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Saint Timothy

Timothy or Timothy of Ephesus (Greek:Τιμόθεος; Timótheos, meaning "honouring God" or "honoured by God") was an early Christian evangelist and the first Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97.

Saint
Timothy
Icon of Saint Timothy
Bishop, Martyr
Bornc. AD 17
Lystra or Derbe
Diedc. AD 97 (aged 79/80)
Ephesus
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodoxy
Anglican Communion
Lutheran Church
FeastJanuary 22 (Eastern Christianity)
January 26 (Roman Catholic Church, Lutheranism)
January 24 (some local calendars and pre-1970 General Roman Calendar)
23 Tobi (Coptic Christianity)
27 Tobi (Relocation of Relics - Coptic Christianity)
Thursday after fifth Sunday after feast of the Holy Cross (Armenian Apostolic Church)
Attributespastoral staff
PatronageInvoked against stomach and intestinal disorders

Timothy was from the Lycaonian city of Lystra or of Derbe in Asia Minor, born of a Jewish mother who had become a Christian believer, and a Greek father. The Apostle Paul met him during his second missionary journey and he became Paul's companion and missionary partner along with Silas. The New Testament indicates that Timothy traveled with Paul the Apostle, who was also his mentor. He is addressed as the recipient of the First and Second Epistles to Timothy. While included in the Pauline epistles of the New Testament, First and Second Timothy are considered by many biblical scholars to be pseudoepigraphical and not written by Paul.

Contents

Timothy was a native of Lystra or of Derbe in Lycaonia (Anatolia). When Paul and Barnabas first visited Lystra, Paul healed a person crippled from birth, leading many of the inhabitants to accept his teaching. When he returned a few years later with Silas, Timothy was already a respected member of the Christian congregation, as were his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice, both Jews. In 2 Timothy 1:5, his mother and grandmother are noted as eminent for their piety and faith. Timothy is said to have been acquainted with the Scriptures since childhood. In 1 Corinthians 16:10 there is a suggestion that he was by nature reserved and timid: "When Timothy comes, see that you put him at ease among you, for he is doing the work of the Lord".

Timothy's father was a Greek Gentile. Thus Timothy had not been circumcised and Paul now ensured that this was done, according to Acts 16:1–3, to ensure Timothy's acceptability to the Jews whom they would be evangelizing. According to John William McGarvey: "Yet we see him in the case before us, circumcising Timothy with his own hand, and this 'on account of certain Jews who were in those quarters'". This did not compromise the decision made at the Council of Jerusalem, that gentile believers were not required to be circumcised.[citation needed]

Rembrandt's Timothy and his grandmother, 1648.
Statue of Saint Timothy at the Saint Timothy's Church in The Villages, Florida.

Timothy became St Paul's disciple, and later his constant companion and co-worker in preaching. In the year 52, Paul and Silas took Timothy along with them on their journey to Macedonia. Augustine extols his zeal and disinterestedness in immediately forsaking his country, his house, and his parents, to follow the apostle, to share in his poverty and sufferings. Timothy may have been subject to ill health or "frequent ailments", and Paul encouraged him to "use a little wine for your stomach's sake".

When Paul went on to Athens, Silas and Timothy stayed for some time at Beroea and Thessalonica before joining Paul at Corinth. Timothy next appears in Acts during Paul's stay in Ephesus (54–57), and in late 56 or early 57 Paul sent him forth to Macedonia with the aim that he would eventually arrive at Corinth. Timothy arrived at Corinth just after Paul's letter, 1 Corinthians reached that city.[citation needed]

Timothy was with Paul in Corinth during the winter of 57–58 when Paul dispatched his Letter to the Romans (Romans 16:21). According to Acts 20:3–6, Timothy was with Paul in Macedonia just before Passover in 58; he left the city before Paul, going ahead of him to await Paul in Troas (Acts 20:4–5). "That is the last mention of Timothy in Acts", Raymond Brown notes. In the year 64, Paul left Timothy at Ephesus, to govern that church.

His relationship with Paul was close. Timothy's name appears as the co-author on 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, and Philemon. Paul wrote to the Philippians about Timothy, "I have no one like him" (Philippians 2:19–23). When Paul was in prison and awaiting martyrdom, he summoned his faithful friend Timothy for a last farewell.

That Timothy was jailed at least once during the period of the writing of the New Testament is implied by the writer of Hebrews mentioning Timothy's release at the end of the epistle.Hebrews 13:23

Although not stated in the Bible, other sources have records of the apostle's death. The apocryphal Acts of Timothy states that in the year 97 AD, the 80-year-old bishop tried to halt a procession in honor of the goddess Diana by preaching the Gospel. The angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, and stoned him to death.

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Timothy is venerated as an apostle, saint, and martyr by the Eastern Orthodox Church, with his feast day on 22 January. The General Roman Calendar venerates Timothy together with Titus by a memorial on 26 January, the day after the Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul. From the 13th century until 1969 the feast of Timothy (alone) was on 24 January, the day before that of the Conversion of Saint Paul. Along with Titus and Silas, Timothy is commemorated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Episcopal Church on 26 January. Timothy's feast is kept by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod on 24 January.

Timothy is remembered (with Titus) in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 26 January.

In the 4th century, the relics of Timothy were transferred from Ephesus to Constantinople and placed in the Church of the Holy Apostles near the tombs of Andrew and Luke. Later on in the 13th century, the relics seem to have been taken to Italy by a count returning from the crusades, and buried around 1239 in the Termoli Cathedral. The remains were re-discovered in 1945, during restoration works.

Saint Timothy is also the protagonist of Gore Vidal's novel Live from Golgotha (1992).

Patronage

Timothy is the patron invoked against stomach and intestinal disorders.

There are two letters to Timothy attributed to Paul the Apostle, First Epistle to Timothy and Second Epistle to Timothy. These, along with the Epistle to Titus are called the Pastoral Epistles and are considered pseudepigraphic by many modern scholars, including Bart Ehrman, Raymond Collins, and David E. Aune.

First Timothy (c. 62–64)

The author of this epistle writes to Timothy concerning the organization of the church and Timothy's own leadership within the body. Major themes include the use of The Law (1Timothy 1:7–11), warnings against false doctrine such as Encratism, instructions for prayer (1Timothy 2:1–8), roles of women in the church, qualifications for leaders of the church (1Timothy 3:1–13), and the treatment of widows, elders, masters, youth, and church members in general (1 Timothy 5:1–5:20).

Second Timothy (c. 62–64)

According to the letter, Paul urges Timothy not to have a "spirit of timidity" and not to "be ashamed to testify about our Lord" (2 Timothy 1:7–8). He also entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him. Paul clearly anticipates his being put to death and realities beyond in his valedictory found in2 Timothy 4:6–8. He exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and steadfastness in the face of false teachings, with advice about combating them with reference to the teachings of the past, and to patience under persecution (2 Timothy 1:6–15), and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office (2 Timothy 4:1–5), with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of the quick and the dead.

Main article: Acts of Timothy

The Acts of Timothy (Acta Timothei) is a work of New Testament apocrypha, most likely from the 5th century. The Acts tell how Paul had consecrated Timothy as bishop during Nero's reign on the occasion of a visit to Ephesus which they made together. Then, under Nerva, Timothy suffers a martyr's death during a pagan festival. Timothy "attempts to put an end to the wild and violent goings-on but himself falls victim to the orgies."

The Acts of Timothy contain almost as much material about John the Evangelist, who was also a resident of Ephesus as they do about Timothy.

  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 January 2021). "Saint Timothy". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved5 February 2021. Saint Timothy, (born, Lystra, Lycaonia [now Lusna, Tur.]
  2. Albert Barnes (theologian): "Timothy was a native of either Derbe or Lystra, cities near to each other" [1]
  3. "Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra. A disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek. He was well spoken of by the brothers at Lystra and Iconium." Acts 16:1
  4. "The Martyrdom of St. Timothy, the Apostle.", Coptic Orthodox Church Network
  5. "The Relocation of the Relics of St. Timothy, the Apostle.", COCN
  6. Domar: the calendrical and liturgical cycle of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church, Armenian Orthodox Theological Research Institute, 2002, p. 528.
  7. Agasso, Domenico. "Saint Timothy, Bishop", Santi e Beati, February 1, 2001
  8. "Timothy". Finde. Zelo. Retrieved2017-06-18.
  9. Eusebius (1965), "3.4", Historia Ecclesiastica [The History of the Church], Williamson, G.A. transl., Harmonsworth: Penguin, p. 109.
  10. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 January 2021). "Saint Timothy". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved5 February 2021. Saint Timothy, (born, Lystra, Lycaonia [now Lusna, Tur.])
  11. Acts 16:1–4
  12. "St. Timothy biography". St. Timothy ELCA. Retrieved2017-06-18.
  13. "Who Was Saint Timothy". Fort Worth, TX: St.Timothy's Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on 2014-11-14. Retrieved2014-01-17.
  14. "Commentary on Acts of the Apostles". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved2017-06-18.
  15. "Apostle Timothy of the Seventy". Lives of the saints. OCA. 2013-01-22. Retrieved2017-06-18.
  16. Butler, Alban. Saint Timothy, Bishop and Martyr. The Lives of the Saints. I: January. Bartleby. Retrieved2017-06-18.
  17. "Saints Timothy and Titus", Franciscan Media
  18. Brown (1997), An Introduction to the New Testament, New York: Doubleday, p. 655.
  19. Calendarium Romanum (Vatican City, 1969), p. 86.
  20. "The Calendar". The Church of England. Retrieved2021-03-27.
  21. Sanidopoulos, John (September 2011), Skull of apostle Timothy to travel to….
  22. Ehrman, Bart. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 393 ISBN 0-19-515462-2
    "when we come to the Pastoral epistles, there is greater scholarly unanimity. These three letters are widely regarded by scholars as non-Pauline."
  23. Collins, Raymond F. 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. 2004. p. 4 ISBN 0-664-22247-1
    "By the end of the twentieth century New Testament scholarship was virtually unanimous in affirming that the Pastoral Epistles were written some time after Paul's death. ... As always some scholars dissent from the consensus view."
  24. David E. Aune, ed., The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 9: "While seven of the letters attributed to Paul are almost universally accepted as authentic (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon), four are just as widely judged to be pseudepigraphal, i.e., written by unknown authors under Paul's name: Ephesians and the Pastorals (1 and 2 Timothy and Titus)."
  25. Zahn 1909, 41.
  26. As quoted in Lawson 1910, 222 "In what Photius calls a "devilish and abominable festival.""
  27. Klauck 2008, 249.
  28. Text in Usener 1877, 11.48–51; English translation from Lawson 1910, 222.
  29. Lipsius 1884, 376.
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Saint Timothy
Saint Timothy Language Watch Edit Timothy or Timothy of Ephesus Greek Timo8eos Timotheos meaning honouring God or honoured by God 8 was an early Christian evangelist and the first Christian bishop of Ephesus 9 who tradition relates died around the year AD 97 Saint TimothyIcon of Saint TimothyBishop MartyrBornc AD 17 Lystra 1 or Derbe 2 3 Diedc AD 97 aged 79 80 EphesusVenerated inRoman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodoxy Anglican Communion Lutheran ChurchFeastJanuary 22 Eastern Christianity January 26 Roman Catholic Church Lutheranism January 24 some local calendars and pre 1970 General Roman Calendar 23 Tobi Coptic Christianity 4 27 Tobi Relocation of Relics Coptic Christianity 5 Thursday after fifth Sunday after feast of the Holy Cross Armenian Apostolic Church 6 Attributespastoral staff 7 PatronageInvoked against stomach and intestinal disorders Timothy was from the Lycaonian city of Lystra 10 or of Derbe 2 3 in Asia Minor born of a Jewish mother who had become a Christian believer and a Greek father The Apostle Paul met him during his second missionary journey and he became Paul s companion and missionary partner along with Silas 11 The New Testament indicates that Timothy traveled with Paul the Apostle who was also his mentor He is addressed as the recipient of the First and Second Epistles to Timothy While included in the Pauline epistles of the New Testament First and Second Timothy are considered by many biblical scholars to be pseudoepigraphical and not written by Paul Contents 1 Life 2 Ministry 3 Veneration 3 1 Patronage 4 Pastoral Epistles 4 1 First Timothy c 62 64 4 2 Second Timothy c 62 64 5 Acts of Timothy 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksLife EditTimothy was a native of Lystra or of Derbe in Lycaonia Anatolia 12 When Paul and Barnabas first visited Lystra Paul healed a person crippled from birth leading many of the inhabitants to accept his teaching When he returned a few years later with Silas Timothy was already a respected member of the Christian congregation as were his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice both Jews In 2 Timothy 1 5 his mother and grandmother are noted as eminent for their piety and faith Timothy is said to have been acquainted with the Scriptures since childhood In 1 Corinthians 16 10 there is a suggestion that he was by nature reserved and timid When Timothy comes see that you put him at ease among you for he is doing the work of the Lord 13 Timothy s father was a Greek Gentile Thus Timothy had not been circumcised and Paul now ensured that this was done according to Acts 16 1 3 to ensure Timothy s acceptability to the Jews whom they would be evangelizing According to John William McGarvey 14 Yet we see him in the case before us circumcising Timothy with his own hand and this on account of certain Jews who were in those quarters This did not compromise the decision made at the Council of Jerusalem that gentile believers were not required to be circumcised citation needed Rembrandt s Timothy and his grandmother 1648 Ministry Edit Statue of Saint Timothy at the Saint Timothy s Church in The Villages Florida Timothy became St Paul s disciple and later his constant companion and co worker in preaching 15 In the year 52 Paul and Silas took Timothy along with them on their journey to Macedonia Augustine extols his zeal and disinterestedness in immediately forsaking his country his house and his parents to follow the apostle to share in his poverty and sufferings 16 Timothy may have been subject to ill health or frequent ailments and Paul encouraged him to use a little wine for your stomach s sake 17 When Paul went on to Athens Silas and Timothy stayed for some time at Beroea and Thessalonica before joining Paul at Corinth 16 Timothy next appears in Acts during Paul s stay in Ephesus 54 57 and in late 56 or early 57 Paul sent him forth to Macedonia with the aim that he would eventually arrive at Corinth Timothy arrived at Corinth just after Paul s letter 1 Corinthians reached that city citation needed Timothy was with Paul in Corinth during the winter of 57 58 when Paul dispatched his Letter to the Romans Romans 16 21 According to Acts 20 3 6 Timothy was with Paul in Macedonia just before Passover in 58 he left the city before Paul going ahead of him to await Paul in Troas Acts 20 4 5 That is the last mention of Timothy in Acts Raymond Brown notes 18 In the year 64 Paul left Timothy at Ephesus to govern that church 16 His relationship with Paul was close Timothy s name appears as the co author on 2 Corinthians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians and Philemon Paul wrote to the Philippians about Timothy I have no one like him Philippians 2 19 23 When Paul was in prison and awaiting martyrdom he summoned his faithful friend Timothy for a last farewell 15 That Timothy was jailed at least once during the period of the writing of the New Testament is implied by the writer of Hebrews mentioning Timothy s release at the end of the epistle Hebrews 13 23 Although not stated in the Bible other sources have records of the apostle s death The apocryphal Acts of Timothy states that in the year 97 AD the 80 year old bishop tried to halt a procession in honor of the goddess Diana by preaching the Gospel The angry pagans beat him dragged him through the streets and stoned him to death 15 Veneration EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Saint Timothy news newspapers books scholar JSTOR July 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Timothy is venerated as an apostle saint and martyr by the Eastern Orthodox Church with his feast day on 22 January The General Roman Calendar venerates Timothy together with Titus by a memorial on 26 January the day after the Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul From the 13th century until 1969 the feast of Timothy alone was on 24 January the day before that of the Conversion of Saint Paul 19 Along with Titus and Silas Timothy is commemorated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Episcopal Church on 26 January Timothy s feast is kept by the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod on 24 January Timothy is remembered with Titus in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 26 January 20 In the 4th century the relics of Timothy were transferred from Ephesus to Constantinople and placed in the Church of the Holy Apostles near the tombs of Andrew and Luke 15 Later on in the 13th century the relics seem to have been taken to Italy by a count returning from the crusades and buried around 1239 in the Termoli Cathedral 21 The remains were re discovered in 1945 during restoration works Saint Timothy is also the protagonist of Gore Vidal s novel Live from Golgotha 1992 Patronage Edit Timothy is the patron invoked against stomach and intestinal disorders Pastoral Epistles EditMain articles First Epistle to Timothy and Second Epistle to Timothy See also Pastoral Epistles Pauline epistles and Authorship of the Pauline epistles There are two letters to Timothy attributed to Paul the Apostle First Epistle to Timothy and Second Epistle to Timothy These along with the Epistle to Titus are called the Pastoral Epistles and are considered pseudepigraphic by many modern scholars including Bart Ehrman Raymond Collins and David E Aune 22 23 24 First Timothy c 62 64 Edit The author of this epistle writes to Timothy concerning the organization of the church and Timothy s own leadership within the body Major themes include the use of The Law 1Timothy 1 7 11 warnings against false doctrine such as Encratism instructions for prayer 1Timothy 2 1 8 roles of women in the church qualifications for leaders of the church 1Timothy 3 1 13 and the treatment of widows elders masters youth and church members in general 1 Timothy 5 1 5 20 Second Timothy c 62 64 Edit According to the letter Paul urges Timothy not to have a spirit of timidity and not to be ashamed to testify about our Lord 2 Timothy 1 7 8 He also entreats Timothy to come to him before winter and to bring Mark with him Paul clearly anticipates his being put to death and realities beyond in his valedictory found in 2 Timothy 4 6 8 He exhorts his son Timothy to all diligence and steadfastness in the face of false teachings with advice about combating them with reference to the teachings of the past and to patience under persecution 2 Timothy 1 6 15 and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office 2 Timothy 4 1 5 with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of the quick and the dead Acts of Timothy EditMain article Acts of Timothy The Acts of Timothy Acta Timothei is a work of New Testament apocrypha most likely from the 5th century The Acts tell how Paul had consecrated Timothy as bishop during Nero s reign on the occasion of a visit to Ephesus which they made together Then under Nerva Timothy suffers a martyr s death during a pagan festival 25 26 Timothy attempts to put an end to the wild and violent goings on but himself falls victim to the orgies 27 28 The Acts of Timothy contain almost as much material about John the Evangelist who was also a resident of Ephesus as they do about Timothy 29 See also Edit Christianity portal Eunice mother Lois grandmother Clement of RomeReferences Edit The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica 1 January 2021 Saint Timothy Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 5 February 2021 Saint Timothy born Lystra Lycaonia now Lusna Tur a b Albert Barnes theologian Timothy was a native of either Derbe or Lystra cities near to each other 1 a b Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra A disciple was there named Timothy the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer but his father was a Greek He was well spoken of by the brothers at Lystra and Iconium Acts 16 1 The Martyrdom of St Timothy the Apostle Coptic Orthodox Church Network The Relocation of the Relics of St Timothy the Apostle COCN Domar the calendrical and liturgical cycle of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church Armenian Orthodox Theological Research Institute 2002 p 528 Agasso Domenico Saint Timothy Bishop Santi e Beati February 1 2001 Timothy Finde Zelo Retrieved 2017 06 18 Eusebius 1965 3 4 Historia Ecclesiastica The History of the Church Williamson G A transl Harmonsworth Penguin p 109 The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica 1 January 2021 Saint Timothy Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 5 February 2021 Saint Timothy born Lystra Lycaonia now Lusna Tur Acts 16 1 4 St Timothy biography St Timothy ELCA Retrieved 2017 06 18 Who Was Saint Timothy Fort Worth TX St Timothy s Episcopal Church Archived from the original on 2014 11 14 Retrieved 2014 01 17 Commentary on Acts of the Apostles Christian Classics Ethereal Library Retrieved 2017 06 18 a b c d Apostle Timothy of the Seventy Lives of the saints OCA 2013 01 22 Retrieved 2017 06 18 a b c Butler Alban Saint Timothy Bishop and Martyr The Lives of the Saints I January Bartleby Retrieved 2017 06 18 Saints Timothy and Titus Franciscan Media Brown 1997 An Introduction to the New Testament New York Doubleday p 655 Calendarium Romanum Vatican City 1969 p 86 The Calendar The Church of England Retrieved 2021 03 27 Sanidopoulos John September 2011 Skull of apostle Timothy to travel to Ehrman Bart The New Testament A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings Oxford University Press 2003 p 393 ISBN 0 19 515462 2 when we come to the Pastoral epistles there is greater scholarly unanimity These three letters are widely regarded by scholars as non Pauline Collins Raymond F 1 amp 2 Timothy and Titus A Commentary Westminster John Knox Press 2004 p 4 ISBN 0 664 22247 1 By the end of the twentieth century New Testament scholarship was virtually unanimous in affirming that the Pastoral Epistles were written some time after Paul s death As always some scholars dissent from the consensus view David E Aune ed The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament Malden MA Wiley Blackwell 2010 9 While seven of the letters attributed to Paul are almost universally accepted as authentic Romans 1 and 2 Corinthians Galatians Philippians 1 Thessalonians Philemon four are just as widely judged to be pseudepigraphal i e written by unknown authors under Paul s name Ephesians and the Pastorals 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus Zahn 1909 41 As quoted in Lawson 1910 222 In what Photius calls a devilish and abominable festival Klauck 2008 249 Text in Usener 1877 11 48 51 English translation from Lawson 1910 222 Lipsius 1884 376 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Timothy St Timothy Bishop and Martyr Saints Colonnade Statue in St Peter s Square Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saint Timothy amp oldid 1052394499, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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