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Teresa of Ávila

For other people with similar names, see Saint Teresa.

Teresa of Ávila (born Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada; 28 March 1515 – 4 or 15 October 1582), also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, was a Spanish noblewoman who was called to convent life in the Catholic Church. A Carmelite nun, prominent Spanish mystic, religious reformer, author, theologian of the contemplative life and of mental prayer, she earned the rare distinction of being declared a Doctor of the Church, but not until over four centuries after her death. Active during the Catholic Reformation, she reformed the Carmelite Orders of both women and men. The movement she initiated was later joined by the younger Spanish Carmelite friar and mystic John of the Cross. It led eventually to the establishment of the Discalced Carmelites. A formal papal decree adopting the split from the old order was issued in 1580.

Saint
Teresa of Ávila

Saint Teresa of Ávila by Peter Paul Rubens
Virgin, Mystic, Doctor of the Church
BornTeresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada
28 March 1515
Ávila, Crown of Castile (today Spain)
Died4 October 1582(1582-10-04) (aged 67)
Alba de Tormes, Salamanca, Crown of Castile (today Spain)
Theology career
Notable work
Camino de Perfección
El Castillo Interior
Theological work
EraCatholic Reformation
Tradition or movementChristian mysticism
Main interestsTheology
Notable ideasMental prayer, Prayer of Quiet
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
Beatified24 April 1614, Rome by Pope Paul V
Canonized12 March 1622, Rome by Pope Gregory XV
Major shrineConvent of the Annunciation, Alba de Tormes, Spain
Feast15 October
Attributesof Spanish-Jewish parentage, contemplative, mystic, ecstatic, writer on mental prayer, religious reformer, administrator, prolific correspondent possibly temporal lobe epilepsy sufferer
PatronageSpain, sick people, people in religious orders, people ridiculed for their piety, lacemakers, Požega, Croatia, Talisay City, Cebu, Philippines
ControversyHer reforms met with determined opposition and interest from the Spanish Inquisition, but no charges were laid against her. Her order split as a result.

Teresa, who had been a social celebrity in her home province, was dogged by early family losses and ill health. In her mature years, she became the central figure of a movement of spiritual and monastic renewal borne out of an inner conviction and honed by ascetic practice. She was also at the center of deep ecclesiastical controversy as she took on the pervasive laxity in her order against the background of the Protestant reformation sweeping over Europe and the Spanish Inquisition asserting church discipline in her home country. The consequences were to last well beyond her life. One papal legate described her as a "restless wanderer, disobedient, and stubborn femina who, under the title of devotion, invented bad doctrines, moving outside the cloister against the rules of the Council of Trent and her prelates; teaching as a master against Saint Paul's orders that women should not teach."

Her written contributions, which include her autobiography, The Life of Teresa of Jesus and her seminal work The Interior Castle, are today an integral part of Spanish Renaissance literature. Together with The Way of Perfection, her works form part of the literary canon of Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practice, and continue to attract interest from people both within and outside the Catholic Church.

Other associations with Teresa beyond her writings continue to exert a wide influence. A Santero image of the Immaculate Conception of El Viejo, said to have been sent by her with a brother emigrating to Peru, was canonically crowned by Pope John Paul II on 28 December 1989 at the Shrine of El Viejo in Nicaragua. Another Catholic tradition holds that Saint Teresa is personally associated with devotion to the Infant Jesus of Prague, a statue she may have owned. Since her death, her reputation has grown, leading to multiple portrayals. She continues to be widely noted as an inspiration to philosophers, theologians, historians, neurologists, fiction writers and artists, as well as to countless ordinary people interested in Christian spirituality and mysticism.

Forty years after her death, in 1622, Teresa was canonized by Pope Gregory XV. At the time she was considered a candidate for national patron saint of Spain, but this designation was awarded to St. James the Apostle. She has since become one of the patron saints of Spain. On 27 September 1970 Pope Paul VI proclaimed Teresa the first female Doctor of the Church in recognition of her centuries-long spiritual legacy to Catholicism.

Contents

Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada was born in 1515 in Ávila, Spain. Her paternal grandfather, Juan Sánchez de Toledo, was a marrano or Converso, a Jew forced to convert to Christianity or emigrate. When Teresa's father was a child, Juan was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition for allegedly returning to the Jewish faith, but he was later able to assume a Catholic identity. Her father, Alonso Sánchez de Cepeda, was a successful wool merchant and one of the wealthiest men in Ávila. He bought a knighthood and assimilated successfully into Christian society.

Teresa of Ávila elopes to travel to Africa by Arnold van Westerhout

Previously married to Catalina del Peso y Henao, with whom he had three children, in 1509, Sánchez de Cepeda married Teresa's mother, Beatriz de Ahumada y Cuevas, in Gotarrendura.

Teresa's mother brought her up as a dedicated Christian. Fascinated by accounts of the lives of the saints, she ran away from home at age seven, with her brother Rodrigo, to seek martyrdom in the fight against the Moors. Her uncle brought them home, when he spotted them just outside the town walls.

When Teresa was eleven years old, her mother died, leaving her grief-stricken. This prompted her to embrace a deeper devotion to the Virgin Mary as her spiritual mother. Teresa was also enamored of popular fiction, which at the time consisted primarily of medieval tales of knighthood and works about fashion, gardens and flowers. Teresa was sent to the Augustinian nuns' school at Ávila.

Entry into religious life

After completing her education, she initially resisted the idea of a religious vocation, but after a stay with her uncle and other relatives, she relented. In 1536, aged 20, much to the disappointment of her pious and austere father, she decided to enter the local easy-going Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation, significantly built on top of land that had been used previously as a burial ground for Jews. She took up religious reading on contemplative prayer, especially Osuna’s Third Spiritual Alphabet (1527). Her zeal for mortification caused her to become ill again and she spent almost a year in bed, causing huge worry to her community and family. She nearly died but she recovered, attributing her recovery to the miraculous intercession of St. Joseph. She began to experience bouts of religious ecstasy.

Foundations of spirituality

Her reading of the medieval mystics, consisted of guides to examination of conscience and spiritual exercises and inner contemplation known in mystical terms as oratio recollectionis or oratio mentalis. She also dipped into other mystical ascetical works such as the Tractatus de oratione et meditatione of Peter of Alcantara.

She reported that, during her illness, she had progressed from the lowest stage of "recollection", to the "devotions of silence" and even to the "devotions of ecstasy", which was one of perceived "perfect union with God" (see § Mysticism). During this final stage, she said she frequently experienced the rich "blessing of tears". As the Catholic distinction between mortal and venial sin became clear to her, she came to understand the awful horror of sin and the inherent nature of original sin. She also became conscious of her own natural impotence in confronting sin and the need for absolute surrender to God.[citation needed]

Around the same time, she received a copy of the full Spanish translation of St. Augustine's autobiographical work Confessions, which helped her resolve and to tend to her own bouts of religious scruples. The text helped her realize that holiness was indeed possible and she found solace in the idea that such a great saint was once an inveterate sinner. In her autobiography, she wrote that she 'was very fond of St. Augustine ... for he was a sinner too.'

Around 1556, friends suggested that her newfound knowledge could be of diabolical and not of divine origin. She had begun to inflict mortifications of the flesh upon herself. But her confessor, the Jesuit Francis Borgia, reassured her of the divine inspiration of her thoughts. On St. Peter's Day in 1559, Teresa became firmly convinced that Jesus Christ had presented Himself to her in bodily form, though invisible. These visions lasted almost uninterruptedly for more than two years. In another vision, a seraph drove the fiery point of a golden lance repeatedly through her heart, causing her an ineffable spiritual and bodily pain:

I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it ...

The account of this vision was the inspiration for one of Bernini's most famous works, the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa at Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome. Although based in part on Teresa's description of her mystical transverberation in her autobiography, Bernini's depiction of the event is considered by some to be highly eroticized, especially when compared to the entire preceding artistic Teresian tradition.

The memory of this episode served as an inspiration throughout the rest of her life, and motivated her lifelong imitation of the life and suffering of Jesus, epitomized in the adage often associated with her: "Lord, either let me suffer or let me die."[citation needed]

Embarrassment of raptures

Teresa, who became a celebrity in her town dispensing wisdom from behind the convent grille, was also known for her raptures, which sometimes involved levitation. It was a source of embarrassment to her and she bade her sisters hold her down when this occurred. Subsequently, historians, neurologists and psychiatrists like Peter Fenwick and Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez, among others, have taken an interest in her symptomatology. The fact that she wrote down virtually everything that happened to her during her religious life means that an invaluable and exceedingly rare medical record from the 16th century has been preserved. Examination of this record has led to the speculative conclusion that she may have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy.

Over time, Teresa found herself increasingly at odds with the spiritual malaise prevailing in her convent of the Incarnation. Among the 150 nuns living there, the observance of cloister, designed to protect and strengthen spiritual practice and prayer, became so lax that it appeared to lose its purpose. The daily invasion of visitors, many of high social and political rank, disturbed the atmosphere with frivolous concerns and vacuous conversation. Such intrusions in the solitude essential to develop and sustain contemplative prayer so grieved Teresa that she longed to intervene.

The incentive to take the practical steps inspired by her inward motivation was supported by the Franciscan priest, Peter of Alcantara, who met her early in 1560 and became her spiritual adviser. She resolved to found a "reformed" Carmelite convent, correcting the laxity which she had found at the Incarnation convent and elsewhere besides. Guimara de Ulloa, a woman of wealth and a friend, supplied the funds for the project.[citation needed]

The abject poverty of the new convent, established in 1562 and named St. Joseph's (San José), at first caused a scandal among the citizens and authorities of Ávila, and the small house with its chapel was in peril of suppression. However, powerful patrons, including the local bishop, coupled with the impression of well ordered subsistence and purpose, turned animosity into approval.[citation needed]

In March 1563, after Teresa had moved to the new convent house, she received papal sanction for her primary principles of absolute poverty and renunciation of ownership of property, which she proceeded to formulate into a "constitution". Her plan was the revival of the earlier, stricter monastic rules, supplemented by new regulations including the three disciplines of ceremonial flagellation prescribed for the Divine Office every week, and the discalceation of the religious. For the first five years, Teresa remained in seclusion, mostly engaged in prayer and writing.[citation needed]

Church window at the Convent of St Teresa

Extended travels

In 1567, Teresa received a patent from the Carmelite General, Rubeo de Ravenna, to establish further houses of the new order. This process required many visitations and long journeys across nearly all the provinces of Spain. She left a record of the arduous project in her Libro de las Fundaciones. Between 1567 and 1571, reformed convents were established at Medina del Campo, Malagón, Valladolid, Toledo, Pastrana, Salamanca, and Alba de Tormes.

As part of the original patent, Teresa was given permission to set up two houses for men who wished to adopt the reforms. She convinced two Carmelite friars, John of the Cross and Father Anthony of Jesus to help with this. They founded the first monastery of Discalced Carmelite brothers in November 1568 at Duruelo. Another friend of Teresa, Jerónimo Gracián, the Carmelite visitator of the older observance of Andalusia and apostolic commissioner, and later provincial of the Teresian order, gave her powerful support in founding monasteries at Segovia (1571), Beas de Segura (1574), Seville (1575), and Caravaca de la Cruz (Murcia, 1576). Meanwhile, John of the Cross promoted the inner life of the movement through his power as a teacher and preacher.

Opposition to reforms

In 1576, unreformed members of the Carmelite order began to persecute Teresa, her supporters and her reforms. Following a number of resolutions adopted at the general chapter at Piacenza, the governing body of the order forbade all further founding of reformed convents. The general chapter instructed her to go into "voluntary" retirement at one of her institutions. She obeyed and chose St. Joseph's at Toledo. Meanwhile, her friends and associates were subjected to further attacks.

Several years later, her appeals by letter to King Philip II of Spain secured relief. As a result, in 1579, the cases before the inquisition against her, Father Gracian and others, were dropped. This allowed the reform to resume. An edict from Pope Gregory XIII allowed the appointment of a special provincial for the newer branch of the Carmelite religious, and a royal decree created a "protective" board of four assessors for the reform.

During the last three years of her life, Teresa founded convents at Villanueva de la Jara in northern Andalusia (1580), Palencia (1580), Soria (1581), Burgos, and Granada (1582). In total, seventeen convents, all but one founded by her, and as many men's monasteries, were owed to her reforms over twenty years.

Her final illness overtook her on one of her journeys from Burgos to Alba de Tormes. She died in 1582, just as Catholic Europe was making the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, which required the excision of the dates of 5–14 October from the calendar. She died either before midnight of 4 October or early in the morning of 15 October, which is celebrated as her feast day. According to the liturgical calendar then in use, she died on the 15th in any case. Her last words were: "My Lord, it is time to move on. Well then, may your will be done. O my Lord and my Spouse, the hour that I have longed for has come. It is time to meet one another."

Avila, Saint Theresa's statue

Holy relics

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She was buried at the Convento de la Anunciación in Alba de Tormes. Nine months after her death the coffin was opened and her body was found to be intact but the clothing had rotted. Before the body was re-interred one of her hands was cut off, wrapped in a scarf and sent to Ávila. Father Gracián cut the little finger off the hand and – according to his own account – kept it with him until it was taken by the occupying Ottoman Turks, from whom he had to redeem it with a few rings and 20 reales. The body was exhumed again on 25 November 1585 to be moved to Ávila and found to be incorrupt. An arm was removed and left in Alba de Tormes at the nuns' request, to compensate for losing the main relic of Teresa, but the rest of the body was reburied in the Discalced Carmelite chapter house in Ávila. The removal was done without the approval of the Duke of Alba de Tormes and he brought the body back in 1586, with Pope Sixtus V ordering that it remain in Alba de Tormes on pain of excommunication. A grander tomb on the original site was raised in 1598 and the body was moved to a new chapel in 1616.

The body still remains there, except for the following parts:

  • Rome – right foot and part of the upper jaw
  • Lisbon – hand
  • Ronda, Spain – left eye and left hand (the latter was kept by Francisco Franco until his death after Francoist troops captured it from Republican troops during the Spanish Civil War)
  • Museum of the Church of the Annunciation, Alba de Tormes – left arm and heart
  • Church of Our Lady of Loreto, Paris, France – one finger
  • Sanlúcar de Barrameda – one finger

In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV. The Cortes exalted her to patroness of Spain in 1627. The University of Salamanca had granted her the title Doctor ecclesiae (Latin for "Doctor of the Church") with a diploma in her lifetime,[dubiousdiscuss] but that title is distinct from the papal honour of Doctor of the Church, which is always conferred posthumously. The latter was finally bestowed upon her by Pope Paul VI on 27 September 1970, along with Saint Catherine of Siena, making them the first women to be awarded the distinction. Teresa is revered as the Doctor of Prayer. The mysticism in her works exerted a formative influence upon many theologians of the following centuries, such as Francis of Sales, Fénelon, and the Port-Royalists. In 1670, her coffin was plated in silver.

Teresa of Avila is remembered in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 15 October.

Statue of Saint Teresa of Ávila in Mafra National Palace, Mafra

The ultimate preoccupation of Teresa's mystical thought, as consistently reflected in her writings, is the ascent of the soul to God in four stages (see: The Autobiography Chs. 10–22):

  • The first, Devotion of the Heart, consists of mental prayer and contemplation. It means the withdrawal of the soul from without, penitence and especially the devout meditation on the passion of Christ (Autobiography 11.20).
  • The second, Devotion of Peace, is where human will is surrendered to God. This occurs by virtue of an uplifted awareness granted by God, while other faculties, such as memory, reason, and imagination, are not yet safe from worldly distraction. Although a partial distraction can happen, due to outer activity such as repetition of prayers or writing down spiritual things, the prevailing state is one of quietude (Autobiography 14.1).
  • The third, Devotion of Union, concerns the absorption-in-God. It is not only a heightened, but essentially, an ecstatic state. At this level, reason is also surrendered to God, and only the memory and imagination are left to ramble. This state is characterized by a blissful peace, a sweet slumber of at least the higher soul faculties, that is a consciousness of being enraptured by the love of God.
  • The fourth, Devotion of Ecstasy, is where the consciousness of being in the body disappears. Sensory faculties cease to operate. Memory and imagination also become absorbed in God, as though intoxicated. Body and spirit dwell in the throes of exquisite pain, alternating between a fearful fiery glow, in complete unconscious helplessness, and periods of apparent strangulation. Sometimes such ecstatic transports literally cause the body to be lifted into space. This state may last as long as half an hour and tends to be followed by relaxation of a few hours of swoon-like weakness, attended by the absence of all faculties while in union with God. The subject awakens from this trance state in tears. It may be regarded as the culmination of mystical experience. Indeed, Teresa was said to have been observed levitating during Mass on more than one occasion.

Teresa is regarded as one of the foremost writers on mental prayer, and her position among writers on mystical theology as unique. Her writings on this theme stem from her personal experiences, thereby manifesting considerable insight and analytical gifts. Her definitions have been used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Teresa states: "Contemplative prayer (oración mental), in my opinion is nothing other than a close sharing between friends. It means frequently taking time to be alone with Him whom we know loves us." Throughout her writings, Teresa returns to the image of watering one's garden as a metaphor for mystical prayer.

This is the one portrait of Teresa that is probably the most true to her appearance. It is a copy of an original 1576 painting of her when she was 61.

Teresa's writings are regarded as among the most remarkable in the mystical literature of the Catholic Church. They include:


Philosophical works

Christia Mercer, Columbia University philosophy professor, claims that the seventeenth-century Frenchman René Descartes lifted some of his most influential ideas from Teresa of Ávila, who, fifty years before Descartes, wrote popular books about the role of philosophical reflection in intellectual growth. She describes a number of striking similarities between Descartes' seminal work Meditations on First Philosophy and Teresa's Interior Castle.

Excerpts

Teresa, who reported visions of Jesus and Mary, was a strong believer in the efficacy of holy water, claiming to have used it with success to repel evil spirits and temptations. She wrote: "I know from frequent experience that there is nothing which puts devils to flight better than holy water."

The prayer Nada te turbe (Let nothing disturb you) is attributed to Teresa, having been found within her breviary:

Let nothing disturb you.
Let nothing make you afraid.
All things are passing.
God alone never changes.
Patience gains all things.
If you have God you will want for nothing.
God alone suffices.

A modern prayer Christ has no body but yours, though widely attributed to Teresa, is not found in her writings.

The Spanish nuns who established Carmel in France brought a devotion to the Infant Jesus with them, and it became widespread in France.

Though there are no written historical accounts establishing that Teresa of Ávila ever owned the famous Infant Jesus of Prague statue, according to tradition, such a statue is said to have been in her possession and Teresa is reputed to have given it to a noblewoman travelling to Prague. The age of the statue dates to approximately the same time as Teresa. It has been thought that Teresa carried a portable statue of the Child Jesus wherever she went; the idea circulated by the early 1700s.[page needed]

"It is love alone that gives worth to all things."

In 1626, at the request of Philip IV of Spain, the Castilian parliament elected Teresa "without lacking one vote" as copatron saint of Castile. This status was affirmed by Pope Urban VIII in a brief issued on 21 July 1627 in which he stated:

For these reasons [the king's and Cortes's elections] and for the great devotion which they have for Teresa, they elected her for patron and advocate of these kingdoms in the last Cortes of the aforementioned kingdoms .... And because ... the representatives in the Cortes desired it so greatly that their vote be firm and perpetual, we grant it our patronage and the approval of the Holy Apostolic See.

Rowe 2011, pp. 77–78

More broadly, the 1620s, the entirety of Spain (Castile and beyond) debated who should be the country's patron saint; the choices were either the current patron, Saint James Matamoros, or a pairing of him and the newly canonised Saint Teresa of Ávila. Teresa's promoters said Spain faced newer challenges, especially the threat of Protestantism and societal decline at home, thus needing a more contemporary patron who understood those issues and could guide the Spanish nation. Santiago's supporters (Santiaguistas) fought back and eventually won the argument, but Teresa of Ávila remained far more popular at the local level.[page needed] Saint James the Greater kept the title of patron saint for the Spanish people, and the most Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Immaculate Conception as the sole patroness for the entire Spanish Kingdom.

Portrayals of Teresa include the following:

Detail of St. Theresa, 1827, by French painter François Gérard
Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt as Thérèse in La Vierge d'Avila by Catulle Mendès (1906)

Music

Painting and sculpture

Literature

Drama and film

  • Performance artist Linda Montano has cited Teresa of Ávila as one of the most important influences on her work and since her return to Catholicism in the 2000s has done performances of her life.
  • Teresa de Jesús (1984), directed by Josefina Molina and starring Concha Velasco, is a Spanish made-for-TV mini-series. In it Teresa is portrayed as the determined foundress of new carmelite houses while protecting the infant Jesus statue on her many arduous journeys. The devotion to the Child Jesus spread quickly in Spain, possibly due to her mystical reputation, and then to other places, including France.
  • Nigel Wingrove's 1989 short film Visions of Ecstasy was based on Teresa of Ávila. The film features phantasied sexualised scenes of Teresa with the body of Jesus on the cross. It is the only work to be refused certification by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) on the grounds of blasphemy.
  • Dževad Karahasan. The Delighted Angel drama about Teresa of Ávila and Rabija al-Adavija, Vienna-Salzburg-Klagenfurt, ARBOS 1995.[citation needed]
  • Paz Vega stars as Teresa in Teresa, el cuerpo de Cristo, a 2007 Spanish biopic directed by Ray Loriga.[citation needed]
  • Marian Álvarez plays the saint in Teresa, a 2015 Spanish television film directed by Jorge Dorado and made for the 500th anniversary of her birth.
  • St. Teresa also features prominently in the 2009 Ron Howard film, Angels and Demons, where the Bernini sculpture, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, is an important clue in helping Robert Langdon (Tom Hanks) find an anti-matter bomb that is hidden in and set to destroy the Vatican.

Notes

  1. At some hour of the night between 4 October and 15 October 1582, the night of the transition in Spain from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.
  2. As of 2019, there are 36 "Doctors of the Church", of whom only four are women.
  3. Teresa wrote that it must be a cherub (Deben ser los que llaman cherubines), but Fr. Domingo Báñez wrote in the margin that it seemed more like a seraph (mas parece de los que se llaman seraphis), an identification that most editors have followed. Santa Teresa de Ávila. "Libro de su vida". Escritos de Santa Teresa.
  4. Comparing the contemplative soul to a castle with seven successive interior courts, or chambers, analogous to the Seven Heavens.
  5. It may have influenced René Descartes, especially his Meditations on First Philosophy
  6. Rowe 2011, p. 47 refers to the Castilian Cortes as the "Castilian parliament"

Citations

  1. https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=208.Missing or empty |title= ()
  2. "Holy Days". The Church of England. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016.
  3. The Episcopal Church 2010, p. 639.
  4. "Saints of the Week!". resurrectionpeople.org.
  5. Lehfeldt 2017, p. 217.
  6. "Teresa of Avila (1515–1582)". Encyclopedia of European Social History. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved13 April 2019.
  7. Hsia 2004, p. 240.
  8. "Nuestra Señora de Concepción". Siervas de los Corazones Traspasados de Jesús y María. Retrieved15 October 2020.
  9. Jansen 2018, p. 248.
  10. Pope Paul VI 1970a.
  11. "First female Doctor of the Church to be honored this week". Catholic News Agency. 11 October 2009.
  12. Foa 2015.
  13. Clissold 1982.
  14. Medwick 1999, Expeditions.
  15. Teresa of Avila & Lewis 1870.
  16. "St. Teresa of Avila". Catholic News Agency.
  17. Zimmerman 1912.
  18. Pirlo 1997, p. 241.
  19. Teresa of Avila & Zimmerman 1997.
  20. For the creation of the work and an analysis of its transgression of religious decorum, see Franco Mormando's article, Did Bernini's 'Ecstasy of St. Teresa' Cross a 17th-century Line of Decorum?[1]).
  21. Barton 1982.
  22. Rodriguez 2007.
  23. "Discalced Carmelite History". OCD General House. 2 July 2003. Retrieved15 October 2020.
  24. Kavanaugh & Rodgriguez 1991, pp. 9–27.
  25. Salamony 2017.
  26. Counsell 2011, p. 207.
  27. Pope Paul VI 1970b.
  28. "The Calendar". The Church of England. Retrieved27 March 2021.
  29. Clissold 1982, pp. 63–64.
  30. "Catechism of the Catholic Church". vatican.va. 1997.
  31. Ibáñez 1882.
  32. "She Thinks, Therefore I Am". Columbia Magazine. Fall 2017. Retrieved27 November 2018.
  33. Garriga Espino 2015, pp. 35–53.
  34. Mercer 2017, pp. 2539–2555.
  35. Teresa of Avila & Starr 2008, pp. 238–241.
  36. "Nada te turbe". Canterbury Dictionary of Hymnology. Retrieved26 January 2021.
  37. Howell 2009, p. 151.
  38. "The Journey with Jesus: Poems and Prayers". Retrieved6 December 2012.
  39. Knowles 2009, p. 684.
  40. Darricau n.d.
  41. "Saint Therese of the Child Jesus of the Holy Face". Saint Therese of Lisieux: A Gateway. Retrieved15 October 2020.
  42. Wong n.d.
  43. "History of the Infant Jesus of Prague". Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved14 January 2012.
  44. "Infant of Prague". Devotions & Prayers. 29 September 2009. Retrieved13 October 2017.
  45. "Infant Jesus of Prague". CatholicSaints.Info. 14 February 2009. Retrieved13 October 2017.
  46. Santini 1995.
  47. Rowe 2011, p. 77.
  48. Rowe 2011.
  49. Park 2009, pp. 28–44.
  50. Tommasini 1998.
  51. Hontiveros 2016.
  52. "Joan Osborne Relish". austriancharts.at. Hung Media.
  53. Jordanova 2012, pp. 79–94.
  54. "Bernini's Ecstasy of St. Teresa". History and Appreciation of Art II. Lumen. Retrieved28 February 2018.
  55. "St. Therese of Avila by Peter Paul Rubens". Museum of Art History.
  56. "St. Teresa of Avila – On Love". The Fra Angelico Institute for Sacred Art. 15 October 2012. Retrieved8 November 2018.
  57. de Beauvoir 2011, p. 729.
  58. Harrison 1995.
  59. Lafferty 1999.
  60. Klossowski 1998.
  61. Maynard 2009, pp. 77–80.
  62. Moore 1990, p. 25.
  63. Graham 1999.
  64. "Bárbara Mujica". Washington Independent Review of Books. Retrieved30 January 2018.
  65. Findley 1999.
  66. Sackville-West 2011.
  67. Knowles et al. 2002, pp. 18–34.
  68. Teresa de Jesús at IMDb
  69. "Visions of Ecstasy gets UK rating after 23 year ban". BBC News. 31 January 2012. Retrieved31 January 2012.
  70. "Teresa". San Sebastian Film Festival. 2015. Retrieved30 January 2020.

Sources

This article was originally based on the text in the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.

Further reading

  • Carolyn A. Greene. Castles in the Sand fiction with cited sources about Teresa of Avila Lighthouse Trails Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-0-9791315-4-7
  • Jean Abiven. 15 Days of Prayer with Saint Teresa of Avila, New City Press, 2011. ISBN 978-1-56548-366-8
  • Gould Levine, Linda; Engelson Marson, Ellen; Feiman Waldman, Gloria, eds. (1993). Spanish Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Source Book. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-31326-823-6.
  • Bárbara Mujica, Teresa de Ávila: Lettered Woman, (Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press, 2009).
  • E. Rhodes, "Teresa de Jesus's Book and the Reform of the Religious Man in Sixteenth Century Spain," in Laurence Lux-Sterritt and Carmen Mangion (eds), Gender, Catholicism and Spirituality: Women and the Roman Catholic Church in Britain and Europe, 1200–1900 (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011),
  • John Thomas, "Ecstasy, art & the body. St. Teresa of Avila's 'Transverberation', and its depiction in the sculpture of Gianlorenzo Bernini" in John Thomas, Happiness, Truth & Holy Images. Essays of Popular Theology and Religion & Art (Wolverhampton, Twin Books, 2019), pp. 12–16.
  • John Thomas, "Architectural image and via mystica. St. Teresa's Las Moradas", in John Thomas, Happiness, Truth & Holy Images. Essays of Popular Theology and Religion & Art (Wolverhampton, Twin Books, 2019), pp. 39–48.
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Teresa of Avila Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Saint Teresa of Avila For other people with similar names see Saint Teresa Teresa of Avila born Teresa Sanchez de Cepeda y Ahumada 28 March 1515 4 or 15 October 1582 a also called Saint Teresa of Jesus was a Spanish noblewoman who was called to convent life in the Catholic Church A Carmelite nun prominent Spanish mystic religious reformer author theologian of the contemplative life and of mental prayer she earned the rare distinction of being declared a Doctor of the Church but not until over four centuries after her death b Active during the Catholic Reformation she reformed the Carmelite Orders of both women and men 5 The movement she initiated was later joined by the younger Spanish Carmelite friar and mystic John of the Cross It led eventually to the establishment of the Discalced Carmelites A formal papal decree adopting the split from the old order was issued in 1580 6 Saint Teresa of Avila O C D Saint Teresa of Avila by Peter Paul RubensVirgin Mystic Doctor of the ChurchBornTeresa Sanchez de Cepeda y Ahumada 28 March 1515 Avila Crown of Castile today Spain Died4 October 1582 1582 10 04 aged 67 1 Alba de Tormes Salamanca Crown of Castile today Spain Theology careerNotable workCamino de Perfeccion El Castillo InteriorTheological workEraCatholic ReformationTradition or movementChristian mysticismMain interestsTheologyNotable ideasMental prayer Prayer of QuietVenerated inRoman Catholic Church Anglican Communion 2 3 Lutheranism 4 Beatified24 April 1614 Rome by Pope Paul VCanonized12 March 1622 Rome by Pope Gregory XVMajor shrineConvent of the Annunciation Alba de Tormes SpainFeast15 OctoberAttributesof Spanish Jewish parentage contemplative mystic ecstatic writer on mental prayer religious reformer administrator prolific correspondent possibly temporal lobe epilepsy suffererPatronageSpain sick people people in religious orders people ridiculed for their piety lacemakers Pozega Croatia Talisay City Cebu PhilippinesControversyHer reforms met with determined opposition and interest from the Spanish Inquisition but no charges were laid against her Her order split as a result Teresa who had been a social celebrity in her home province was dogged by early family losses and ill health In her mature years she became the central figure of a movement of spiritual and monastic renewal borne out of an inner conviction and honed by ascetic practice She was also at the center of deep ecclesiastical controversy as she took on the pervasive laxity in her order against the background of the Protestant reformation sweeping over Europe and the Spanish Inquisition asserting church discipline in her home country The consequences were to last well beyond her life One papal legate described her as a restless wanderer disobedient and stubborn femina who under the title of devotion invented bad doctrines moving outside the cloister against the rules of the Council of Trent and her prelates teaching as a master against Saint Paul s orders that women should not teach 7 Her written contributions which include her autobiography The Life of Teresa of Jesus and her seminal work The Interior Castle are today an integral part of Spanish Renaissance literature Together with The Way of Perfection her works form part of the literary canon of Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practice and continue to attract interest from people both within and outside the Catholic Church Other associations with Teresa beyond her writings continue to exert a wide influence A Santero image of the Immaculate Conception of El Viejo said to have been sent by her with a brother emigrating to Peru was canonically crowned by Pope John Paul II on 28 December 1989 at the Shrine of El Viejo in Nicaragua 8 Another Catholic tradition holds that Saint Teresa is personally associated with devotion to the Infant Jesus of Prague a statue she may have owned 9 Since her death her reputation has grown leading to multiple portrayals She continues to be widely noted as an inspiration to philosophers theologians historians neurologists fiction writers and artists as well as to countless ordinary people interested in Christian spirituality and mysticism Forty years after her death in 1622 Teresa was canonized by Pope Gregory XV At the time she was considered a candidate for national patron saint of Spain but this designation was awarded to St James the Apostle She has since become one of the patron saints of Spain On 27 September 1970 Pope Paul VI proclaimed Teresa the first female Doctor of the Church in recognition of her centuries long spiritual legacy to Catholicism 10 11 Contents 1 Early life 1 1 Entry into religious life 1 2 Foundations of spirituality 1 3 Embarrassment of raptures 2 Monastic reformer 2 1 Extended travels 2 2 Opposition to reforms 3 Last days 3 1 Holy relics 4 Canonization 5 Mysticism 6 Writings 6 1 Philosophical works 6 2 Excerpts 7 Legacy regarding the Infant Jesus of Prague 8 Patron saint 9 Portrayals 9 1 Music 9 2 Painting and sculpture 9 3 Literature 9 4 Drama and film 10 See also 11 References 11 1 Notes 11 2 Citations 11 3 Sources 11 4 Further reading 12 External linksEarly life EditTeresa Sanchez de Cepeda y Ahumada was born in 1515 in Avila Spain Her paternal grandfather Juan Sanchez de Toledo was a marrano or Converso a Jew forced to convert to Christianity or emigrate When Teresa s father was a child Juan was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition for allegedly returning to the Jewish faith but he was later able to assume a Catholic identity 12 Her father Alonso Sanchez de Cepeda was a successful wool merchant and one of the wealthiest men in Avila He bought a knighthood and assimilated successfully into Christian society Teresa of Avila elopes to travel to Africa by Arnold van Westerhout Previously married to Catalina del Peso y Henao with whom he had three children in 1509 Sanchez de Cepeda married Teresa s mother Beatriz de Ahumada y Cuevas in Gotarrendura 13 Teresa s mother brought her up as a dedicated Christian Fascinated by accounts of the lives of the saints she ran away from home at age seven with her brother Rodrigo to seek martyrdom in the fight against the Moors Her uncle brought them home when he spotted them just outside the town walls 14 When Teresa was eleven years old her mother died leaving her grief stricken This prompted her to embrace a deeper devotion to the Virgin Mary as her spiritual mother Teresa was also enamored of popular fiction which at the time consisted primarily of medieval tales of knighthood and works about fashion gardens and flowers 15 16 Teresa was sent to the Augustinian nuns school at Avila 17 Entry into religious life Edit After completing her education she initially resisted the idea of a religious vocation but after a stay with her uncle and other relatives she relented In 1536 aged 20 18 much to the disappointment of her pious and austere father she decided to enter the local easy going Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation significantly built on top of land that had been used previously as a burial ground for Jews She took up religious reading on contemplative prayer especially Osuna s Third Spiritual Alphabet 1527 Her zeal for mortification caused her to become ill again and she spent almost a year in bed causing huge worry to her community and family She nearly died but she recovered attributing her recovery to the miraculous intercession of St Joseph She began to experience bouts of religious ecstasy 13 Foundations of spirituality Edit Her reading of the medieval mystics consisted of guides to examination of conscience and spiritual exercises and inner contemplation known in mystical terms as oratio recollectionis or oratio mentalis She also dipped into other mystical ascetical works such as the Tractatus de oratione et meditatione of Peter of Alcantara She reported that during her illness she had progressed from the lowest stage of recollection to the devotions of silence and even to the devotions of ecstasy which was one of perceived perfect union with God see Mysticism During this final stage she said she frequently experienced the rich blessing of tears As the Catholic distinction between mortal and venial sin became clear to her she came to understand the awful horror of sin and the inherent nature of original sin She also became conscious of her own natural impotence in confronting sin and the need for absolute surrender to God citation needed Around the same time she received a copy of the full Spanish translation of St Augustine s autobiographical work Confessions which helped her resolve and to tend to her own bouts of religious scruples The text helped her realize that holiness was indeed possible and she found solace in the idea that such a great saint was once an inveterate sinner In her autobiography she wrote that she was very fond of St Augustine for he was a sinner too 19 Around 1556 friends suggested that her newfound knowledge could be of diabolical and not of divine origin She had begun to inflict mortifications of the flesh upon herself But her confessor the Jesuit Francis Borgia reassured her of the divine inspiration of her thoughts On St Peter s Day in 1559 Teresa became firmly convinced that Jesus Christ had presented Himself to her in bodily form though invisible These visions lasted almost uninterruptedly for more than two years In another vision a seraph drove the fiery point of a golden lance repeatedly through her heart causing her an ineffable spiritual and bodily pain I saw in his hand a long spear of gold and at the point there seemed to be a little fire He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart and to pierce my very entrails when he drew it out he seemed to draw them out also and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God The pain was so great that it made me moan and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain that I could not wish to be rid of it c The account of this vision was the inspiration for one of Bernini s most famous works the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa at Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome Although based in part on Teresa s description of her mystical transverberation in her autobiography Bernini s depiction of the event is considered by some to be highly eroticized especially when compared to the entire preceding artistic Teresian tradition 20 The memory of this episode served as an inspiration throughout the rest of her life and motivated her lifelong imitation of the life and suffering of Jesus epitomized in the adage often associated with her Lord either let me suffer or let me die citation needed Embarrassment of raptures Edit Teresa who became a celebrity in her town dispensing wisdom from behind the convent grille was also known for her raptures which sometimes involved levitation It was a source of embarrassment to her and she bade her sisters hold her down when this occurred Subsequently historians neurologists and psychiatrists like Peter Fenwick and Javier Alvarez Rodriguez among others have taken an interest in her symptomatology The fact that she wrote down virtually everything that happened to her during her religious life means that an invaluable and exceedingly rare medical record from the 16th century has been preserved Examination of this record has led to the speculative conclusion that she may have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy 21 22 Monastic reformer EditOver time Teresa found herself increasingly at odds with the spiritual malaise prevailing in her convent of the Incarnation Among the 150 nuns living there the observance of cloister designed to protect and strengthen spiritual practice and prayer became so lax that it appeared to lose its purpose The daily invasion of visitors many of high social and political rank disturbed the atmosphere with frivolous concerns and vacuous conversation Such intrusions in the solitude essential to develop and sustain contemplative prayer so grieved Teresa that she longed to intervene 23 The incentive to take the practical steps inspired by her inward motivation was supported by the Franciscan priest Peter of Alcantara who met her early in 1560 and became her spiritual adviser She resolved to found a reformed Carmelite convent correcting the laxity which she had found at the Incarnation convent and elsewhere besides Guimara de Ulloa a woman of wealth and a friend supplied the funds for the project citation needed The abject poverty of the new convent established in 1562 and named St Joseph s San Jose at first caused a scandal among the citizens and authorities of Avila and the small house with its chapel was in peril of suppression However powerful patrons including the local bishop coupled with the impression of well ordered subsistence and purpose turned animosity into approval citation needed In March 1563 after Teresa had moved to the new convent house she received papal sanction for her primary principles of absolute poverty and renunciation of ownership of property which she proceeded to formulate into a constitution Her plan was the revival of the earlier stricter monastic rules supplemented by new regulations including the three disciplines of ceremonial flagellation prescribed for the Divine Office every week and the discalceation of the religious For the first five years Teresa remained in seclusion mostly engaged in prayer and writing citation needed Church window at the Convent of St Teresa Extended travels Edit In 1567 Teresa received a patent from the Carmelite General Rubeo de Ravenna to establish further houses of the new order This process required many visitations and long journeys across nearly all the provinces of Spain She left a record of the arduous project in her Libro de las Fundaciones Between 1567 and 1571 reformed convents were established at Medina del Campo Malagon Valladolid Toledo Pastrana Salamanca and Alba de Tormes As part of the original patent Teresa was given permission to set up two houses for men who wished to adopt the reforms She convinced two Carmelite friars John of the Cross and Father Anthony of Jesus to help with this They founded the first monastery of Discalced Carmelite brothers in November 1568 at Duruelo Another friend of Teresa Jeronimo Gracian the Carmelite visitator of the older observance of Andalusia and apostolic commissioner and later provincial of the Teresian order gave her powerful support in founding monasteries at Segovia 1571 Beas de Segura 1574 Seville 1575 and Caravaca de la Cruz Murcia 1576 Meanwhile John of the Cross promoted the inner life of the movement through his power as a teacher and preacher 24 Opposition to reforms Edit In 1576 unreformed members of the Carmelite order began to persecute Teresa her supporters and her reforms Following a number of resolutions adopted at the general chapter at Piacenza the governing body of the order forbade all further founding of reformed convents The general chapter instructed her to go into voluntary retirement at one of her institutions 24 She obeyed and chose St Joseph s at Toledo Meanwhile her friends and associates were subjected to further attacks 24 Several years later her appeals by letter to King Philip II of Spain secured relief As a result in 1579 the cases before the inquisition against her Father Gracian and others were dropped 24 This allowed the reform to resume An edict from Pope Gregory XIII allowed the appointment of a special provincial for the newer branch of the Carmelite religious and a royal decree created a protective board of four assessors for the reform 24 During the last three years of her life Teresa founded convents at Villanueva de la Jara in northern Andalusia 1580 Palencia 1580 Soria 1581 Burgos and Granada 1582 In total seventeen convents all but one founded by her and as many men s monasteries were owed to her reforms over twenty years 25 Last days EditHer final illness overtook her on one of her journeys from Burgos to Alba de Tormes She died in 1582 just as Catholic Europe was making the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar which required the excision of the dates of 5 14 October from the calendar She died either before midnight of 4 October or early in the morning of 15 October which is celebrated as her feast day According to the liturgical calendar then in use she died on the 15th in any case Her last words were My Lord it is time to move on Well then may your will be done O my Lord and my Spouse the hour that I have longed for has come It is time to meet one another 26 Avila Saint Theresa s statue Holy relics Edit This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed October 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message She was buried at the Convento de la Anunciacion in Alba de Tormes Nine months after her death the coffin was opened and her body was found to be intact but the clothing had rotted Before the body was re interred one of her hands was cut off wrapped in a scarf and sent to Avila Father Gracian cut the little finger off the hand and according to his own account kept it with him until it was taken by the occupying Ottoman Turks from whom he had to redeem it with a few rings and 20 reales The body was exhumed again on 25 November 1585 to be moved to Avila and found to be incorrupt An arm was removed and left in Alba de Tormes at the nuns request to compensate for losing the main relic of Teresa but the rest of the body was reburied in the Discalced Carmelite chapter house in Avila The removal was done without the approval of the Duke of Alba de Tormes and he brought the body back in 1586 with Pope Sixtus V ordering that it remain in Alba de Tormes on pain of excommunication A grander tomb on the original site was raised in 1598 and the body was moved to a new chapel in 1616 The body still remains there except for the following parts Rome right foot and part of the upper jaw Lisbon hand Ronda Spain left eye and left hand the latter was kept by Francisco Franco until his death after Francoist troops captured it from Republican troops during the Spanish Civil War Museum of the Church of the Annunciation Alba de Tormes left arm and heart Church of Our Lady of Loreto Paris France one finger Sanlucar de Barrameda one finger The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini Basilica of Santa Maria della Vittoria RomeCanonization EditIn 1622 forty years after her death she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV The Cortes exalted her to patroness of Spain in 1627 The University of Salamanca had granted her the title Doctor ecclesiae Latin for Doctor of the Church with a diploma in her lifetime dubious discuss but that title is distinct from the papal honour of Doctor of the Church which is always conferred posthumously The latter was finally bestowed upon her by Pope Paul VI on 27 September 1970 10 along with Saint Catherine of Siena 27 making them the first women to be awarded the distinction Teresa is revered as the Doctor of Prayer The mysticism in her works exerted a formative influence upon many theologians of the following centuries such as Francis of Sales Fenelon and the Port Royalists In 1670 her coffin was plated in silver Teresa of Avila is remembered in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 15 October 28 Statue of Saint Teresa of Avila in Mafra National Palace MafraMysticism EditThe ultimate preoccupation of Teresa s mystical thought as consistently reflected in her writings is the ascent of the soul to God in four stages see The Autobiography Chs 10 22 The first Devotion of the Heart consists of mental prayer and contemplation It means the withdrawal of the soul from without penitence and especially the devout meditation on the passion of Christ Autobiography 11 20 The second Devotion of Peace is where human will is surrendered to God This occurs by virtue of an uplifted awareness granted by God while other faculties such as memory reason and imagination are not yet safe from worldly distraction Although a partial distraction can happen due to outer activity such as repetition of prayers or writing down spiritual things the prevailing state is one of quietude Autobiography 14 1 The third Devotion of Union concerns the absorption in God It is not only a heightened but essentially an ecstatic state At this level reason is also surrendered to God and only the memory and imagination are left to ramble This state is characterized by a blissful peace a sweet slumber of at least the higher soul faculties that is a consciousness of being enraptured by the love of God The fourth Devotion of Ecstasy is where the consciousness of being in the body disappears Sensory faculties cease to operate Memory and imagination also become absorbed in God as though intoxicated Body and spirit dwell in the throes of exquisite pain alternating between a fearful fiery glow in complete unconscious helplessness and periods of apparent strangulation Sometimes such ecstatic transports literally cause the body to be lifted into space 29 This state may last as long as half an hour and tends to be followed by relaxation of a few hours of swoon like weakness attended by the absence of all faculties while in union with God The subject awakens from this trance state in tears It may be regarded as the culmination of mystical experience Indeed Teresa was said to have been observed levitating during Mass on more than one occasion 29 Teresa is regarded as one of the foremost writers on mental prayer and her position among writers on mystical theology as unique Her writings on this theme stem from her personal experiences thereby manifesting considerable insight and analytical gifts Her definitions have been used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church Teresa states Contemplative prayer oracion mental in my opinion is nothing other than a close sharing between friends It means frequently taking time to be alone with Him whom we know loves us 30 Throughout her writings Teresa returns to the image of watering one s garden as a metaphor for mystical prayer Writings Edit This is the one portrait of Teresa that is probably the most true to her appearance It is a copy of an original 1576 painting of her when she was 61 Teresa s writings are regarded as among the most remarkable in the mystical literature of the Catholic Church They include Teresa of Avila Lewis David 1870 The Life of St Teresa of Jesus Written by Herself Translated from the Spanish by D Lewis London Burns Oates amp Co Teresa of Avila 1957 Cohen J M ed The Life Of Saint Teresa Of Avila By Herself Penguin Classics Teresa of Avila Zimmerman Benedict 1997 Life of St Teresa of Jesus Tan Books ISBN 978 0 89555 603 5 The Complete Works of St Teresa of Jesus in five volumes translated and edited by E Allison Peers including 2 volumes of correspondence London Sheed and Ward 1982 The Interior Castle Edited by E Allison Peers Doubleday 1972 ISBN 978 0 385 03643 6 The Way of Perfection Translated and Edited by E Allison Peers Doubleday 1991 ISBN 978 0 385 06539 9 The Life of Teresa of Jesus The Autobiography of Teresa of Avila Translated by E Allison Peers Doubleday 1991 ISBN 978 0 385 01109 9 Works of St Teresa of Avila Online Christian Classics Ethereal Library The Interior Castle The Mansions TAN Books 1997 ISBN 978 0 89555 604 2 The Way of Perfection TAN Books 1997 ISBN 978 0 89555 602 8 Way of Perfection London 2012 limovia net ISBN 978 1 78336 025 3 The Book of Her Life translated with Notes by Kieran Kavanaugh OCD and Otilio Rodriguez OCD Introduction by Jodi Bilinkoff Indianapolis Cambridge Hackett Publishing Company 2008 ISBN 978 0 87220 907 7 Teresa of Avila Starr Mirabai 2008 Teresa of Avila The Book of My Life Boston Massachusetts Shambhala Publications ISBN 978 1 59030 573 7 The Complete Poetry of St Teresa of Avila A Bilingual Edition Edicion y traduccion de Eric W Vogt New Orleans University Press of the South 1996 Second edition 2015 xl 116 p ISBN 978 1 937030 52 0 The Autobiography written before 1567 under the direction of her confessor Fr Pedro Ibanez 31 El Camino de Perfeccion The Way of Perfection written also before 1567 at the direction of her confessor Meditations on Song of Songs 1567 written nominally for her daughters at the convent of Our Lady of Mount Carmel El Castillo Interior The Interior Castle written in 1577 d e 32 Relaciones Relationships an extension of the autobiography giving her inner and outer experiences in epistolary form Two smaller works are the Conceptos del Amor Concepts of Love and Exclamaciones In addition there are Las Cartas Saragossa 1671 or her correspondence of which there are 342 extant letters and 87 fragments of others St Teresa s prose is marked by an unaffected grace an ornate neatness and charming power of expression together placing her in the front rank of Spanish prose writers The first edition of Teresa s letters was published in 1658 with the comment of Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Roman Catholic bishop of Osma and an opponent to the Company of Jesus 33 Her rare poems Todas las poesias Munster 1854 are distinguished for tenderness of feeling and rhythm of thought Philosophical works Edit Christia Mercer Columbia University philosophy professor claims that the seventeenth century Frenchman Rene Descartes lifted some of his most influential ideas from Teresa of Avila who fifty years before Descartes wrote popular books about the role of philosophical reflection in intellectual growth 34 She describes a number of striking similarities between Descartes seminal work Meditations on First Philosophy and Teresa s Interior Castle 32 Excerpts Edit Teresa who reported visions of Jesus and Mary was a strong believer in the efficacy of holy water claiming to have used it with success to repel evil spirits and temptations She wrote I know from frequent experience that there is nothing which puts devils to flight better than holy water 35 The prayer Nada te turbe Let nothing disturb you is attributed to Teresa having been found within her breviary 36 Let nothing disturb you Let nothing make you afraid All things are passing God alone never changes Patience gains all things If you have God you will want for nothing God alone suffices Kirvan 1996 A modern prayer Christ has no body but yours though widely attributed to Teresa 37 38 is not found in her writings 39 Legacy regarding the Infant Jesus of Prague EditThe Spanish nuns who established Carmel in France brought a devotion to the Infant Jesus with them and it became widespread in France 40 41 Though there are no written historical accounts establishing that Teresa of Avila ever owned the famous Infant Jesus of Prague statue according to tradition such a statue is said to have been in her possession and Teresa is reputed to have given it to a noblewoman travelling to Prague 42 43 44 45 The age of the statue dates to approximately the same time as Teresa It has been thought that Teresa carried a portable statue of the Child Jesus wherever she went the idea circulated by the early 1700s 46 page needed It is love alone that gives worth to all things Patron saint EditIn 1626 at the request of Philip IV of Spain the Castilian parliament f elected Teresa without lacking one vote as copatron saint of Castile 47 This status was affirmed by Pope Urban VIII in a brief issued on 21 July 1627 in which he stated For these reasons the king s and Cortes s elections and for the great devotion which they have for Teresa they elected her for patron and advocate of these kingdoms in the last Cortes of the aforementioned kingdoms And because the representatives in the Cortes desired it so greatly that their vote be firm and perpetual we grant it our patronage and the approval of the Holy Apostolic See Rowe 2011 pp 77 78 More broadly the 1620s the entirety of Spain Castile and beyond debated who should be the country s patron saint the choices were either the current patron Saint James Matamoros or a pairing of him and the newly canonised Saint Teresa of Avila Teresa s promoters said Spain faced newer challenges especially the threat of Protestantism and societal decline at home thus needing a more contemporary patron who understood those issues and could guide the Spanish nation Santiago s supporters Santiaguistas fought back and eventually won the argument but Teresa of Avila remained far more popular at the local level 48 page needed Saint James the Greater kept the title of patron saint for the Spanish people and the most Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Immaculate Conception as the sole patroness for the entire Spanish Kingdom Portrayals EditPortrayals of Teresa include the following Detail of St Theresa 1827 by French painter Francois Gerard Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt as Therese in La Vierge d Avila by Catulle Mendes 1906 Music Edit Marc Antoine Charpentier composed two motets for the feast of Saint Teresa Flores flores o Gallia for two voices two flutes and continuo H 374 c 1680 and the other for three voices and continuo H 342 in 1686 87 She is a principal character of the opera Four Saints in Three Acts by the composer Virgil Thomson with a libretto by Gertrude Stein 49 50 Saint Teresa is the subject of the song Theresa s Sound World by Sonic Youth off the 1992 album Dirty lyrics by Thurston Moore citation needed 51 Saint Teresa is a track on Joan Osborne s Relish album nominated for a Grammy Award in 1996 52 Painting and sculpture Edit Saint Teresa was the inspiration for one of Bernini s most famous sculptures The Ecstasy of St Teresa in Santa Maria della Vittoria Rome 53 54 Teresa was the subject of a portrait by the Flemish master Sir Pieter Paul Rubens 1615 now in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna 55 St Teresa was painted in 1819 20 by Francois Gerard a French neoclassical painter 56 Literature Edit Simone de Beauvoir singles out Teresa as a woman who lived the human condition perhaps the only woman to do so in her book The Second Sex 57 She is mentioned prominently in Kathryn Harrison s novel Poison 58 The main character Francisca De Luarca is fascinated by her life Don DeLillo in End Zone Teresa is depicted as a saint who eats from a human skull to remind herself of final things R A Lafferty was strongly inspired by El Castillo Interior when he wrote his novel Fourth Mansions Quotations from St Teresa s work are frequently used as chapter headings 59 Pierre Klossowski prominently features Saint Teresa of Avila in his metaphysical novel The Baphomet 60 George Eliot compared Dorothea Brooke to St Teresa in Middlemarch 1871 1872 and wrote briefly about the life and works of St Teresa in the Prelude to the novel 61 Thomas Hardy took Saint Teresa as the inspiration for much of the characterisation of the heroine Tess Teresa Durbeyfield in Tess of the d Urbervilles 1891 most notably the scene in which she lies in a field and senses her soul ecstatically above her 62 The contemporary poet Jorie Graham features Saint Teresa in the poem Breakdancing in her volume The End of Beauty 63 Barbara Mujica s novel Sister Teresa while not strictly hagiographical is based upon Teresa s life 64 Timothy Findley s 1999 novel Pilgrim features Saint Teresa as a minor character 65 Vita Sackville West wrote a double biography contrasting the two Carmelite Theresas The Eagle and the Dove re issued in 2018 66 Zepeda Reginald 2012 From Spain to Texas A Cepeda y Ahumada Family Journey Xlibris ISBN 9781479770083 self published source Drama and film Edit Performance artist Linda Montano has cited Teresa of Avila as one of the most important influences on her work and since her return to Catholicism in the 2000s has done performances of her life 67 Teresa de Jesus 1984 directed by Josefina Molina and starring Concha Velasco is a Spanish made for TV mini series In it Teresa is portrayed as the determined foundress of new carmelite houses while protecting the infant Jesus statue on her many arduous journeys The devotion to the Child Jesus spread quickly in Spain possibly due to her mystical reputation and then to other places including France 68 Nigel Wingrove s 1989 short film Visions of Ecstasy was based on Teresa of Avila The film features phantasied sexualised scenes of Teresa with the body of Jesus on the cross It is the only work to be refused certification by the British Board of Film Classification BBFC on the grounds of blasphemy 69 Dzevad Karahasan The Delighted Angel drama about Teresa of Avila and Rabija al Adavija Vienna Salzburg Klagenfurt ARBOS 1995 citation needed Paz Vega stars as Teresa in Teresa el cuerpo de Cristo a 2007 Spanish biopic directed by Ray Loriga citation needed Marian Alvarez plays the saint in Teresa a 2015 Spanish television film directed by Jorge Dorado and made for the 500th anniversary of her birth 70 St Teresa also features prominently in the 2009 Ron Howard film Angels and Demons where the Bernini sculpture The Ecstasy of St Teresa is an important clue in helping Robert Langdon Tom Hanks find an anti matter bomb that is hidden in and set to destroy the Vatican See also EditAsin on mystical analogies in Saint Teresa of Avila and Islam Book of the First Monks Byzantine Discalced Carmelites Carmelite Rule of St Albert Constitutions of the Carmelite Order Mount Carmel Carmelites Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites Saints and levitation Saint Teresa of Avila patron saint archive Spanish Renaissance literature Teresa de Jesus 1984 Spanish language mini series St Teresa s Church Hong Kong References EditNotes Edit At some hour of the night between 4 October and 15 October 1582 the night of the transition in Spain from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar As of 2019 there are 36 Doctors of the Church of whom only four are women Teresa wrote that it must be a cherub Deben ser los que llaman cherubines but Fr Domingo Banez wrote in the margin that it seemed more like a seraph mas parece de los que se llaman seraphis an identification that most editors have followed Santa Teresa de Avila Libro de su vida Escritos de Santa Teresa Comparing the contemplative soul to a castle with seven successive interior courts or chambers analogous to the Seven Heavens It may have influenced Rene Descartes especially his Meditations on First Philosophy Rowe 2011 p 47 refers to the Castilian Cortes as the Castilian parliament Citations Edit https www catholic org saints saint php saint id 208 Missing or empty title help Holy Days The Church of England Archived from the original on 1 March 2016 The Episcopal Church 2010 p 639 Saints of the Week resurrectionpeople org Lehfeldt 2017 p 217 Teresa of Avila 1515 1582 Encyclopedia of European Social History Archived from the original on 13 April 2019 Retrieved 13 April 2019 Hsia 2004 p 240 Nuestra Senora de Concepcion Siervas de los Corazones Traspasados de Jesus y Maria Retrieved 15 October 2020 Jansen 2018 p 248 a b Pope Paul VI 1970a First female Doctor of the Church to be honored this week Catholic News Agency 11 October 2009 Foa 2015 a b Clissold 1982 Medwick 1999 Expeditions Teresa of Avila amp Lewis 1870 St Teresa of Avila Catholic News Agency Zimmerman 1912 Pirlo 1997 p 241 Teresa of Avila amp Zimmerman 1997 For the creation of the work and an analysis of its transgression of religious decorum see Franco Mormando s article Did Bernini s Ecstasy of St Teresa Cross a 17th century Line of Decorum 1 Barton 1982 Rodriguez 2007 Discalced Carmelite History OCD General House 2 July 2003 Retrieved 15 October 2020 a b c d e Kavanaugh amp Rodgriguez 1991 pp 9 27 Salamony 2017 Counsell 2011 p 207 Pope Paul VI 1970b The Calendar The Church of England Retrieved 27 March 2021 a b Clissold 1982 pp 63 64 Catechism of the Catholic Church vatican va 1997 Ibanez 1882 a b She Thinks Therefore I Am Columbia Magazine Fall 2017 Retrieved 27 November 2018 Garriga Espino 2015 pp 35 53 Mercer 2017 pp 2539 2555 Teresa of Avila amp Starr 2008 pp 238 241 Nada te turbe Canterbury Dictionary of Hymnology Retrieved 26 January 2021 Howell 2009 p 151 The Journey with Jesus Poems and Prayers Retrieved 6 December 2012 Knowles 2009 p 684 Darricau n d Saint Therese of the Child Jesus of the Holy Face Saint Therese of Lisieux A Gateway Retrieved 15 October 2020 Wong n d History of the Infant Jesus of Prague Archived from the original on 21 November 2011 Retrieved 14 January 2012 Infant of Prague Devotions amp Prayers 29 September 2009 Retrieved 13 October 2017 Infant Jesus of Prague CatholicSaints Info 14 February 2009 Retrieved 13 October 2017 Santini 1995 Rowe 2011 p 77 Rowe 2011 Park 2009 pp 28 44 Tommasini 1998 Hontiveros 2016 Joan Osborne Relish austriancharts at Hung Media Jordanova 2012 pp 79 94 Bernini s Ecstasy of St Teresa History and Appreciation of Art II Lumen Retrieved 28 February 2018 St Therese of Avila by Peter Paul Rubens Museum of Art History St Teresa of Avila On Love The Fra Angelico Institute for Sacred Art 15 October 2012 Retrieved 8 November 2018 de Beauvoir 2011 p 729 Harrison 1995 Lafferty 1999 Klossowski 1998 Maynard 2009 pp 77 80 Moore 1990 p 25 Graham 1999 Barbara Mujica Washington Independent Review of Books Retrieved 30 January 2018 Findley 1999 Sackville West 2011 Knowles et al 2002 pp 18 34 Teresa de Jesus at IMDb Visions of Ecstasy gets UK rating after 23 year ban BBC News 31 January 2012 Retrieved 31 January 2012 Teresa San Sebastian Film Festival 2015 Retrieved 30 January 2020 Sources Edit This article was originally based on the text in the Schaff Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Auclair Marcelle 1950 La vie de Sainte Therese d Avila la Dame Errante de Dieu Paris France Editions du Seuil OCLC 4154440 493 pages French original Auclair Marcelle 1953 Saint Teresa of Avila First English publication New York Pantheon Auclair Marcelle 1988 Saint Teresa of Avila Kathleen Pond trans Reprint of first English publication New York Pantheon 1953 ed Petersham MA St Bede s Publications ISBN 9780932506672 ISBN 0932506674 OCLC 18292197 457 pages Balltondre Pla Monica 2012 Extasis y visiones La experiencia contemplativa de Teresa de Avila Pensamiento del Presente Erasmus ISBN 9788492806980 Barton Marcella Biro 1982 Saint Teresa of Avila Did she have Epilepsy The Catholic Historical Review LXVIII 4 Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Theresa St Encyclopaedia Britannica 26 11th ed Cambridge University Press Clissold Stephen 1982 St Teresa of Avila 2nd ed London Sheldon ISBN 0 85969 347 3 Counsell Michael 2011 2000 Years of Prayer Hymns Ancient and Modern ISBN 978 1 85311 623 0 Darricau Raymond n d Margaret of the Most Holy Sacrament Margaret Parigot 1619 1648 PDF Archived from the original PDF on 3 October 2007 de Beauvoir Simone 2011 The Second Sex Vintage Books ISBN 978 0 307 27778 7 Du Boulay Shirley 2004 Teresa of Avila An Extraordinary Life Katonah New York BlueBridge ISBN 978 0 974 24052 7 Findley Timothy 1999 Pilgrim HarperFlamingo Canada ISBN 978 0 00 224258 5 Foa Anna 2 March 2015 Teresa s marrano grandfather Osservatore Romano Archived from the original on 17 November 2017 Hontiveros Romeo 14 October 2016 Readings amp Reflections Saturday of the Twenty eighth Week in Ordinary Time amp St Teresa of Avila October 15 2016 pagadiandiocese org Retrieved 15 October 2020 Garriga Espino Ana 10 December 2015 El desafio editorial de las cartas de Teresa de Jesus PDF Edad de Oro in Spanish Autonomous University of Madrid 35 10 35 53 doi 10 15366 edadoro2015 34 002 ISSN 0212 0429 OCLC 5998749260 Graham Jorie 1999 1987 The End of Beauty New York City HarperCollins ISBN 978 0 880 01616 2 Harrison Kathryn 1995 Poison Random House ISBN 978 0 679 43140 4 Howell James C 2009 Introducing Christianity Exploring the Bible Faith and Life Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0 664 23297 9 Hsia R Po chia 2004 A Companion to the Reformation World Wiley ISBN 978 0 631 22017 6 Ibanez Pedro 1882 La Vida de la Santa Madre Teresa de Jesus in Spanish Madrid English translation Ibanez Pedro 1888 The Life of S Teresa of Jesus London Jansen Gary 2018 Life Everlasting Catholic Devotions and Mysteries for the Everyday Seeker Penguin ISBN 978 0 525 50386 6 Jordanova Ludmilla 2012 The Look of the Past Visual and Material Evidence in Historical Practice Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 70906 4 Kavanaugh Kieran Rodgriguez Otilio 1991 The Collected Works of Saint John of the Cross 3rd ed ICS Publications ISBN 978 0 935216 14 1 Kirvan John 1996 Let Nothing Disturb You A Journey to the Center of the Soul with Teresa of Avila Ave Maria Press ISBN 978 0 87793 570 4 Klossowski Pierre 1998 The Baphomet Marsilio ISBN 978 1 56886 056 5 Knowles Elizabeth 2009 Oxford Dictionary of Quotations Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 923717 3 Knowles Alison Heartney Eleanor Monk Meredith Montano Linda Ehn Erik September 2002 Art as spiritual practice PAJ A Journal of Performance and Art 24 3 18 34 doi 10 1162 15202810260186620 JSTOR 3246344 S2CID 57572255 Lafferty R A 1999 Fourth Mansions Wildside ISBN 978 1 880448 96 0 Lehfeldt Elizabeth A 2017 Religious Women in Golden Age Spain The Permeable Cloister Taylor amp Francis ISBN 978 1 351 90454 4 Maynard Lee Anna 2009 Beautiful Boredom Idleness and Feminine Self Realization in the Victorian Novel McFarland ISBN 978 0 7864 4555 4 McLean Julienne 2003 Towards Mystical Union A Modern Commentary on the Mystical Text The Interior Castle by St Teresa of Avila St Paul s ISBN 978 0 8543 9661 0 Medwick Cathleen 1999 Expeditions Teresa of Avila The Progress of a Soul Knopf ISBN 0 394 54794 2 Mercer Christia 2017 Descartes debt to Teresa of Avila or why we should work on women in the history of philosophy Philosophical Studies 174 10 2539 2555 doi 10 1007 s11098 016 0737 9 S2CID 171117738 Moore Kevin Z 1990 The Descent of the Imagination Postromantic Culture in the Later Novels of Thomas Hardy NYU Press ISBN 978 0 8147 5451 1 Pirlo Fr Paolo O 1997 St Teresa of Avila My First Book of Saints Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate Quality Catholic Publications p 241 ISBN 971 91595 4 5 Park Josephine Nock Hee 2009 The Orients of Gertrude Stein College Literature 36 3 28 44 ISSN 0093 3139 JSTOR 20642036 Pope Paul VI 27 September 1970 Proclamazione di Santa Teresa d Avila Dottore della Chiesa Proclamation of Saint Teresa of Avila as a Doctor of the Church vatican va in Italian Retrieved 13 October 2017 CS1 maint date and year link Pope Paul VI 3 October 1970 Proclamazione di Santa Caterina da Siena Dottore della Chiesa Proclamation of Saint Catherine of Siena as a Doctor of the Church vatican va in Italian Retrieved 13 October 2017 CS1 maint date and year link Rodriguez Javier Alvarez 2007 Epilepsy and Mysticism pp 59 69 retrieved 11 April 2019 Rowe Erin Kathleen 2011 Saint and Nation Santiago Teresa of Avila and Plural Identities in Early Modern Spain Penn State University Press ISBN 978 0 271 07815 1 Sackville West Vita 2011 The Eagle and the Dove Pan Macmillan ISBN 978 1 4472 1434 2 Salamony Ryan 2017 The Compassionate Mother of Carmel Teresa of Avila and the Carmelite Model for Twenty First Century Seekers PDF Senior Goucher College hdl 11603 3898 Santini M 1995 The Holy Infant of Prague Prague Martin The Episcopal Church 2010 Holy Women Holy Men Celebrating the Saints Church Publishing Inc ISBN 978 0 89869 637 0 Tommasini Anthony 1998 Virgil Thomson Composer on the Aisle New York W W Norton amp Company ISBN 9780393318586 Williams Rowan 2004 Teresa of Avila London Continuum International Publishing Group ISBN 978 0 8264 7341 7 Wong Anders n d History of the Infant Jesus of Prague ewtn com Archived from the original on 30 June 2005 Retrieved 13 October 2017 Zimmerman Benedict 1912 St Teresa of Jesus In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia 14 New York Robert Appleton Company Further reading Edit Carolyn A Greene Castles in the Sand fiction with cited sources about Teresa of Avila Lighthouse Trails Publishing 2009 ISBN 978 0 9791315 4 7 Jean Abiven 15 Days of Prayer with Saint Teresa of Avila New City Press 2011 ISBN 978 1 56548 366 8 Gould Levine Linda Engelson Marson Ellen Feiman Waldman Gloria eds 1993 Spanish Women Writers A Bio Bibliographical Source Book Westport Connecticut Greenwood Press ISBN 978 0 31326 823 6 Barbara Mujica Teresa de Avila Lettered Woman Nashville Vanderbilt University Press 2009 E Rhodes Teresa de Jesus s Book and the Reform of the Religious Man in Sixteenth Century Spain in Laurence Lux Sterritt and Carmen Mangion eds Gender Catholicism and Spirituality Women and the Roman Catholic Church in Britain and Europe 1200 1900 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan 2011 John Thomas Ecstasy art amp the body St Teresa of Avila s Transverberation and its depiction in the sculpture of Gianlorenzo Bernini in John Thomas Happiness Truth amp Holy Images Essays of Popular Theology and Religion amp Art Wolverhampton Twin Books 2019 pp 12 16 John Thomas Architectural image and via mystica St Teresa s Las Moradas in John Thomas Happiness Truth amp Holy Images Essays of Popular Theology and Religion amp Art Wolverhampton Twin Books 2019 pp 39 48 External links EditTeresa of Avilaat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Teresa 500 Videos of a conference held at Roehampton University in 2015 on the 500th anniversary of Teresa s birth St Teresa Virgin Butler s Lives of the Saints Founder Statue in St Peter s Basilica Biography Online Saint Teresa of Avila Patron Saints Saint Teresa of Avila Books written by Saint Teresa of Avila including Saint John of the Cross Works by Teresa of Avila at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Teresa of Avila at Internet Archive Works by Teresa of Avila at LibriVox public domain audiobooks Basilica of Saint Teresa in Alba de Tormes in Spanish Alba de Tormes sepulcro de Santa Teresa Tomb of Saint Teresa on YouTube in Spanish Life of St Teresa of Jesus of The Order of Our Lady of Carmel Way of Perfection Interior Castle or The Mansions Convent of St Teresa in Avila Poems of Saint Teresa Santa Teresa an Appreciation 1900 by Alexander Whyte from Project Gutenberg Colonnade Statue St Peter s Square Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Teresa of Avila amp oldid 1052297387, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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