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Thomas the Apostle

Thomas the Apostle (Biblical Hebrew:תוֹמָאס הקדוש‎; Ancient Greek:Θωμᾶς; Coptic:ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; Classical Syriac:ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐTʾōmā šliḥā; Hindi: सेंट थॉमस Seṇṭ thômas; Tamil: புனித தோமையர் Puṉita tōmaiyar Malayalam:മാര്‍ തോമാ ശ്ലീഹ Mār tōmā ślīha), also called Didymus ("twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Saint Thomas is a massively consequential figure, for he was the man who introduced Christianity to India just twenty years after Jesus died. Thomas is commonly known as "Doubting Thomas" because he initially doubted the resurrection of Jesus Christ when he was told of it (as is related in the Gospel of John alone); he later confessed his faith ("My Lord and my God") on seeing the wounds leftover from the crucifixion.

Saint
Thomas the Apostle
Saint Thomas the Apostle
Apostle, preacher, Christian martyr
Born1st century AD
Galilee, Roman Province of Judea, Roman Empire
Died21 December AD 72
Present-day Mylapore, Tamil Nadu, India (possibly Tomb under Santhome Church)
Venerated inSaint Thomas Christians and all Christian Churches that venerate Saints
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrineSt. Thomas Cathedral Basilica in Mylapore, Chennai, India
Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Italy
Feast
AttributesThe Twin, placing his finger in the side of Christ, spear (means of his Christian martyrdom), square (his profession, a builder)
PatronageFor Christians in India (including Saint Thomas Christians and Archdiocese of Madras-Mylapore), Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and Pula (Croatia)

According to traditional accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians of modern-day Kerala in India, Thomas is believed to have travelled outside the Roman Empire to preach the Gospel, travelling as far as the Tamilakam which is in South India, and reached Muziris of Tamilakam (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor in Kerala State, India) in AD 52. In 1258, some of the relics were brought to Ortona, in Abruzzo, Italy, where they have been held in the Church of Saint Thomas the Apostle. He is often regarded as the patron saint of India among its Christian adherents, and the Feast of Saint Thomas on July 3 is celebrated as Indian Christian Day by believers belonging to many Christian denominations. The name Thomas remains quite popular among the Saint Thomas Christians of the Indian subcontinent.

Contents

Thomas first speaks in the Gospel of John. In John 11:16, when Lazarus has recently died, and the apostles do not wish to go back to Judea, Thomas says: "Let us also go, that we may die with him."

Thomas speaks again inJohn 14:5. There, Jesus had just explained that he was going away to prepare a heavenly home for his followers, and that one day they would join him there. Thomas reacted by saying, "Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way?"

John 20:24–29 tells how doubting Thomas was skeptical at first when he heard that Jesus had risen from the dead and appeared to the other apostles, saying, "Except I shall see on his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe."[20:25] But when Jesus appeared later and invited Thomas to touch his wounds and behold him, Thomas showed his belief by saying, "My Lord and my God".[20:28] Jesus then said, "Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed [are] they that have not seen, and [yet] have believed."[20:29]

The name Thomas (Koine Greek: Θωμᾶς) given for the apostle in the New Testament is derived from the Aramaic תְּאוֹמָא or Classical Syriac:ܬܐܘܿܡܵܐTāʾwma/Tʾōmā, equivalently from Hebrew תְּאוֹם tʾóm, meaning "twin". The equivalent term for twin in Greek, which is also used in the New Testament, is Δίδυμος Didymos.

Other names

The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins: "These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos, Judas Thomas, recorded." Early Syrian traditions also relate the apostle's full name as Judas Thomas. Some have seen in the Acts of Thomas (written in east Syria in the early 3rd century, or perhaps as early as the first half of the 2nd century) an identification of Thomas with the apostle Judas, Son of James, better known in English as Jude. However, the first sentence of the Acts follows the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in distinguishing the apostle Thomas and the apostle Judas son of James. Others, such as James Tabor, identify him as Jude, brother of Jesus mentioned by Mark. In the Book of Thomas the Contender, part of the Nag Hammadi library, he is alleged to be a twin to Jesus: "Now, since it has been said that you are my twin and true companion, examine yourself…"

A "Doubting Thomas" is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience — a reference to the Gospel of John's depiction of the Apostle Thomas, who, in John's account, refused to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles until he could see and feel Jesus' crucifixion wounds.

Feast days

When the feast of Saint Thomas was inserted in the Roman calendar in the 9th century, it was assigned to 21 December. The Martyrology of St. Jerome mentioned the apostle on 3 July, the date to which the Roman celebration was transferred in 1969, so that it would no longer interfere with the major ferial days of Advent. Traditionalist Roman Catholics (who follow the General Roman Calendar of 1960 or earlier) and many Anglicans (including members of the Episcopal Church as well as members of the Church of England and the Lutheran Church, who worship according to the 1662 edition of the Book of Common Prayer), still celebrate his feast day on 21 December. However, most modern liturgical calendars (including the Common Worship calendar of the Church of England) prefer 3 July, Thomas is remembered in the Church of England with a Festival.

The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches celebrate his feast day on 6 October (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar, 6 October currently falls on 19 October of the modern Gregorian calendar). In addition, the next Sunday of the Easter (Pascha) is celebrated as the Sunday of Thomas, in commemoration of Thomas' question to Jesus, which led him to proclaim, according to Orthodox teaching, two natures of Jesus, both human and divine. Thomas is commemorated in common with all of the other apostles on 30 June (13 July), in a feast called the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles. He is also associated with the "Arabian" (or "Arapet") icon of the Theotokos (Mother of God), which is commemorated on 6 September (19 September). The Malankara Orthodox church celebrates his feast on three days, 3 July (in memory of the relic translation to Edessa), 18 December (the Day he was lanced), and 21 December (when he died).

The Passing of Mary, adjudged heretical by Pope Gelasius I in 494, was attributed to Joseph of Arimathea. The document states that Thomas was the only witness of the Assumption of Mary into heaven. The other apostles were miraculously transported to Jerusalem to witness her death. Thomas was left in India, but after her first burial, he was transported to her tomb, where he witnessed her bodily assumption into heaven, from which she dropped her girdle. In an inversion of the story of Thomas' doubts, the other apostles are skeptical of Thomas' story until they see the empty tomb and the girdle. Thomas' receipt of the girdle is commonly depicted in medieval and pre-Council of Trent Renaissance art.

Possible visit to India

The Postal Department of India brought out a stamp commemorating his mission to the country.
Map of ancient Silk Road and Spice Route

According to traditional accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians of India, the Apostle Thomas is speculated to have landed in Muziris (Cranganore) on the Kerala coast in AD 52 and was martyred in Mylapore, near Madras in AD 72. The port was destroyed in 1341 by a massive flood that realigned the coasts. He is believed by the Saint Thomas Christian tradition to have established seven churches (communities) in Kerala. These churches are at Kodungallur, Palayoor, Kottakkavu (Paravur), Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal (Chayal), Kollam, and Thiruvithamcode. Thomas baptized several families, namely Pakalomattom, Sankarapuri, Kalli, Kaliyankal, etc. Other families claim to have origins almost as far back as these, and the religious historian Robert Eric Frykenberg notes that: "Whatever dubious historicity may be attached to such local traditions, there can be little doubt as to their great antiquity or to their great appeal in the popular imagination."

It was to a land of Niggr people he was sent, to clothe them by Baptism in white robes. His grateful dawn dispelled India's painful darkness. It was his mission to espouse India to the One-Begotten. The merchant is blessed for having so great a treasure. Edessa thus became the blessed city by possessing the greatest pearl India could yield. Thomas was said to have worked some miracles in India but mostly speculations, and at Edessa, Thomas is destined to baptize peoples perversely and steeped in darkness, and that in the land of India.

Hymns of Saint Ephrem, edited by Lamy (Eph. Hymni et Sermones, IV).

... Into what land shall I fly from the just?
I stirred up Death the Apostles to slay, that by their death I might escape their blows.
But harder still am I now stricken: the Apostle I slew in Syria has overtaken me in Edessa; here and there he is all himself.
There went I, and there was he: here and there to my grief I find him.

quoted in Medlycott 1905, Ch II

Ephrem the Syrian, a doctor of Syriac Christianity, writes in the forty-second of his "Carmina Nisibina" that the Apostle was said put to be killed in Syria, and that his remains were subsequently buried in Edessa, brought there by an unnamed merchant.

The tomb of Saint Thomas the Apostle in Mylapore, India

According to Eusebius' record, Thomas and Bartholomew were assigned to Parthia and India. The Didascalia (dating from the end of the 3rd century) states, "India and all countries condering it, even to the farthest seas... received the apostolic ordinances from Judas Thomas, who was a guide and ruler in the church which he built."

Thomas is believed to have left northwest India when an attack threatened and traveled by vessel to the Malabar Coast, possibly visiting southeast Arabia and Socotra en route, and maybe landing by mistake at the former flourishing port of Muziris (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor) (c. AD 50) in the company of a Jewish merchant Abbanes/Habban (Schonfield, 1984,125). From there he is said to have preached the gospel throughout the Malabar coast. The various churches he founded were located mainly on the Periyar River and its tributaries and along the coast, where there were Jewish colonies. In accordance with apostolic custom, Thomas ordained teachers and leaders or elders, who were reported to be the earliest ministry of the Malankara Church.

Martyrdom of St. Thomas by Peter Paul Rubens, 1636–1638
The reliquaire of the spear which is said to have killed St. Thomas, in Chennai, India

According to Syrian Christian tradition, Thomas was killed at St. Thomas Mount in Edessa on 3 July in AD 72, he was purified, and his body was interred in Mylapore. Ephrem the Syrian states that the Apostle was killed in Syria and that his relics were taken then to Edessa. This is one of the earliest known records of his death.

The records of Barbosa from the early 16th-century record that the tomb was then maintained by a Muslim who kept a lamp burning there. The San Thome Basilica Mylapore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India presently located at the tomb was first built in the 16th century by the Portuguese and rebuilt in the 19th century. St. Thomas Mount has been a revered site by Muslims and Christians since at least the 16th century. But it is not sure whether it is actually the tomb of St Thomas

Possible visit to China

Thomas' alleged visit to China is mentioned in the books and church traditions of Saint Thomas Christians in India (Mar Thoma Syrian Church and the Syro-Malabar rites) who, for a part, claim descent from the early Christians evangelized by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. For example, it is found in the Malayalam ballad Thomas Ramban Pattu (The Song of the Lord Thomas) with the earliest manuscript being from the 17th century. The sources clearly have Thomas coming to India, then to China, and back to India, where he died.

In other attested sources, the tradition of making Thomas the apostle of China is found in the "Law of Christianity" (Fiqh al-naṣrāniyya), a compilation of juridical literature by Ibn al-Ṭayyib (Nestorian theologian and physician who died in 1043 in Baghdad). Later, in the Nomocanon of Abdisho bar Berika (metropolitan of Nisibis and Armenia, died in 1318) and the breviary of the Chaldean Church it is written:

1. Through St. Thomas the error of idolatry vanished from India.

2. Through St. Thomas the Chinese and Ethiopians were converted to the truth.

3. Through St. Thomas they accepted the sacrament of baptism and the adoption of sons.

4. Through St. Thomas they believed in and confessed the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit.

5. Through St. Thomas they preserved the accepted faith of the one God.

6. Through St. Thomas the life-giving splendors rose in all India.

7. Through St. Thomas the Kingdom of Heaven took wing and ascended to China.

Translated by Athanasius Kircher in China Illustrata (1667), Office of St. Thomas for the Second Nocturn, Gaza of the Church of St. Thomas of Malabar, Chaldean Breviary

In its nascent form, this tradition is found at the earliest in the Zuqnin Chronicle (AD 775) and may have originated in the late Sasanian period. Perhaps it originated as a 3rd-century pseudepigraphon where Thomas would have converted the Magi (in the Gospel of Matthew) to Christianity as they dwelled in the land of Shir (land of Seres, Tarim Basin, near what was the world's easternmost sea for many people in antiquity). Additionally, the testimony of Arnobius of Sicca, active shortly after AD 300, maintains that the Christian message had arrived in India and among the Persians, Medians, and Parthians (along with the Seres).

Possible travel into Indonesia

According to Kurt E. Koch, Thomas the Apostle possibly traveled into Indonesia via India with Indian traders.

Paraguayan legend

Ancient oral tradition retained by the Guaraní tribes of Paraguay claims that the Apostle Thomas was in Paraguay and preached to them.

in the estate of our college, called Paraguay, and twenty leagues distant from Asumpcion. This place stretches out on one side into a pleasant plain, affording pasture to a vast quantity of cattle; on the other, where it looks towards the south, it is surrounded by hills and rocks; in one of which a cross piled up of three large stones is visited, and held in great veneration by the natives for the sake of St. Thomas; for they believe, and firmly maintain, that the Apostle, seated on these stones as on a chair, formerly preached to the assembled Indians.

Dobrizhoffer 1822, p. 385

Almost 150 years prior to Dobrizhoffer's arrival in Paraguay, another Jesuit Missionary, F.J. Antonio Ruiz de Montoya recollected the same oral traditions from the Paraguayan tribes. He wrote:

...The paraguayan tribes they have this very curious tradition. They claim that a very holy man (Thomas the Apostle himself), whom they call "Paí Thome", lived amongst them and preached to them the Holy Truth, wandering and carrying a wooden cross on his back.

Ruiz de Montoya 1639, Ch XVIII

The sole recorded research done about the subject was during José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia's reign after the Independence of Paraguay. This is mentioned by Franz Wisner von Morgenstern, an Austro-Hungarian engineer who served in the Paraguayan armies prior and during the Paraguayan War. According to Von Morgenstern, some Paraguayan miners while working nearby some hills at the Caaguazú Department found some stones with ancient letters carved in them. Dictator Francia sent his finest experts to inspect those stones, and they concluded that the letters carved in those stones were Hebrew-like symbols, but they couldn't translate them nor figure out the exact date when those letters were carved. No further recorded investigations exists, and according to Wisner, people believed that the letters were made by Thomas the Apostle, following the tradition.

Relics

Shrine of Saint Thomas in Mylapore, 18th-century print
Relics of Thomas in the Cathedral of Ortona

Mylapore

Traditional accounts say that the Apostle Thomas preached not only in Kerala but also in other parts of Southern India – and a few relics are still kept at San Thome Basilica in Mylapore neighborhood in the central part of the city of Chennai in India. Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller and author of Description of the World, popularly known as Il Milione, is reputed to have visited Southern India in 1288 and 1292. The first date has been rejected as he was in China at the time, but the second date is generally accepted.

Edessa

According to tradition, in AD 232, the greater portion of relics of the Apostle Thomas are said to have been sent by an Indian king and brought from Mylapore to the city of Edessa, Mesopotamia, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written.

The Indian king is named as "Mazdai" in Syriac sources, "Misdeos" and "Misdeus" in Greek and Latin sources respectively, which has been connected to the "Bazdeo" on the Kushan coinage of Vasudeva I, the transition between "M" and "B" being a current one in Classical sources for Indian names. The martyrologist Rabban Sliba dedicated a special day to both the Indian king, his family, and St Thomas:

Coronatio Thomae apostoli et Misdeus rex Indiae, Johannes eus filius huisque mater Tertia (Coronation of Thomas the Apostle, and Misdeus king of India, together with his son Johannes (thought to be a latinization of Vizan) and his mother Tertia) Rabban Sliba

Bussagli 1965, p. 255

In the 4th century, the martyrium erected over his burial place brought pilgrims to Edessa. In the 380s, Egeria described her visit in a letter she sent to her community of nuns at home (Itineraria Egeriae):

We arrived at Edessa in the Name of Christ our God, and, on our arrival, we straightway repaired to the church and memorial of saint Thomas. There, according to custom, prayers were made and the other things that were customary in the holy places were done; we read also some things concerning saint Thomas himself. The church there is very great, very beautiful and of new construction, well worthy to be the house of God, and as there was much that I desired to see, it was necessary for me to make a three days' stay there.

According to Theodoret of Cyrrhus, the bones of Saint Thomas were transferred by Cyrus I, Bishop of Edessa, from the martyrium outside of Edessa to a church in the south-west corner of the city on 22 August 394.

In 441, the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius donated a silver coffin to hold the relics.

In AD 522, Cosmas Indicopleustes (called the Alexandrian) visited the Malabar Coast. He is the first traveller who mentions Syrian Christians in Malabar, in his book Christian Topography. He mentions that in the town of "Kalliana" (Quilon or Kollam) there was a bishop who had been consecrated in Persia.

In 1144, the city was conquered by the Zengids and the shrine destroyed.

Chios and Ortona

Ortona's Basilica of Saint Thomas

The reputed relics of Saint Thomas remained at Edessa until they were translated to Chios in 1258. Some portion of the relics were later transported to the West, and now rest in the Cathedral of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Italy. However, the skull of Thomas is said to be at Monastery of Saint John the Theologian on the Greek island of Patmos.

Ortona's three galleys reached the island of Chios in 1258, led by General Leone Acciaiuoli. Chios was considered the island where Thomas, after his death in India, had been buried. A portion fought around the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands, the other in the sea lapping at the then Syrian coast. The three galleys of Ortona moved on the second front of the war and reached the island of Chios.

The tale is provided by Giambattista De Lectis, physician and writer of the 16th century of Ortona. After the looting, the navarca Ortona Leone went to pray in the main church of the island of Chios and was drawn to a chapel adorned and resplendent with lights. An elderly priest, through an interpreter informed him that in that oratory was venerated the Body of Saint Thomas the Apostle. Leone, filled with an unusual sweetness, gathered in deep prayer. At that moment a light hand twice invited him to come closer. The navarca Leone reached out and took a bone from the largest hole of the tombstone, on which were carved the Greek letters and a halo depicted a bishop from the waist up. He was the confirmation of what he had said the old priest and that you are indeed in the presence of the Apostle's body. He went back on the galley and planned the theft for the next night, along with fellow Ruggiero Grogno. They lifted the heavy gravestone and watched the underlying relics. The wrapped in snow-white cloths them laid in a wooden box (stored at Ortona to the looting of 1566) and brought them aboard the galley. Leone, then, along with other comrades, he returned again in the church, took the tombstone and took her away. Just the Chinardo admiral was aware of the precious cargo moved all the sailors of the Muslim faith on other ships and ordered him to take the route to Ortona.

Portal of Ortona, St Thomas' Basilica

He landed at the port of Ortona 6 September 1258. According to the story of De Lectis, he was informed the abbot Jacopo responsible for Ortona Church, which predispose full provision for hospitality felt and shared by all the people. Since then the body of the apostle and the gravestone are preserved in the crypt of the Basilica. In 1259 a parchment written in Bari by the court under John Peacock contracts, the presence of five witnesses, preserved in Ortona at the Diocesan Library, confirming the veracity of that event, reported, as mentioned, by Giambattista De Lectis, physician and writer Ortona of the 16th century.

The relics resisted both the Saracen looting of 1566, and the destruction of the Nazis in the battle of Ortona fought in late December 1943. The basilica was blown up because the belfry was considered a lookout point by the allies, coming by sea from San Vito Chietino. The relics, together with the treasure of Saint Thomas, were intended by the Germans to be sold, but the monks entombed them inside the bell tower, the only surviving part of the semi-ruined church.

Original Chios' tombstone of Thomas, brought in the crypt of Ortona's Basilica

The tombstone of Thomas, brought to Ortona from Chios along with the relics of the Apostle, is currently preserved in the crypt of St Thomas Basilica, behind the altar. The urn containing the bones instead is placed under the altar. It is the cover of a fake coffin, fairly widespread burial form in the early Christian world, as the top of a tomb of less expensive material. The plaque has an inscription and a bas-relief that refer, in many respects, to the Syro-Mesopotamian. Tombstone Thomas the Apostle on inclusion can be read, in Greek characters uncial, the expression 'osios thomas, that Saint Thomas. It can be dated from the point of view palaeographic and lexical to the 3rd–5th century, a time when the term osios is still used as a synonym of aghios in that holy is he that is in the grace of God and is inserted in the church: the two vocabulary, therefore, indicate the Christians. In the particular case of Saint Thomas' plaque, then, the word osios can easily be the translation of the word Syriac mar (Lord), attributed in the ancient world, but also to the present day, is a saint to be a bishop.

Iraq

The finger bones of Saint Thomas were discovered during restoration work at the Church of Saint Thomas in Mosul, Iraq in 1964, and were housed there until the Fall of Mosul, after which the relics were transferred to the Monastery of Saint Matthew on 17 June 2014.

As per the tradition of Saint Thomas Christians St.Thomas the Apostle established his throne in India and ordained Mar Keppa who was a chera prince as his successor.

By the command of an Indian King he was thrust through with Lances

A number of early Christian writings written during the centuries immediately following the first Ecumenical Council of 325 mention Thomas' mission.

The Transitus Mariae describes each of the apostles purportedly being temporarily transported to heaven during the Assumption of Mary.

Acts of Thomas

The main source is the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, sometimes called by its full name The Acts of Judas Thomas, written circa 180–230 AD/CE, These are generally regarded by various Christian religions as apocryphal, or even heretical. The two centuries that lapsed between the life of the apostle and the recording of this work cast doubt on their authenticity.

The king, Misdeus (or Mizdeos), was infuriated when Thomas converted the queen Tertia, the king's son Juzanes, sister-in-law princess Mygdonia and her friend Markia. Misdeus led Thomas outside the city and ordered four soldiers to take him to the nearby hill, where the soldiers speared Thomas and killed him. After Thomas' death, Syphorus was elected the first presbyter of Mazdai by the surviving converts, while Juzanes was the first deacon. (The names Misdeus, Tertia, Juzanes, Syphorus, Markia and Mygdonia (c.f. Mygdonia, a province of Mesopotamia) may suggest Greek descent or cultural influences. Greek traders had long visited Muziris. Greek kingdoms in northern India and Bactria, founded by Alexander the Great, were vassals[dubiousdiscuss] of the Indo-Parthians.

The Doctrine of the Apostles as reflected in Cureton 1864, pp. 32–34 attests that Thomas had written Christian doctrine from India.

India and all its own countries, and those bordering on it, even to the farther sea, received the Apostle's hand of Priesthood from Judas Thomas, who was Guide and Ruler in the Church which he built and ministered there". In what follows "the whole Persia of the Assyrians and Medes, and of the countries round about Babylon… even to the borders of the Indians and even to the country of Gog and Magog" are said to have received the Apostles' Hand of Priesthood from Aggaeus the disciple of Addaeus

Cureton 1864, p. 33

Origen

Christian philosopher Origen taught with great acclaim in Alexandria and then in Caesarea. He is the first known writer to record the casting of lots by the Apostles. Origen's original work has been lost, but his statement about Parthia falling to Thomas has been preserved by Eusebius. "Origen, in the third chapter of his Commentary on Genesis, says that, according to tradition, Thomas's allotted field of labour was Parthia".

Eusebius

Quoting Origen, Eusebius of Caesarea says: "When the holy Apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered over all the world, Thomas, so the tradition has it, obtained as his portion Parthia…" "Judas, who is also called Thomas" has a role in the legend of king Abgar of Edessa (Urfa), for having sent Thaddaeus to preach in Edessa after the Ascension Ephrem the Syrian also recounts this legend.)

Ephrem the Syrian

Many devotional hymns composed by Ephrem the Syrian bear witness to the Edessan Church's strong conviction concerning Thomas's Indian Apostolate. There the devil speaks of Thomas as "the Apostle I slew in India". Also, "The merchant brought the bones" to Edessa.

Another hymn eulogizing Saint Thomas reads "The bones the merchant hath brought". "In his several journeyings to India/ And thence on his return/ All riches/ which there he found/ Dirt in his eyes he did repute when to thy sacred bones compared". In yet another hymn Ephrem speaks of the mission of Thomas: "The earth darkened with sacrifices' fumes to illuminate", "a land of people dark fell to thy lot", "a tainted land Thomas has purified"; "India's dark night" was "flooded with light" by Thomas.

Gregory of Nazianzus

Gregory of Nazianzus was born AD 330, consecrated a bishop by his friend Basil of Caesarea; in 372, his father, the Bishop of Nazianzus, induced him to share his charge. In 379, the people of Constantinople called him to be their bishop. By the Orthodox Church, he is emphatically called "the Theologian". "What? were not the Apostles strangers amidst the many nations and countries over which they spread themselves? … Peter indeed may have belonged to Judea, but what had Paul in common with the gentiles, Luke with Achaia, Andrew with Epirus, John with Ephesus, Thomas with India, Mark with Italy?"[better source needed]

Ambrose of Milan

Ambrose of Milan was thoroughly acquainted with the Greek and Latin Classics and had a good deal of information on India and Indians. He speaks of the Gymnosophists of India, the Indian Ocean, the river Ganges etc., a number of times. "This admitted of the Apostles being sent without delay according to the saying of our Lord Jesus… Even those Kingdoms which were shut out by rugged mountains became accessible to them, as India to Thomas, Persia to Matthew..."[better source needed]

Gregory of Tours

The testimony of Gregory of Tours (died 594): "Thomas the Apostle, according to the narrative of his martyrdom is stated to have suffered in India. His holy remains (corpus), after a long interval of time, were removed to the city of Edessa in Syria and there interred. In that part of India where they first rested, stand a monastery and a church of striking dimensions, elaborately adorned and designed. This Theodore, who had been to the place, narrated to us."

Let none read the gospel according to Thomas, for it is the work, not of one of the twelve apostles, but of one of Mani's three wicked disciples.

Cyril of Jerusalem, Cathechesis V (4th century)

In the first two centuries of the Christian era, a number of writings were circulated. It is unclear now why Thomas was seen as an authority for doctrine, although this belief is documented in Gnostic groups as early as the Pistis Sophia. In that Gnostic work, Mary Magdalene (one of the disciples) says:

Now at this time, my Lord, hear, so that I speak openly, for thou hast said to us "He who has ears to hear, let him hear:" Concerning the word which thou didst say to Philip: "Thou and Thomas and Matthew are the three to whom it has been given… to write every word of the Kingdom of the Light, and to bear witness to them"; hear now that I give the interpretation of these words. It is this which thy light-power once prophesied through Moses: "Through two and three witnesses everything will be established. The three witnesses are Philip and Thomas and Matthew"

Pistis Sophia 1:43

An early, non-Gnostic tradition may lie behind this statement, which also emphasizes the primacy of the Gospel of Matthew in its Aramaic form, over the other canonical three.

Besides the Acts of Thomas there was a widely circulated Infancy Gospel of Thomas probably written in the later 2nd century, and probably also in Syria, which relates the miraculous events and prodigies of Jesus' boyhood. This is the document which tells for the first time the familiar legend of the twelve sparrows which Jesus, at the age of five, fashioned from clay on the Sabbath day, which took wing and flew away. The earliest manuscript of this work is a 6th-century one in Syriac. This gospel was first referred to by Irenaeus; Ron Cameron notes: "In his citation, Irenaeus first quotes a non-canonical story that circulated about the childhood of Jesus and then goes directly on to quote a passage from the infancy narrative of the Gospel of Luke.[Luke 2:49] Since the Infancy Gospel of Thomas records both of these stories, in relative close proximity to one another, it is possible that the apocryphal writing cited by Irenaeus is, in fact, what is now known as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Because of the complexities of the manuscript tradition, however, there is no certainty as to when the stories of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas began to be written down."

The best known in modern times of these documents is the "sayings" document that is being called the Gospel of Thomas, a noncanonical work whose date is disputed. The opening line claims it is the work of "Didymos Judas Thomas" – whose identity is unknown. This work was discovered in a Coptic translation in 1945 at the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi, near the site of the monastery of Chenoboskion. Once the Coptic text was published, scholars recognized that an earlier Greek translation had been published from fragments of papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus in the 1890s.

Saint Thomas Christian cross

In the 16th-century work Jornada, Antonio Gouvea writes of ornate crosses known as Saint Thomas Crosses. It is also known as Nasrani Menorah, Persian Cross, or Mar Thoma Sleeva. These crosses are believed to date from the 6th century as per the tradition and are found in a number of churches in Kerala, Mylapore and Goa. Jornada is the oldest known written document to refer to this type of cross as a Saint Thomas Cross. Gouvea also writes about the veneration of the Cross at Cranganore, referring to the cross as "Cross of Christians".

There are several interpretations of the Nasrani symbol. The interpretation based on Christian Jewish tradition assumes that its design was based on Jewish menorah, an ancient symbol of the Hebrews, which consists of seven branched lamp stand (candelabra). The interpretation based on local culture states that the Cross without the figure of Jesus and with flowery arms symbolizing "joyfulness" points to the resurrection theology of Paul the Apostle; the Holy Spirit on the top represents the role of Holy Spirit in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The lotus symbolizing Buddhism and the Cross over it shows that Christianity was established in the land of Buddha. The three steps indicate Calvary and the rivulets, channels of Grace flowing from the Cross.

The Qur’anic account of the disciples of Jesus does not include their names, numbers, or any detailed accounts of their lives. Muslim exegesis, however, more or less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Andrew, James, Jude, John, and Simon the Zealot.

Santhome Church

San Thome Church, built in 1523.

Santhome Church is said to be the tomb of St. Thomas located in Chennai, India. It was built in 1523 by Portuguese missionaries. It is a National shrine, Basilica and Cathedral. It is very important site for Christians and a major shrine of St. Thomas.

Notes

  1. All three occasions are discussed in detail by Dr. Mathew Vallanickal, "Faith and Character of Apostle Thomas" in The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Vol. II, Trichur, 1973, p. 2
  2. "... Judas Thomas, as he is called [in the Acta Thomae] and elsewhere in Syriac tradition ...". Thurston 1913

Citations

  1. Fahlbusch et al. 2008, p. 285.
  2. Medlycott 1905, p. 157.
  3. "Liturgical Calendar: December'". Latin-mass-society.org. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  4. "The martyrdom of Thomas the Apostle The Day of Sinxar, on the 26th of Bashnas, the month of Bashnas, the Coptic month". st-takla.org (in Arabic). Retrieved24 February 2020.
  5. Slapak 1995, p. 27.
  6. Medlycott 1905.
  7. Puthiakunnel 1973.
  8. Johnson & Zacharia 2016.
  9. About Thomas The Apostle at the Wayback Machine (archived 2011-02-08)
  10. "Co-Cathedral Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle". GCatholic.org. Retrieved11 January 2015.
  11. "Patron Saints of Countries". Retrieved10 May 2015.
  12. Medlycott 1905, Ch. IV.
  13. Carvalho, Nirmala (29 June 2021). "First Indian Christian Day on 3 July". AsiaNews. Retrieved4 July 2021.
  14. Kumar, Anugrah (4 July 2021). "India: Christians celebrate first Indian Christian Day, feast of St. Thomas". The Christian Post. Retrieved4 July 2021.
  15. Thomas the Apostle n.d.
  16. Catholic Church 1969, p. 96.
  17. "Propers for St. Thomas the Apostle". Commonprayer.org. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  18. "The Calendar". The Church of England. Retrieved27 March 2021.
  19. Holy, Glorious Apostle Thomas Orthodox icon and synaxarion for 6 October
  20. Icon of the Mother of God, Arapet (Arabian) Orthodox icon and synaxarion for 6 September
  21. "Malankara Orthodox Church". Retrieved10 May 2015.
  22. Lewis 1927.
  23. Robinson 1926, p. 33.
  24. "The Passing of Mary". Ccel.org. 1 June 2005. Retrieved25 April 2010.
  25. "St Thomas Receiving the Virgin Mary’s Girdle at her Assumption", Dimus, no. 17 (April 2008)
  26. Norman 1993, pp. 1–42.
  27. History Archived 4 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Payyappilly Palakkappilly Nasrani family
  28. Mani 2016, p. 14.
  29. Frykenberg 2008, pp. 101–102.
  30. Medlycott 1905, pp. 18–71.
  31. James 1924, pp. 364–436.
  32. Medlycott 1905, pp. 1–17, 213–297.
  33. Eusebius (1885)."Book III/Chapter 1" .Church History . §1 – via Wikisource.
  34. Farquhar 1926, p. 30.
  35. Smith 1914, p. 235.
  36. Brown 1956, pp. 49–59.
  37. Farmer 2011, p. 418.
  38. Marco Polo 1920, p. 117.
  39. Hunter 1886, p. 237.
  40. Neill 2004, p. 29.
  41. Hunter 1886, p. 31.
  42. Bays 2011, Ch. 1.
  43. Hoenerbach & Spies 1956.
  44. Gilman & Klimkeit 2016.
  45. Tubach 1995, pp. 397–430.
  46. Takahashi 2011.
  47. Andrade 2018, pp. 58–59.
  48. Arnobius of Sicca 1949, p. 125.
  49. Koch 1972.
  50. von Morgenstern 1998, p. 198.
  51. Muthiah 2014.
  52. Bussagli 1965, p. 255.
  53. "The Pilgrimage of S. Silvia of Aquitania to the Holy Places". Retrieved10 May 2015.
  54. Harvey 2005, p. 124.
  55. Segal 2005, pp. 174–176, 250.
  56. Sadasivan 2000, p. 410.
  57. Thurston 1913.
  58. Sanidopoulos 2010.
  59. من الأرشيف: اكتشاف ذخيرة الرسول توما بيد مطران الموصل مار سويريوس زكا عيواص. Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate (in Arabic). Retrieved18 May 2018.
  60. Arraf 2018.
  61. "Holy Relics of Saint Thomas transferred to the Monastery of St Matthew in Nineveh". OCP. 9 July 2014. Retrieved18 May 2018.
  62. Ramban Pattu lines:17-24
  63. Wright 1871; Rev. Paul Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum, Vol. III, Leipsic-Paris, 1892.Medlycott 1905, pp. 221–225, Appendix. Also in The Nazranies, Ed. G. Menachery, Ollur, 1998.
  64. "The Consummation of Thomas the Apostle". Retrieved10 May 2015.
  65. Mookerji 1966, p. 28.
  66. Eusebius (1885)."Book III/Chapter 1" .Church History . §2 – via Wikisource.
  67. Perumalil 1971, pp. 50–51.
  68. 20th Century Discussions: Hambye 1952; Comes, S. J., "Did St. Thomas Really come to India?", in Menachery (Ed.) STCEI, II.
  69. Farquhar 1926, pp. 30–31.
  70. Panjikaran 1926, p. 99 esp. for reference to Pantaenus' Indian visit. Reproduced in ICHC I 'The Nazranies", ed. George Menachery 1998, pp. 277 ff.
  71. Eusebius (1885)."Book I/Chapter 13" .Church History . §4 – via Wikisource.
  72. Patrologia Graeca (Migne), 19–24., 20.215.
  73. Bickell, S. Ephraemi Syri, Caramina Nisibena, Lipsiae, 1866; Monsignor Lamy, S. Ephraemi Syri Hymni et Sermones, (Quarto 4 vols.); Breviary acc. to the Rite of the Church of Antioch of the Syrians, Mosul, 1886–96. Medlycott 1905, pp. 21–32 Alias Menachery (Ed.) STCEI, II, pp. 18ff.
  74. Homil. XXXII, xi, Contra Arianos et de seipso. Migne, PG 36-228.
  75. 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott 1905, pp. 42–43; Perumalil 1971, pp. 43, 44
  76. Migne, P-L 140 1143. (Also see 17. 1131, 17.1133, for his Indian knowledge.)
  77. 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott 1905, pp. 43–44; Perumalil 1971, pp. 44–45, Perumalil and Menachery (STCEI I, II), Migne Edns.; Wm. A. Jurgens, Faith of the Early Fathers:etc. History of Christianity-Source Materials by M. K. George, CLS, Madras, 1982 and the Handbook of Source Materials by Wm. G. Young. Ferroli 1939, pp. 71-; Hunt 1920, pp. 27, 33, 46–50; G.T. Mackenzie, i.c.s., "History of Christianity in Travancore", in The Travancore State Manual, Vol-II, Edited by Nagam Aiya, Trivandrum 1906, pp. 135–233; Menachery, STCEI, I, II.
  78. Medlycott 1905, p. 71.
  79. Collins 2007, p. 119.
  80. Antony 2019.
  81. Thadikatt 2004, p. 114.
  82. Noegel & Wheeler 2002, p. 86.
  83. Santhome Basilica in Chennai — A historical pilgrimage indiastudychannel.com. Retrieved 30 August 2021

Sources

Further reading

  • George Menachery, Ed., The Nazranies, Indian Church History Classics, Vol.1, 1998, esp.books fully reproduced in it by Mackenzie, Medlycott, Farquar& many others.
  • Most, Glenn W. (2005). Doubting Thomas. Cambridge, Mass., London: Harvard University Press. (a study in the reception of Thomas' story in literature and art).
  • Nicholl, Charles (8 November 2012). "The Other Thomas". London Review of Books. 34 (21): 39–43.
  • Perrier, Pierre; Xavier, Walter (2008), Thomas Fonde L'église En Chine (65–68 Ap J.-C.) [Thomas founder of the church in China (65-68 AD)] (in French), Paris: Jubilé, ISBN 9782866794828
  • Richards, William Joseph (1908). The Indian Christians of St. Thomas: Otherwise Called the Syrian Christians. London: Bemrose.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSaint Thomas.
Wikisource has the text of a 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article about Thomas the Apostle.

Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Saint Thomas the Apostle Thomas the Apostle Biblical Hebrew תו מ אס הקדוש Ancient Greek 8wmᾶs Coptic ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ Classical Syriac ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Tʾōma sliḥa Hindi स ट थ मस Seṇṭ thomas Tamil ப ன த த ம யர Puṉita tōmaiyar Malayalam മ ര ത മ ശ ല ഹ Mar tōma sliha also called Didymus twin was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament Saint Thomas is a massively consequential figure for he was the man who introduced Christianity to India just twenty years after Jesus died Thomas is commonly known as Doubting Thomas because he initially doubted the resurrection of Jesus Christ when he was told of it as is related in the Gospel of John alone he later confessed his faith My Lord and my God on seeing the wounds leftover from the crucifixion Saint Thomas the ApostleSaint Thomas the ApostleApostle preacher Christian martyrBorn1st century AD Galilee Roman Province of Judea Roman Empire 1 Died21 December AD 72 Present day Mylapore Tamil Nadu India 2 possibly Tomb under Santhome Church Venerated inSaint Thomas Christians and all Christian Churches that venerate SaintsCanonizedPre CongregationMajor shrineSt Thomas Cathedral Basilica in Mylapore Chennai India Basilica of St Thomas the Apostle in Ortona ItalyFeast3 July Latin Catholic Church Liberal Catholic Church Anglican Communion Malankara Orthodox Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church Syro Malabar Church Believers Eastern Church Syriac Catholic 3 21 December Anglican Communion Hispanic church 26 Pashons and Sunday after Easter Thomas Sunday Coptic Christianity 4 6 October and Sunday after Easter Thomas Sunday Eastern OrthodoxAttributesThe Twin placing his finger in the side of Christ spear means of his Christian martyrdom square his profession a builder PatronageFor Christians in India including Saint Thomas Christians and Archdiocese of Madras Mylapore Tamil Nadu Sri Lanka and Pula Croatia According to traditional accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians of modern day Kerala in India Thomas is believed to have travelled outside the Roman Empire to preach the Gospel travelling as far as the Tamilakam which is in South India 1 5 6 7 and reached Muziris of Tamilakam modern day North Paravur and Kodungalloor in Kerala State India in AD 52 8 9 1 In 1258 some of the relics were brought to Ortona in Abruzzo Italy where they have been held in the Church of Saint Thomas the Apostle 10 He is often regarded as the patron saint of India among its Christian adherents 11 12 and the Feast of Saint Thomas on July 3 is celebrated as Indian Christian Day by believers belonging to many Christian denominations 13 14 The name Thomas remains quite popular among the Saint Thomas Christians of the Indian subcontinent Contents 1 Gospel of John 2 Names and etymologies 2 1 Other names 2 2 Feast days 3 Later history and traditions 3 1 Possible visit to India 4 Death 4 1 Possible visit to China 4 2 Possible travel into Indonesia 4 3 Paraguayan legend 4 4 Relics 4 4 1 Mylapore 4 4 2 Edessa 4 4 3 Chios and Ortona 4 4 4 Iraq 5 Succession 6 Historical references 6 1 Acts of Thomas 7 Doctrine of the Apostles 7 1 Origen 7 2 Eusebius 7 3 Ephrem the Syrian 7 4 Gregory of Nazianzus 7 5 Ambrose of Milan 7 6 Gregory of Tours 8 Writings 9 Saint Thomas Cross 10 In Islam 11 Major shrine 11 1 Santhome Church 12 See also 13 References 13 1 Notes 13 2 Citations 13 3 Sources 13 4 Further reading 14 External linksGospel of John EditThomas first speaks in the Gospel of John In John 11 16 when Lazarus has recently died and the apostles do not wish to go back to Judea Thomas says Let us also go that we may die with him a Thomas speaks again in John 14 5 There Jesus had just explained that he was going away to prepare a heavenly home for his followers and that one day they would join him there Thomas reacted by saying Lord we know not whither thou goest and how can we know the way John 20 24 29 tells how doubting Thomas was skeptical at first when he heard that Jesus had risen from the dead and appeared to the other apostles saying Except I shall see on his hands the print of the nails and put my finger into the print of the nails and thrust my hand into his side I will not believe 20 25 But when Jesus appeared later and invited Thomas to touch his wounds and behold him Thomas showed his belief by saying My Lord and my God 20 28 Jesus then said Thomas because thou hast seen me thou hast believed blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed 20 29 Names and etymologies EditThe name Thomas Koine Greek 8wmᾶs given for the apostle in the New Testament is derived from the Aramaic ת או מ א or Classical Syriac ܬܐܘ ܡ ܐ Taʾwma Tʾōma equivalently from Hebrew ת או ם tʾom meaning twin The equivalent term for twin in Greek which is also used in the New Testament is Didymos Didymos Other names Edit The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas recorded Early Syrian traditions also relate the apostle s full name as Judas Thomas b Some have seen in the Acts of Thomas written in east Syria in the early 3rd century or perhaps as early as the first half of the 2nd century an identification of Thomas with the apostle Judas Son of James better known in English as Jude However the first sentence of the Acts follows the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in distinguishing the apostle Thomas and the apostle Judas son of James Others such as James Tabor identify him as Jude brother of Jesus mentioned by Mark In the Book of Thomas the Contender part of the Nag Hammadi library he is alleged to be a twin to Jesus Now since it has been said that you are my twin and true companion examine yourself 15 A Doubting Thomas is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience a reference to the Gospel of John s depiction of the Apostle Thomas who in John s account refused to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles until he could see and feel Jesus crucifixion wounds Feast days Edit When the feast of Saint Thomas was inserted in the Roman calendar in the 9th century it was assigned to 21 December The Martyrology of St Jerome mentioned the apostle on 3 July the date to which the Roman celebration was transferred in 1969 so that it would no longer interfere with the major ferial days of Advent 16 Traditionalist Roman Catholics who follow the General Roman Calendar of 1960 or earlier and many Anglicans including members of the Episcopal Church as well as members of the Church of England and the Lutheran Church who worship according to the 1662 edition of the Book of Common Prayer 17 still celebrate his feast day on 21 December However most modern liturgical calendars including the Common Worship calendar of the Church of England prefer 3 July Thomas is remembered in the Church of England with a Festival 18 The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches celebrate his feast day on 6 October 19 for those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar 6 October currently falls on 19 October of the modern Gregorian calendar In addition the next Sunday of the Easter Pascha is celebrated as the Sunday of Thomas in commemoration of Thomas question to Jesus which led him to proclaim according to Orthodox teaching two natures of Jesus both human and divine Thomas is commemorated in common with all of the other apostles on 30 June 13 July in a feast called the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles 19 He is also associated with the Arabian or Arapet icon of the Theotokos Mother of God which is commemorated on 6 September 19 September 20 The Malankara Orthodox church celebrates his feast on three days 3 July 21 in memory of the relic translation to Edessa 18 December the Day he was lanced 21 and 21 December when he died 21 Later history and traditions EditThe Passing of Mary adjudged heretical by Pope Gelasius I in 494 was attributed to Joseph of Arimathea 22 23 The document states that Thomas was the only witness of the Assumption of Mary into heaven The other apostles were miraculously transported to Jerusalem to witness her death Thomas was left in India but after her first burial he was transported to her tomb where he witnessed her bodily assumption into heaven from which she dropped her girdle In an inversion of the story of Thomas doubts the other apostles are skeptical of Thomas story until they see the empty tomb and the girdle 24 Thomas receipt of the girdle is commonly depicted in medieval and pre Council of Trent Renaissance art 25 26 Possible visit to India Edit Main articles Saint Thomas Christians Christianity in India and Christianity in Kerala The Postal Department of India brought out a stamp commemorating his mission to the country Map of ancient Silk Road and Spice Route According to traditional accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians of India the Apostle Thomas is speculated to have landed in Muziris Cranganore on the Kerala coast in AD 52 and was martyred in Mylapore near Madras in AD 72 8 9 1 5 The port was destroyed in 1341 by a massive flood that realigned the coasts He is believed by the Saint Thomas Christian tradition to have established seven churches communities in Kerala These churches are at Kodungallur Palayoor Kottakkavu Paravur Kokkamangalam Niranam Nilackal Chayal Kollam and Thiruvithamcode 27 Thomas baptized several families namely Pakalomattom Sankarapuri Kalli Kaliyankal etc 28 Other families claim to have origins almost as far back as these and the religious historian Robert Eric Frykenberg notes that Whatever dubious historicity may be attached to such local traditions there can be little doubt as to their great antiquity or to their great appeal in the popular imagination 29 It was to a land of Niggr people he was sent to clothe them by Baptism in white robes His grateful dawn dispelled India s painful darkness It was his mission to espouse India to the One Begotten The merchant is blessed for having so great a treasure Edessa thus became the blessed city by possessing the greatest pearl India could yield Thomas was said to have worked some miracles in India but mostly speculations and at Edessa Thomas is destined to baptize peoples perversely and steeped in darkness and that in the land of India Hymns of Saint Ephrem edited by Lamy Eph Hymni et Sermones IV Into what land shall I fly from the just I stirred up Death the Apostles to slay that by their death I might escape their blows But harder still am I now stricken the Apostle I slew in Syria has overtaken me in Edessa here and there he is all himself There went I and there was he here and there to my grief I find him quoted in Medlycott 1905 Ch II Ephrem the Syrian a doctor of Syriac Christianity writes in the forty second of his Carmina Nisibina that the Apostle was said put to be killed in Syria and that his remains were subsequently buried in Edessa brought there by an unnamed merchant 2 The tomb of Saint Thomas the Apostle in Mylapore India According to Eusebius record Thomas and Bartholomew were assigned to Parthia and India 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 9 The Didascalia dating from the end of the 3rd century states India and all countries condering it even to the farthest seas received the apostolic ordinances from Judas Thomas who was a guide and ruler in the church which he built Thomas is believed to have left northwest India when an attack threatened and traveled by vessel to the Malabar Coast possibly visiting southeast Arabia and Socotra en route and maybe landing by mistake at the former flourishing port of Muziris modern day North Paravur and Kodungalloor 27 c AD 50 in the company of a Jewish merchant Abbanes Habban Schonfield 1984 125 From there he is said to have preached the gospel throughout the Malabar coast The various churches he founded were located mainly on the Periyar River and its tributaries and along the coast where there were Jewish colonies In accordance with apostolic custom Thomas ordained teachers and leaders or elders who were reported to be the earliest ministry of the Malankara Church Death Edit Martyrdom of St Thomas by Peter Paul Rubens 1636 1638 The reliquaire of the spear which is said to have killed St Thomas in Chennai India According to Syrian Christian tradition Thomas was killed at St Thomas Mount in Edessa on 3 July in AD 72 he was purified and his body was interred in Mylapore 37 Ephrem the Syrian states that the Apostle was killed in Syria and that his relics were taken then to Edessa This is one of the earliest known records of his death 38 The records of Barbosa from the early 16th century record that the tomb was then maintained by a Muslim who kept a lamp burning there 39 The San Thome Basilica Mylapore Chennai Tamil Nadu India presently located at the tomb was first built in the 16th century by the Portuguese and rebuilt in the 19th century 40 St Thomas Mount has been a revered site by Muslims and Christians since at least the 16th century But it is not sure whether it is actually the tomb of St Thomas 41 Possible visit to China Edit Thomas alleged visit to China is mentioned in the books and church traditions of Saint Thomas Christians in India Mar Thoma Syrian Church and the Syro Malabar rites 42 who for a part claim descent from the early Christians evangelized by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52 For example it is found in the Malayalam ballad Thomas Ramban Pattu The Song of the Lord Thomas with the earliest manuscript being from the 17th century The sources clearly have Thomas coming to India then to China and back to India where he died 42 In other attested sources the tradition of making Thomas the apostle of China is found in the Law of Christianity Fiqh al naṣraniyya 43 a compilation of juridical literature by Ibn al Ṭayyib Nestorian theologian and physician who died in 1043 in Baghdad Later in the Nomocanon of Abdisho bar Berika metropolitan of Nisibis and Armenia died in 1318 and the breviary of the Chaldean Church 44 it is written 1 Through St Thomas the error of idolatry vanished from India 2 Through St Thomas the Chinese and Ethiopians were converted to the truth 3 Through St Thomas they accepted the sacrament of baptism and the adoption of sons 4 Through St Thomas they believed in and confessed the Father the Son and Holy Spirit 5 Through St Thomas they preserved the accepted faith of the one God 6 Through St Thomas the life giving splendors rose in all India 7 Through St Thomas the Kingdom of Heaven took wing and ascended to China Translated by Athanasius Kircher in China Illustrata 1667 Office of St Thomas for the Second Nocturn Gaza of the Church of St Thomas of Malabar Chaldean Breviary In its nascent form this tradition is found at the earliest in the Zuqnin Chronicle AD 775 and may have originated in the late Sasanian period 45 46 Perhaps it originated as a 3rd century pseudepigraphon where Thomas would have converted the Magi in the Gospel of Matthew to Christianity as they dwelled in the land of Shir land of Seres Tarim Basin near what was the world s easternmost sea for many people in antiquity 47 Additionally the testimony of Arnobius of Sicca active shortly after AD 300 maintains that the Christian message had arrived in India and among the Persians Medians and Parthians along with the Seres 48 Possible travel into Indonesia Edit According to Kurt E Koch Thomas the Apostle possibly traveled into Indonesia via India with Indian traders 49 Paraguayan legend Edit Ancient oral tradition retained by the Guarani tribes of Paraguay claims that the Apostle Thomas was in Paraguay and preached to them in the estate of our college called Paraguay and twenty leagues distant from Asumpcion This place stretches out on one side into a pleasant plain affording pasture to a vast quantity of cattle on the other where it looks towards the south it is surrounded by hills and rocks in one of which a cross piled up of three large stones is visited and held in great veneration by the natives for the sake of St Thomas for they believe and firmly maintain that the Apostle seated on these stones as on a chair formerly preached to the assembled Indians Dobrizhoffer 1822 p 385 Almost 150 years prior to Dobrizhoffer s arrival in Paraguay another Jesuit Missionary F J Antonio Ruiz de Montoya recollected the same oral traditions from the Paraguayan tribes He wrote The paraguayan tribes they have this very curious tradition They claim that a very holy man Thomas the Apostle himself whom they call Pai Thome lived amongst them and preached to them the Holy Truth wandering and carrying a wooden cross on his back Ruiz de Montoya 1639 Ch XVIII The sole recorded research done about the subject was during Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia s reign after the Independence of Paraguay This is mentioned by Franz Wisner von Morgenstern an Austro Hungarian engineer who served in the Paraguayan armies prior and during the Paraguayan War According to Von Morgenstern some Paraguayan miners while working nearby some hills at the Caaguazu Department found some stones with ancient letters carved in them Dictator Francia sent his finest experts to inspect those stones and they concluded that the letters carved in those stones were Hebrew like symbols but they couldn t translate them nor figure out the exact date when those letters were carved 50 No further recorded investigations exists and according to Wisner people believed that the letters were made by Thomas the Apostle following the tradition Relics Edit Shrine of Saint Thomas in Mylapore 18th century print Relics of Thomas in the Cathedral of Ortona Mylapore Edit Traditional accounts say that the Apostle Thomas preached not only in Kerala but also in other parts of Southern India and a few relics are still kept at San Thome Basilica in Mylapore neighborhood in the central part of the city of Chennai in India 51 Marco Polo the Venetian traveller and author of Description of the World popularly known as Il Milione is reputed to have visited Southern India in 1288 and 1292 The first date has been rejected as he was in China at the time but the second date is generally accepted 51 Edessa Edit According to tradition in AD 232 the greater portion of relics of the Apostle Thomas are said to have been sent by an Indian king and brought from Mylapore to the city of Edessa Mesopotamia on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written The Indian king is named as Mazdai in Syriac sources Misdeos and Misdeus in Greek and Latin sources respectively which has been connected to the Bazdeo on the Kushan coinage of Vasudeva I the transition between M and B being a current one in Classical sources for Indian names 52 The martyrologist Rabban Sliba dedicated a special day to both the Indian king his family and St Thomas Coronatio Thomae apostoli et Misdeus rex Indiae Johannes eus filius huisque mater Tertia Coronation of Thomas the Apostle and Misdeus king of India together with his son Johannes thought to be a latinization of Vizan and his mother Tertia Rabban Sliba Bussagli 1965 p 255 In the 4th century the martyrium erected over his burial place brought pilgrims to Edessa In the 380s Egeria described her visit in a letter she sent to her community of nuns at home Itineraria Egeriae 53 We arrived at Edessa in the Name of Christ our God and on our arrival we straightway repaired to the church and memorial of saint Thomas There according to custom prayers were made and the other things that were customary in the holy places were done we read also some things concerning saint Thomas himself The church there is very great very beautiful and of new construction well worthy to be the house of God and as there was much that I desired to see it was necessary for me to make a three days stay there According to Theodoret of Cyrrhus the bones of Saint Thomas were transferred by Cyrus I Bishop of Edessa from the martyrium outside of Edessa to a church in the south west corner of the city on 22 August 394 54 In 441 the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius donated a silver coffin to hold the relics 55 In AD 522 Cosmas Indicopleustes called the Alexandrian visited the Malabar Coast He is the first traveller who mentions Syrian Christians in Malabar in his book Christian Topography He mentions that in the town of Kalliana Quilon or Kollam there was a bishop who had been consecrated in Persia 56 In 1144 the city was conquered by the Zengids and the shrine destroyed 55 Chios and Ortona Edit Ortona s Basilica of Saint Thomas The reputed relics of Saint Thomas remained at Edessa until they were translated to Chios in 1258 57 Some portion of the relics were later transported to the West and now rest in the Cathedral of St Thomas the Apostle in Ortona Italy However the skull of Thomas is said to be at Monastery of Saint John the Theologian on the Greek island of Patmos 58 Ortona s three galleys reached the island of Chios in 1258 led by General Leone Acciaiuoli Chios was considered the island where Thomas after his death in India had been buried A portion fought around the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands the other in the sea lapping at the then Syrian coast The three galleys of Ortona moved on the second front of the war and reached the island of Chios The tale is provided by Giambattista De Lectis physician and writer of the 16th century of Ortona After the looting the navarca Ortona Leone went to pray in the main church of the island of Chios and was drawn to a chapel adorned and resplendent with lights An elderly priest through an interpreter informed him that in that oratory was venerated the Body of Saint Thomas the Apostle Leone filled with an unusual sweetness gathered in deep prayer At that moment a light hand twice invited him to come closer The navarca Leone reached out and took a bone from the largest hole of the tombstone on which were carved the Greek letters and a halo depicted a bishop from the waist up He was the confirmation of what he had said the old priest and that you are indeed in the presence of the Apostle s body He went back on the galley and planned the theft for the next night along with fellow Ruggiero Grogno They lifted the heavy gravestone and watched the underlying relics The wrapped in snow white cloths them laid in a wooden box stored at Ortona to the looting of 1566 and brought them aboard the galley Leone then along with other comrades he returned again in the church took the tombstone and took her away Just the Chinardo admiral was aware of the precious cargo moved all the sailors of the Muslim faith on other ships and ordered him to take the route to Ortona Portal of Ortona St Thomas Basilica He landed at the port of Ortona 6 September 1258 According to the story of De Lectis he was informed the abbot Jacopo responsible for Ortona Church which predispose full provision for hospitality felt and shared by all the people Since then the body of the apostle and the gravestone are preserved in the crypt of the Basilica In 1259 a parchment written in Bari by the court under John Peacock contracts the presence of five witnesses preserved in Ortona at the Diocesan Library confirming the veracity of that event reported as mentioned by Giambattista De Lectis physician and writer Ortona of the 16th century The relics resisted both the Saracen looting of 1566 and the destruction of the Nazis in the battle of Ortona fought in late December 1943 The basilica was blown up because the belfry was considered a lookout point by the allies coming by sea from San Vito Chietino The relics together with the treasure of Saint Thomas were intended by the Germans to be sold but the monks entombed them inside the bell tower the only surviving part of the semi ruined church Original Chios tombstone of Thomas brought in the crypt of Ortona s Basilica The tombstone of Thomas brought to Ortona from Chios along with the relics of the Apostle is currently preserved in the crypt of St Thomas Basilica behind the altar The urn containing the bones instead is placed under the altar It is the cover of a fake coffin fairly widespread burial form in the early Christian world as the top of a tomb of less expensive material The plaque has an inscription and a bas relief that refer in many respects to the Syro Mesopotamian Tombstone Thomas the Apostle on inclusion can be read in Greek characters uncial the expression osios thomas that Saint Thomas It can be dated from the point of view palaeographic and lexical to the 3rd 5th century a time when the term osios is still used as a synonym of aghios in that holy is he that is in the grace of God and is inserted in the church the two vocabulary therefore indicate the Christians In the particular case of Saint Thomas plaque then the word osios can easily be the translation of the word Syriac mar Lord attributed in the ancient world but also to the present day is a saint to be a bishop Iraq Edit The finger bones of Saint Thomas were discovered during restoration work at the Church of Saint Thomas in Mosul Iraq in 1964 59 and were housed there until the Fall of Mosul after which the relics were transferred to the Monastery of Saint Matthew on 17 June 2014 60 61 Succession EditAs per the tradition of Saint Thomas Christians St Thomas the Apostle established his throne in India and ordained Mar Keppa who was a chera prince as his successor 62 Historical references Edit By the command of an Indian King he was thrust through with Lances A number of early Christian writings written during the centuries immediately following the first Ecumenical Council of 325 mention Thomas mission The Transitus Mariae describes each of the apostles purportedly being temporarily transported to heaven during the Assumption of Mary Acts of Thomas Edit The main source is the apocryphal Acts of Thomas sometimes called by its full name The Acts of Judas Thomas written circa 180 230 AD CE 63 64 These are generally regarded by various Christian religions as apocryphal or even heretical The two centuries that lapsed between the life of the apostle and the recording of this work cast doubt on their authenticity The king Misdeus or Mizdeos was infuriated when Thomas converted the queen Tertia the king s son Juzanes sister in law princess Mygdonia and her friend Markia Misdeus led Thomas outside the city and ordered four soldiers to take him to the nearby hill where the soldiers speared Thomas and killed him After Thomas death Syphorus was elected the first presbyter of Mazdai by the surviving converts while Juzanes was the first deacon The names Misdeus Tertia Juzanes Syphorus Markia and Mygdonia c f Mygdonia a province of Mesopotamia may suggest Greek descent or cultural influences 64 Greek traders had long visited Muziris Greek kingdoms in northern India and Bactria founded by Alexander the Great were vassals dubious discuss of the Indo Parthians 65 Doctrine of the Apostles EditThe Doctrine of the Apostles as reflected in Cureton 1864 pp 32 34 attests that Thomas had written Christian doctrine from India India and all its own countries and those bordering on it even to the farther sea received the Apostle s hand of Priesthood from Judas Thomas who was Guide and Ruler in the Church which he built and ministered there In what follows the whole Persia of the Assyrians and Medes and of the countries round about Babylon even to the borders of the Indians and even to the country of Gog and Magog are said to have received the Apostles Hand of Priesthood from Aggaeus the disciple of Addaeus Cureton 1864 p 33 Origen Edit Christian philosopher Origen taught with great acclaim in Alexandria and then in Caesarea 66 He is the first known writer to record the casting of lots by the Apostles Origen s original work has been lost but his statement about Parthia falling to Thomas has been preserved by Eusebius Origen in the third chapter of his Commentary on Genesis says that according to tradition Thomas s allotted field of labour was Parthia 67 68 69 Eusebius Edit Quoting Origen Eusebius of Caesarea says When the holy Apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered over all the world Thomas so the tradition has it obtained as his portion Parthia 70 Judas who is also called Thomas has a role in the legend of king Abgar of Edessa Urfa for having sent Thaddaeus to preach in Edessa after the Ascension 71 33 Ephrem the Syrian also recounts this legend 72 Ephrem the Syrian Edit Many devotional hymns composed by Ephrem the Syrian bear witness to the Edessan Church s strong conviction concerning Thomas s Indian Apostolate There the devil speaks of Thomas as the Apostle I slew in India Also The merchant brought the bones to Edessa 73 Another hymn eulogizing Saint Thomas reads The bones the merchant hath brought In his several journeyings to India And thence on his return All riches which there he found Dirt in his eyes he did repute when to thy sacred bones compared In yet another hymn Ephrem speaks of the mission of Thomas The earth darkened with sacrifices fumes to illuminate a land of people dark fell to thy lot a tainted land Thomas has purified India s dark night was flooded with light by Thomas Medlycott 1905 pp 21 32 dubious discuss better source needed Gregory of Nazianzus Edit Gregory of Nazianzus was born AD 330 consecrated a bishop by his friend Basil of Caesarea in 372 his father the Bishop of Nazianzus induced him to share his charge In 379 the people of Constantinople called him to be their bishop By the Orthodox Church he is emphatically called the Theologian 74 What were not the Apostles strangers amidst the many nations and countries over which they spread themselves Peter indeed may have belonged to Judea but what had Paul in common with the gentiles Luke with Achaia Andrew with Epirus John with Ephesus Thomas with India Mark with Italy 75 better source needed Ambrose of Milan Edit Ambrose of Milan was thoroughly acquainted with the Greek and Latin Classics and had a good deal of information on India and Indians He speaks of the Gymnosophists of India the Indian Ocean the river Ganges etc a number of times 76 This admitted of the Apostles being sent without delay according to the saying of our Lord Jesus Even those Kingdoms which were shut out by rugged mountains became accessible to them as India to Thomas Persia to Matthew 77 better source needed Gregory of Tours Edit The testimony of Gregory of Tours died 594 Thomas the Apostle according to the narrative of his martyrdom is stated to have suffered in India His holy remains corpus after a long interval of time were removed to the city of Edessa in Syria and there interred In that part of India where they first rested stand a monastery and a church of striking dimensions elaborately adorned and designed This Theodore who had been to the place narrated to us 78 Writings EditLet none read the gospel according to Thomas for it is the work not of one of the twelve apostles but of one of Mani s three wicked disciples Cyril of Jerusalem Cathechesis V 4th century In the first two centuries of the Christian era a number of writings were circulated It is unclear now why Thomas was seen as an authority for doctrine although this belief is documented in Gnostic groups as early as the Pistis Sophia In that Gnostic work Mary Magdalene one of the disciples says Now at this time my Lord hear so that I speak openly for thou hast said to us He who has ears to hear let him hear Concerning the word which thou didst say to Philip Thou and Thomas and Matthew are the three to whom it has been given to write every word of the Kingdom of the Light and to bear witness to them hear now that I give the interpretation of these words It is this which thy light power once prophesied through Moses Through two and three witnesses everything will be established The three witnesses are Philip and Thomas and Matthew Pistis Sophia 1 43 An early non Gnostic tradition may lie behind this statement which also emphasizes the primacy of the Gospel of Matthew in its Aramaic form over the other canonical three Besides the Acts of Thomas there was a widely circulated Infancy Gospel of Thomas probably written in the later 2nd century and probably also in Syria which relates the miraculous events and prodigies of Jesus boyhood This is the document which tells for the first time the familiar legend of the twelve sparrows which Jesus at the age of five fashioned from clay on the Sabbath day which took wing and flew away The earliest manuscript of this work is a 6th century one in Syriac This gospel was first referred to by Irenaeus Ron Cameron notes In his citation Irenaeus first quotes a non canonical story that circulated about the childhood of Jesus and then goes directly on to quote a passage from the infancy narrative of the Gospel of Luke Luke 2 49 Since the Infancy Gospel of Thomas records both of these stories in relative close proximity to one another it is possible that the apocryphal writing cited by Irenaeus is in fact what is now known as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas Because of the complexities of the manuscript tradition however there is no certainty as to when the stories of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas began to be written down The best known in modern times of these documents is the sayings document that is being called the Gospel of Thomas a noncanonical work whose date is disputed The opening line claims it is the work of Didymos Judas Thomas whose identity is unknown This work was discovered in a Coptic translation in 1945 at the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi near the site of the monastery of Chenoboskion Once the Coptic text was published scholars recognized that an earlier Greek translation had been published from fragments of papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus in the 1890s Saint Thomas Cross Edit Saint Thomas Christian cross In the 16th century work Jornada Antonio Gouvea writes of ornate crosses known as Saint Thomas Crosses It is also known as Nasrani Menorah 79 Persian Cross or Mar Thoma Sleeva 80 These crosses are believed to date from the 6th century as per the tradition and are found in a number of churches in Kerala Mylapore and Goa Jornada is the oldest known written document to refer to this type of cross as a Saint Thomas Cross Gouvea also writes about the veneration of the Cross at Cranganore referring to the cross as Cross of Christians There are several interpretations of the Nasrani symbol The interpretation based on Christian Jewish tradition assumes that its design was based on Jewish menorah an ancient symbol of the Hebrews which consists of seven branched lamp stand candelabra 79 The interpretation based on local culture states that the Cross without the figure of Jesus and with flowery arms symbolizing joyfulness points to the resurrection theology of Paul the Apostle the Holy Spirit on the top represents the role of Holy Spirit in the resurrection of Jesus Christ The lotus symbolizing Buddhism and the Cross over it shows that Christianity was established in the land of Buddha The three steps indicate Calvary and the rivulets channels of Grace flowing from the Cross 81 In Islam EditThe Qur anic account of the disciples of Jesus does not include their names numbers or any detailed accounts of their lives Muslim exegesis however more or less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter Philip Thomas Bartholomew Matthew Andrew James Jude John and Simon the Zealot 82 Major shrine EditSanthome Church Edit San Thome Church built in 1523 Santhome Church is said to be the tomb of St Thomas located in Chennai India 83 It was built in 1523 by Portuguese missionaries It is a National shrine Basilica and Cathedral It is very important site for Christians and a major shrine of St Thomas See also EditBook of Thomas the Contender Syro Malabar Catholic Church Syriac Orthodox Church Jacobite Syrian Christian Church Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Gospel of Barnabas List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East Mar Thoma Syrian Church Quetzalcoatl an Aztec god that was thought a reflection of Thomas by some Catholic missionaries Saint Thomas of Mylapur Sao Tome St Thomas Church disambiguation for a listing of all churches and chapels named in his honourReferences EditNotes Edit All three occasions are discussed in detail by Dr Mathew Vallanickal Faith and Character of Apostle Thomas in The St Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India Vol II Trichur 1973 p 2 Judas Thomas as he is called in the Acta Thomae and elsewhere in Syriac tradition Thurston 1913 Citations Edit a b c d Fahlbusch et al 2008 p 285 a b Medlycott 1905 p 157 Liturgical Calendar December Latin mass society org Archived from the original on 5 February 2012 Retrieved 25 April 2010 The martyrdom of Thomas the Apostle The Day of Sinxar on the 26th of Bashnas the month of Bashnas the Coptic month st takla org in Arabic Retrieved 24 February 2020 a b Slapak 1995 p 27 Medlycott 1905 Puthiakunnel 1973 a b Johnson amp Zacharia 2016 a b c About Thomas The Apostle at the Wayback Machine archived 2011 02 08 Co Cathedral Basilica of St Thomas the Apostle GCatholic org Retrieved 11 January 2015 Patron Saints of Countries Retrieved 10 May 2015 Medlycott 1905 Ch IV Carvalho Nirmala 29 June 2021 First Indian Christian Day on 3 July AsiaNews Retrieved 4 July 2021 Kumar Anugrah 4 July 2021 India Christians celebrate first Indian Christian Day feast of St Thomas The Christian Post Retrieved 4 July 2021 Thomas the Apostle n d Catholic Church 1969 p 96 Propers for St Thomas the Apostle Commonprayer org Retrieved 25 April 2010 The Calendar The Church of England Retrieved 27 March 2021 a b Holy Glorious Apostle Thomas Orthodox icon and synaxarion for 6 October Icon of the Mother of God Arapet Arabian Orthodox icon and synaxarion for 6 September a b c Malankara Orthodox Church Retrieved 10 May 2015 Lewis 1927 Robinson 1926 p 33 The Passing of Mary Ccel org 1 June 2005 Retrieved 25 April 2010 St Thomas Receiving the Virgin Mary s Girdle at her Assumption Dimus no 17 April 2008 Norman 1993 pp 1 42 a b History Archived 4 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Payyappilly Palakkappilly Nasrani family Mani 2016 p 14 Frykenberg 2008 pp 101 102 Medlycott 1905 pp 18 71 James 1924 pp 364 436 Medlycott 1905 pp 1 17 213 297 a b Eusebius 1885 Book III Chapter 1 Church History 1 via Wikisource Farquhar 1926 p 30 Smith 1914 p 235 Brown 1956 pp 49 59 Farmer 2011 p 418 Marco Polo 1920 p 117 Hunter 1886 p 237 Neill 2004 p 29 Hunter 1886 p 31 a b Bays 2011 Ch 1 Hoenerbach amp Spies 1956 Gilman amp Klimkeit 2016 Tubach 1995 pp 397 430 Takahashi 2011 Andrade 2018 pp 58 59 Arnobius of Sicca 1949 p 125 Koch 1972 von Morgenstern 1998 p 198 a b Muthiah 2014 Bussagli 1965 p 255 The Pilgrimage of S Silvia of Aquitania to the Holy Places Retrieved 10 May 2015 Harvey 2005 p 124 a b Segal 2005 pp 174 176 250 Sadasivan 2000 p 410 Thurston 1913 Sanidopoulos 2010 من الأرشيف اكتشاف ذخيرة الرسول توما بيد مطران الموصل مار سويريوس زكا عيواص Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate in Arabic Retrieved 18 May 2018 Arraf 2018 Holy Relics of Saint Thomas transferred to the Monastery of St Matthew in Nineveh OCP 9 July 2014 Retrieved 18 May 2018 Ramban Pattu lines 17 24 Wright 1871 Rev Paul Bedjan Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum Vol III Leipsic Paris 1892 Medlycott 1905 pp 221 225 Appendix Also in The Nazranies Ed G Menachery Ollur 1998 a b The Consummation of Thomas the Apostle Retrieved 10 May 2015 Mookerji 1966 p 28 Eusebius 1885 Book III Chapter 1 Church History 2 via Wikisource Perumalil 1971 pp 50 51 20th Century Discussions Hambye 1952 Comes S J Did St Thomas Really come to India in Menachery Ed STCEI II Farquhar 1926 pp 30 31 Panjikaran 1926 p 99 esp for reference to Pantaenus Indian visit Reproduced in ICHC I The Nazranies ed George Menachery 1998 pp 277 ff Eusebius 1885 Book I Chapter 13 Church History 4 via Wikisource Patrologia Graeca Migne 19 24 20 215 Bickell S Ephraemi Syri Caramina Nisibena Lipsiae 1866 Monsignor Lamy S Ephraemi Syri Hymni et Sermones Quarto 4 vols Breviary acc to the Rite of the Church of Antioch of the Syrians Mosul 1886 96 Medlycott 1905 pp 21 32 Alias Menachery Ed STCEI II pp 18ff Homil XXXII xi Contra Arianos et de seipso Migne PG 36 228 20th Century Discussions Medlycott 1905 pp 42 43 Perumalil 1971 pp 43 44 Migne P L 140 1143 Also see 17 1131 17 1133 for his Indian knowledge 20th Century Discussions Medlycott 1905 pp 43 44 Perumalil 1971 pp 44 45 Perumalil and Menachery STCEI I II Migne Edns Wm A Jurgens Faith of the Early Fathers etc History of Christianity Source Materials by M K George CLS Madras 1982 and the Handbook of Source Materials by Wm G Young Ferroli 1939 pp 71 Hunt 1920 pp 27 33 46 50 G T Mackenzie i c s History of Christianity in Travancore in The Travancore State Manual Vol II Edited by Nagam Aiya Trivandrum 1906 pp 135 233 Menachery STCEI I II Medlycott 1905 p 71 a b Collins 2007 p 119 Antony 2019 Thadikatt 2004 p 114 Noegel amp Wheeler 2002 p 86 Santhome Basilica in Chennai A historical pilgrimage indiastudychannel com Retrieved 30 August 2021 Sources Edit Andrade Nathanael J 2018 The Journey of Christianity to India in Late Antiquity Networks and the Movement of Culture Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 1 108 41912 3 Antony M Thomas 17 February 2019 Saint Thomas Cross A Religio Cultural Logo of Saint Thomas Christians Nasrani net Retrieved 16 June 2012 Arnobius of Sicca 1949 The Case Against the Pagans Volume 1 Translated by George E McCracken Paulist Press ISBN 978 0 8091 0248 8 volume has extra text help Arraf Jane 31 March 2018 Iraq s Christians Remain Displaced This Easter NPR Retrieved 18 May 2018 Bays Daniel H 2011 A New History of Christianity in China John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 978 1 4051 5954 8 Brown Leslie W 1956 The Indian Christians of St Thomas an Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar Cambridge University Press Bussagli Mario 1965 Arte del Grandhara Sadea Sansoni Catholic Church 1969 Calendarium Romanum Roman Calendar in Latin Rome Libreria Editrice Vaticana Collins Paul M 2007 Christian Inculturation in India Ashgate ISBN 978 0 7546 6076 7 Coward Harold G 1993 Hindu Christian dialogue perspectives and encounters Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers ISBN 81 208 1158 5 OCLC 34230629 Cureton W 1864 Ancient Syriac Documents Relative to the Earliest Establishment of Christianity in Edessa and the Neighbouring Countries from the Year After Our Lord Ascension to the Beginning of the Fourth Century London Williams and Norgate Dobrizhoffer Martin 1822 An account of the Abipones an equestrian people of Paraguay London John Murray Fahlbusch Erwin Bromiley Geoffrey William Lochman Jan Milic Mbiti John Pelikan Jaroslav 2008 The Encyclodedia of Christianity Vol 5 Wm B Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 2417 2 volume has extra text help Farmer David Hugh 2011 The Oxford Dictionary of Saints Fifth Edition Revised 5th ed Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 959660 7 Ferroli Domenico 1939 The Jesuits in Malabar Volume 1 Printed at the Bangalore Press volume has extra text help Farquhar John Nicol 1926 Ch 4 The Apostle Thomas in North India Manchester University Press Frykenberg Robert Eric 2008 Christianity in India from Beginnings to the Present Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 826377 7 Gilman Ian Klimkeit Hans Joachim 2016 Christians in Asia before 1500 Routledge ISBN 978 1138970663 Hambye E R 1952 Saint Thomas and India The Clergy Monthly 16 Griswold H D 1930 Anthropology of the Syrian Christians American Anthropologist 32 2 318 319 doi 10 1525 aa 1930 32 2 02a00170 ISSN 0002 7294 lt ref gt Harvey Susan Ashbrook 2005 Incense in our land Julian Saba and Early Christianity Wilderness Essays in Honour of Frances Young T amp T Clark pp 120 134 Hoenerbach W Spies O 1956 Ibn At Taiyib Fiqh An Nasraniya Das Recht Der Christenheit Leuven Peeters ISBN 978 9042901964 Hunt William Saunders 1920 The Anglican Church in Travancore and Cochin 1816 1916 Church Missionary Society Hunter William Wilson 1886 The Indian empire its peoples history and products Morrison amp Gibb James Montague Rhodes 1924 The Acts of Thomas The Apocryphal New Testament Being the Apocryphal Gospels Acts Epistles and Apocalypses with Other Narratives and Fragments Oxford Clarendon Press Johnson Lynn Zacharia Paul 19 February 2016 The Surprisingly Early History of Christianity in India Smithsonian Magazine Retrieved 24 February 2020 Koch Kurt E 1972 The Revival in Indonesia Evangelization Publishers Lewis Lionel Smithett 1927 St Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury Or The Apostolic Church of Britain Covenant Mani Thattunkal Zachariah 2016 ThomaaSleehaayude Kerala ChristhavaSabha Onnaam Noottaandil T Z Mani Marco Polo 1920 Henri Cordier ed Ser Marco Polo Notes and Addenda to Sir Henry Yule s Edition Containing the Results of Recent Research and Discovery Translated by Sir Henry Yule John Murray Medlycott Adolphus E 1905 India and the Apostle Thomas An Inquiry with a Critical Analysis of the Acta Thomae London David Nutt Mookerji Radhakumud 1966 Chandragupta Maurya and His Times Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 81 208 0405 0 Muthiah S 2014 Madras Rediscovered East West Press ISBN 978 93 85724 77 0 Neill Stephen 2004 A History of Christianity in India The Beginnings to AD 1707 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 54885 4 Noegel Scott B Wheeler Brannon M 2002 Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism Scarecrow ISBN 978 0 8108 4305 9 Norman Diana 1993 In imitation of Saint Thomas Aquinas art patronage and liturgy within a Renaissance chapel Renaissance Studies 7 1 42 doi 10 1111 j 1477 4658 1993 tb00266 x Panjikaran Joseph C 1926 Christianity in Malabar with Special Reference to the St Thomas Christians of the Syro Malabar Rite Rome Pont Institutum orientalium studiorum Perumalil A C 1971 The Apostles in India Patna Xavier Teachers Training Institute Puthiakunnel Thomas 1973 Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St Thomas In Menachery George ed The St Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India Volume 2 Trichur OCLC 1237836 volume has extra text help Robinson Joseph Armitage 1926 Two Glastonbury Legends King Arthur and St Joseph of Arimathea Cambridge University Press Ruiz de Montoya Antonio 1639 Chapter XVIII Conquista espiritual hecha por los religiosos de la Compania de Jesus en las provincias del Paraguay Parana Uruguay y Tape Madrid Sadasivan S N 2000 A Social History of India APH ISBN 978 81 7648 170 0 Sanidopoulos John 6 October 2010 The Skull of the Holy Apostle Thomas in Patmos Mystagogy Retrieved 10 May 2015 Segal J B 2005 Edessa the Blessed City Gorgias ISBN 1 59333 059 6 Slapak Orpa ed 1995 The Jews of India A Story of Three Communities Muzeon Yisrael ISBN 978 965 278 179 6 via University Press of New England Smith Vincent A 1914 Early History of India Oxford Clarendon Press Takahashi Hidemi 2011 China Syriac Christianity in in Brock Sebastian P Butts Aaron M Kiraz George A van Rompay Lucas eds Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage Electronic ed Gorgias Press Thadikatt Geo 2004 Liturgical Identity of Mar Thoma Nasrani Church Kottayam Thomas the Apostle n d The Book of Thomas NHC II 7 138 7 138 12 Translated by John D Turner Archived from the original on 30 January 2016 Thurston Herbert 1913 St Thomas the Apostle In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company Tubach Jurgen 1995 Der Apostel Thomas in China Die Herkunft einer Tradition The Apostle Thomas in China The origin of a tradition In Samuel V C Panicker Geevarghese Thekeparampil Rev Jacob eds The Harp in German Vol 8 9 Gorgias pp 397 430 volume has extra text help Vadakkekara Benedict 2007 Origin of Christianity in India a historiographical critique Delhi Media House ISBN 978 81 7495 258 5 OCLC 166255572 von Morgenstern Franz Wisner 1998 El Dictador del Paraguay Jose Gaspar de Francia in Spanish Asuncion Paraguay Instituto Paraguayo Aleman Wright William ed 1871 Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles The Syriac texts Williams and Norgate Further reading Edit George Menachery Ed The Nazranies Indian Church History Classics Vol 1 1998 esp books fully reproduced in it by Mackenzie Medlycott Farquar amp many others Most Glenn W 2005 Doubting Thomas Cambridge Mass London Harvard University Press a study in the reception of Thomas story in literature and art Nicholl Charles 8 November 2012 The Other Thomas London Review of Books 34 21 39 43 Perrier Pierre Xavier Walter 2008 Thomas Fonde L eglise En Chine 65 68 Ap J C Thomas founder of the church in China 65 68 AD in French Paris Jubile ISBN 9782866794828 Richards William Joseph 1908 The Indian Christians of St Thomas Otherwise Called the Syrian Christians London Bemrose External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Thomas Wikisource has the text of a 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article about Thomas the Apostle Apostle in India The tomb of the Apostle Mylapore santhomechurch built over the tomb of Saint Thomas Jacobite Syrian Christian Church Mylapore Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church St Thomas Indian Orthodox Church Greater Washington A E Medlycott India and the Apostle Thomas London 1905 e text Niranam Valiyapally and Saint Thomas The Nasrani Syrian Christians Network Official Site of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church Mar Thoma Churches all over the world Passages to India Orthodox Church Portal Apostle of India at the Wayback Machine archived 2011 07 20 The Little Gospel of St Thomas Sri Lankan film dramatisation Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Thomas the Apostle amp oldid 1055011476, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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