishop of Rome. However, it is also said that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome.

St. Clement of Rome identifies Peter and Paul as the outstanding heroes of the faith.

Coming to Rome

New Testament accounts

There is no obvious biblical evidence that Peter was ever in Rome, but the first epistle of Peter does mention that "The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son" (1 Peter 5:13). It is not certain whether this refers to the actual Babylon or to Rome, for which Babylon was a common nickname at the time, or to the Jewish diaspora in general, as a recent theory has proposed.

While the church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57, he greets some fifty people in Rome by name, but not Peter whom he knew. There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28, about AD 60–62.

Church Fathers

The writings of the 1st century Church Father Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35 – c. 107) refer to Peter and Paul giving admonitions to the Romans, indicating Peter's presence in Rome.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130 – c. 202) wrote in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.

Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215) states that "Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome (A.D. 190)."

According to Origen (184–253) and Eusebius, Peter "after having first founded the church at Antioch, went away to Rome preaching the Gospel, and he also, after [presiding over] the church in Antioch, presided over that of Rome until his death". After presiding over the church in Antioch for a while, Peter would have been succeeded by Evodius and thereafter by Ignatius, who was a student of John the Apostle.

Lactantius, in his book called Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died, written around 318, noted that "and while Nero reigned, the Apostle Peter came to Rome, and, through the power of God committed unto him, wrought certain miracles, and, by turning many to the true religion, built up a faithful and stedfast temple unto the Lord."

Simon Magus

Eusebius of Caesarea (260/265–339/340) relates that when Peter confronts Simon Magus at Judea (mentioned in Acts 8), Simon Magus flees to Rome, where the Romans began to regard him as a god. According to Eusebius, his luck did not last long, since God sent Peter to Rome, and Simon was quenched and immediately destroyed.

According to Jerome (327–420): "Peter went to Rome in the second year of Claudius to overthrow Simon Magus, and held the sacerdotal chair there for twenty-five years until the last, that is the fourteenth, year of Nero."

An apocryphal work, the Actus Vercellenses (7th century), a Latin text preserved in only one manuscript copy published widely in translation under the title Acts of Peter, sets Peter's confrontation with Simon Magus in Rome.

Death and burial

Crucifixion at Rome

In the epilogue of the Gospel of John, Jesus hints at the death by which Peter would glorify God, saying: "when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and carry you where you do not want to go."[Jn. 21:18–19] This is interpreted by some as a reference to Peter's crucifixion. Theologians Donald Fay Robinson and Warren M. Smaltz have suggested that the incident in Acts 12:1–17, where Peter is "released by an angel" and goes to "another place", really represents an idealized account of his death, which may have occurred in a Jerusalem prison as early as AD 44.

The Muratorian fragment, dated to the second century AD, notes that the primary eyewitness to Acts, Luke, was not present at Peter's death.

Early Church tradition says that Peter probably died by crucifixion (with arms outstretched) at the time of the Great Fire of Rome in the year 64. This took place three months after the disastrous fire that destroyed Rome for which the emperor (Nero) wished to blame the Christians. This "dies imperii" (regnal day anniversary) was an important one, exactly ten years after Nero ascended to the throne, and it was "as usual" accompanied by much bloodshed. Traditionally, Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion at Vatican Hill. In accordance with the apocryphal Acts of Peter, he was crucified head down. Tradition also locates his burial place where the Basilica of Saint Peter was later built, directly beneath the Basilica's high altar.

Pope Clement I (d. 99), in his Letter to the Corinthians (Chapter 5), written c. 80–98, speaks of Peter's martyrdom in the following terms: "Let us take the noble examples of our own generation. Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted, and came even unto death. …Peter, through unjust envy, endured not one or two but many labours, and at last, having delivered his testimony, departed unto the place of glory due to him."

The apocryphal Acts of Peter (2nd cent.) (Vercelli Acts XXXV) is the source for the tradition about the famous Latin phrase "Quo vadis, Domine?" (in Greek:Κύριε, ποῦ ὑπάγεις "Kyrie, pou hypageis?"), which means "Where are you going, Lord?". According to the story, Peter, fleeing Rome to avoid execution meets the risen Jesus. In the Latin translation, Peter asks Jesus, "Quo vadis?" He replies, "Romam eo iterum crucifigi" ("I am going to Rome to be crucified again"). Peter then gains the courage to continue his ministry and returns to the city, where he is martyred. This story is commemorated in an Annibale Carracci painting. The Church of Quo Vadis, near the Catacombs of Saint Callistus, contains a stone in which Jesus' footprints from this event are supposedly preserved, though this was apparently an ex-voto from a pilgrim, and indeed a copy of the original housed in the Basilica of St Sebastian.

The death of Peter is attested to by Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 240) at the end of the 2nd century in his Prescription Against Heretics, noting that Peter endured a passion like his Lord's. In his work Scorpiace 15, he also speaks of Peter's crucifixion: "The budding faith Nero first made bloody in Rome. There Peter was girded by another, since he was bound to the cross."

Origen (184–253) in his Commentary on the Book of Genesis III, quoted by Eusebius of Caesaria in his Ecclesiastical History (III, 1), said: "Peter was crucified at Rome with his head downwards, as he himself had desired to suffer." The Cross of St. Peter inverts the Latin cross based on this refusal, and on his claim of being unworthy to die the same way as his Saviour.

Peter of Alexandria (d. 311), who was bishop of Alexandria and died around AD 311, wrote an epistle on Penance, in which he says: "Peter, the first of the apostles, having been often apprehended and thrown into prison, and treated with ignominy, was last of all crucified at Rome."

Jerome (327–420) wrote that "at Nero's hands Peter received the crown of martyrdom being nailed to the cross with his head towards the ground and his feet raised on high, asserting that he was unworthy to be crucified in the same manner as his Lord."

Burial

Looking down into the confessio near the tomb of Apostle Peter, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome

Catholic tradition holds that Peter's inverted crucifixion occurred in the gardens of Nero, with the burial in Saint Peter's tomb nearby.

Caius in his Disputation Against Proclus (A.D. 198), preserved in part by Eusebius, relates this of the places in which the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul were deposited: "I can point out the trophies of the apostles. For if you are willing to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Way, you will find the trophies of those who founded this Church."

According to Jerome, in his work De Viris Illustribus (A.D. 392), "Peter was buried at Rome in the Vatican near the triumphal way where he is venerated by the whole world."

In the early 4th century, the Emperor Constantine I decided to honour Peter with a large basilica. Because the precise location of Peter's burial was so firmly fixed in the belief of the Christians of Rome, the church to house the basilica had to be erected on a site that was not convenient to construction. The slope of the Vatican Hill had to be excavated, even though the church could much more easily have been built on level ground only slightly to the south. There were also moral and legal issues, such as demolishing a cemetery to make room for the building. The focal point of the Basilica, both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction, is the altar located over what is said to be the point of Peter's burial.

St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber

Relics

According to a letter quoted by Bede, Pope Vitalian sent a cross containing filings said to be from Peter's chains to the queen of Oswy, Anglo-Saxon King of Northumbria in 665, as well as unspecified relics of the saint to the king.

In 1950, human bones were found buried underneath the altar of St. Peter's Basilica. The bones have been claimed by many to have been those of Peter. An attempt to contradict these claims was made in 1953 by the excavation of what some believe to be Saint Peter's tomb in Jerusalem. However along with this supposed tomb in Jerusalem bearing his previous name Simon (but not Peter), tombs bearing the names of Jesus, Mary, James, John, and the rest of the apostles were also found at the same excavation—though all these names were very common among Jews at the time.

In the 1960s, items from the excavations beneath St Peter's Basilica were re-examined, and the bones of a male person were identified. A forensic examination found them to be a male of about 61 years of age from the 1st century. This caused Pope Paul VI in 1968 to announce them most likely to be the relics of Apostle Peter. On 24 November 2013, Pope Francis presented part of the relics, consisting of bone fragments, for the first time in public during a Mass celebrated in St. Peter's Square. On 2 July 2019, it was announced that Pope Francis had transferred nine of these bone fragments within a bronze reliquary to Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople. Bartholomew, who serves as head of the Eastern Orthodox Christian church, described the gesture as "brave and bold." Pope Francis has said his decision was born "out of prayer" and intended as a sign of the ongoing work towards communion between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. The majority of Saint Peter's remains, however, are still preserved in Rome, under the high altar of St. Peter’s Basilica.

Epistles of Peter – Rome as Babylon

Peter's vision of a sheet with animals, Domenico Fetti, 1619

Church tradition ascribes the epistles First and Second Peter to the Apostle Peter, as does the text of Second Peter itself, an attribution rejected by scholarship. First Peter (1 Peter 5:13) implies the author is in "Babylon", which has been held to be a coded reference to Rome. Early Church tradition reports that Peter wrote from Rome. Eusebius of Caesarea states:

Clement of Alexandria in the sixth [book] of the Hypotyposeis cites the story, and the bishop of Hierapolis named Papias joins him in testifying that Peter mentions Mark in the first epistle, which they say he composed in Rome herself, and that he indicates this, calling the city more figuratively Babylon by these: "She who is in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings and so does my son Mark. (1 Pet 5:13)"

If the reference is to Rome, it is the only biblical reference to Peter being there. Many scholars regard both First and Second Peter as not having been authored by him, partly because other parts of the Acts of the Apostles seem to describe Peter as an illiterate fisherman.

Most Biblical scholars believe that "Babylon" is a metaphor for the pagan Roman Empire at the time it persecuted Christians, before the Edict of Milan in 313: perhaps specifically referencing some aspect of Rome's rule (brutality, greed, paganism). Although some scholars recognize that Babylon is a metaphor for Rome, they also claim that Babylon represents more than the Roman city of the first century. Craig Koester says outright that "the whore [of Babylon] is Rome, yet more than Rome". It "is the Roman imperial world, which in turn represents the world alienated from God".

At that time in history, the ancient city of Babylon was no longer of any importance. E.g., Strabo wrote, "The greater part of Babylon is so deserted that one would not hesitate to say ... the Great City is a great desert."

Another theory is that "Babylon" refers to the Babylon in Egypt that was an important fortress city in Egypt, just north of today's Cairo and this, combined with the "greetings from Mark" (1 Peter 5:13), who may be Mark the Evangelist, regarded as the founder of the Church of Alexandria (Egypt), has led some scholars to regard the First Peter epistle as having been written in Egypt.

Scholarly views

Some church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero, around AD 65 after the Great Fire of Rome. Presently, most Catholic scholars, and many scholars in general, hold the view that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero.

While accepting that Peter came to Rome and was martyred there, there is no historical evidence that he held episcopal office there. According to two extensive studies published by the German philologist Otto Zwierlein [de] in 2009 and 2013 respectively, "there is not a single piece of reliable literary evidence (and no archaeological evidence either) that Peter ever was in Rome."

Clement of Rome's First Letter, a document that has been dated from the 90s to the 120s, is one of the earliest sources adduced in support of Peter's stay in Rome, but Zwierlein questions the text's authenticity and whether it has any knowledge about Peter's life beyond what is contained in the New Testament Acts of the Apostles. The letter also does not mention any particular place, only saying: "Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two, but numerous labours and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him" (ch. 5).

A letter to the Romans attributed to Ignatius of Antioch might imply that Peter and Paul had special authority over the Roman church, telling the Roman Christians: "I do not command you, as Peter and Paul did" (ch. 4), although Zwierlein says he could be simply referring to the Epistles of the Apostles, or their mission work in the city, not a special authority given or bestowed. Zwierlein questions the authenticity of this document and its traditional dating to c. 105–10, saying it may date from the final decades of the 2nd century instead of from the beginning.

The ancient historian Josephus describes how Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions, and it is likely that this would have been known to the author of the Acts of Peter. The position attributed to Peter's crucifixion is thus plausible, either as having happened historically or as being an invention by the author of the Acts of Peter. Death, after crucifixion head down, is unlikely to be caused by suffocation, the usual "cause of death in ordinary crucifixion".

See also: St Peter's Eve

The Roman Martyrology assigns 29 June as the feast day of both Peter and Paul, without thereby declaring that to be the day of their deaths. Augustine of Hippo says in his Sermon 295: "One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two apostles. But those two were one. Although their martyrdom occurred on different days, they were one."

This is also the feast of both Apostles in the calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

In the Roman Rite, the feast of the Chair of Saint Peter is celebrated on 22 February, and the anniversary of the dedication of the two Papal Basilicas of Saint Peter's and Saint Paul outside the Walls is held on 18 November.

Before Pope John XXIII's revision in 1960, the Roman Calendar also included on 18 January another feast of the Chair of Saint Peter (denominated the Chair of Saint Peter in Rome, while the February feast was then called that of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch), and on 1 August the feast of Saint Peter in Chains.

In the Orthodox Daily Office every Thursday throughout the year is dedicated to the Holy Apostles, including St. Peter. There are also three feast days in the year which are dedicated to him:

Peter is remembered (with Paul) in the Church of England with a Festival on 29 June, Peter the Apostle may be celebrated alone, without Paul, on 29 June.

Main article: Primacy of Peter

Christians of different theological backgrounds are in disagreement as to the exact significance of Peter's ministry. For instance:

  • Catholics view Peter as the first pope. The Catholic Church asserts that Peter's ministry, conferred upon him by Jesus of Nazareth in the gospels, lays down the theological foundation for the pope's exercise of pastoral authority over the Church.
  • Eastern Orthodox also believe that Peter's ministry points to an underlying theology wherein a special primacy ought to be granted to Peter's successors above other Church leaders but see this as merely a "primacy of honor", rather than the right to exercise pastoral authority.
  • Protestant denominations assert that Peter's apostolic work in Rome does not imply a connection between him and the papacy.

Similarly, historians of various backgrounds also offer differing interpretations of the Apostle's presence in Rome.

Catholic Church

Statue of St. Peter in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican

According to Catholic belief, Simon Peter was distinguished by Jesus to hold the first place of honor and authority. Also in Catholic belief, Peter was, as the first Bishop of Rome, the first Pope. Furthermore, they consider every Pope to be Peter's successor and the rightful superior of all other bishops. However, Peter never bore the title of "Pope" or "Vicar of Christ" in the sense the Catholic Church considers Peter the first Pope.

The Catholic Church's recognition of Peter as head of its church on earth (with Christ being its heavenly head) is based on its interpretation of two passages from the canonical gospels of the New Testament, as well as sacred tradition.

John 21:15–17

The first passage isJohn 21:15–17 which is: "Feed my lambs... Tend my sheep... feed my sheep" (within the Greek it is Ποίμαινε i.e., to feed and rule [as a Shepherd] v. 16, while Βόσκε i.e., to feed for v.15 & v. 17)—which is seen by Catholics as Christ promising the spiritual supremacy to Peter. The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 sees in this passage Jesus "charging [Peter] with the superintendency of all his sheep, without exception; and consequently of his whole flock, that is, of his own church".

Matthew 16:18

The second passage isMatthew 16:18:

I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

Matthew 16:18–19 (NIV)
Etymology

In the story of the calling of the disciples, Jesus addresses Simon Peter with the Greek term Κηφᾶς (Cephas), a Hellenized form of Aramaic ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ (keepa), which means "rock", a term that before was not used as a proper name:

:ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Σὺ εἶ Σίμων ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωάννου, σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς ὃ ἑρμηνεύεται Πέτρος.

Having looked at him, Jesus said, "You are Simon the son of John; you will be called Cephas," which means Petros ("rock").
John 1:42

Jesus later alludes to this nickname after Peter declares Jesus to be the Messiah:

:κἀγὼ δέ σοι λέγω ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος [Petros] καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ [petra] οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, καὶ πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς.

I also say to you now that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.
Matthew 16:18

The Peshitta Syriac version renders Jesus' words into Aramaic as follows:

:ܐܳܦ݂ ܐܶܢܳܐ ܐܳܡܰܪ ܐ݈ܢܳܐ ܠܳܟ݂ ܕ݁ܰܐܢ݈ܬ݁ ܗ݈ܽܘ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܘܥܰܠ ܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܐܶܒ݂ܢܶܝܗ ܠܥܺܕ݈݁ܬ݁ܝ ܘܬ݂ܰܪܥܶܐ ܕ݁ܰܫܝܽܘܠ ܠܳܐ ܢܶܚܣܢܽܘܢܳܗ܂

Also I say to you that you are Keepa, and on this keepa I will build my Church, and the gates of Sheol not will subdue it.
Matthew 16:18

Paul of Tarsus later uses the appellation Cephas in reference to Peter.

Interpretation of Matthew 16:18

To better understand what Christ meant, St. Basil elaborates:

Though Peter be a rock, yet he is not a rock as Christ is. For Christ is the true unmoveable rock of himself, Peter is unmoveable by Christ the rock. For Jesus doth communicate and impart his dignities, not voiding himself of them, but holding them to himself, bestoweth them also upon others. He is the light, and yet you are the light: he is the Priest, and yet he maketh Priests: he is the rock, and he made a rock.

Basil li. De poenit. cƒ. Matt. v. 14; Luke 22:19

In reference to Peter's occupation before becoming an Apostle, the popes wear the Fisherman's Ring, which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat. The keys used as a symbol of the pope's authority refer to the "keys of the kingdom of Heaven" promised to Peter.[Matt. 16:18–19] The terminology of this "commission" of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah inIsaiah 22:15–23. Peter is often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys.

In the original Greek the word translated as "Peter" is Πέτρος (Petros) and that translated as "rock" is πέτρα (petra), two words that, while not identical, give an impression of one of many times when Jesus used a play on words. Furthermore, since Jesus presumably spoke to Peter in their native Aramaic language, he would have used kepha in both instances. The Peshitta Text and the Old Syriac texts use the word "kepha" for both "Peter" and "rock" inMatthew 16:18.John 1:42 says Jesus called Simon "Cephas", as Paul calls him in some letters. He was instructed by Christ to strengthen his brethren, i.e., the apostles.[Lk 22:31–32] Peter also had a leadership role in the early Christian church at Jerusalem according to The Acts of the Apostles chapters 1–2, 10–11, and 15.

Early Catholic Latin and Greek writers (such as St. John Chrysostom) considered the "foundation rock" as applying to both Peter personally and his confession of faith (or the faith of his confession) symbolically, as well as seeing Christ's promise to apply more generally to his twelve apostles and the Church at large. This "double meaning" interpretation is present in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church.

Protestant arguments against the Catholic interpretation are largely based on the difference between the Greek words translated "Rock" in the Matthean passage. They often claim that in classical Attic Greek petros (masculine) generally meant "pebble", while petra (feminine) meant "boulder" or "cliff", and accordingly, taking Peter's name to mean "pebble," they argue that the "rock" in question cannot have been Peter, but something else, either Jesus himself, or the faith in Jesus that Peter had just professed. These popular-level writings are disputed in similar popular-level Catholic writings.

The New Testament was written in Koiné Greek, not Attic Greek, and some authorities say no significant difference existed between the meanings of petros and petra. So far from meaning a pebble was the word petros that Apollonius Rhodius, a writer of Koiné Greek of the third century B.C., used it to refer to "a huge round boulder, a terrible quoit of Ares Enyalius; four stalwart youths could not have raised it from the ground even a little".

Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino (1481–82)

The feminine noun petra (πέτρα in Greek), translated as rock in the phrase "on this rock I will build my church", is also used at1 Cor. 10:4 in describing Jesus Christ, which reads: "They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ."

AlthoughMatthew 16 is used as a primary proof-text for the Catholic doctrine of Papal supremacy, some Protestant scholars say that prior to the Reformation of the 16th century, Matthew 16 was very rarely used to support papal claims, despite it being well documented as being used in the 3rd century by Stephen of Rome against Cyprian of Carriage in a "passionate disagreement" about baptism and in the 4th century by Pope Damasus as a claim to primacy as a lesson of the Arian Controversy for stricter discipline and centralized control. Their position is that most of the early and medieval Church interpreted the "rock" as being a reference either to Christ or to Peter's faith, not Peter himself. They understand Jesus' remark to have been his affirmation of Peter's testimony that Jesus was the Son of God.

Despite this claim, many Fathers saw a connection between Matthew 16:18 and the primacy of Peter and his office, such as Tertullian, writing: "The Lord said to Peter, 'On this rock I will build my Church, I have given you the keys of the kingdom of heaven [and] whatever you shall have bound or loosed on earth will be bound or loosed in heaven' [Matt. 16:18–19]. ...Upon you, he says, I will build my Church; and I will give to you the keys, not to the Church."

Epistles of Paul

The church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57. He greets some fifty people in Rome by name, but not Peter whom he knew. There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul's two-year stay there in Acts 28, about AD 60–62. Some Church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero, around AD 64 or 68.

Protestant rejection of Catholic claims

Other theologically conservative Christians, including Confessional Lutherans, also rebut comments made by Karl Keating and D.A. Carson who claim that there is no distinction between the words petros and petra in Koine Greek. The Lutheran theologians state that the dictionaries of Koine/NT Greek, including the authoritative Bauer-Danker-Arndt-Gingrich Lexicon, indeed list both words and the passages that give different meanings for each. The Lutheran theologians further note that:

We honor Peter and in fact some of our churches are named after him, but he was not the first pope, nor was he Roman Catholic. If you read his first letter, you will see that he did not teach a Roman hierarchy, but that all Christians are royal priests. The same keys given to Peter in Matthew 16 are given to the whole church of believers in Matthew 18.

Saint Peter by Dirck van Baburen (c. 1615–1620)

Oscar Cullmann, a Lutheran theologian and distinguished Church historian, disagrees with Luther and the Protestant reformers who held that by "rock" Christ did not mean Peter, but meant either himself or the faith of His followers. He believes the meaning of the original Aramaic is very clear: that "Kepha" was the Aramaic word for "rock", and that it was also the name by which Christ called Peter.

Yet, Cullmann sharply rejects the Catholic claim that Peter began the papal succession. He writes: "In the life of Peter there is no starting point for a chain of succession to the leadership of the church at large." While he believes the Matthew text is entirely valid and is in no way spurious, he says it cannot be used as "warrant of the papal succession." Cullmann concludes that while Peter was the original head of the apostles, Peter was not the founder of any visible church succession.

There are other Protestant scholars who also partially defend the historical Catholic position about "Rock." Taking a somewhat different approach from Cullman, they point out that the Gospel of Matthew was not written in the classical Attic form of Greek, but in the Hellenistic Koine dialect in which there is no distinction in meaning between petros and petra. Moreover, even in Attic Greek, in which the regular meaning of petros was a smallish "stone," there are instances of its use to refer to larger rocks, as in Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus v. 1595, where petros refers to a boulder used as a landmark, obviously something more than a pebble. In any case, a petros/petra distinction is irrelevant considering the Aramaic language in which the phrase might well have been spoken. In Greek, of any period, the feminine noun petra could not be used as the given name of a male, which may explain the use of Petros as the Greek word with which to translate Aramaic Kepha.

Yet, still other Protestant scholars believe that Jesus in fact did mean to single out Peter as the very rock which he will build upon, but that the passage does nothing to indicate a continued succession of Peter's implied position. They assert that Matthew uses the demonstrative pronoun taute, which allegedly means "this very" or "this same", when he refers to the rock on which Jesus' church will be built. He also uses the Greek word for "and", kai. It is alleged that when a demonstrative pronoun is used with kai, the pronoun refers back to the preceding noun. The second rock Jesus refers to must then be the same rock as the first one; and if Peter is the first rock he must also be the second.

Unlike Oscar Cullmann, Confessional Lutherans and many other Protestant apologists agree that it's meaningless to elaborate the meaning of "Rock" by looking at the Aramaic language. While the Jews spoke mostly Aramaic at home, in public they usually spoke Greek. The few Aramaic words spoken by Jesus in public were unusual, which is why they are noted as such. And most importantly the New Testament was revealed in Koine Greek, not Aramaic.

Lutheran historians even report that the Catholic church itself didn't, at least unanimously, regard Peter as the rock until the 1870s:

Rome's rule for explaining the Scriptures and determining doctrine is the Creed of Pius IV. This Creed binds Rome to explain the Scriptures only according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. In the year 1870 when the Fathers gathered and the pope declared his infallibility, the cardinals were not in agreement on Matthew 16, 18. They had five different interpretations. Seventeen insisted, Peter is the rock. Sixteen held that Christ is the rock. Eight were emphatic that the whole apostolic college is the rock. Forty-four said, Peter's faith is the rock, The remainder looked upon the whole body of believers as the rock. – And yet Rome taught and still teaches that Peter is the rock.

Eastern Orthodox

Icon of Saint Peter, c 1500

The Eastern Orthodox Church regards Apostle Peter, together with Apostle Paul, as "Preeminent Apostles". Another title used for Peter is Coryphaeus, which could be translated as "Choir-director", or lead singer. The church recognizes Apostle Peter's leadership role in the early church, especially in the very early days at Jerusalem, but does not consider him to have had any "princely" role over his fellow Apostles.

The New Testament is not seen by the Orthodox as supporting any extraordinary authority for Peter with regard to faith or morals. The Orthodox also hold that Peter did not act as leader at the Council of Jerusalem, but as merely one of a number who spoke. The final decision regarding the non-necessity of circumcision (and certain prohibitions) was spelled out by James, the Brother of the Lord (though Catholics hold James merely reiterated and fleshed out what Peter had said, regarding the latter's earlier divine revelation regarding the inclusion of Gentiles).

Eastern and Oriental Orthodox do not recognize the Bishop of Rome as the successor of St. Peter but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople sends a delegation each year to Rome to participate in the celebration of the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. In the Ravenna Document of 13 October 2007, the representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church agreed that "Rome, as the Church that 'presides in love' according to the phrase of St. Ignatius of Antioch ("To the Romans", Prologue), occupied the first place in the taxis, and that the bishop of Rome was therefore the protos among the patriarchs, if the Papacy unites with the Orthodox Church. They disagree, however, on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the bishop of Rome as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium."

With regard to Jesus' words to Peter, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church", the Orthodox hold Christ is referring to the confession of faith, not the person of Peter as that upon which he will build the church. This is allegedly shown by the fact that the original Septuagint uses the feminine demonstrative pronoun when he says "upon this rock" (ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ); whereas, grammatically, if he had been referring to Peter, he would allegedly have used the masculine.

Syriac Orthodox Church

Saint Peter and the angel, early 1640s, by Antonio de Bellis

The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of Apostle Peter. They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community. Ephrem, Aphrahat and Maruthas who were supposed to have been the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter.

The Syriac Fathers, following the rabbinic tradition, call Jesus "Kepha" for they see "rock" in the Old Testament as a messianic Symbol (yet the Old Maronite Syriacs of Lebanon still refer to Saint Peter as "Saint Simon the Generous" or Simon Karam"). When Christ gave his own name "Kepha" to Simon he was giving him participation in the person and office of Christ. Christ who is the Kepha and shepherd made Simon the chief shepherd in his place and gave him the very name Kepha and said that on Kepha he would build the Church. Aphrahat shared the common Syriac tradition. For him Kepha is in fact another name of Jesus, and Simon was given the right to share the name. The person who receives somebody else's name also obtains the rights of the person who bestows the name. Aphrahat makes the stone taken from Jordan a type of Peter. He wrote: "Jesus son of Nun set up the stones for a witness in Israel; Jesus our Saviour called Simon Kepha Sarirto and set him as the faithful witness among nations."

Again he wrote in his commentary on Deuteronomy that Moses brought forth water from "rock" (Kepha) for the people and Jesus sent Simon Kepha to carry his teachings among nations. God accepted him and made him the foundation of the Church and called him Kepha. When he speaks about the transfiguration of Christ he calls him Simon Peter, the foundation of the Church. Ephrem also shared the same view. The Armenian version of De Virginitate records that Peter the rock shunned honour. A mimro of Efrem found in Holy Week Liturgy points to the importance of Peter.

Both Aphrahat and Ephrem represent the authentic tradition of the Syrian Church. The different orders of liturgies used for sanctification of Church buildings, marriage, ordination, et cetera, reveal that the primacy of Peter is a part of living faith of the Church.

New Apostolic Church

The New Apostolic Church, which believes in the re-established Apostle ministry, sees Peter as the first Chief Apostle.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Saint Peter by Vasco Fernandes, 1506

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that Peter was the first leader of the early Christian church after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. While the Church accepts apostolic succession from Peter, it rejects papal successors as illegitimate. Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, recorded in multiple revelations that the resurrected Peter appeared to him and Oliver Cowdery in 1829, near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, in order to bestow the apostleship and keys of the kingdom as part of a restoration of priesthood authority.

In interpretingMatthew 16:13–19, Latter-day Saint leader Bruce R. McConkie stated, "The things of God are known only by the power of his Spirit," and "that which the world calls Mormonism is based upon the rock of revelation." In his April 1981 general conference address, McConkie identified the rock of which Jesus spoke as the rock of revelation: "There is no other foundation upon which the Lord could build His Church and kingdom. ...Revelation: Pure, perfect, personal revelation—this is the rock!"

Judaism

According to an old Jewish tradition, Simon Peter joined the early Christians at the decision of the rabbis. Worried that early Christianity's similarity to Judaism would lead people to mistake it for a branch of Judaism, he was chosen to join them. As he moved up in rank, he would be able to lead them into forming their own, distinct belief system. Despite this, he was said to remain a practicing Jew, and is ascribed with the authorship of the Nishmas prayer.

Islam

Main article: Peter in Islam

Muslims consider Jesus a prophet of God. The Qur'an also speaks of Jesus's disciples but does not mention their names, instead referring to them as "helpers to the prophet of God". Muslim exegesis and Qur'an commentary, however, names them and includes Peter among the disciples. An old tradition, which involves the legend of Habib the Carpenter, mentions that Peter was one of the three disciples sent to Antioch to preach to the people there.

Twelver Shia Muslims see a parallel in the figure of Peter to Ali at Muhammad's time. They look upon Ali as being the vicegerent, with Muhammad being the prophet; likewise, they see Peter as the vicegerent, behind Jesus the prophet and Masih. Peter's role as the first proper leader of the church is also seen by Shias to be a parallel to their belief in Ali as the first caliph after Muhammad.

Bahá’í Faith

In the Bahá’í Faith "the primacy of Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, is upheld and defended." Bahá’ís understand Peter's station as The Rock upon which the church of God would be founded to mean that Peter's belief in Christ as the Son of the living God would serve as the foundation for Christianity, and that upon this belief would the foundation of the church of God, understood as the Law of God, be established. Peter appears in the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Bahá’í Faith, often referred to as The Rock:

O followers of all religions! We behold you wandering distraught in the wilderness of error. Ye are the fish of this Ocean; wherefore do ye withhold yourselves from that which sustaineth you? Lo, it surgeth before your faces. Hasten unto it from every clime. This is the day whereon the Rock (Peter) crieth out and shouteth, and celebrateth the praise of its Lord, the All-Possessing, the Most High, saying: “Lo! The Father is come, and that which ye were promised in the Kingdom is fulfilled!” -from The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Bahá’u’lláh

Traditionally, two canonical epistles (1 and 2 Peter) and several apocryphal works have been attributed to Peter.

New Testament

St Peter by Francesco del Cossa, 1473

Epistles

The New Testament includes two letters (epistles) ascribed to Peter. Both demonstrate a high quality of cultured and urban Greek, at odds with the linguistic skill that would ordinarily be expected of an Aramaic-speaking fisherman, who would have learned Greek as a second or third language. The textual features of these two epistles are such that a majority of scholars doubt that they were written by the same hand. Some scholars argue that theological differences imply different sources, and point to the lack of references to 2 Peter among the early Church Fathers.

Daniel B. Wallace (who maintains that Peter was the author) writes that, for many scholars, "the issue of authorship is already settled, at least negatively: the apostle Peter did not write this letter" and that "the vast bulk of NT scholars adopts this perspective without much discussion". However, he later states, "Although a very strong case has been made against Petrine authorship of 2 Peter, we believe it is deficient. ...Taken together, these external and internal arguments strongly suggest the traditional view, viz., that Peter was indeed the author of the second epistle which bears his name."

Of the two epistles, the first epistle is considered the earlier. A number of scholars have argued that the textual discrepancies with what would be expected of the biblical Peter are due to it having been written with the help of a secretary or as an amanuensis.

Jerome explains:

The two Epistles attributed to St. Peter differ in style, character, and the construction of the words, which proves that according to the exigencies of the moment St. Peter made use of different interpreters. (Epistle 120 – To Hedibia)

Some have seen a reference to the use of a secretary in the sentence: "By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand".[1 Pet. 5:12] However New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman in his 2011 book Forged states that "scholars now widely recognize that when the author indicates that he wrote the book 'through Silvanus', he is indicating not the name of his secretary, but the person who was carrying his letter to the recipients." The letter refers to Roman persecution of Christians, apparently of an official nature. The Roman historian Tacitus and the biographer Suetonius do both record that Nero persecuted Christians, and Tacitus dates this to immediately after the fire that burned Rome in 64. Christian tradition, for example Eusebius of Caesarea (History book 2, 24.1), has maintained that Peter was killed in Nero's persecution, and thus had to assume that the Roman persecution alluded to in First Peter must be this Neronian persecution. On the other hand, many modern scholars argue that First Peter refers to the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor during the reign of the emperor Domitian (81–96), as the letter is explicitly addressed to Jewish Christians from that region:

Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance.[1Pet 1:1–2]

Those scholars who believe that the epistle dates from the time of Domitian argue that Nero's persecution of Christians was confined to the city of Rome itself, and did not extend to the Asian provinces mentioned in 1 Pet 1:1–2.

The Second Epistle of Peter, on the other hand, appears to have been copied, in part, from the Epistle of Jude, and some modern scholars date its composition as late as c. 150. Some scholars argue the opposite, that the Epistle of Jude copied Second Peter, while others contend an early date for Jude and thus observe that an early date is not incompatible with the text. Many scholars have noted the similarities between the apocryphal Second Epistle of Clement (2nd century) and Second Peter. Second Peter may be earlier than 150; there are a few possible references to it that date back to the 1st century or early 2nd century, e.g., 1 Clement written in c. AD 96, and the later church historian Eusebius wrote that Origen had made reference to the epistle before 250.

Jerome says that Peter "wrote two epistles which are called Catholic, the second of which, on account of its difference from the first in style, is considered by many not to be by him"(De Viris Illustribus 1). But he himself received the epistle, and explained the difference in style, character, and structure of words by the assumption that Peter used different interpreters in the composition of the two epistles; and from his time onward the epistle was generally regarded as a part of the New Testament.

Even in early times there was controversy over its authorship, and Second Peter was often not included in the biblical canon; it was only in the 4th century that it gained a firm foothold in the New Testament, in a series of synods. In the East the Syriac Orthodox Church still did not admit it into the canon until the 6th century.

Mark

Traditionally, the Gospel of Mark was said to have been written by a person named John Mark, and that this person was an assistant to Peter; hence its content was traditionally seen as the closest to Peter's viewpoint. According to Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, Papias recorded this belief from John the Presbyter:

Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a normal or chronological narrative of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictional into the statements.

Clement of Alexandria in the fragments of his work Hypotyposes (A.D. 190) preserved and cited by the historian Eusebius in his Church History (VI, 14: 6) writes that:

As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it.

Also Irenaeus wrote about this tradition:

After their (Peter and Paul's) passing, Mark also, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, transmitted to us in writing the things preached by Peter.

Based on these quotes, and on the Christian tradition, the information in Mark's gospel about Peter would be based on eyewitness material. The gospel itself is anonymous, and the above passages are the oldest surviving written testimony to its authorship.

Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha

The key as symbol of St. Peter

There are also a number of other apocryphal writings, that have been either attributed to or written about Peter. These include:

Non-canonical sayings of Peter

Two sayings are attributed to Peter in the gnostic Gospel of Thomas. In the first, Peter compares Jesus to a "just messenger". In the second, Peter asks Jesus to "make Mary leave us, for females don't deserve life." In the Apocalypse of Peter, Peter holds a dialogue with Jesus about the parable of the fig tree and the fate of sinners. In the Gospel of Mary, whose text is largely fragmented, Peter appears to be jealous of "Mary" (probably Mary Magdalene). He says to the other disciples, "Did He really speak privately with a woman and not openly to us? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did He prefer her to us?" In reply to this, Levi says, "Peter, you have always been hot tempered." Other noncanonical texts that attribute sayings to Peter include the Secret Book of James and the Acts of Peter.

In the Fayyum Fragment, which dates to the end of the 3rd century, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him three times before a cock crows on the following morning. The account is similar to that of the canonical gospels, especially the Gospel of Mark. It is unclear whether the fragment is an abridged version of the accounts in the synoptic gospels, or a source text on which they were based, perhaps the apocryphal Gospel of Peter.

The fragmentary Gospel of Peter contains an account of the death of Jesus differing significantly from the canonical gospels. It contains little information about Peter himself, except that after the discovery of the empty tomb, "I, Simon Peter, and Andrew my brother, took our fishing nets and went to the sea."

Saint Peter sinking on water by Eero Järnefelt (1892)

The earliest portrait of Peter dates back to the 4th century and was located in 2010. In traditional iconography, Peter has been shown very consistently since early Christian art as an oldish, thick-set man with a "slightly combative" face and a short beard, and usually white hair, sometimes balding. He thus contrasts with Paul the Apostle who is bald except at the sides, with a longer beard and often black hair, and thinner in the face. One exception to this is in Anglo-Saxon art, where he typically lacks a beard. Both Peter and Paul are shown thus as early as the 4th century Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter in Rome. Later in the Middle Ages his attribute is one or two large keys in his hand or hanging from his belt, first seen in the early 8th century. More than many medieval attributes, this continued to be depicted in the Renaissance and afterwards. By the 15th century Peter is more likely to be bald on the top of his head in the Western church, but he continues to have a good head of hair in Orthodox icons.

The depiction of Saint Peter as literally the keeper of the gates of heaven, popular with modern cartoonists, is not found in traditional religious art, but Peter usually heads groups of saints flanking God in heaven, on the right hand side (viewer's left) of God. Narrative images of Peter include several scenes from the Life of Christ where he is mentioned in the gospels, and he is often identifiable in scenes where his presence is not specifically mentioned. Usually he stands nearest to Christ. In particular, depictions of the Arrest of Christ usually include Peter cutting off the ear of one of the soldiers. Scenes without Jesus include his distinctive martyrdom, his rescue from prison, and sometimes his trial. In the Counter-Reformation scenes of Peter hearing the cock crow for the third time became popular, as a representation of repentance and hence the Catholic sacrament of Confession or Reconciliation.

Medieval mosaic of Saint Peter in the Chora Church, Istanbul
Icon of Saint Peter and Paul
St. Peter, holding a key and a book, depicted in a medieval Welsh manuscript, 1390–1400
Workers
Called for aid in
  • Frenzy
  • Foot problems
Institutions
Churches and Cathedrals
Locations

L. Michael White suggests that there was a serious division between Peter's Jewish Christian party and Paul's Hellenizing party, seen in e.g. the Incident at Antioch, which later Christian accounts have downplayed.

Another revisionist view was developed by supporters of the Christ myth theory, which holds that the figure of Peter is largely a development from some mythological doorkeeper figures. According to Arthur Drews and G. A. Wells, if there was a historical Peter, then all that is known about him is the brief mentions in Galatians.

  1. Peter delivering a significant open-air sermon during Pentecost. According to the same book, Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot.[Acts 1:15] Following this appointment, we see Peter establish the conditions for being an apostle as those who have spent time with Jesus. Peter's authority lent to his role as an adjudicator in conflicts and moral matters. He takes on this role in the case of Ananias and Sapphira and holds them accountable for lying about their alms-giving. Peter passes judgement upon them and they are individually struck dead over the infraction. Peter's role wasn't always leadership, since he also employed his gifts for taking care of those in need. We see Peter establish these trends by reaching out to the sick and lame. Peter heals two individuals who cannot walk or are paralyzed as well as raising Tabitha from the dead. While these acts were miracles of compassion, they also contributed to the number of believers in the early Church.
  2. At the Council of Jerusalem (c. 50), the early Church, Paul and the leaders of the Jerusalem church met and decided to embrace Gentile converts. Acts portrays Peter and other leaders as successfully opposing the Christian Pharisees who insisted on circumcision.
  3. Galatians is accepted as authentic by almost all scholars. These may be the earliest mentions of Peter to be written. Eusebius of Caesarea, in his "Historia Ecclesiastica (I,12:2)" while naming some of the Seventy Disciples of Jesus, says: "This is the account of Clement, in the fifth book of Hypotyposes (A.D. 190); in which he also says that Cephas was one of the seventy disciples, a man who bore the same name as the apostle Peter, and the one concerning whom Paul says, [When Cephas came to Antioch I withstood him to his face.]"
  4. This is provided in Downey, A History of Antioch, pp. 583–586. This evidence is accepted by M. Lapidge, among others, see Bischoff and Lapidge, Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School (Cambridge, 1994) p. 16. Lastly, see Finegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, pp. 63–71.
  5. Historians debate whether the Roman government distinguished between Christians and Jews prior to Nerva's modification of the Fiscus Judaicus in 96. From then on, practising Jews paid the tax, Christians did not.
  6. Margherita Guarducci, who led the research leading to the rediscovery of Peter's reputed tomb in its last stages (1963–1968), concludes Peter died on 13 October AD 64 during the festivities on the occasion of the "dies imperii" of Emperor Nero.
  7. Zwierlein's thesis has caused debate. Zwierlein has made a summary of his view available online in English. An edited volume in German was also written in rebuttal against Otto Zwierlein's views.
  8. Πέτρᾳ (petra "rock") is the feminine form of the Greek noun (Πέτρος) (Petros), which represents the masculine form; the two forms are identical in meaning.
  1. "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles". www.newadvent.org.
  2. McDowell, Sean (2016). The Fate of the Apostles: Examining the Martyrdom Accounts of the Closest Followers of Jesus. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 9781317031901.
  3. Siecienski, A. Edward (2017). The Papacy and the Orthodox: Sources and History of a Debate. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190650926. scholarship largely came to accept Peter's death in Rome "as a fact which is relatively, although not absolutely, assured." While a select few were willing to make this judgment definitive
  4. Richard T. Antoun; Donald Quataert (1991). "The Alawis of Syria Religious Ideology and Organization". Syria: Society, Culture, and Polity. Suny Series in Judaica. SUNY Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780791407134 – via books.google.com.
  5. Classical Syriac:ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ‎, romanized: Šemʿōn Kēp̄ā; Hebrew:שמעון בר יונה‎, romanized: Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; Arabic:سِمعَان بُطرُس‎, romanized: Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; Greek:Πέτρος, translit. Petros; Coptic:Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, romanized: Petros; Latin: Petrus; Arabic:شمعون الصفـا‎, romanized: Sham'un al-Safa, lit. 'Simon the Pure'.; Turkish: Aziz Petrus
  6. John Hayes, Who was who in the Bible, Thomas Nelson, 1999, p. 70: "CEPHAS [SEE fuhs]".
  7. Matthew 16:18
  8. Dale Martin 2009 (lecture). "24. Apocalyptic and Accommodation" on YouTube. Yale University. Accessed 22 July 2013. Lecture 24 (transcript).
  9. Chapman, Henry Palmer (1913)."Fathers of the Church" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  10. Thomas Patrick Halton, On Illustrious Men, v. 100, CUA Press, 1999, pp. 5–7 ISBN 0-8132-0100-4.
  11. "The Early Church Fathers", Chapter 1, New Advent
  12. Acts 15:14 and 2 Peter 1:1
  13. Wilson, Robert McLachlan (5 April 1979). Text and Interpretation: Studies in the New Testament Presented to Matthew Black. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521220217 – via Google Books.
  14. "Strong's Greek: 2786. Κηφᾶς (Képhas) – "a rock," Cephas, a name given to the apostle Peter". biblehub.com.
  15. "Strong's Greek: 4073. πέτρα (petra) -- a (large mass of) rock". biblehub.com. Retrieved1 September 2021.
  16. "Strong's Greek: 4074. Πέτρος (Petros) – "a stone" or "a boulder," Peter, one of the twelve apostles". biblehub.com.
  17. Siecienski, A. Edward (12 January 2017). The Papacy and the Orthodox: Sources and History of a Debate. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190650926 – via Google Books.
  18. Jastrow, Marcus (20 February 1903). "A dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic literature". London: Luzac – via Internet Archive.
  19. "A Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac: As Spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan ..." Clarendon. 20 February 1901 – via Internet Archive.
  20. Pesch, Rudolf (1980). Simon-Petrus. Hiersemann, Stuttgart. p. 29
  21. The Teaching of Simon Cephas in the City of Rome; The Diatessaron
  22. "Peter, St" by F. L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 2005
  23. His father's name is given as 'Jonah' (John 1:42, Matthew 16:17), although some manuscripts of John give his father's name as John.
  24. Collins, Raymond F. (22 November 2013). Accompanied by a Believing Wife: Ministry and Celibacy in the Earliest Christian Communities. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814682388 – via Google Books.
  25. "The Church of the House of Peter". mfa.gov.il. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  26. "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 10 – New Revised Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved30 November 2017.
  27. see Incident at Antioch; see also the section below headed "Road to Rome: Antioch and Corinth"
  28. Pagels 2005, p. 45.
  29. Lüdemann & Özen 1996, p. 116. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLüdemannÖzen1996 (help)
  30. Pagels 2005, pp. 45–46.
  31. Lüdemann & Özen 1996, pp. 116–117. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLüdemannÖzen1996 (help)
  32. Pagels 2005, p. 43.
  33. Matt. 10:2–4,Mk. 3:16–19,Lk. 6:14–16
  34. Acts 1:13
  35. Matthew 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28
  36. Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51
  37. Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33
  38. Matthew 15:15; 19:27; Luke 12:41; John 6:67–68
  39. Vidmar, John (2005). John Vidmar, The Catholic Church through the ages: a history. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-8091-4234-7. Retrieved12 September 2010.
  40. "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 1 – New Revised Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved30 November 2017.
  41. "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 5 – New Revised Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved30 November 2017.
  42. "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 3 – New Revised Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved30 November 2017.
  43. "Bible Gateway passage: Acts 9 – New Revised Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved30 November 2017.
  44. May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
  45. 1Cor 15
  46. 1Cor 15:3–7
  47. SeeMatthew 28:8–10,John 20:16 andLuke 24:13–16.
  48. Galatians 2:9
  49. Myllykoski, Matti (2006). "James the Just in History and Tradition: Perspectives of Past and Present Scholarship (Part I)". Currents in Research. Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, Finland. 5: 73–122. doi:10.1177/1476993X06068700. S2CID 162513014. James the Just, the brother of Jesus, is known from the New Testament as the chief apostle of the Torah-obedient Christians.
  50. Harris, Stephen L. (2010). Understanding the Bible (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 420. ISBN 978-0-07-340744-9. "Christian Pharisees demand that the entire Torah be kept, but Peter reportedly opposes this ([Acts] 15:10) and ... silences the Judaizers."
  51. Bockmuehl 2010, p. 52.
  52. "Church History Book II, Chapter I, quoting Clement of Alexandria's Sixth book of Hypotyposes". Newadvent.org. Retrieved12 September 2010.
  53. Harrington, Daniel J. "Peter the Rock." America, 18–25 August 2008. Accessed 9 October 2009: p. 30.
  54. "What did Jesus mean when he said, "Upon this rock I will build my church"?". Bible.org. Retrieved10 February 2015.
  55. Rienecker, Fritz; Rogers, Cleon (1976). Linguistic key to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids MI: Regency Reference Library (Zondervan Publishing House). p. 49. ISBN 978-0-310-32050-0.
  56. "Sermon by Leo the Great (440–461)". Ccel.org. 13 July 2005. Retrieved12 September 2010.
  57. "Archbishop Stylianos of Australia". Retrieved12 September 2010.
  58. "Patriarch H.H. Ignatius Zakka I Iwas". Syrianchurch.org. Retrieved12 September 2010.
  59. "Syriac Orthodox Church in Canada – Identity of the Church".
  60. Eusebius. "Church History Book I, Chapter 12:2". Retrieved1 June 2015.
  61. (ἡ δ᾿ ἱστορία παρὰ Κλήμεντι κατὰ τὴν πέμπτην τῶν Ὑποτυπώσεων· ἐν ᾗ καὶ Κηφᾶν, περὶ οὗ φησιν ὁ Παῦλος· "ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην", ἕνα φησὶ γεγονέναι τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα μαθητῶν, ὁμώνυμον Πέτρῳ τυγχάνοντα τῷ ἀποστόλῳ.)
  62. Origen's homilies on Luke VI, 4. Patrologia Graeca 13:1814
  63. Eusebius. "Church History Book III, Chapter 36". Retrieved1 June 2015.
  64. Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition).
  65. Homilies, 2.1; Recognitions, 2.1
  66. Lapham, An Introduction to the New Testament Apocrypha (London: T&T Clark International, 2003), p. 76
  67. of Corinth, Dionysius. "Fragments from a Letter to the Roman Church Chapter III". www.earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved1 June 2015.
  68. "Was Peter in Rome?". Catholic Answers. 10 August 2004. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved9 November 2014. If Peter never made it to the capital, he still could have been the first pope, since one of his successors could have been the first holder of that office to settle in Rome. After all, if the papacy exists, it was established by Christ during his lifetime, long before Peter is said to have reached Rome. There must have been a period of some years in which the papacy did not yet have its connection to Rome.
  69. Pieter Willem van der Horst, review of Otto Zwierlein, Petrus in Rom: die literarischen Zeugnisse. Mit einer kritischen Edition der Martyrien des Petrus und Paulus auf neuer handschriftlicher Grundlage, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009, in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010.03.25.
  70. Bloggers, Staff. ""Petrus im Rom" or Peter in Rome revisited".
  71. Franzen, p. 26
  72. 16
  73. Ignatius of Antioch. "The Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans". newadvent.org. Retrieved15 August 2016.
  74. "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus".
  75. Eusebius of Caesarea. "Church History Book VI, Chapter 14:6". Retrieved1 June 2015.
  76. Eusebius, in his Chronicle (A.D. 303) [Chronicle, 44 A.D. Patrologia Graeca 19:539].
  77. Eusebius. "Church History Book III Chapter 36:2". newadvent.org. Retrieved5 June 2015.
  78. Eusebius. "Church History Book III Chapter 22". newadvent.org. Retrieved5 June 2015.
  79. Lucius Caecilius Firmianus, Lactantius. "Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died Chapter 2". ccel.org. Retrieved1 June 2015.
  80. Eusebius. "Church History Book II, Chapter 14–15". Retrieved1 June 2015.
  81. saint, Jerome. "De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) Chapter 1". newadvent.org. Retrieved5 June 2015.
  82. Lapham, Introduction, p. 72
  83. "The Acts of Peter".
  84. Harris, Stephen L. (2010). Understanding the Bible (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-07-340744-9. "[John's] Gospel is commonly divided into a prologue (1:1–51); a Book of Signs ... (2:1–11:57); the Book of Glory ... (12:1–20:31); and an epilogue (21:1–25)."
  85. Robinson, D. F., 'Where and When did Peter die?', Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 64 (1945), supported by Smaltz, W. M., Did Peter die in Jerusalem?, Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 71, No. 4 (Dec. 1952), pp. 211–216. Accessed 31 August 2015.
  86. Caius. "Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol. V, Fragments of Caius" – via Wikisource.
  87. Apocryphal Acts of Peter Chapter 37.
  88. of Rome, Clement. "The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians". earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved1 June 2015.
  89. The Acts of Peter, by M. R. James
  90. Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian. "Prescription Against Heretics Chapter XXXVI". ccel.org. Retrieved1 June 2015. "Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood; where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's; where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's [the Baptist]; where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile."
  91. Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian. "Scorpiace Chapter 15". newadvent.org. Retrieved6 June 2015.
  92. Granger Ryan & Helmut Ripperger, The Golden Legend Of Jacobus De Voragine Part One, 1941.
  93. of Alexandria, Peter. "Canonical Epistle on Penitence Canon 9". newadvent.org. Retrieved3 June 2015.
  94. Vatican Cardinal Angelo Comastri (interviewee) (2011). Secret Access: The Vatican (Video) (in English and Italian). Vatican City, Rome, Italy: A&E Studio Entertainment. Event occurs at 94 minutes. This is the holiest site in the Basilica, where the Apostle Peter was crucified and his blood shed to the ground
  95. presbyter, Caius (Gaius). "Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus (A.D. 198) in Eusebius, Church History Book II Chapter 25:6–7". newadvent.org. Retrieved1 June 2015.
  96. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Tomb of St. Peter".
  97. "The Papacy and the Vatican Palace".
  98. Wall, J. Charles. (1912), Porches and Fonts. Pub. London: Wells Gardner and Darton. p. 295; "Venerable Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Book III, Chapter 29". Fordham.edu. Retrieved12 September 2010.
  99. Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter: A 1st Full Account of the Search for the Apostle's Body
  100. Finegan, The Archeology of the New Testament, pp. 368–370.
  101. "The Bones of St. Peter". Saintpetersbasilica.org. Retrieved12 September 2010.
  102. "Vatican displays Saint Peter's bones for the first time". The Guardian. Associated Press. 24 November 2013. Retrieved24 November 2013.
  103. Cindy Wooden (2 July 2019). "Pope gives relics of St. Peter to Orthodox patriarch". Catholic News Service. Retrieved2 July 2019.
  104. Brockhaus, Hannah. "Pope Francis explains decision to give relics of St. Peter to Orthodox". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved27 March 2021.
  105. "The inexplicable transfer of St Peter's relics to Constantinople". Catholic Herald. 24 July 2019. Retrieved27 March 2021.
  106. Harris, Stephen L. (2010). Understanding the Bible (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 477. ISBN 978-0-07-340744-9. "'Babylon' became the Christian code name for Rome after Titus destroyed Jerusalem, thus duplicating the Babylonians’ demolition of the holy city (587 BCE)."
  107. Grabbe, Lester L.; Haak, Robert D. (2003). Knowing the End From the Beginning. ISBN 978-0567084620 – via Google Books.
  108. Feldmeier, Reinhard (2008). The First Letter of Peter. google.ca. ISBN 978-1602580244.
  109. Eusebius. "Church History Book II Chapter 15:2". hypotyposeis.org & newadvent.org. Retrieved4 June 2015.
  110. Brown, Raymond E., Introduction to the New Testament, Anchor Bible, 1997, ISBN 0-385-24767-2. p. 767 "the pseudonymity of II Pet is more certain than that of any other NT work."
  111. Meyers, Carol (28 August 2001). Women in scripture: a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew. ISBN 9780802849625.
  112. Craig R. Koester, Revelation, Anchor Yale Bible 38A (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), 684.
  113. Craig R. Koester, Revelation, Anchor Yale Bible 38A (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), 506.
  114. Strabo. Geography 16.1.5
  115. "Paul, St" Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  116. Pennington, p. 2
  117. "Papal Basilica – Saint Paul Outside-the-Walls". Archived from the original on 20 July 2009.
  118. Wylen, pp. 190–192
  119. Dunn, pp. 33–34
  120. "most scholars, both Catholic and Protestant, concur that Peter died in Rome" Keener, Craig S., The Gospel of Matthew: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, p. 425, n. 74, 2009 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
  121. O'Connor, Daniel William (2013). "Saint Peter the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. p. 5. Retrieved12 April 2013. [M]any scholars… accept Rome as the location of the martyrdom and the reign of Nero as the time.
  122. Brown, Raymond E. & Meier, John P. (1983). Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Christianity. Paulist Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-8091-0339-3. As for Peter, we have no knowledge at all of when he came to Rome and what he did there before he was martyred.
  123. Cullmann, Oscar (1962). Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, 2nd ed. Westminster Press. p. 234. From the second half of the second century we do possess texts that mention the apostolic foundation of Rome, and at this time, which is indeed rather late, this foundation is traced back to Peter and Paul, an assertion that cannot be supported historically. Even here, however, nothing is said as yet of an episcopal office of Peter.
  124. Chadwick, Henry (1993). The Early Church, rev. ed. Penguin Books. p. 18. No doubt Peter's presence in Rome in the sixties must indicate a concern for Gentile Christianity, but we have no information whatever about his activity or the length of his stay there. That he was in Rome for twenty-five years is third-century legend.
  125. J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of the Popes (Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 6. "Ignatius assumed that Peter and Paul wielded special authority over the Roman church, while Irenaeus claimed that they jointly founded it and inaugurated its succession of bishops. Nothing, however, is known of their constitutional roles, least of all Peter's as presumed leader of the community."
  126. Building Unity, Ecumenical Documents IV (Paulist Press, 1989), p. 130. "There is increasing agreement that Peter went to Rome and was martyred there, but we have no trustworthy evidence that Peter ever served as the supervisor or bishop of the local church in Rome."
  127. Rainer Riesner, Paul's Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998) p. 65
  128. Zwierlein, Otto (20 February 2010). Petrus in Rom. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110240580 – via Google Books.
  129. Zwierlein, Otto: Petrus und Paulus in Jerusalem und Rom. Vom Neuen Testament zu den apokryphen Apostelakten. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2013. ISBN 978-3110303315.
  130. James Dunn, review of Zwierlein 2009, in Review of Biblical Literature 2010.
  131. Siecienski, A. Edward (20 February 2017). The Papacy and the Orthodox: Sources and History of a Debate. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190245252 – via Google Books.
  132. "Has St. Peter ever been in Rome?"(PDF).
  133. Review of Petrus und Paulus in Rom.
  134. Kok, Michael J. (19 June 2017). "Otto Zwierlein on the Traditions about Peter in Rome".
  135. "The Primacy of Peter". 7 August 2017.
  136. Flavius, Josephus. "Jewish War, Book V Chapter 11". ccel.org. Retrieved1 June 2015.
  137. The Holy Bible, according to the authorized version (A.D. 1611)Frederic Charles Cook – J. Murray (1881) p. 350
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  141. Hitchcock, Tutu & Esposito 2004, p. 281 note "Some (Christian communities) had been founded by Peter, the disciple Jesus designated as the founder of his church. ... Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome"
  142. "Greek New Testament" Greek New Testament. John xxi 11 June 2010.
  143. "Strong's Greek: 2786. Κηφᾶς (Képhas) – "a rock," Cephas, a name given to the apostle Peter". biblehub.com. Retrieved15 June 2019.
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  145. [biblehub.com/greek/2786.htm Cephas (Aramaic for rock)]
  146. (Hebrew:כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף‎) is an indirect transliteration of the Syriac (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ), (Greek:Κηφᾶς) is a direct transliteration of the Syriac (ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ), and (Hebrew:כֵּיפׇא \ כֵּיף‎) is a direct transliteration of the Greek. The Hebrew word (Hebrew:כאפא‎) is also a direct transliteration of the Syriac. (cƒ. Interlinear Peshitta Aramaic New Testament Bible Matthew xvi. 18 Archived 24 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine).
  147. "Peter the Rock". Catholic Answers. 10 August 2004. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011. Retrieved12 September 2010. "And what does Kepha mean? It means a rock, the same as petra (It doesn't mean a little stone or a pebble) What Jesus said to Simon in Matthew 16:18 was this: 'You are Kepha, and on this kepha I will build my Church.'
  148. "Matthew 16:18". BibleHub. Online Parallel Bible Project. Retrieved9 June 2019.
  149. Allen C. Myers, ed. (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8028-2402-8. It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Palestine in the first century AD. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem (Matt. 26:73)
  150. "Peshitta Matthew 16"(PDF).
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  152. Basil li. De poenit. cƒ. Matth. v. 14; Luke xxii. 19
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  155. Veselin Kesich (1992). "Peter's Primacy in the New Testament and the Early Tradition" in The Primacy of Peter. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. pp. 61–66.
  156. Catechism of the Catholic Church, Articles 424 and 552
  157. "On Becoming a Pebble: The Name God Gave Simon". spectrummagazine.org.
  158. "Did Jesus really say he would build his church on Peter? Petros or Petra?". Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved5 February 2018.
  159. Patrick Madrid, Bam! Bam! The "Pebbles" Argument Goes Down or Catholic Answers Magazine, Peter the Rock
  160. translation by R.C. Seaton of Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 3:1365–1367:
    λάζετο δ᾽ ἐκ πεδίοιο μέγαν περιηγέα πέτρον,
    δεινὸν Ἐνυαλίου σόλον Ἄρεος: οὔ κέ μιν ἄνδρες
    αἰζηοὶ πίσυρες γαίης ἄπο τυτθὸν ἄειραν.
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  180. "Christ built Church on rock of revelation", Church News, 30 March 1991
  181. Julius Eisenstein (1915). Otzar HaMidrashim. Mishor. p. 557.
  182. Qur'an 3:49–53
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  196. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III. 1.2.; quoted by Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History, book 5, 7.6
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Saint Peter
Saint Peter Language Watch Edit For other uses see Saint Peter disambiguation Saint Peter 5 died between AD 64 and 68 1 also known as Simon Peter Simeon Simon ˈ s aɪ m e n listen Cephas ˈ s iː f e s 6 or Peter the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ and one of the first leaders of the early Church Pope Saint Peter the ApostleBishop of RomePatriarch of AntiochSaint Peter c 1610 1612 by Peter Paul Rubens depicting Peter vested in the pallium and holding the Keys of Heaven ChurchEarly ChristianSeeFirst bishop of Rome pope according to Catholic and Eastern Christian tradition First bishop of Antioch patriarch according to Eastern Christian and Catholic traditionPapacy beganAD 30 1 Papacy endedBetween AD 64 68 1 SuccessorBishop of Rome according to tradition Linus Bishop of Antioch according to tradition EvodiusOrdersOrdinationby Jesus ChristPersonal detailsBirth nameShimon Bar Yonah Hebrew שמעון בר יונה Simeon Simon Bornc AD 1 Bethsaida Gaulanitis Syria Roman EmpireDiedBetween AD 64 68 Vatican Hill Rome Italia Roman Empire 2 3 ParentsJohn or Jonah Jona OccupationFisherman clergymanSainthoodFeast dayMain feast Feast of Saints Peter and Paul with Paul the Apostle 29 June Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodoxy Anglicanism Lutheranism 18 January Confession of Saint Peter Anglicanism 22 February Chair of Saint Peter Catholic Church Venerated inAll Christian denominations that venerate saintsCanonizedPre CongregationAttributesKeys of Heaven Red Martyr pallium papal vestments rooster man crucified upside down vested as an Apostle holding a book or scroll Cross of Saint PeterPatronagePatronage listShrinesSt Peter s Basilica According to Christian tradition Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero He is traditionally counted as the first bishop of Rome or pope and also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first patriarch of Antioch The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Diocese of Rome 1 but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his successors According to Catholic teaching Jesus promised Peter a special position in the Church 7 In the New Testament Peter appears repeatedly and prominently in all four gospels as well as the Acts of the Apostles He is the brother of Saint Andrew and both brothers were fishermen The Gospel of Mark in particular was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter s preaching and eyewitness memories He is also mentioned under either the name Peter or Cephas in Paul s First Letter to the Corinthians and the Epistle to the Galatians The New Testament also includes two general epistles First Peter and Second Peter that are traditionally attributed to him but modern scholarship generally rejects the Petrine authorship of both 8 Outside of the New Testament several apocryphal books were later attributed to him in particular the Acts of Peter Gospel of Peter Preaching of Peter Apocalypse of Peter and Judgment of Peter although scholars believe these works to be pseudoepigrapha 9 10 11 Contents 1 Names and etymologies 2 Biographical information 2 1 Sources 2 2 Accounts 3 First leader of the early Church 3 1 Position among the apostles 3 2 Denial of Jesus by Peter 3 3 Resurrection appearances 3 4 Leader of the early Church 3 5 Rock dialogue 3 6 Apostolic succession 4 Antioch and Corinth 4 1 Antioch 4 2 Corinth 5 Connection to Rome 5 1 Papacy 5 2 Coming to Rome 5 2 1 New Testament accounts 5 2 2 Church Fathers 5 2 3 Simon Magus 5 3 Death and burial 5 3 1 Crucifixion at Rome 5 3 2 Burial 5 3 3 Relics 5 4 Epistles of Peter Rome as Babylon 5 5 Scholarly views 6 Feast days 7 Primacy of Peter 7 1 Catholic Church 7 1 1 John 21 15 17 7 1 2 Matthew 16 18 7 1 2 1 Etymology 7 1 2 2 Interpretation of Matthew 16 18 7 1 3 Epistles of Paul 7 1 4 Protestant rejection of Catholic claims 7 2 Eastern Orthodox 7 3 Syriac Orthodox Church 7 4 New Apostolic Church 7 5 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints 8 Non Christian views 8 1 Judaism 8 2 Islam 8 3 Baha i Faith 9 Writings 9 1 New Testament 9 1 1 Epistles 9 1 2 Mark 9 2 Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha 9 3 Non canonical sayings of Peter 10 Iconography 11 Patronage 12 Revisionist views 13 In art 14 In music 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Sources 19 External linksNames and etymologies Edit The Calling of Saints Peter and Andrew 1603 1606 Caravaggio The New Testament presents Peter s original name as Simon Simwn Simōn in Greek In only two passages 12 his name is instead spelled Simeon Symewn in Greek The variation possibly reflects the well known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child i e Simeon along with a similar sounding Greek Roman name in this case Simon 13 He was later given by Jesus the name Cephas from Aramaic כ יפ א Kepha literally meaning rock or stone In translations of the Bible from the original Greek his name is maintained as Cephas in 9 occurrences in the New Testament 14 whereas in the vast majority of mentions 156 occurrences in the New Testament he is called Petros Petros from the Greek and Latin word for a rock or stone petra 15 to which the masculine ending was added rendered into English as Peter 16 The precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed some saying that its usual meaning is rock or crag others saying that it means rather stone and particularly in its application by Jesus to Simon like a jewel but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character 17 Both meanings stone jewel or hewn stone and rock are indicated in dictionaries of Aramaic 18 and Syriac 19 Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means stone ball clump clew and that rock is only a connotation that in the Attic Greek petra denotes grown rock rocky range cliff grotto and that petros means small stone firestone sling stone moving boulder 20 The combined name Simwn Petros Simon Peter appears 19 times in the New Testament In some Syriac documents he is called in English translation Simon Cephas 21 Biographical information Edit Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee Sources Edit The sources used to reconstruct the life of Peter can be divided in three groups the New Testament writings such as the Pauline Epistles where Paul the Apostle calls him Cephas and Peter the Petrine Epistles traditionally attributed to him but their authorship is disputed the Canonical Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles the New Testament apocrypha attributed to him such as the Gospel of Peter the Preaching of Peter the Acts of Peter the Acts of Peter and Andrew the Acts of Peter and the Twelve the Acts of Peter and Paul the Letter of Peter to Philip the Letter of Peter to James the Just the Apocalypse of Peter and the Coptic Apocalypse of Peter Scholars agree that these are late pseudepigrapha with little historical value though they may contain some historical kernel the writing of the Apostolic Fathers and the Church Fathers such as Papias of Hierapolis Pope Clement I Polycarp Ignatius of Antioch and Ireneus In the New Testament he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early Church 22 Accounts Edit Peter was a Jewish fisherman in Bethsaida John 1 44 He was named Simon son of Jonah or John 23 The three Synoptic Gospels recount how Peter s mother in law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum Matthew 8 14 17 Mark 1 29 31 Luke 4 38 this passage clearly depicts Peter as being married or widowed 1 Corinthians 9 5 has also been taken to imply that he was married 24 The Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew from the Maesta c 1308 1311 In the Synoptic Gospels Peter then Simon was a fisherman along with his brother Andrew and the sons of Zebedee James and John The Gospel of John also depicts Peter fishing even after the resurrection of Jesus in the story of the Catch of 153 fish In Matthew and Mark Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be fishers of men Matthew 4 18 19 Mark 1 16 17 In the Confession of Peter he proclaims Jesus to be the Christ Jewish Messiah as described in the three Synoptic Gospels Matthew 16 13 20 Mark 8 27 30 and Luke 9 18 21 It is there in the area of Caesarea Philippi that he receives from Jesus the name Cephas Aramaic Kepha or Peter Greek Petros A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter s house 25 In Luke Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret Luke 5 3 Jesus then amazes Simon and his companions James and John Andrew is not mentioned by telling them to lower their nets whereupon they catch a huge number of fish Immediately after this they follow him Luke 5 4 11 The Gospel of John gives a comparable account of The First Disciples John 1 35 42 In John the readers are told that it was two disciples of John the Baptist Andrew and an unnamed disciple who heard John the Baptist announce Jesus as the Lamb of God and then followed Jesus Andrew then went to his brother Simon saying We have found the Messiah and then brought Simon to Jesus Apostle Peter striking the High Priests servant Malchus with a sword in the Garden of Gethsemane by Giuseppe Cesari c 1597 Three of the four gospels Matthew Mark and John recount the story of Jesus walking on water Matthew additionally describes Peter walking on water for a moment but beginning to sink when his faith wavers Matthew 14 28 31 At the beginning of the Last Supper Jesus washed his disciples feet Peter initially refused to let Jesus wash his feet but when Jesus told him If I wash thee not thou hast no part with me Peter replied Lord not my feet only but also my hands and my head John 13 2 11 The washing of feet is often repeated in the service of worship on Maundy Thursday by some Christian denominations The three Synoptic Gospels all mention that when Jesus was arrested one of his companions cut off the ear of a servant of the High Priest of Israel Matthew 26 51 Mark 14 47 Luke 22 50 The Gospel of John also includes this event and names Peter as the swordsman and Malchus as the victim John 18 10 Luke adds that Jesus touched the ear and miraculously healed it Luke 22 49 51 This healing of the servant s ear is the last of the 37 miracles attributed to Jesus in the Bible Simon Peter was twice arraigned with John before the Sanhedrin and directly defied them Acts 4 7 22 Acts 5 18 42 After receiving a vision from God that allowed for the eating of previously unclean animals Peter takes a missionary journey to Lydda Joppa and Caesarea Acts 9 32 Acts 10 2 becoming instrumental in the decision to evangelise the Gentiles Acts 10 Simon Peter applied the message of the vision on clean animals to the gentiles and follows his meeting with Cornelius the Centurion by claiming that God shows no partiality Acts 10 26 According to the Acts of the Apostles Peter and John were sent from Jerusalem to Samaria Acts 8 14 Peter Cephas is mentioned briefly in the opening chapter of one of the Pauline epistles Epistle to the Galatians which mentions a trip by Paul the Apostle to Jerusalem where he meets Peter Galatians 1 18 Peter features again in Galatians fourteen years later when Paul now with Barnabas and Titus returned to Jerusalem Galatians 2 7 9 When Peter came to Antioch Paul opposed Peter to his face because he Peter was in the wrong Galatians 2 11 27 Apostle Peter Released from Prison Jacopo di Cione 1370 1371 Philadelphia Museum of Art Acts 12 narrates how Peter who was in Jerusalem was put into prison by Agrippa I A D 42 44 but was rescued by an angel After his liberation Peter left Jerusalem to go to another place Acts 12 1 18 Concerning Peter s subsequent activity there is no further connected information from the extant sources although there are short notices of certain individual episodes of his later life 1 First leader of the early Church EditMain articles Jewish Christian and Early Christianity The Gospels and Acts portray Peter as the most prominent apostle though he denied Jesus three times during the events of the crucifixion According to the Christian tradition Peter was the first disciple to whom Jesus appeared balancing Peter s denial and restoring his position Peter is regarded as the first leader of the early Church 28 29 though he was soon eclipsed in this leadership by James the Just the Brother of the Lord 30 31 Because Peter was the first to whom Jesus appeared the leadership of Peter forms the basis of the Apostolic succession and the institutional power of orthodoxy as the heirs of Peter 32 and he is described as the rock on which the church will be built 28 Position among the apostles Edit St Peter Preaching the Gospel in the Catacombs by Jan Styka Peter is always listed first among the Twelve Apostles in the gospels 33 and in the Book of Acts 34 He is also frequently mentioned in the gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles present at incidents at which the others were not present such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus 35 at the raising of Jairus daughter 36 and at the agony in the Garden of Gethsemane 37 Peter often confesses his faith in Jesus as the Messiah Peter is often depicted in the gospels as spokesman of all the Apostles 38 John Vidmar a Catholic scholar writes Catholic scholars agree that Peter had an authority that superseded that of the other apostles Peter is their spokesman at several events he conducts the election of Matthias his opinion in the debate over converting Gentiles was crucial etc 39 The author of the Acts of the Apostles portrays Peter as the central figure within the early Christian community note 1 Denial of Jesus by Peter Edit The tears of Saint Peter by El Greco late 16th century Main article Denial of Peter The Denial of Saint Peter by Caravaggio c 1610 All four canonical gospels recount that during the Last Supper Jesus foretold that Peter would deny him three times before the following cockcrow before the cock crows twice in Mark s account The three Synoptics and John describe the three denials as follows A denial when a female servant of the high priest spots Simon Peter saying that he had been with Jesus According to Mark but not in all manuscripts the rooster crowed Only Luke and John mention a fire by which Peter was warming himself among other people according to Luke Peter was sitting according to John he was standing A denial when Simon Peter had gone out to the gateway away from the firelight but the same servant girl per Mark or another servant girl per Matthew or a man per Luke and also John for whom though this is the third denial told the bystanders he was a follower of Jesus According to John the rooster crowed The Gospel of John places the second denial while Peter was still warming himself at the fire and gives as the occasion of the third denial a claim by someone to have seen him in the garden of Gethsemane when Jesus was arrested A denial came when Peter s Galilean accent was taken as proof that he was indeed a disciple of Jesus According to Matthew Mark and Luke the rooster crowed Matthew adds that it was his accent that gave him away as coming from Galilee Luke deviates slightly from this by stating that rather than a crowd accusing Simon Peter it was a third individual John does not mention the Galilean accent In the Gospel of Luke is a record of Christ telling Peter Simon Simon behold Satan hath desired to have you that he may sift you as wheat but I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not and when thou art converted strengthen thy brethren In a reminiscent 44 scene in John s epilogue Peter affirms three times that he loves Jesus Resurrection appearances Edit Church of the Primacy of St Peter on the Sea of Galilee Paul s First Epistle to the Corinthians 45 contains a list of resurrection appearances of Jesus the first of which is an appearance to Peter 46 Here Paul apparently follows an early tradition that Peter was the first to see the risen Christ 22 which however did not seem to have survived to the time when the gospels were written 47 In John s gospel Peter is the first person to enter the empty tomb although the women and the beloved disciple see it before him Jn 20 1 9 In Luke s account the women s report of the empty tomb is dismissed by the apostles and Peter is the only one who goes to check for himself running to the tomb After seeing the graveclothes he goes home apparently without informing the other disciples Lk 24 1 12 In the final chapter of the Gospel of John Peter in one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus three times affirmed his love for Jesus balancing his threefold denial and Jesus reconfirmed Peter s position The Church of the Primacy of St Peter on the Sea of Galilee is seen as the traditional site where Jesus Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and according to Catholic tradition established Peter s supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church Leader of the early Church Edit The Liberation of St Peter from prison by an angel by Giovanni Lanfranco 1620 21 Peter was considered along with James the Just and John the Apostle as pillars of the Church 48 Legitimised by Jesus appearance Peter assumed leadership of the group of early followers forming the Jerusalem ekklesia mentioned by Paul 28 29 He was soon eclipsed in this leadership by James the Just the Brother of the Lord 30 31 According to Ludemann this was due to the discussions about the strictness of adherence to the Jewish Law when the more conservative faction of James the Just 49 took the overhand over the more liberal position of Peter who soon lost influence 31 note 2 According to Dunn this was not an usurpation of power but a consequence of Peter s involvement in missionary activities 51 The early Church historian Eusebius c AD 325 records Clement of Alexandria c AD 190 as saying For they say that Peter and James the Greater and John after the ascension of our Saviour as if also preferred by our Lord strove not after honor but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem 52 James D G Dunn proposes that Peter was a bridge man between the opposing views of Paul and James the Just italics original For Peter was probably in fact and effect the bridge man pontifex maximus who did more than any other to hold together the diversity of first century Christianity James the brother of Jesus and Paul the two other most prominent leading figures in first century Christianity were too much identified with their respective brands of Christianity at least in the eyes of Christians at the opposite ends of this particular spectrum Dunn 2001 p 577 Ch 32 Paul affirms that Peter had the special charge of being apostle to the Jews just as he Paul was apostle to the Gentiles Some argue James the Just was bishop of Jerusalem whilst Peter was bishop of Rome and that this position at times gave James privilege in some but not all situations Rock dialogue Edit In a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples Matthew 16 13 19 Jesus asks Who do people say that the Son of Man is The disciples give various answers When he asks Who do you say that I am Simon Peter answers You are the Messiah the Son of the living God Jesus then declares Blessed are you Simon son of Jonah for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood but by my Father in heaven And I tell you that you are Cephas Peter Petros and on this rock petra I will build my church and the gates of Hades will not overcome it I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven A common view of Peter is provided by Jesuit Father Daniel J Harrington who suggests that Peter was an unlikely symbol of stability While he was one of the first disciples called and was the spokesman for the group Peter is also the exemplar of little faith In Matthew 14 Peter will soon have Jesus say to him O you of little faith why did you doubt and he will eventually deny Jesus three times Thus in light of the Easter event Peter became an exemplar of the forgiven sinner 53 Outside the Catholic Church opinions vary as to the interpretation of this passage with respect to what authority and responsibility if any Jesus was giving to Peter 54 In the Eastern Orthodox Church this passage is interpreted as not implying a special prominence to the person of Peter but to Peter s position as representative of the Apostles The word used for rock petra grammatically refers to a small detachment of the massive ledge 55 not to a massive boulder Thus Orthodox Sacred Tradition understands Jesus words as referring to the apostolic faith Saint Peter in Tears by Bartolome Esteban Murillo 1617 1682 Petros had not previously been used as a name but in the Greek speaking world it became a popular Christian name after the tradition of Peter s prominence in the early Christian church had been established Apostolic succession Edit Main article Apostolic succession The leadership of Peter forms the basis of the Apostolic succession and the institutional power of orthodoxy as the heirs of Peter 32 and is described as the rock on which the church will be built 28 Catholics refer to him as chief of the Apostles 56 as do the Eastern Orthodox 57 and the Oriental Orthodox 58 59 In Coptic Orthodox Church liturgy he is once referred to as prominent or head among the Apostles a title shared with Paul in the text The Fraction of Fast and Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Some including the Orthodox Churches believe this is not the same as saying that the other Apostles were under Peter s orders Antioch and Corinth EditAntioch Edit Main article Incident at Antioch According to the Epistle to the Galatians 2 11 Peter went to Antioch where Paul rebuked him for following the conservative line regarding the conversion of Gentiles having meals separate from Gentiles note 3 Subsequent tradition held that Peter had been the first Patriarch of Antioch According to the writings of Origen 62 and Eusebius in his Church History III 36 Peter had founded the church of Antioch 63 Later accounts expand on the brief biblical mention of his visit to Antioch The Liber Pontificalis 9th century mentions Peter as having served as bishop of Antioch for seven years and having potentially left his family in the Greek city before his journey to Rome 64 Claims of direct blood lineage from Simon Peter among the old population of Antioch existed in the 1st century and continue to exist today notably by certain Semaan families of modern day Syria and Lebanon Historians have furnished other evidence of Peter s sojourn in Antioch note 4 The Clementine literature a group of related works written in the fourth century but believed to contain materials from earlier centuries relate information about Peter that may come from earlier traditions One is that Peter had a group of 12 to 16 followers whom the Clementine writings name 65 Another is that it provides an itinerary of Peter s route from Caesarea Maritima to Antioch where he debated his adversary Simon Magus during this journey he ordained Zacchaeus as the first bishop of Caesarea and Maro as the first bishop of Tripolis Fred Lapham suggests the route recorded in the Clementine writings may have been taken from an earlier document mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion called The Itinerary of Peter 66 Corinth Edit Peter may have visited Corinth and maybe there existed a party of Cephas 22 First Corinthians suggests that perhaps Peter visited the city of Corinth located at Greece during their missions 1Cor 1 12 Dionysius bishop of Corinth in his Epistle to the Roman Church under Pope Soter A D 165 174 declares that Peter and Paul founded the Church of Rome and the Church of Corinth and they have lived in Corinth for some time and finally in Italy where they found death You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth And they taught together in like manner in Italy and suffered martyrdom at the same time 67 Connection to Rome Edit The Apostles Peter and Paul detail of cupola fresco by Correggio 1520 1524 In a tradition of the early Church Peter is said to have founded the Church in Rome with Paul served as its bishop authored two epistles and then met martyrdom there along with Paul Papacy Edit Saint Peter portrayed as a Pope in the Nuremberg Chronicle The Catholic Church speaks of the pope the bishop of Rome as the successor of Saint Peter This is often interpreted to imply that Peter was the first Bishop of Rome However it is also said that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome 68 St Clement of Rome identifies Peter and Paul as the outstanding heroes of the faith 22 Coming to Rome Edit New Testament accounts Edit There is no obvious biblical evidence that Peter was ever in Rome but the first epistle of Peter does mention that The church that is at Babylon elected together with you saluteth you and so doth Marcus my son 1 Peter 5 13 It is not certain whether this refers to the actual Babylon or to Rome for which Babylon was a common nickname at the time or to the Jewish diaspora in general as a recent theory has proposed 69 70 While the church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57 71 he greets some fifty people in Rome by name 72 but not Peter whom he knew There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul s two year stay there in Acts 28 about AD 60 62 Church Fathers Edit The writings of the 1st century Church Father Ignatius of Antioch c 35 c 107 refer to Peter and Paul giving admonitions to the Romans indicating Peter s presence in Rome 73 Irenaeus of Lyons c 130 c 202 wrote in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop 74 Clement of Alexandria c 150 c 215 states that Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome A D 190 75 According to Origen 184 253 62 and Eusebius 63 Peter after having first founded the church at Antioch went away to Rome preaching the Gospel and he also after presiding over the church in Antioch presided over that of Rome until his death 76 After presiding over the church in Antioch for a while Peter would have been succeeded by Evodius 77 and thereafter by Ignatius who was a student of John the Apostle 78 Lactantius in his book called Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died written around 318 noted that and while Nero reigned the Apostle Peter came to Rome and through the power of God committed unto him wrought certain miracles and by turning many to the true religion built up a faithful and stedfast temple unto the Lord 79 Simon Magus Edit Eusebius of Caesarea 260 265 339 340 relates that when Peter confronts Simon Magus at Judea mentioned in Acts 8 Simon Magus flees to Rome where the Romans began to regard him as a god According to Eusebius his luck did not last long since God sent Peter to Rome and Simon was quenched and immediately destroyed 80 According to Jerome 327 420 Peter went to Rome in the second year of Claudius to overthrow Simon Magus and held the sacerdotal chair there for twenty five years until the last that is the fourteenth year of Nero 81 An apocryphal work the Actus Vercellenses 7th century a Latin text preserved in only one manuscript copy published widely in translation under the title Acts of Peter sets Peter s confrontation with Simon Magus in Rome 82 83 Death and burial Edit Crucifixion at Rome Edit Domine quo vadis 1602 by Annibale Carracci In the epilogue 84 of the Gospel of John Jesus hints at the death by which Peter would glorify God saying when you are old you will stretch out your hands and another will dress you and carry you where you do not want to go Jn 21 18 19 This is interpreted by some as a reference to Peter s crucifixion 44 Theologians Donald Fay Robinson and Warren M Smaltz have suggested that the incident in Acts 12 1 17 where Peter is released by an angel and goes to another place really represents an idealized account of his death which may have occurred in a Jerusalem prison as early as AD 44 85 The Muratorian fragment dated to the second century AD notes that the primary eyewitness to Acts Luke was not present at Peter s death 86 Early Church tradition says that Peter probably died by crucifixion with arms outstretched at the time of the Great Fire of Rome in the year 64 This took place three months after the disastrous fire that destroyed Rome for which the emperor Nero wished to blame the Christians This dies imperii regnal day anniversary was an important one exactly ten years after Nero ascended to the throne and it was as usual accompanied by much bloodshed Traditionally Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion at Vatican Hill 1 In accordance with the apocryphal Acts of Peter he was crucified head down 87 Tradition also locates his burial place where the Basilica of Saint Peter was later built directly beneath the Basilica s high altar The Crucifixion of Saint Peter 1601 by Caravaggio Pope Clement I d 99 in his Letter to the Corinthians Chapter 5 written c 80 98 speaks of Peter s martyrdom in the following terms Let us take the noble examples of our own generation Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted and came even unto death Peter through unjust envy endured not one or two but many labours and at last having delivered his testimony departed unto the place of glory due to him 88 The apocryphal Acts of Peter 2nd cent Vercelli Acts XXXV 89 is the source for the tradition about the famous Latin phrase Quo vadis Domine in Greek Kyrie poῦ ὑpageis Kyrie pou hypageis which means Where are you going Lord According to the story Peter fleeing Rome to avoid execution meets the risen Jesus In the Latin translation Peter asks Jesus Quo vadis He replies Romam eo iterum crucifigi I am going to Rome to be crucified again Peter then gains the courage to continue his ministry and returns to the city where he is martyred This story is commemorated in an Annibale Carracci painting The Church of Quo Vadis near the Catacombs of Saint Callistus contains a stone in which Jesus footprints from this event are supposedly preserved though this was apparently an ex voto from a pilgrim and indeed a copy of the original housed in the Basilica of St Sebastian The death of Peter is attested to by Tertullian c 155 c 240 at the end of the 2nd century in his Prescription Against Heretics noting that Peter endured a passion like his Lord s 90 In his work Scorpiace 15 he also speaks of Peter s crucifixion The budding faith Nero first made bloody in Rome There Peter was girded by another since he was bound to the cross 91 Origen 184 253 in his Commentary on the Book of Genesis III quoted by Eusebius of Caesaria in his Ecclesiastical History III 1 said Peter was crucified at Rome with his head downwards as he himself had desired to suffer 56 The Cross of St Peter inverts the Latin cross based on this refusal and on his claim of being unworthy to die the same way as his Saviour 92 Peter of Alexandria d 311 who was bishop of Alexandria and died around AD 311 wrote an epistle on Penance in which he says Peter the first of the apostles having been often apprehended and thrown into prison and treated with ignominy was last of all crucified at Rome 93 Jerome 327 420 wrote that at Nero s hands Peter received the crown of martyrdom being nailed to the cross with his head towards the ground and his feet raised on high asserting that he was unworthy to be crucified in the same manner as his Lord 81 Burial Edit Looking down into the confessio near the tomb of Apostle Peter St Peter s Basilica Rome Catholic tradition holds that Peter s inverted crucifixion occurred in the gardens of Nero with the burial in Saint Peter s tomb nearby 94 Caius in his Disputation Against Proclus A D 198 preserved in part by Eusebius relates this of the places in which the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul were deposited I can point out the trophies of the apostles For if you are willing to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Way you will find the trophies of those who founded this Church 95 According to Jerome in his work De Viris Illustribus A D 392 Peter was buried at Rome in the Vatican near the triumphal way where he is venerated by the whole world 81 In the early 4th century the Emperor Constantine I decided to honour Peter with a large basilica 96 97 Because the precise location of Peter s burial was so firmly fixed in the belief of the Christians of Rome the church to house the basilica had to be erected on a site that was not convenient to construction The slope of the Vatican Hill had to be excavated even though the church could much more easily have been built on level ground only slightly to the south There were also moral and legal issues such as demolishing a cemetery to make room for the building The focal point of the Basilica both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction is the altar located over what is said to be the point of Peter s burial St Peter s Basilica believed to be the burial site of St Peter seen from the River Tiber Relics Edit According to a letter quoted by Bede Pope Vitalian sent a cross containing filings said to be from Peter s chains to the queen of Oswy Anglo Saxon King of Northumbria in 665 as well as unspecified relics of the saint to the king 98 In 1950 human bones were found buried underneath the altar of St Peter s Basilica The bones have been claimed by many to have been those of Peter 99 An attempt to contradict these claims was made in 1953 by the excavation of what some believe to be Saint Peter s tomb in Jerusalem 100 However along with this supposed tomb in Jerusalem bearing his previous name Simon but not Peter tombs bearing the names of Jesus Mary James John and the rest of the apostles were also found at the same excavation though all these names were very common among Jews at the time In the 1960s items from the excavations beneath St Peter s Basilica were re examined and the bones of a male person were identified A forensic examination found them to be a male of about 61 years of age from the 1st century This caused Pope Paul VI in 1968 to announce them most likely to be the relics of Apostle Peter 101 On 24 November 2013 Pope Francis presented part of the relics consisting of bone fragments for the first time in public during a Mass celebrated in St Peter s Square 102 On 2 July 2019 it was announced that Pope Francis had transferred nine of these bone fragments within a bronze reliquary to Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople 103 Bartholomew who serves as head of the Eastern Orthodox Christian church described the gesture as brave and bold 103 Pope Francis has said his decision was born out of prayer and intended as a sign of the ongoing work towards communion between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches 104 The majority of Saint Peter s remains however are still preserved in Rome under the high altar of St Peter s Basilica 105 Epistles of Peter Rome as Babylon Edit Peter s vision of a sheet with animals Domenico Fetti 1619 Church tradition ascribes the epistles First and Second Peter to the Apostle Peter as does the text of Second Peter itself an attribution rejected by scholarship First Peter 1 Peter 5 13 implies the author is in Babylon which has been held to be a coded reference to Rome 106 107 108 Early Church tradition reports that Peter wrote from Rome Eusebius of Caesarea states Clement of Alexandria in the sixth book of the Hypotyposeis cites the story and the bishop of Hierapolis named Papias joins him in testifying that Peter mentions Mark in the first epistle which they say he composed in Rome herself and that he indicates this calling the city more figuratively Babylon by these She who is in Babylon chosen together with you sends you greetings and so does my son Mark 1 Pet 5 13 109 If the reference is to Rome it is the only biblical reference to Peter being there Many scholars regard both First and Second Peter as not having been authored by him partly because other parts of the Acts of the Apostles seem to describe Peter as an illiterate fisherman 8 110 Most Biblical scholars 111 112 believe that Babylon is a metaphor for the pagan Roman Empire at the time it persecuted Christians before the Edict of Milan in 313 perhaps specifically referencing some aspect of Rome s rule brutality greed paganism Although some scholars recognize that Babylon is a metaphor for Rome they also claim that Babylon represents more than the Roman city of the first century Craig Koester says outright that the whore of Babylon is Rome yet more than Rome 113 It is the Roman imperial world which in turn represents the world alienated from God 114 At that time in history the ancient city of Babylon was no longer of any importance E g Strabo wrote The greater part of Babylon is so deserted that one would not hesitate to say the Great City is a great desert 115 Another theory is that Babylon refers to the Babylon in Egypt that was an important fortress city in Egypt just north of today s Cairo and this combined with the greetings from Mark 1 Peter 5 13 who may be Mark the Evangelist regarded as the founder of the Church of Alexandria Egypt has led some scholars to regard the First Peter epistle as having been written in Egypt Scholarly views Edit Some church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero 116 117 118 around AD 65 after the Great Fire of Rome note 5 119 120 Presently most Catholic scholars 121 and many scholars in general 122 hold the view that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero While accepting that Peter came to Rome and was martyred there there is no historical evidence that he held episcopal office there 123 124 125 126 127 note 6 According to two extensive studies published by the German philologist Otto Zwierlein de in 2009 129 and 2013 respectively 130 there is not a single piece of reliable literary evidence and no archaeological evidence either that Peter ever was in Rome 69 131 note 7 Clement of Rome s First Letter a document that has been dated from the 90s to the 120s is one of the earliest sources adduced in support of Peter s stay in Rome but Zwierlein questions the text s authenticity and whether it has any knowledge about Peter s life beyond what is contained in the New Testament Acts of the Apostles 69 The letter also does not mention any particular place only saying Peter through unrighteous envy endured not one or two but numerous labours and when he had at length suffered martyrdom departed to the place of glory due to him ch 5 136 A letter to the Romans attributed to Ignatius of Antioch might imply that Peter and Paul had special authority over the Roman church 22 telling the Roman Christians I do not command you as Peter and Paul did ch 4 although Zwierlein says he could be simply referring to the Epistles of the Apostles or their mission work in the city not a special authority given or bestowed Zwierlein questions the authenticity of this document and its traditional dating to c 105 10 saying it may date from the final decades of the 2nd century instead of from the beginning 69 The ancient historian Josephus describes how Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions 137 and it is likely that this would have been known to the author of the Acts of Peter The position attributed to Peter s crucifixion is thus plausible either as having happened historically or as being an invention by the author of the Acts of Peter Death after crucifixion head down is unlikely to be caused by suffocation the usual cause of death in ordinary crucifixion 138 Feast days EditMain article Feast of Saints Peter and Paul See also St Peter s Eve The Roman Martyrology assigns 29 June as the feast day of both Peter and Paul without thereby declaring that to be the day of their deaths Augustine of Hippo says in his Sermon 295 One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two apostles But those two were one Although their martyrdom occurred on different days they were one This is also the feast of both Apostles in the calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church In the Roman Rite the feast of the Chair of Saint Peter is celebrated on 22 February and the anniversary of the dedication of the two Papal Basilicas of Saint Peter s and Saint Paul outside the Walls is held on 18 November Before Pope John XXIII s revision in 1960 the Roman Calendar also included on 18 January another feast of the Chair of Saint Peter denominated the Chair of Saint Peter in Rome while the February feast was then called that of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch and on 1 August the feast of Saint Peter in Chains In the Orthodox Daily Office every Thursday throughout the year is dedicated to the Holy Apostles including St Peter There are also three feast days in the year which are dedicated to him 16 January Veneration of the Precious Chains of the Holy and All Glorious Apostle Peter commemorating both the chains which Acts 12 1 11 says miraculously fell from him and the chains in which he was held before his martyrdom by Nero 29 June Feast of Saints Peter and Paul This is a major feast day and is preceded by a period of Lenten fasting known as the Apostles Fast 30 June Synaxis of the Holy Glorious and All Praised Twelve Apostles commemorating of Tvelve Apostles 139 Peter is remembered with Paul in the Church of England with a Festival on 29 June Peter the Apostle may be celebrated alone without Paul on 29 June 140 Primacy of Peter EditMain article Primacy of Peter Christians of different theological backgrounds are in disagreement as to the exact significance of Peter s ministry For instance Catholics view Peter as the first pope The Catholic Church asserts that Peter s ministry conferred upon him by Jesus of Nazareth in the gospels lays down the theological foundation for the pope s exercise of pastoral authority over the Church Eastern Orthodox also believe that Peter s ministry points to an underlying theology wherein a special primacy ought to be granted to Peter s successors above other Church leaders but see this as merely a primacy of honor rather than the right to exercise pastoral authority Protestant denominations assert that Peter s apostolic work in Rome does not imply a connection between him and the papacy Similarly historians of various backgrounds also offer differing interpretations of the Apostle s presence in Rome Catholic Church Edit Main articles Primacy of Simon Peter and Papal primacy Statue of St Peter in St Peter s Square at the Vatican According to Catholic belief Simon Peter was distinguished by Jesus to hold the first place of honor and authority Also in Catholic belief Peter was as the first Bishop of Rome the first Pope Furthermore they consider every Pope to be Peter s successor and the rightful superior of all other bishops 141 However Peter never bore the title of Pope or Vicar of Christ in the sense the Catholic Church considers Peter the first Pope 142 The Catholic Church s recognition of Peter as head of its church on earth with Christ being its heavenly head is based on its interpretation of two passages from the canonical gospels of the New Testament as well as sacred tradition John 21 15 17 Edit The first passage is John 21 15 17 which is Feed my lambs Tend my sheep feed my sheep within the Greek it is Poimaine i e to feed and rule as a Shepherd v 16 while Boske i e to feed for v 15 amp v 17 143 which is seen by Catholics as Christ promising the spiritual supremacy to Peter The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 sees in this passage Jesus charging Peter with the superintendency of all his sheep without exception and consequently of his whole flock that is of his own church 141 Matthew 16 18 Edit The second passage is Matthew 16 18 I tell you that you are Peter and on this rock I will build my church and the gates of Hell will not overcome it I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven Matthew 16 18 19 NIV Etymology Edit In the story of the calling of the disciples Jesus addresses Simon Peter with the Greek term Khfᾶs Cephas a Hellenized form of Aramaic ܟ ܐܦ ܐ keepa which means rock 144 a term that before was not used as a proper name ἐmblepsas aὐtῷ ὁ Ἰhsoῦs eἶpen Sὺ eἶ Simwn ὁ yἱὸs Ἰwannoy sὺ klh8hsῃ Khfᾶs ὃ ἑrmhneyetai Petros 145 Having looked at him Jesus said You are Simon the son of John you will be called Cephas which means Petros rock John 1 42 Jesus later alludes to this nickname after Peter declares Jesus to be the Messiah kἀgὼ de soi legw ὅti sὺ eἶ Petros Petros kaὶ ἐpὶ taytῃ tῇ petrᾳ petra oἰkodomhsw moy tὴn ἐkklhsian kaὶ pylai ᾅdoy oὐ katisxysoysin aὐtῆs note 8 I also say to you now that you are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it Matthew 16 18 149 The Peshitta Syriac version renders Jesus words into Aramaic 150 as follows ܐ ܦ ܐ ܢ ܐ ܐ ܡ ܪ ܐ ܢ ܐ ܠ ܟ ܕ ܐܢ ܬ ܗ ܘ ܟ ܐܦ ܐ ܘܥ ܠ ܗ ܕ ܐ ܟ ܐܦ ܐ ܐ ܒ ܢ ܝܗ ܠܥ ܕ ܬ ܝ ܘܬ ܪܥ ܐ ܕ ܫܝ ܘܠ ܠ ܐ ܢ ܚܣܢ ܘܢ ܗ Also I say to you that you are Keepa and on this keepa I will build my Church and the gates of Sheol not will subdue it Matthew 16 18 151 Statue of St Peter in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran by Pierre Etienne Monnot Paul of Tarsus later uses the appellation Cephas in reference to Peter 152 Interpretation of Matthew 16 18 Edit To better understand what Christ meant St Basil elaborates 153 Though Peter be a rock yet he is not a rock as Christ is For Christ is the true unmoveable rock of himself Peter is unmoveable by Christ the rock For Jesus doth communicate and impart his dignities not voiding himself of them but holding them to himself bestoweth them also upon others He is the light and yet you are the light he is the Priest and yet he maketh Priests he is the rock and he made a rock Basil li De poenit cƒ Matt v 14 Luke 22 19 In reference to Peter s occupation before becoming an Apostle the popes wear the Fisherman s Ring which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat The keys used as a symbol of the pope s authority refer to the keys of the kingdom of Heaven promised to Peter Matt 16 18 19 The terminology of this commission of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah in Isaiah 22 15 23 Peter is often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys In the original Greek the word translated as Peter is Petros Petros and that translated as rock is petra petra two words that while not identical give an impression of one of many times when Jesus used a play on words Furthermore since Jesus presumably spoke to Peter in their native Aramaic language he would have used kepha in both instances 154 The Peshitta Text and the Old Syriac texts use the word kepha for both Peter and rock in Matthew 16 18 155 John 1 42 says Jesus called Simon Cephas as Paul calls him in some letters He was instructed by Christ to strengthen his brethren i e the apostles Lk 22 31 32 Peter also had a leadership role in the early Christian church at Jerusalem according to The Acts of the Apostles chapters 1 2 10 11 and 15 Early Catholic Latin and Greek writers such as St John Chrysostom considered the foundation rock as applying to both Peter personally and his confession of faith or the faith of his confession symbolically as well as seeing Christ s promise to apply more generally to his twelve apostles and the Church at large 156 This double meaning interpretation is present in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church 157 Protestant arguments against the Catholic interpretation are largely based on the difference between the Greek words translated Rock in the Matthean passage They often claim that in classical Attic Greek petros masculine generally meant pebble while petra feminine meant boulder or cliff and accordingly taking Peter s name to mean pebble they argue that the rock in question cannot have been Peter but something else either Jesus himself or the faith in Jesus that Peter had just professed 158 159 These popular level writings are disputed in similar popular level Catholic writings 160 The New Testament was written in Koine Greek not Attic Greek and some authorities say no significant difference existed between the meanings of petros and petra So far from meaning a pebble was the word petros that Apollonius Rhodius a writer of Koine Greek of the third century B C used it to refer to a huge round boulder a terrible quoit of Ares Enyalius four stalwart youths could not have raised it from the ground even a little 161 Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter by Pietro Perugino 1481 82 The feminine noun petra petra in Greek translated as rock in the phrase on this rock I will build my church is also used at 1 Cor 10 4 in describing Jesus Christ which reads They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them and that rock was Christ Although Matthew 16 is used as a primary proof text for the Catholic doctrine of Papal supremacy some Protestant scholars say that prior to the Reformation of the 16th century Matthew 16 was very rarely used to support papal claims despite it being well documented as being used in the 3rd century by Stephen of Rome against Cyprian of Carriage in a passionate disagreement about baptism and in the 4th century by Pope Damasus as a claim to primacy as a lesson of the Arian Controversy for stricter discipline and centralized control 162 Their position is that most of the early and medieval Church interpreted the rock as being a reference either to Christ or to Peter s faith not Peter himself They understand Jesus remark to have been his affirmation of Peter s testimony that Jesus was the Son of God 163 Despite this claim many Fathers saw a connection between Matthew 16 18 and the primacy of Peter and his office such as Tertullian writing The Lord said to Peter On this rock I will build my Church I have given you the keys of the kingdom of heaven and whatever you shall have bound or loosed on earth will be bound or loosed in heaven Matt 16 18 19 Upon you he says I will build my Church and I will give to you the keys not to the Church 164 Epistles of Paul Edit The church in Rome was already flourishing when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans about AD 57 71 He greets some fifty people in Rome by name 72 but not Peter whom he knew There is also no mention of Peter in Rome later during Paul s two year stay there in Acts 28 about AD 60 62 Some Church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero 116 117 118 around AD 64 or 68 note 5 119 120 Protestant rejection of Catholic claims Edit Other theologically conservative Christians including Confessional Lutherans also rebut comments made by Karl Keating and D A Carson who claim that there is no distinction between the words petros and petra in Koine Greek The Lutheran theologians state that the dictionaries of Koine NT Greek including the authoritative 165 Bauer Danker Arndt Gingrich Lexicon indeed list both words and the passages that give different meanings for each The Lutheran theologians further note that We honor Peter and in fact some of our churches are named after him but he was not the first pope nor was he Roman Catholic If you read his first letter you will see that he did not teach a Roman hierarchy but that all Christians are royal priests The same keys given to Peter in Matthew 16 are given to the whole church of believers in Matthew 18 166 Saint Peter by Dirck van Baburen c 1615 1620 Oscar Cullmann a Lutheran theologian and distinguished Church historian disagrees with Luther and the Protestant reformers who held that by rock Christ did not mean Peter but meant either himself or the faith of His followers He believes the meaning of the original Aramaic is very clear that Kepha was the Aramaic word for rock and that it was also the name by which Christ called Peter 167 Yet Cullmann sharply rejects the Catholic claim that Peter began the papal succession He writes In the life of Peter there is no starting point for a chain of succession to the leadership of the church at large While he believes the Matthew text is entirely valid and is in no way spurious he says it cannot be used as warrant of the papal succession 167 Cullmann concludes that while Peter was the original head of the apostles Peter was not the founder of any visible church succession 167 There are other Protestant scholars who also partially defend the historical Catholic position about Rock 168 Taking a somewhat different approach from Cullman they point out that the Gospel of Matthew was not written in the classical Attic form of Greek but in the Hellenistic Koine dialect in which there is no distinction in meaning between petros and petra Moreover even in Attic Greek in which the regular meaning of petros was a smallish stone there are instances of its use to refer to larger rocks as in Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus v 1595 where petros refers to a boulder used as a landmark obviously something more than a pebble In any case a petros petra distinction is irrelevant considering the Aramaic language in which the phrase might well have been spoken In Greek of any period the feminine noun petra could not be used as the given name of a male which may explain the use of Petros as the Greek word with which to translate Aramaic Kepha 154 Yet still other Protestant scholars believe that Jesus in fact did mean to single out Peter as the very rock which he will build upon but that the passage does nothing to indicate a continued succession of Peter s implied position They assert that Matthew uses the demonstrative pronoun taute which allegedly means this very or this same when he refers to the rock on which Jesus church will be built He also uses the Greek word for and kai It is alleged that when a demonstrative pronoun is used with kai the pronoun refers back to the preceding noun The second rock Jesus refers to must then be the same rock as the first one and if Peter is the first rock he must also be the second 169 Unlike Oscar Cullmann Confessional Lutherans and many other Protestant apologists agree that it s meaningless to elaborate the meaning of Rock by looking at the Aramaic language While the Jews spoke mostly Aramaic at home in public they usually spoke Greek The few Aramaic words spoken by Jesus in public were unusual which is why they are noted as such And most importantly the New Testament was revealed in Koine Greek not Aramaic 170 171 172 Lutheran historians even report that the Catholic church itself didn t at least unanimously regard Peter as the rock until the 1870s Rome s rule for explaining the Scriptures and determining doctrine is the Creed of Pius IV This Creed binds Rome to explain the Scriptures only according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers In the year 1870 when the Fathers gathered and the pope declared his infallibility the cardinals were not in agreement on Matthew 16 18 They had five different interpretations Seventeen insisted Peter is the rock Sixteen held that Christ is the rock Eight were emphatic that the whole apostolic college is the rock Forty four said Peter s faith is the rock The remainder looked upon the whole body of believers as the rock And yet Rome taught and still teaches that Peter is the rock 173 Eastern Orthodox Edit Icon of Saint Peter c 1500 The Eastern Orthodox Church regards Apostle Peter together with Apostle Paul as Preeminent Apostles Another title used for Peter is Coryphaeus which could be translated as Choir director or lead singer 174 The church recognizes Apostle Peter s leadership role in the early church especially in the very early days at Jerusalem but does not consider him to have had any princely role over his fellow Apostles The New Testament is not seen by the Orthodox as supporting any extraordinary authority for Peter with regard to faith or morals The Orthodox also hold that Peter did not act as leader at the Council of Jerusalem but as merely one of a number who spoke The final decision regarding the non necessity of circumcision and certain prohibitions was spelled out by James the Brother of the Lord though Catholics hold James merely reiterated and fleshed out what Peter had said regarding the latter s earlier divine revelation regarding the inclusion of Gentiles Eastern and Oriental Orthodox do not recognize the Bishop of Rome as the successor of St Peter but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople sends a delegation each year to Rome to participate in the celebration of the feast of Sts Peter and Paul In the Ravenna Document of 13 October 2007 the representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church agreed that Rome as the Church that presides in love according to the phrase of St Ignatius of Antioch To the Romans Prologue occupied the first place in the taxis and that the bishop of Rome was therefore the protos among the patriarchs if the Papacy unites with the Orthodox Church They disagree however on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the bishop of Rome as protos a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium With regard to Jesus words to Peter Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church the Orthodox hold Christ is referring to the confession of faith not the person of Peter as that upon which he will build the church This is allegedly shown by the fact that the original Septuagint uses the feminine demonstrative pronoun when he says upon this rock taytῃ tῇ petrᾳ whereas grammatically if he had been referring to Peter he would allegedly have used the masculine 175 Syriac Orthodox Church Edit Saint Peter and the angel early 1640s by Antonio de Bellis The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of Apostle Peter They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community Ephrem Aphrahat and Maruthas who were supposed to have been the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter The Syriac Fathers following the rabbinic tradition call Jesus Kepha for they see rock in the Old Testament as a messianic Symbol yet the Old Maronite Syriacs of Lebanon still refer to Saint Peter as Saint Simon the Generous or Simon Karam When Christ gave his own name Kepha to Simon he was giving him participation in the person and office of Christ Christ who is the Kepha and shepherd made Simon the chief shepherd in his place and gave him the very name Kepha and said that on Kepha he would build the Church Aphrahat shared the common Syriac tradition For him Kepha is in fact another name of Jesus and Simon was given the right to share the name The person who receives somebody else s name also obtains the rights of the person who bestows the name Aphrahat makes the stone taken from Jordan a type of Peter He wrote Jesus son of Nun set up the stones for a witness in Israel Jesus our Saviour called Simon Kepha Sarirto and set him as the faithful witness among nations Again he wrote in his commentary on Deuteronomy that Moses brought forth water from rock Kepha for the people and Jesus sent Simon Kepha to carry his teachings among nations God accepted him and made him the foundation of the Church and called him Kepha When he speaks about the transfiguration of Christ he calls him Simon Peter the foundation of the Church Ephrem also shared the same view The Armenian version of De Virginitate records that Peter the rock shunned honour A mimro of Efrem found in Holy Week Liturgy points to the importance of Peter Both Aphrahat and Ephrem represent the authentic tradition of the Syrian Church The different orders of liturgies used for sanctification of Church buildings marriage ordination et cetera reveal that the primacy of Peter is a part of living faith of the Church 176 New Apostolic Church Edit The New Apostolic Church which believes in the re established Apostle ministry sees Peter as the first Chief Apostle The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints Edit Saint Peter by Vasco Fernandes 1506 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints teaches that Peter was the first leader of the early Christian church after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ While the Church accepts apostolic succession from Peter it rejects papal successors as illegitimate Joseph Smith the founder of Mormonism recorded in multiple revelations that the resurrected Peter appeared to him and Oliver Cowdery in 1829 near Harmony Township Susquehanna County Pennsylvania in order to bestow the apostleship and keys of the kingdom as part of a restoration of priesthood authority 177 178 In interpreting Matthew 16 13 19 Latter day Saint leader Bruce R McConkie stated The things of God are known only by the power of his Spirit 179 and that which the world calls Mormonism is based upon the rock of revelation 180 In his April 1981 general conference address McConkie identified the rock of which Jesus spoke as the rock of revelation There is no other foundation upon which the Lord could build His Church and kingdom Revelation Pure perfect personal revelation this is the rock 181 Non Christian views EditJudaism Edit Main article Saint Peter and Judaism According to an old Jewish tradition Simon Peter joined the early Christians at the decision of the rabbis Worried that early Christianity s similarity to Judaism would lead people to mistake it for a branch of Judaism he was chosen to join them As he moved up in rank he would be able to lead them into forming their own distinct belief system Despite this he was said to remain a practicing Jew and is ascribed with the authorship of the Nishmas prayer 182 Islam Edit Main article Peter in Islam Muslims consider Jesus a prophet of God The Qur an also speaks of Jesus s disciples but does not mention their names instead referring to them as helpers to the prophet of God 183 Muslim exegesis and Qur an commentary however names them and includes Peter among the disciples 184 An old tradition which involves the legend of Habib the Carpenter mentions that Peter was one of the three disciples sent to Antioch to preach to the people there 185 Twelver Shia Muslims see a parallel in the figure of Peter to Ali at Muhammad s time They look upon Ali as being the vicegerent with Muhammad being the prophet likewise they see Peter as the vicegerent behind Jesus the prophet and Masih Peter s role as the first proper leader of the church is also seen by Shias to be a parallel to their belief in Ali as the first caliph after Muhammad 186 Baha i Faith Edit In the Baha i Faith the primacy of Peter the Prince of the Apostles is upheld and defended 187 Baha is understand Peter s station as The Rock upon which the church of God would be founded to mean that Peter s belief in Christ as the Son of the living God would serve as the foundation for Christianity and that upon this belief would the foundation of the church of God understood as the Law of God be established 188 Peter appears in the writings of Baha u llah the Prophet Founder of the Baha i Faith often referred to as The Rock O followers of all religions We behold you wandering distraught in the wilderness of error Ye are the fish of this Ocean wherefore do ye withhold yourselves from that which sustaineth you Lo it surgeth before your faces Hasten unto it from every clime This is the day whereon the Rock Peter crieth out and shouteth and celebrateth the praise of its Lord the All Possessing the Most High saying Lo The Father is come and that which ye were promised in the Kingdom is fulfilled 189 from The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Baha u llahWritings EditTraditionally two canonical epistles 1 and 2 Peter and several apocryphal works have been attributed to Peter New Testament Edit St Peter by Francesco del Cossa 1473 Epistles Edit Main article Authorship of the Petrine epistles The New Testament includes two letters epistles ascribed to Peter Both demonstrate a high quality of cultured and urban Greek at odds with the linguistic skill that would ordinarily be expected of an Aramaic speaking fisherman who would have learned Greek as a second or third language The textual features of these two epistles are such that a majority of scholars doubt that they were written by the same hand Some scholars argue that theological differences imply different sources and point to the lack of references to 2 Peter among the early Church Fathers Daniel B Wallace who maintains that Peter was the author writes that for many scholars the issue of authorship is already settled at least negatively the apostle Peter did not write this letter and that the vast bulk of NT scholars adopts this perspective without much discussion However he later states Although a very strong case has been made against Petrine authorship of 2 Peter we believe it is deficient Taken together these external and internal arguments strongly suggest the traditional view viz that Peter was indeed the author of the second epistle which bears his name 190 Of the two epistles the first epistle is considered the earlier A number of scholars have argued that the textual discrepancies with what would be expected of the biblical Peter are due to it having been written with the help of a secretary or as an amanuensis 191 Jerome explains The two Epistles attributed to St Peter differ in style character and the construction of the words which proves that according to the exigencies of the moment St Peter made use of different interpreters Epistle 120 To Hedibia 192 Some have seen a reference to the use of a secretary in the sentence By Silvanus a faithful brother unto you as I suppose I have written briefly exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand 1 Pet 5 12 However New Testament scholar Bart D Ehrman in his 2011 book Forged states that scholars now widely recognize that when the author indicates that he wrote the book through Silvanus he is indicating not the name of his secretary but the person who was carrying his letter to the recipients 193 The letter refers to Roman persecution of Christians apparently of an official nature The Roman historian Tacitus and the biographer Suetonius do both record that Nero persecuted Christians and Tacitus dates this to immediately after the fire that burned Rome in 64 Christian tradition for example Eusebius of Caesarea History book 2 24 1 has maintained that Peter was killed in Nero s persecution and thus had to assume that the Roman persecution alluded to in First Peter must be this Neronian persecution 191 On the other hand many modern scholars argue that First Peter refers to the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor during the reign of the emperor Domitian 81 96 as the letter is explicitly addressed to Jewish Christians from that region Peter an apostle of Jesus Christ to God s elect strangers in the world scattered throughout Pontus Galatia Cappadocia Asia and Bithynia who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father through the sanctifying work of the Spirit for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood Grace and peace be yours in abundance 1Pet 1 1 2 Those scholars who believe that the epistle dates from the time of Domitian argue that Nero s persecution of Christians was confined to the city of Rome itself and did not extend to the Asian provinces mentioned in 1 Pet 1 1 2 The Second Epistle of Peter on the other hand appears to have been copied in part from the Epistle of Jude and some modern scholars date its composition as late as c 150 Some scholars argue the opposite that the Epistle of Jude copied Second Peter while others contend an early date for Jude and thus observe that an early date is not incompatible with the text 191 Many scholars have noted the similarities between the apocryphal Second Epistle of Clement 2nd century and Second Peter Second Peter may be earlier than 150 there are a few possible references to it that date back to the 1st century or early 2nd century e g 1 Clement written in c AD 96 and the later church historian Eusebius wrote that Origen had made reference to the epistle before 250 191 194 Jerome says that Peter wrote two epistles which are called Catholic the second of which on account of its difference from the first in style is considered by many not to be by him De Viris Illustribus 1 195 But he himself received the epistle and explained the difference in style character and structure of words by the assumption that Peter used different interpreters in the composition of the two epistles 192 and from his time onward the epistle was generally regarded as a part of the New Testament Even in early times there was controversy over its authorship and Second Peter was often not included in the biblical canon it was only in the 4th century that it gained a firm foothold in the New Testament in a series of synods In the East the Syriac Orthodox Church still did not admit it into the canon until the 6th century 191 Mark Edit Traditionally the Gospel of Mark was said to have been written by a person named John Mark and that this person was an assistant to Peter hence its content was traditionally seen as the closest to Peter s viewpoint According to Eusebius Ecclesiastical History Papias recorded this belief from John the Presbyter Mark having become the interpreter of Peter wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered It was not however in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him But afterwards as I said he accompanied Peter who accommodated his instructions to the necessities of his hearers but with no intention of giving a normal or chronological narrative of the Lord s sayings Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them For of one thing he took especial care not to omit anything he had heard and not to put anything fictional into the statements 196 Clement of Alexandria in the fragments of his work Hypotyposes A D 190 preserved and cited by the historian Eusebius in his Church History VI 14 6 writes that As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome and declared the Gospel by the Spirit many who were present requested that Mark who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings should write them out And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it 75 Also Irenaeus wrote about this tradition After their Peter and Paul s passing Mark also the disciple and interpreter of Peter transmitted to us in writing the things preached by Peter 197 Based on these quotes and on the Christian tradition the information in Mark s gospel about Peter would be based on eyewitness material 191 The gospel itself is anonymous and the above passages are the oldest surviving written testimony to its authorship 191 Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha Edit The key as symbol of St Peter There are also a number of other apocryphal writings that have been either attributed to or written about Peter These include Gospel of Peter a partially Docetic narrative that has survived in part Acts of Peter Acts of Peter and Andrew Acts of Peter and Paul Acts of Peter and the Twelve Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter A Letter of Peter to Philip which was preserved in the Nag Hammadi library Apocalypse of Peter which was considered as genuine by many Christians as late as the 4th century The Epistula Petri the introductory letter ascribed to the Apostle Peter that appears at the beginning of at least one version of the Clementine literatureNon canonical sayings of Peter Edit Miraculous catch of fish by Aelbrecht Bouts Two sayings are attributed to Peter in the gnostic Gospel of Thomas In the first Peter compares Jesus to a just messenger 198 In the second Peter asks Jesus to make Mary leave us for females don t deserve life 199 In the Apocalypse of Peter Peter holds a dialogue with Jesus about the parable of the fig tree and the fate of sinners 200 In the Gospel of Mary whose text is largely fragmented Peter appears to be jealous of Mary probably Mary Magdalene He says to the other disciples Did He really speak privately with a woman and not openly to us Are we to turn about and all listen to her Did He prefer her to us 201 In reply to this Levi says Peter you have always been hot tempered 201 Other noncanonical texts that attribute sayings to Peter include the Secret Book of James and the Acts of Peter In the Fayyum Fragment which dates to the end of the 3rd century Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him three times before a cock crows on the following morning The account is similar to that of the canonical gospels especially the Gospel of Mark It is unclear whether the fragment is an abridged version of the accounts in the synoptic gospels or a source text on which they were based perhaps the apocryphal Gospel of Peter 202 The fragmentary Gospel of Peter contains an account of the death of Jesus differing significantly from the canonical gospels It contains little information about Peter himself except that after the discovery of the empty tomb I Simon Peter and Andrew my brother took our fishing nets and went to the sea 203 Iconography Edit Saint Peter sinking on water by Eero Jarnefelt 1892 The earliest portrait of Peter dates back to the 4th century and was located in 2010 204 In traditional iconography Peter has been shown very consistently since early Christian art as an oldish thick set man with a slightly combative face and a short beard and usually white hair sometimes balding He thus contrasts with Paul the Apostle who is bald except at the sides with a longer beard and often black hair and thinner in the face One exception to this is in Anglo Saxon art where he typically lacks a beard Both Peter and Paul are shown thus as early as the 4th century Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter in Rome 205 Later in the Middle Ages his attribute is one or two large keys in his hand or hanging from his belt first seen in the early 8th century 206 More than many medieval attributes this continued to be depicted in the Renaissance and afterwards By the 15th century Peter is more likely to be bald on the top of his head in the Western church but he continues to have a good head of hair in Orthodox icons The depiction of Saint Peter as literally the keeper of the gates of heaven popular with modern cartoonists is not found in traditional religious art but Peter usually heads groups of saints flanking God in heaven on the right hand side viewer s left of God Narrative images of Peter include several scenes from the Life of Christ where he is mentioned in the gospels and he is often identifiable in scenes where his presence is not specifically mentioned Usually he stands nearest to Christ In particular depictions of the Arrest of Christ usually include Peter cutting off the ear of one of the soldiers Scenes without Jesus include his distinctive martyrdom his rescue from prison and sometimes his trial In the Counter Reformation scenes of Peter hearing the cock crow for the third time became popular as a representation of repentance and hence the Catholic sacrament of Confession or Reconciliation Patronage Edit Medieval mosaic of Saint Peter in the Chora Church Istanbul Icon of Saint Peter and Paul St Peter holding a key and a book depicted in a medieval Welsh manuscript 1390 1400 WorkersBakers Bridge builders Butchers Fishermen Harvesters Cordwainers Horologists Locksmiths Cobblers Net makers Shipwrights StationersCalled for aid inFrenzy Foot problems Fever LongevityInstitutionsThe Papacy The Patriarchate of Antioch Berchtesgaden Provostry Bishop Cotton Boys School Bangalore Exeter College Oxford Universalist Church Peterhouse Cambridge UK St Peter s College Oxford UK St Peter s College Auckland New Zealand St Peter s College Radley UK St Peter s School York UK Saint Peter s University New Jersey USChurches and CathedralsThe Papal Basilica of Saint Peter Vatican City Bath Abbey York Minster List of churches dedicated to St PeterLocationsApalit Birzebbuġa Bremen Calatrava Calauag Calbayog City Chartres Chimbote Cologne Davao Dunajska Streda Evora Hinton on the Green Ilovik i Sveti Petar Jackson Kopenick Las Vegas Leuven Leiden Lessines Loboc Maralal Marquette Moissac Naumburg Obermarsberg Peterborough Philadelphia Poznan Providence Pubnico Regensburg Rio Grande do Sul Rome Povoa de Varzim Saint Petersburg Saint Pierre and Miquelon San Pedro Laguna San Pedro Soloma Scranton Seixal Municipality Sunderland Sintra Sint Pieters Rode Siuntio Tielt Toa Baja Trier Umbria WormsRevisionist views EditL Michael White suggests that there was a serious division between Peter s Jewish Christian party and Paul s Hellenizing party seen in e g the Incident at Antioch which later Christian accounts have downplayed 207 Another revisionist view was developed by supporters of the Christ myth theory which holds that the figure of Peter is largely a development from some mythological doorkeeper figures According to Arthur Drews and G A Wells if there was a historical Peter then all that is known about him is the brief mentions in Galatians 208 209 In art EditDepictions of Saint Peter Saint Peter Attempting to Walk on Water by Francois Boucher 1766 The Release of St Peter by Bernardo Strozzi 1635 Jesus gives Peter the keys to Heaven by Pieter Paul Rubens 1614 Peter Enthroned by Arnolfo di Cambio 13th century statue in St Peter s Basilica Rome The Miraculous Draught of Fishes by Raphael 1515 Jesus calling Simon Peter and Andrew by Duccio di Buoninsegna 1308 1311 An apparition of the Apostle Peter to Saint Peter Nolasco by Francisco Zurbaran 1629 Alessandro Turchi Saint Agatha Attended by Saint Peter and an Angel in Prison 1640 1645 Fresco by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel 1480 1482 Statue of St Peter c 1510 1520 at the V amp A St Peter in the coat of arms of LietoIn music EditRolland de Lassus Les Larmes de Saint Pierre 21 spiritual madrigals 1594 Marc Antoine Charpentier Le Reniement de Saint Pierre H 424 for soloists chorus and continuo date unknown See also EditApocalypse of Simeon Kepha List of Catholic saints List of biblical figures identified in extra biblical sources List of popes Saint Peter and Islam Saint Peter and Judaism Saint Peter s Square Saint Peter s tomb San Pietro in Vincoli St Peter s Basilica Sword of Saint PeterNotes Edit Peter delivering a significant open air sermon during Pentecost According to the same book Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot Acts 1 15 Following this appointment we see Peter establish the conditions for being an apostle as those who have spent time with Jesus 40 Peter s authority lent to his role as an adjudicator in conflicts and moral matters He takes on this role in the case of Ananias and Sapphira and holds them accountable for lying about their alms giving Peter passes judgement upon them and they are individually struck dead over the infraction 41 Peter s role wasn t always leadership since he also employed his gifts for taking care of those in need We see Peter establish these trends by reaching out to the sick and lame Peter heals two individuals who cannot walk or are paralyzed 42 43 as well as raising Tabitha from the dead 43 While these acts were miracles of compassion they also contributed to the number of believers in the early Church At the Council of Jerusalem c 50 the early Church Paul and the leaders of the Jerusalem church met and decided to embrace Gentile converts Acts portrays Peter and other leaders as successfully opposing the Christian Pharisees who insisted on circumcision 50 Galatians is accepted as authentic by almost all scholars These may be the earliest mentions of Peter to be written Eusebius of Caesarea in his Historia Ecclesiastica I 12 2 while naming some of the Seventy Disciples of Jesus says This is the account of Clement in the fifth book of Hypotyposes A D 190 in which he also says that Cephas was one of the seventy disciples a man who bore the same name as the apostle Peter and the one concerning whom Paul says When Cephas came to Antioch I withstood him to his face 60 61 This is provided in Downey A History of Antioch pp 583 586 This evidence is accepted by M Lapidge among others see Bischoff and Lapidge Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School Cambridge 1994 p 16 Lastly see Finegan The Archaeology of the New Testament pp 63 71 a b Historians debate whether the Roman government distinguished between Christians and Jews prior to Nerva s modification of the Fiscus Judaicus in 96 From then on practising Jews paid the tax Christians did not Margherita Guarducci who led the research leading to the rediscovery of Peter s reputed tomb in its last stages 1963 1968 concludes Peter died on 13 October AD 64 during the festivities on the occasion of the dies imperii of Emperor Nero 128 Zwierlein s thesis has caused debate 132 70 Zwierlein has made a summary of his view available online in English 133 An edited volume in German was also written in rebuttal against Otto Zwierlein s views 134 135 Petrᾳ petra rock is the feminine form of the Greek noun Petros Petros which represents the masculine form the two forms are identical in meaning 146 147 148 References Edit a b c d e f Catholic Encyclopedia St Peter Prince of the Apostles www newadvent org McDowell Sean 2016 The Fate of the Apostles Examining the Martyrdom Accounts of the Closest Followers of Jesus Routledge p 57 ISBN 9781317031901 Siecienski A Edward 2017 The Papacy and the Orthodox Sources and History of a Debate Oxford University Press ISBN 9780190650926 scholarship largely came to accept Peter s death in Rome as a fact which is relatively although not absolutely assured While a select few were willing to make this judgment definitive Richard T Antoun Donald Quataert 1991 The Alawis of Syria Religious Ideology and Organization Syria Society Culture and Polity Suny Series in Judaica SUNY Press p 53 ISBN 9780791407134 via books google com Classical Syriac ܫ ܡܥܘ ܢ ܟ ܐܦ ܐ romanized Semʿōn Kep a Hebrew שמעון בר יונה romanized Simʿōn bar Yōnah Arabic س مع ان ب طر س romanized Simʿa n Buṭrus Greek Petros translit Petros Coptic Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ romanized Petros Latin Petrus Arabic شمعون الصفـا romanized Sham un al Safa lit Simon the Pure 4 Turkish Aziz Petrus John Hayes Who was who in the Bible Thomas Nelson 1999 p 70 CEPHAS SEE fuhs Matthew 16 18 a b Dale Martin 2009 lecture 24 Apocalyptic and Accommodation on YouTube Yale University Accessed 22 July 2013 Lecture 24 transcript Chapman Henry Palmer 1913 Fathers of the Church In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company Thomas Patrick Halton On Illustrious Men v 100 CUA Press 1999 pp 5 7 ISBN 0 8132 0100 4 The Early Church Fathers Chapter 1 New Advent Acts 15 14 and 2 Peter 1 1 Wilson Robert McLachlan 5 April 1979 Text and Interpretation Studies in the New Testament Presented to Matthew Black Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521220217 via Google Books Strong s Greek 2786 Khfᾶs Kephas a rock Cephas a name given to the apostle Peter biblehub com Strong s Greek 4073 petra petra a large mass of rock biblehub com Retrieved 1 September 2021 Strong s Greek 4074 Petros Petros a stone or a boulder Peter one of the twelve apostles biblehub com Siecienski A Edward 12 January 2017 The Papacy and the Orthodox Sources and History of a Debate Oxford University Press ISBN 9780190650926 via Google Books Jastrow Marcus 20 February 1903 A dictionary of the Targumim the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi and the Midrashic literature London Luzac via Internet Archive A Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac As Spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan Clarendon 20 February 1901 via Internet Archive Pesch Rudolf 1980 Simon Petrus Hiersemann Stuttgart p 29 The Teaching of Simon Cephas in the City of Rome The Diatessaron a b c d e Peter St by F L Cross The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church Oxford University Press 2005 His father s name is given as Jonah John 1 42 Matthew 16 17 although some manuscripts of John give his father s name as John Collins Raymond F 22 November 2013 Accompanied by a Believing Wife Ministry and Celibacy in the Earliest Christian Communities Liturgical Press ISBN 9780814682388 via Google Books The Church of the House of Peter mfa gov il Archived from the original on 7 May 2009 CS1 maint unfit URL link Bible Gateway passage Acts 10 New Revised Standard Version Bible Gateway Retrieved 30 November 2017 see Incident at Antioch see also the section below headed Road to Rome Antioch and Corinth a b c d Pagels 2005 p 45 a b Ludemann amp Ozen 1996 p 116 sfn error no target CITEREFLudemannOzen1996 help a b Pagels 2005 pp 45 46 a b c Ludemann amp Ozen 1996 pp 116 117 sfn error no target CITEREFLudemannOzen1996 help a b Pagels 2005 p 43 Matt 10 2 4 Mk 3 16 19 Lk 6 14 16 Acts 1 13 Matthew 17 1 Mark 9 2 Luke 9 28 Mark 5 37 Luke 8 51 Matthew 26 37 Mark 14 33 Matthew 15 15 19 27 Luke 12 41 John 6 67 68 Vidmar John 2005 John Vidmar The Catholic Church through the ages a history pp 39 40 ISBN 978 0 8091 4234 7 Retrieved 12 September 2010 Bible Gateway passage Acts 1 New Revised Standard Version Bible Gateway Retrieved 30 November 2017 Bible Gateway passage Acts 5 New Revised Standard Version Bible Gateway Retrieved 30 November 2017 Bible Gateway passage Acts 3 New Revised Standard Version Bible Gateway Retrieved 30 November 2017 a b Bible Gateway passage Acts 9 New Revised Standard Version Bible Gateway Retrieved 30 November 2017 a b May Herbert G and Bruce M Metzger The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha 1977 1Cor 15 1Cor 15 3 7 See Matthew 28 8 10 John 20 16 and Luke 24 13 16 Galatians 2 9 Myllykoski Matti 2006 James the Just in History and Tradition Perspectives of Past and Present Scholarship Part I Currents in Research Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies Finland 5 73 122 doi 10 1177 1476993X06068700 S2CID 162513014 James the Just the brother of Jesus is known from the New Testament as the chief apostle of the Torah obedient Christians Harris Stephen L 2010 Understanding the Bible 8th ed New York McGraw Hill p 420 ISBN 978 0 07 340744 9 Christian Pharisees demand that the entire Torah be kept but Peter reportedly opposes this Acts 15 10 and silences the Judaizers Bockmuehl 2010 p 52 Church History Book II Chapter I quoting Clement of Alexandria s Sixth book of Hypotyposes Newadvent org Retrieved 12 September 2010 Harrington Daniel J Peter the Rock America 18 25 August 2008 Accessed 9 October 2009 p 30 What did Jesus mean when he said Upon this rock I will build my church Bible org Retrieved 10 February 2015 Rienecker Fritz Rogers Cleon 1976 Linguistic key to the Greek New Testament Grand Rapids MI Regency Reference Library Zondervan Publishing House p 49 ISBN 978 0 310 32050 0 a b Sermon by Leo the Great 440 461 Ccel org 13 July 2005 Retrieved 12 September 2010 Archbishop Stylianos of Australia Retrieved 12 September 2010 Patriarch H H Ignatius Zakka I Iwas Syrianchurch org Retrieved 12 September 2010 Syriac Orthodox Church in Canada Identity of the Church Eusebius Church History Book I Chapter 12 2 Retrieved 1 June 2015 ἡ d ἱstoria parὰ Klhmenti katὰ tὴn pempthn tῶn Ὑpotypwsewn ἐn ᾗ kaὶ Khfᾶn perὶ oὗ fhsin ὁ Paῦlos ὅte dὲ ἦl8en Khfᾶs eἰs Ἀntioxeian katὰ proswpon aὐtῷ ἀntesthn ἕna fhsὶ gegonenai tῶn ἑbdomhkonta ma8htῶn ὁmwnymon Petrῳ tygxanonta tῷ ἀpostolῳ a b Origen s homilies on Luke VI 4 Patrologia Graeca 13 1814 a b Eusebius Church History Book III Chapter 36 Retrieved 1 June 2015 Louise Ropes Loomis The Book of Popes Liber Pontificalis Merchantville NJ Evolution Publishing ISBN 1 889758 86 8 Reprint of the 1916 edition Homilies 2 1 Recognitions 2 1 Lapham An Introduction to the New Testament Apocrypha London T amp T Clark International 2003 p 76 of Corinth Dionysius Fragments from a Letter to the Roman Church Chapter III www earlychristianwritings com Retrieved 1 June 2015 Was Peter in Rome Catholic Answers 10 August 2004 Archived from the original on 7 December 2013 Retrieved 9 November 2014 If Peter never made it to the capital he still could have been the first pope since one of his successors could have been the first holder of that office to settle in Rome After all if the papacy exists it was established by Christ during his lifetime long before Peter is said to have reached Rome There must have been a period of some years in which the papacy did not yet have its connection to Rome a b c d Pieter Willem van der Horst review of Otto Zwierlein Petrus in Rom die literarischen Zeugnisse Mit einer kritischen Edition der Martyrien des Petrus und Paulus auf neuer handschriftlicher Grundlage Berlin Walter de Gruyter 2009 in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010 03 25 a b Bloggers Staff Petrus im Rom or Peter in Rome revisited a b Franzen p 26 a b 16 Ignatius of Antioch The Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans newadvent org Retrieved 15 August 2016 ANF01 The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus a b Eusebius of Caesarea Church History Book VI Chapter 14 6 Retrieved 1 June 2015 Eusebius in his Chronicle A D 303 Chronicle 44 A D Patrologia Graeca 19 539 Eusebius Church History Book III Chapter 36 2 newadvent org Retrieved 5 June 2015 Eusebius Church History Book III Chapter 22 newadvent org Retrieved 5 June 2015 Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died Chapter 2 ccel org Retrieved 1 June 2015 Eusebius Church History Book II Chapter 14 15 Retrieved 1 June 2015 a b c saint Jerome De Viris Illustribus On Illustrious Men Chapter 1 newadvent org Retrieved 5 June 2015 Lapham Introduction p 72 The Acts of Peter Harris Stephen L 2010 Understanding the Bible 8th ed New York McGraw Hill p 381 ISBN 978 0 07 340744 9 John s Gospel is commonly divided into a prologue 1 1 51 a Book of Signs 2 1 11 57 the Book of Glory 12 1 20 31 and an epilogue 21 1 25 Robinson D F Where and When did Peter die Journal of Biblical Literature Vol 64 1945 supported by Smaltz W M Did Peter die in Jerusalem Journal of Biblical Literature Vol 71 No 4 Dec 1952 pp 211 216 Accessed 31 August 2015 Caius Ante Nicene Fathers Vol V Fragments of Caius via Wikisource Apocryphal Acts of Peter Chapter 37 of Rome Clement The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians earlychristianwritings com Retrieved 1 June 2015 The Acts of Peter by M R James Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian Prescription Against Heretics Chapter XXXVI ccel org Retrieved 1 June 2015 Since moreover you are close upon Italy you have Rome from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority of apostles themselves How happy is its church on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood where Peter endures a passion like his Lord s where Paul wins his crown in a death like John s the Baptist where the Apostle John was first plunged unhurt into boiling oil and thence remitted to his island exile Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian Scorpiace Chapter 15 newadvent org Retrieved 6 June 2015 Granger Ryan amp Helmut Ripperger The Golden Legend Of Jacobus De Voragine Part One 1941 of Alexandria Peter Canonical Epistle on Penitence Canon 9 newadvent org Retrieved 3 June 2015 Vatican Cardinal Angelo Comastri interviewee 2011 Secret Access The Vatican Video in English and Italian Vatican City Rome Italy A amp E Studio Entertainment Event occurs at 94 minutes This is the holiest site in the Basilica where the Apostle Peter was crucified and his blood shed to the ground presbyter Caius Gaius Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus A D 198 in Eusebius Church History Book II Chapter 25 6 7 newadvent org Retrieved 1 June 2015 Catholic Encyclopedia Tomb of St Peter The Papacy and the Vatican Palace Wall J Charles 1912 Porches and Fonts Pub London Wells Gardner and Darton p 295 Venerable Bede Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum The Ecclesiastical History of the English People Book III Chapter 29 Fordham edu Retrieved 12 September 2010 Walsh The Bones of St Peter A 1st Full Account of the Search for the Apostle s Body Finegan The Archeology of the New Testament pp 368 370 The Bones of St Peter Saintpetersbasilica org Retrieved 12 September 2010 Vatican displays Saint Peter s bones for the first time The Guardian Associated Press 24 November 2013 Retrieved 24 November 2013 a b Cindy Wooden 2 July 2019 Pope gives relics of St Peter to Orthodox patriarch Catholic News Service Retrieved 2 July 2019 Brockhaus Hannah Pope Francis explains decision to give relics of St Peter to Orthodox Catholic News Agency Retrieved 27 March 2021 The inexplicable transfer of St Peter s relics to Constantinople Catholic Herald 24 July 2019 Retrieved 27 March 2021 Harris Stephen L 2010 Understanding the Bible 8th ed New York McGraw Hill p 477 ISBN 978 0 07 340744 9 Babylon became the Christian code name for Rome after Titus destroyed Jerusalem thus duplicating the Babylonians demolition of the holy city 587 BCE Grabbe Lester L Haak Robert D 2003 Knowing the End From the Beginning ISBN 978 0567084620 via Google Books Feldmeier Reinhard 2008 The First Letter of Peter google ca ISBN 978 1602580244 Eusebius Church History Book II Chapter 15 2 hypotyposeis org amp newadvent org Retrieved 4 June 2015 Brown Raymond E Introduction to the New Testament Anchor Bible 1997 ISBN 0 385 24767 2 p 767 the pseudonymity of II Pet is more certain than that of any other NT work Meyers Carol 28 August 2001 Women in scripture a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew ISBN 9780802849625 L Michael White Understanding the Book of Revelation PBS Helmut Koster Introduction to the New Testament Volume 2 260 Pheme Perkins First and Second Peter James and Jude 16 Watson E Mills Mercer Commentary on the New Testament 1340 Nancy McDarby The Collegeville Bible Handbook 349 Carol L Meyers Toni Craven Ross Shepard Kraemer Women in scripture a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew Bible p 528 David M Carr Colleen M Conway Introduction to the Bible Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts 353 Larry Joseph Kreitzer Gospel images in fiction and film on reversing the hermeneutical flow 61 By Mary Beard John A North S R F Price Religions of Rome A history David M Rhoads From every people and nation the book of Revelation in intercultural perspective 174 Charles T Chapman The message of the book of Revelation 114 Norman Cheadle The ironic apocalypse in the novels of Leopoldo Marechal 36 Peter M J Stravinskas The Catholic answer book Volume 1 18 Catherine Keller God and power counter apocalyptic journeys 59 Brian K Blount Revelation A Commentary 346 Frances Carey The Apocalypse and the shape of things to come 138 Richard Dellamora Postmodern apocalypse theory and cultural practice at the end 117 A N Wilson Paul The Mind of the Apostle 11 Gerd Theissen John Bowden Fortress introduction to the New Testament 166 Craig R Koester Revelation Anchor Yale Bible 38A New Haven CT Yale University Press 2014 684 Craig R Koester Revelation Anchor Yale Bible 38A New Haven CT Yale University Press 2014 506 Strabo Geography 16 1 5 a b Paul St Cross F L ed The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church New York Oxford University Press 2005 a b Pennington p 2 a b Papal Basilica Saint Paul Outside the Walls Archived from the original on 20 July 2009 a b Wylen pp 190 192 a b Dunn pp 33 34 most scholars both Catholic and Protestant concur that Peter died in Rome Keener Craig S The Gospel of Matthew A Socio Rhetorical Commentary p 425 n 74 2009 Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Company O Connor Daniel William 2013 Saint Peter the Apostle Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Online p 5 Retrieved 12 April 2013 M any scholars accept Rome as the location of the martyrdom and the reign of Nero as the time Brown Raymond E amp Meier John P 1983 Antioch and Rome New Testament Cradles of Christianity Paulist Press p 98 ISBN 978 0 8091 0339 3 As for Peter we have no knowledge at all of when he came to Rome and what he did there before he was martyred Cullmann Oscar 1962 Peter Disciple Apostle Martyr 2nd ed Westminster Press p 234 From the second half of the second century we do possess texts that mention the apostolic foundation of Rome and at this time which is indeed rather late this foundation is traced back to Peter and Paul an assertion that cannot be supported historically Even here however nothing is said as yet of an episcopal office of Peter Chadwick Henry 1993 The Early Church rev ed Penguin Books p 18 No doubt Peter s presence in Rome in the sixties must indicate a concern for Gentile Christianity but we have no information whatever about his activity or the length of his stay there That he was in Rome for twenty five years is third century legend J N D Kelly Oxford Dictionary of the Popes Oxford University Press 1996 p 6 Ignatius assumed that Peter and Paul wielded special authority over the Roman church while Irenaeus claimed that they jointly founded it and inaugurated its succession of bishops Nothing however is known of their constitutional roles least of all Peter s as presumed leader of the community Building Unity Ecumenical Documents IV Paulist Press 1989 p 130 There is increasing agreement that Peter went to Rome and was martyred there but we have no trustworthy evidence that Peter ever served as the supervisor or bishop of the local church in Rome Rainer Riesner Paul s Early Period Chronology Mission Strategy Theology Wm B Eerdmans Publishing 1998 p 65 Zwierlein Otto 20 February 2010 Petrus in Rom Walter de Gruyter ISBN 9783110240580 via Google Books Zwierlein Otto Petrus und Paulus in Jerusalem und Rom Vom Neuen Testament zu den apokryphen Apostelakten Berlin Walter de Gruyter 2013 ISBN 978 3110303315 James Dunn review of Zwierlein 2009 in Review of Biblical Literature 2010 Siecienski A Edward 20 February 2017 The Papacy and the Orthodox Sources and History of a Debate Oxford University Press ISBN 9780190245252 via Google Books Has St Peter ever been in Rome PDF Review of Petrus und Paulus in Rom Kok Michael J 19 June 2017 Otto Zwierlein on the Traditions about Peter in Rome The Primacy of Peter 7 August 2017 Flavius Josephus Jewish War Book V Chapter 11 ccel org Retrieved 1 June 2015 The Holy Bible according to the authorized version A D 1611 Frederic Charles Cook J Murray 1881 p 350 Synaxis of the Holy Glorious and All Praised Twelve Apostles www oca org Retrieved 7 September 2021 The Calendar The Church of England Retrieved 3 April 2021 a b Joyce G H 1913 Pope In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company Hitchcock Tutu amp Esposito 2004 p 281 note Some Christian communities had been founded by Peter the disciple Jesus designated as the founder of his church Once the position was institutionalized historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome Greek New Testament Greek New Testament John xxi 11 June 2010 Strong s Greek 2786 Khfᾶs Kephas a rock Cephas a name given to the apostle Peter biblehub com Retrieved 15 June 2019 John 1 42 Greek Text Analysis biblehub com greek 2786 htm Cephas Aramaic for rock Hebrew כ יפ א כ יף is an indirect transliteration of the Syriac ܟ ܐܦ ܐ Greek Khfᾶs is a direct transliteration of the Syriac ܟ ܐܦ ܐ and Hebrew כ יפ א כ יף is a direct transliteration of the Greek The Hebrew word Hebrew כאפא is also a direct transliteration of the Syriac cƒ Interlinear Peshitta Aramaic New Testament Bible Matthew xvi 18 Archived 24 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Peter the Rock Catholic Answers 10 August 2004 Archived from the original on 19 November 2011 Retrieved 12 September 2010 And what does Kepha mean It means a rock the same as petra It doesn t mean a little stone or a pebble What Jesus said to Simon in Matthew 16 18 was this You are Kepha and on this kepha I will build my Church Matthew 16 18 BibleHub Online Parallel Bible Project Retrieved 9 June 2019 Allen C Myers ed 1987 Aramaic The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary Grand Rapids MI William B Eerdmans p 72 ISBN 978 0 8028 2402 8 It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Palestine in the first century AD Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem Matt 26 73 Peshitta Matthew 16 PDF Strong s Greek 2786 Khfᾶs Kephas 9 Occurrences Basil li De poenit cƒ Matth v 14 Luke xxii 19 a b Peter the Rock Catholic com 10 August 2004 Archived from the original on 19 November 2011 Retrieved 12 September 2010 The Preaching of Mattai chapter 16 PDF Peshitta Aramaic English Interlinear New Testament retrieved 2 April 2014 Veselin Kesich 1992 Peter s Primacy in the New Testament and the Early Tradition in The Primacy of Peter St Vladimir s Seminary Press pp 61 66 Catechism of the Catholic Church Articles 424 and 552 On Becoming a Pebble The Name God Gave Simon spectrummagazine org Did Jesus really say he would build his church on Peter Petros or Petra Archived from the original on 6 February 2018 Retrieved 5 February 2018 Patrick Madrid Bam Bam The Pebbles Argument Goes Down or Catholic Answers Magazine Peter the Rock translation by R C Seaton of Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica 3 1365 1367 lazeto d ἐk pedioio megan perihgea petron deinὸn Ἐnyalioy solon Ἄreos oὔ ke min ἄndres aἰzhoὶ pisyres gaihs ἄpo tyt8ὸn ἄeiran Chadwick The Early Christian Church p 237 p 238 Mathison Keith A The Shape of Sola Scriptura pp 184 85 Peter s Primacy Archived from the original on 18 October 2012 Rykle Borger Remarks of an Outsider about Bauer s Worterbuch BAGD BDAG and Their Textual Basis Biblical Greek Language and Lexicography Essays in Honor of Frederick W Danker Bernard A Tayler et al eds pp 32 47 WELS Topical Q amp A Responses to previous questions Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 8 August 2013 Archived from the original on 8 August 2013 Retrieved 5 October 2015 a b c Religion Peter amp the Rock Time 7 December 1953 Archived from the original on 22 June 2011 Retrieved 12 September 2010 D A Carson in The Expositor s Bible Commentary Grand Rapids Zondervan 1984 Jesus Peter amp the Keys A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy The Doctrine of Church and Ministry in the Life of the Church Today PDF Archived from the original PDF on 3 February 2015 Cross Cultural And Multicultural Ministry in the New Testament PDF Archived from the original PDF on 3 February 2015 Some Thoughts on Matthew 16 18 Eckert Harold H The Specific Functions of the Church in the World PDF Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Archived from the original PDF on 3 February 2015 Retrieved 4 February 2015 John Meyendorff et al 1963 The Primacy of Peter in the Orthodox Church St Vladimir s Seminary Press Crestwood NY ISBN 978 0 88141 125 6 Holy Apostles Convent 1999 The Orthodox New Testament Vol I The Holy Gospels Dormition Skete Buena Vista CO ISBN 0 944359 13 2 p 105 Primacy of St Peter by Dr Thomas Athanasius Syrianchurch org Retrieved 12 September 2010 Doctrine amp Covenants 27 12 13 Scriptures lds org Retrieved 12 September 2010 Doctrine amp Covenants 128 20 21 Scriptures lds org Retrieved 12 September 2010 McConkie Bruce R May 1981 Upon This Rock Ensign LDS Church McConkie Bruce R July 1973 The Rock of Revelation Ensign LDS Church Christ built Church on rock of revelation Church News 30 March 1991 Julius Eisenstein 1915 Otzar HaMidrashim Mishor p 557 Qur an 3 49 53 Noegel Scott B Wheeler Brandon M 2003 Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism Lanham MD Scarecrow Press Roman amp Littlefield p 86 ISBN 978 0810843059 Muslim exegesis identifies the disciples of Jesus as Peter Andrew Matthew Thomas Philip John James Bartholomew and Simon Hughes Dictionary of Islam Habib the Carpenter No god but God The Origins Evolution and Future of Islam Reza Aslan Dictionary Simon Peter The Promised Day Is Come Baha i Reference Library www bahai org Retrieved 6 August 2021 The Summons of the Lord of Hosts Baha i Reference Library www bahai org Retrieved 6 August 2021 The Summons of the Lord of Hosts Baha i Reference Library www bahai org Retrieved 6 August 2021 Second Peter Introduction Argument and Outline Archive date 9 December 2003 Access date 19 August 2013 a b c d e f g Vander Heeren Achille 1911 Epistles of St Peter In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia 11 New York Robert Appleton Company a b saint Jerome Epistle 120 To Hedibia Question 11 tertullian org Retrieved 9 June 2015 Ehrman Bart D 2011 Forged HarperOne HarperCollins p 76 ISBN 978 0 06 201262 3 Eusebius Church History Book VI Chapter 25 newadvent org Retrieved 11 June 2015 saint Jerome De Viris Illustribus On Illustrious Men Chapter 1 newadvent org Retrieved 9 June 2015 Eusebius Ecclesiastical History 3 39 14 16 Irenaeus Against Heresies III 1 2 quoted by Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History book 5 7 6 Gospel of Thomas 13 Archived from the original on 13 August 2007 Gospel of Thomas 114 Archived from the original on 13 August 2007 The Apocalypse of Peter translation by M R James www earlychristianwritings com a b The Gospel According to Mary Magdalene www gnosis org Das Evangelium nach Petrus Text Kontexte Intertexte Edited by Thomas J Kraus and Tobias Nicklas Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur Archiv fur die Ausgabe der Griechischen Christlichen Schiftsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte TU 158 viii 384 pp Berlin New York Walter de Gruyter 2007 ISBN 978 3 11 019313 8 Gospel of Peter 14 3 Cygnus study com Archived from the original on 17 September 2009 Retrieved 12 September 2010 Oldest known images of apostles found CNN com Retrieved 17 November 2013 Higgitt John The Iconography of Saint Peter in Anglo Saxon England and Saint Cuthbert s Coffin pp 267 272 270 quoted in Bonner Gerald Rollason David amp Stancliffe Clare eds St Cuthbert his Cult and his Community to AD 1200 Woodbridge Boydell and Brewer 1989 ISBN 0 85115 610 X 978 0851156101 google books Higgitt p 276 White L Michael 2004 From Jesus to Christianity Harper SanFrancisco p 170 ISBN 0 06 052655 6 Arthur Drews The Legend of St Peter Egodeath com 10 October 2005 Retrieved 12 September 2010 George Albert Wells St Peter as Bishop of Rome Sources EditBockmuehl Markus N A 2010 The Remembered Peter In Ancient Reception and Modern Debate Mohr Siebeck Dunn James D G 2001 Has the Canon a Contnuing Function In Lee Martin McDonald James A Sanders eds The Canon Debate Baker ISBN 978 1 4412 4163 4 Hitchcock Susan Tyler Tutu Mpho Esposito John L 2004 Geography of Religion Where God Lives where Pilgrims Walk National Geographic ISBN 978 0 7922 7317 2 Ludemann Gerd Ozen Alf De opstanding van Jezus Een historische benadering Was mit Jesus wirklich geschah Die Auferstehung historisch betrachtet The Resurrection of Christ A Historical Inquiry The Have Averbode Pagels Elaine 2005 De Gnostische Evangelien The Gnostic Gospels ServireExternal links EditListen to this article 1 hour and 15 minutes source source This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 10 November 2013 2013 11 10 and does not reflect subsequent edits Audio help More 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