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Raphael (archangel)

For other uses, see Raphael (disambiguation).

Raphael (; Hebrew:רְפָאֵל‎, translit. Rəp̄āʾēl, lit. 'God has healed'; Ancient Greek:Ραφαήλ, Raphaḗl; Coptic:ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, Rafaêl; Arabic:رافائيل‎, Rafā’īl, orإسرافيل, Isrāfīl; Amharic:ሩፋኤል, Rufaʾel) is an archangel mentioned in the Book of Tobit and in 1 Enoch, both dating from the last few centuries before Christ. In later Jewish tradition, he became identified as one of the three heavenly visitors entertained by Abraham at the Oak of Mamre. He is not named in either the Christian New Testament or the Quran, but later Christian tradition identified him with healing and as the angel who stirred waters in the Pool of Bethesda in John 5:2-4. In Islam, where his name is Israfil, he is understood to be the unnamed angel of Quran 6:73, who stands eternally with a trumpet to his lips, ready to announce the Day of Resurrection.

Saint
Raphael
Saint Raphael the Archangel by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Archangel, 'Angel of Tobit', Angel of the Trumpet
Venerated inJudaism
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Church
Anglican Communion
Islam
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Feast
AttributesArchangel holding a bottle or flask; Archangel walking with Tobias; Archangel sounding a trumpet; young man carrying a fish; young man carrying a staff
PatronageApothecaries; Ordained marriage; blind people; bodily ills; diocese of Madison, WI; druggists; archdiocese of Dubuque, Iowa; eye problems; guardian angels; happy meetings; insanity; lovers; mental illness; nightmares; nurses; pharmacists; healing; physicians; shepherds; sick people; travelers; young people; archdiocese of Seattle, Washington; Abra de Ilog, Mindoro Occidental, Philippines

Contents

In the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) the word'מלאך' ('mal'āk̠') means a messenger, human or supernatural, and when used in the latter sense it is translated as "angel". The original mal'ak lacked both individuality and hierarchy, but after the Babylonian exile they were graded into a Babylonian-style hierarchy and the word archangelos, archangel, first appears in the Greek text of 1 Enoch. At the same time the angels and archangels began to be given names, as attested in the Talmudic statement that "the names of the angels were brought by the Jews from Babylonia".

Raphael first appears in two works of this period, 1 Enoch, a collection of originally independent texts from the 3rd century BCE, and the Book of Tobit, from the early 2nd century BCE. In the oldest stratum of 1 Enoch (1 Enoch 9:1) he is one of the four named archangels, and in Tobit 12:11-15 he is one of seven.

His name derives from a Hebrew root meaning "to heal", and can be translated as "God healed". In Tobit he is both one who acts as a physician and expels demons, using an extraordinary fish to bind the demon Asmodeus and to heal Tobit's eyes; in 1 Enoch he is "set over all disease and every wound of the children of the people", and binds the armies of Azazel and throws them into the valley of fire.

Abraham with the Three Angels by Rembrandt

According to the Babylonian Talmud, Raphael was one of the three angels who appeared to Abraham in the oak grove of Mamre in the region of Hebron. (Gen. xviii; Bava Metzia 86b); Michael, as the greatest, walked in the middle, with Gabriel to his right and Raphael to his left (Yoma 37a). Each was commanded to carry out a specific mission, Gabriel to destroy Sodom, Michael to inform Sarah that she would give birth to Isaac, Raphael to heal Abraham from his recent circumcision and save Lot. Rashi writes, "Although Raphael's mission included two tasks, they were considered a single mission since they were both acts that saved people." The Life of Adam and Eve lists him with the archangels Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael and Joel, and the medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides included his name in his Jewish angelic hierarchy.

Tobias and the Angel by Gustave Doré

The New Testament names only two archangels or angels, Michael and Gabriel (Luke 1:9–26; Jude 1:9; Revelation 12:7), but Raphael, because of his association with healing, became identified with the unnamed angel of John 5:1–4 who periodically stirred the pool of Bethesda "[a]nd he that went down first into the pond after the motion of the water was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he lay under". The Catholic Church accordingly links Raphael with Michael and Gabriel as saints whose intercession can be sought through prayer.

Patronage

Raphael, Palazzo Ducale, Venice, detail

Due to his actions in the Book of Tobit and the Gospel of John, Saint Raphael is considered patron of travelers, the blind, happy meetings, nurses, physicians, medical workers, matchmakers, Christian marriage, and Catholic studies. As a particular enemy of the devil, he was revered in Catholic Europe as a special protector of sailors: on a corner of the famous Doge's Palace in Venice is a relief depicting Raphael holding a scroll on which is written: "Efficia fretum quietum" (“Keep the Gulf quiet”). On July 8, 1497, when Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon with his four-ship fleet to India, the flagship was named São Rafael at the insistence pf King Manuel I of Portugal. When the flotilla reached the Cape of Good Hope on October 22, the sailors disembarked and erected a column in the archangel's honor. The little statue of Raphael that accompanied Da Gama on the voyage is now in the Naval Museum in Lisbon.

Iconography

Raphael is said to guard pilgrims on their journeys, and is often depicted holding a staff. He is also often depicted holding or standing on a fish, which alludes to his healing of Tobit with the fish's gall. Early mosaics often show him and the other archangels in the clothing of a Byzantine courtier.

Feast day

The feast day of Raphael was included for the first time in the General Roman Calendar in 1921, for celebration on October 24. With the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, the feast was transferred to September 29 for celebration together with archangels Saints Michael and Gabriel. Due to Pope Benedict XVI's Summorum Pontificum, the Catholic Church permits, within certain limits for public use, the General Roman Calendar of 1960, which has October 24 as Raphael's feast day.

The Coptic Orthodox Church celebrates his feast on Kouji Nabot 3 and Koiak 13.[citation needed]

Apparitions

The Archangel Raphael is said to have appeared in Cordova, Spain, during the 16th century; in response to the city's appeal, Pope Innocent X allowed the local celebration of a feast in the Archangel's honor on May 7, the date of the principal apparition. Saint John of God, founder of the Hospital order that bears his name, is also said to have received visitations from Saint Raphael, who encouraged and instructed him. In tribute to this, many of the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God's facilities are called “Raphael Centers” to this day. The 18th century Neapolitan nun, Saint Maria Francesca of the Five Wounds is also said to have seen apparitions of Raphael.

The Archangel Israfil, made in Egypt or Syria, late 14th–early 15th century

Raphael (Arabic:إسرافيل‎, romanized: Isrāfīl, alternate spellings: Israfel, Esrafil) is a venerated archangel according to Islamic tradition. In Islamic eschatology, Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection (Yawm al-Qiyāmah). The trumpet is constantly poised at his lips, ready to be blown when God so orders.

The name "Israfil" (or "Israfel", "Esrafil") is not specifically written in the Quran, although there is mention of an unnamed trumpet-angel assumed to identify this figure:

"And the trumpet shall be blown, so all those that are in the heavens and all those that are in the earth shall swoon, except him whom Allah will; then it shall be blown again, then they shall stand up awaiting." — Qur'an (39.68).

Certain Islamic sources indicate that, created at the beginning of time, Israfil possesses four wings, and is so tall as to be able to reach from the earth to the pillars of heaven. A beautiful angel who is a master of music, Israfil sings praises to God in a thousand different languages, the breath of which is used to inject life into hosts of angels who add to the songs themselves. Further he is probably the highest angel, since he also mediates between God and the other archangels, reading on the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfooz) to transmit the commands of God. Although disputed, some reports assert, he visited Muhammad prior to the archangel Gabriel.

According to Sufi traditions reported by Imam al-Suyuti, the Ghawth or Qutb ('perfect human being'), is someone who has a heart that resembles that of the archangel Israfil, signifying the loftiness of this angel. The next in rank are the saints who are known as the Umdah or Awtad, amongst whom the highest ones have their hearts resembling that of archangel Mikhail (archangel Michael), and the rest of the lower ranking saints having the heart of Jibrail (archangel Gabriel), and that of the previous prophets before the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The earth is believed to always have one of the Qutb.

The following places have been named in honor of Raphael:

Saint Raphaël, France; Saint Raphaël, Quebec, Canada; and San Rafaels in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, and the Philippines; also San Rafael de El Moján and San Rafael de Orituco in Venezuela.

The Arcangelo Raffaello youth confraternity functioned in Florence, Italy from its founding in 1411 to its suppression in 1785.

St. John of God Catholic Church in Chicago, IL, was disassembled, moved and reassembled as St. Raphael the Archangel Church in Mill Creek, IL.

Raphael, along with many other prominent angels, appears in John Milton's Paradise Lost, in which he is assigned by God to re-warn Adam concerning the sin of eating of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil. He also expounds to Adam the War in Heaven in which Lucifer and the demons fell, and the creation of the Earth.

In Joseph Haydn's Creation, Raphael (bass) is one of the three angelic narrators, along with Gabriel (soprano) and Uriel (tenor).

He also appears as "Rafael" in the role-playing game Anima Beyond Fantasy as one of the seven Beryls (god-like spirits of light, all but one having taken female gender). She is identified by the humans with the archangel of the same name and incarnates life and nature.[citation needed]

Characters associated with Angelic figures, at least by borrowing the names, also feature in the video game industry, as an example there is the title: El Shaddai: Ascension of the Metatron.[citation needed]

Raphael features as one of the four archangels in the TV series Supernatural.

In season 2 of the TV series Criminal Minds the archangel Raphael is brought up as being one of Tobias Hankel's personalities.

In the Yogscast Youtube series, Shadow of Israphel, the main antagonist and titular character derives his namesake from that of St. Raphael.

  1. "رئيس الملائكة الجليل رافائيل - كتاب الملائكة | St-Takla.org". st-takla.org.
  2. Coogan 1993, p. 642.
  3. Barnes 1993, p. 54.
  4. Meier 1999, p. 47.
  5. Grossman 2011, p. 52.
  6. Van Henten 1999, p. 81.
  7. Grossman 2011, p. 51.
  8. Esler 2017, p. 3.
  9. Soll 2000, p. 1110.
  10. Barker 2006, p. 123.
  11. Mach 1999, p. 688.
  12. "Three Angels: Ask the Rabbi Response". aishcom.
  13. "Sts. Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Archangels". Catholic News Agency.
  14. Cresswell 2011, p. unpaginated.
  15. Dictionary of Patron Saints' Names, Thomas W. Sheehan, p. 514, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2001, ISBN 0-87973-539-2
  16. "St. Raphael's Parish: All About St. Raphael the Archangel". straphaelsparish.net.
  17. "St. Raphael and Tobias in Christian Art and Iconography". www.christianiconography.info.
  18. Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 143)
  19. "Israfil". Encyclopaedia. Britannica. Retrieved20 November 2012.
  20. Davidson, Gustav (1967), A Dictionary of Angels, Including The Fallen Angels, Entry: Israfel, Free Press, pp. 151, 152, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-19757, ISBN 9780029070505
  21. Lewis, James R., Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy, Sisung Kelle S. (Editor) (1996), Angels A to Z, p. 224, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 0-7876-0652-9
  22. Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 page 92
  23. Joel L. Kraemer Israel Oriental Studies, Band 13 BRILL 1993 ISBN 9789004099012 p. 219
  24. See Jalaluddeen As Suyuti's compilation on the proofs of Qutb, Awtad and Abdals.
  25. Eisenbichler, Konrad (November 1, 2011). "The Boys of the Archangel Raphael". University of Toronto Press – via Google Books.
  26. Moran, Dan (February 17, 2015). "Spiritual journey: Chicago church moved, rebuilt in Lake County". www.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved2021-02-17.
  27. Sherry, Beverley (1979). "Milton's Raphael and the Legend of Tobias". The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 78 (2): 227–241 – via JSTOR.

Raphael (archangel)
Raphael archangel Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Saint Raphael the Archangel For other uses see Raphael disambiguation Raphael ˈ r ae f i e l Hebrew ר פ א ל translit Rep aʾel lit God has healed Ancient Greek Rafahl Raphaḗl Coptic ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ Rafael Arabic رافائيل Rafa il or إسرافيل Israfil Amharic ሩፋኤል Rufaʾel is an archangel mentioned in the Book of Tobit and in 1 Enoch both dating from the last few centuries before Christ 2 3 In later Jewish tradition he became identified as one of the three heavenly visitors entertained by Abraham at the Oak of Mamre He is not named in either the Christian New Testament or the Quran but later Christian tradition identified him with healing and as the angel who stirred waters in the Pool of Bethesda in John 5 2 4 2 In Islam where his name is Israfil he is understood to be the unnamed angel of Quran 6 73 who stands eternally with a trumpet to his lips ready to announce the Day of Resurrection Saint RaphaelSaint Raphael the Archangel by Bartolome Esteban MurilloArchangel Angel of Tobit Angel of the TrumpetVenerated inJudaism Roman Catholic Church Eastern Catholic Churches Eastern Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodox Church Anglican Communion IslamCanonizedPre CongregationFeast29 September 24 October local calendars and by those observing the 1921 1969 General Roman Calendar 3 Kouji Nabot 1 13 Koiak Coptic Churches AttributesArchangel holding a bottle or flask Archangel walking with Tobias Archangel sounding a trumpet young man carrying a fish young man carrying a staffPatronageApothecaries Ordained marriage blind people bodily ills diocese of Madison WI druggists archdiocese of Dubuque Iowa eye problems guardian angels happy meetings insanity lovers mental illness nightmares nurses pharmacists healing physicians shepherds sick people travelers young people archdiocese of Seattle Washington Abra de Ilog Mindoro Occidental Philippines Contents 1 Origins in post exilic literature 2 In later Judaism 3 Christianity 3 1 Patronage 3 2 Iconography 3 3 Feast day 3 4 Apparitions 4 In Islam 5 Places named for Raphael 6 In popular culture 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 BibliographyOrigins in post exilic literature EditIn the Hebrew Bible the Old Testament the word מלאך mal ak means a messenger human or supernatural and when used in the latter sense it is translated as angel 4 The original mal ak lacked both individuality and hierarchy but after the Babylonian exile they were graded into a Babylonian style hierarchy and the word archangelos archangel first appears in the Greek text of 1 Enoch 5 6 At the same time the angels and archangels began to be given names as attested in the Talmudic statement that the names of the angels were brought by the Jews from Babylonia 7 Raphael first appears in two works of this period 1 Enoch a collection of originally independent texts from the 3rd century BCE and the Book of Tobit from the early 2nd century BCE 8 9 In the oldest stratum of 1 Enoch 1 Enoch 9 1 he is one of the four named archangels and in Tobit 12 11 15 he is one of seven 10 His name derives from a Hebrew root meaning to heal and can be translated as God healed 11 In Tobit he is both one who acts as a physician and expels demons 11 using an extraordinary fish to bind the demon Asmodeus and to heal Tobit s eyes in 1 Enoch he is set over all disease and every wound of the children of the people 11 and binds the armies of Azazel and throws them into the valley of fire 9 In later Judaism Edit Abraham with the Three Angels by Rembrandt According to the Babylonian Talmud Raphael was one of the three angels who appeared to Abraham in the oak grove of Mamre in the region of Hebron Gen xviii Bava Metzia 86b Michael as the greatest walked in the middle with Gabriel to his right and Raphael to his left Yoma 37a Each was commanded to carry out a specific mission Gabriel to destroy Sodom Michael to inform Sarah that she would give birth to Isaac Raphael to heal Abraham from his recent circumcision and save Lot Rashi writes Although Raphael s mission included two tasks they were considered a single mission since they were both acts that saved people 12 The Life of Adam and Eve lists him with the archangels Michael Gabriel Uriel Raphael and Joel and the medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides included his name in his Jewish angelic hierarchy Christianity Edit Tobias and the Angel by Gustave Dore The New Testament names only two archangels or angels Michael and Gabriel Luke 1 9 26 Jude 1 9 Revelation 12 7 but Raphael because of his association with healing became identified with the unnamed angel of John 5 1 4 who periodically stirred the pool of Bethesda a nd he that went down first into the pond after the motion of the water was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he lay under 13 The Catholic Church accordingly links Raphael with Michael and Gabriel as saints whose intercession can be sought through prayer 14 Patronage Edit Raphael Palazzo Ducale Venice detail Due to his actions in the Book of Tobit and the Gospel of John Saint Raphael is considered patron of travelers the blind happy meetings nurses physicians medical workers matchmakers 15 Christian marriage and Catholic studies As a particular enemy of the devil he was revered in Catholic Europe as a special protector of sailors on a corner of the famous Doge s Palace in Venice is a relief depicting Raphael holding a scroll on which is written Efficia fretum quietum Keep the Gulf quiet On July 8 1497 when Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon with his four ship fleet to India the flagship was named Sao Rafael at the insistence pf King Manuel I of Portugal When the flotilla reached the Cape of Good Hope on October 22 the sailors disembarked and erected a column in the archangel s honor The little statue of Raphael that accompanied Da Gama on the voyage is now in the Naval Museum in Lisbon Iconography Edit Raphael is said to guard pilgrims on their journeys and is often depicted holding a staff He is also often depicted holding or standing on a fish which alludes to his healing of Tobit with the fish s gall 16 Early mosaics often show him and the other archangels in the clothing of a Byzantine courtier 17 Feast day Edit The feast day of Raphael was included for the first time in the General Roman Calendar in 1921 for celebration on October 24 With the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar the feast was transferred to September 29 for celebration together with archangels Saints Michael and Gabriel 18 Due to Pope Benedict XVI s Summorum Pontificum the Catholic Church permits within certain limits for public use the General Roman Calendar of 1960 which has October 24 as Raphael s feast day The Coptic Orthodox Church celebrates his feast on Kouji Nabot 3 1 and Koiak 13 citation needed Apparitions Edit The Archangel Raphael is said to have appeared in Cordova Spain during the 16th century in response to the city s appeal Pope Innocent X allowed the local celebration of a feast in the Archangel s honor on May 7 the date of the principal apparition Saint John of God founder of the Hospital order that bears his name is also said to have received visitations from Saint Raphael who encouraged and instructed him In tribute to this many of the Brothers Hospitallers of St John of God s facilities are called Raphael Centers to this day The 18th century Neapolitan nun Saint Maria Francesca of the Five Wounds is also said to have seen apparitions of Raphael In Islam Edit The Archangel Israfil made in Egypt or Syria late 14th early 15th century Raphael Arabic إسرافيل romanized Israfil alternate spellings Israfel Esrafil is a venerated archangel according to Islamic tradition In Islamic eschatology Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection Yawm al Qiyamah The trumpet is constantly poised at his lips ready to be blown when God so orders 19 The name Israfil or Israfel Esrafil is not specifically written in the Quran although there is mention of an unnamed trumpet angel assumed to identify this figure And the trumpet shall be blown so all those that are in the heavens and all those that are in the earth shall swoon except him whom Allah will then it shall be blown again then they shall stand up awaiting Qur an 39 68 Certain Islamic sources indicate that created at the beginning of time Israfil possesses four wings and is so tall as to be able to reach from the earth to the pillars of heaven 20 A beautiful angel who is a master of music Israfil sings praises to God in a thousand different languages the breath of which is used to inject life into hosts of angels who add to the songs themselves 21 Further he is probably the highest angel since he also mediates between God and the other archangels reading on the Preserved Tablet al lawh al mahfooz to transmit the commands of God 22 Although disputed some reports assert he visited Muhammad prior to the archangel Gabriel 23 According to Sufi traditions reported by Imam al Suyuti the Ghawth or Qutb perfect human being is someone who has a heart that resembles that of the archangel Israfil signifying the loftiness of this angel The next in rank are the saints who are known as the Umdah or Awtad amongst whom the highest ones have their hearts resembling that of archangel Mikhail archangel Michael and the rest of the lower ranking saints having the heart of Jibrail archangel Gabriel and that of the previous prophets before the Islamic prophet Muhammad The earth is believed to always have one of the Qutb 24 Places named for Raphael EditThe following places have been named in honor of Raphael Saint Raphael France Saint Raphael Quebec Canada and San Rafaels in Argentina Bolivia Colombia Costa Rica Chile Mexico Trinidad and Tobago Peru and the Philippines also San Rafael de El Mojan and San Rafael de Orituco in Venezuela In the United States San Rafaels inherited from Spain survive in California where besides the city there are the San Rafael Mountains New Mexico and Utah where the San Rafael River flows seasonally in the San Rafael Desert St Raphael s Cathedral the seat of the Diocese of Madison Wisconsin St Raphael s Cathedral the seat of the Archdiocese of Dubuque Mission San Rafael Arcangel in San Rafael California St Raphael s Episcopal Church in Crossville Tennessee in the Episcopal Diocese of East Tennessee St Raphael s Church Huccaby Hexworthy Dartmoor National Park Devon England San Rafael Vecindario Santa Lucia de Tirajana Gran Canaria The Arcangelo Raffaello youth confraternity functioned in Florence Italy from its founding in 1411 to its suppression in 1785 25 St John of God Catholic Church in Chicago IL was disassembled moved and reassembled as St Raphael the Archangel Church in Mill Creek IL 26 In popular culture EditRaphael along with many other prominent angels appears in John Milton s Paradise Lost in which he is assigned by God to re warn Adam concerning the sin of eating of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil He also expounds to Adam the War in Heaven in which Lucifer and the demons fell and the creation of the Earth 27 In Joseph Haydn s Creation Raphael bass is one of the three angelic narrators along with Gabriel soprano and Uriel tenor He also appears as Rafael in the role playing game Anima Beyond Fantasy as one of the seven Beryls god like spirits of light all but one having taken female gender She is identified by the humans with the archangel of the same name and incarnates life and nature citation needed Characters associated with Angelic figures at least by borrowing the names also feature in the video game industry as an example there is the title El Shaddai Ascension of the Metatron citation needed Raphael features as one of the four archangels in the TV series Supernatural In season 2 of the TV series Criminal Minds the archangel Raphael is brought up as being one of Tobias Hankel s personalities In the Yogscast Youtube series Shadow of Israphel the main antagonist and titular character derives his namesake from that of St Raphael Gallery Edit See also EditList of angels in theology Angels in Judaism Feast of Saint Raphael Ollur Saint Raphael patron saint archiveReferences Edit a b رئيس الملائكة الجليل رافائيل كتاب الملائكة St Takla org st takla org a b Coogan 1993 p 642 Barnes 1993 p 54 Meier 1999 p 47 Grossman 2011 p 52 Van Henten 1999 p 81 Grossman 2011 p 51 Esler 2017 p 3 a b Soll 2000 p 1110 Barker 2006 p 123 a b c Mach 1999 p 688 Three Angels Ask the Rabbi Response aishcom Sts Michael Gabriel Raphael Archangels Catholic News Agency Cresswell 2011 p unpaginated Dictionary of Patron Saints Names Thomas W Sheehan p 514 Our Sunday Visitor Publishing 2001 ISBN 0 87973 539 2 St Raphael s Parish All About St Raphael the Archangel straphaelsparish net St Raphael and Tobias in Christian Art and Iconography www christianiconography info Calendarium Romanum Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969 p 143 Israfil Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 20 November 2012 Davidson Gustav 1967 A Dictionary of Angels Including The Fallen Angels Entry Israfel Free Press pp 151 152 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 66 19757 ISBN 9780029070505 Lewis James R Oliver Evelyn Dorothy Sisung Kelle S Editor 1996 Angels A to Z p 224 Visible Ink Press ISBN 0 7876 0652 9 Stephen Burge Angels in Islam Jalal al Din al Suyuti s al Haba ik fi akhbar al mala ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978 1 136 50473 0 page 92 Joel L Kraemer Israel Oriental Studies Band 13 BRILL 1993 ISBN 9789004099012 p 219 See Jalaluddeen As Suyuti s compilation on the proofs of Qutb Awtad and Abdals Eisenbichler Konrad November 1 2011 The Boys of the Archangel Raphael University of Toronto Press via Google Books Moran Dan February 17 2015 Spiritual journey Chicago church moved rebuilt in Lake County www chicagotribune com Retrieved 2021 02 17 Sherry Beverley 1979 Milton s Raphael and the Legend of Tobias The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 78 2 227 241 via JSTOR Bibliography EditBarker Margaret 2006 The Angel Raphael in the Book of Tobit In Bredin Mark ed Studies in the Book of Tobit A amp C Black ISBN 9780567082299 Barnes William H 1993 Archangels In Coogan Michael David Metzger Bruce M eds The Oxford Companion to the Bible Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199743919 Coogan Michael D 1993 Raphael In Coogan Michael David Metzger Bruce M eds The Oxford Companion to the Bible Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199743919 Cresswell Julia 2011 Archangels In Cresswell Julia ed The Watkins Dictionary of Angels Duncan Baird Publishers ISBN 9781780283609 Esler Philip Francis 2017 God s Court and Courtiers in the Book of the Watchers Wipf and Stock Publishers Grabbe Lester 2003 Tobit In Dunn James D G ed Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9780802837110 Grossman Maxine L 2011 Angels In Grossman Maxine L ed The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199730049 Mach M 1999 Raphael In Van der Toorn Karel Becking Bob Van der Horst Pieter Willem eds Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9780802824912 Meier S A 1999 Angel I In Van der Toorn Karel Becking Bob Van der Horst Pieter Willem eds Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9780802824912 Schaller Berndt 1999 Enoch In Bromiley Geoffrey William ed The Encyclopedia of Christianity 2 Eerdmans ISBN 9789004116955 Soll Will 2000 Raphael In Freedman David Noel Myers Allen C eds Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9789053565032 Van Henten J W 1999 Archangel In Van der Toorn Karel Becking Bob Van der Horst Pieter Willem eds Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9780802824912 Media related to Archangel Raphael at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Raphael archangel amp oldid 1052294016, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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