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Salamanca

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Salamanca ( , Spanish: ) is a city situated in western Spain and is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The city lies on several rolling hills by the Tormes River. Its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. As of 2018, the municipality has a population of 143,978.

Salamanca
Flag
Coat of arms
Salamanca
Location of Salamanca in Spain
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Salamanca
Salamanca (Castile and León)
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Salamanca
Salamanca (Europe)
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Coordinates:40°58′N5°40′W /40.967°N 5.667°W /40.967; -5.667
CountrySpain
Autonomous communityCastile and León
ProvinceSalamanca
Area
• Total38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi)
Elevation
802 m (2,631 ft)
Population
(2018)
• Total143,978
• Density3,700/km2 (9,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s)34 (Spain) + 923 (Salamanca)
Websitewww.salamanca.es
Official nameOld City of Salamanca
Includes
CriteriaCultural: (i)(ii)(iv)
Reference381rev
Inscription1988 (12th Session)
Area50.78 ha (125.5 acres)
Buffer zone130.3 ha (322 acres)

It is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. Salamanca attracts thousands of international students.

The University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university. Pope Alexander IV gave universal validity to its degrees. With 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca. It is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago.

Contents

Remains of a house at the archeological site of the Cerro de San Vicente (c. 800–400 BC), a hamlet assigned to the Early Iron Age.

The city originates as a Celtiberian fort of the pre-Roman period, built by the Vaccaei or the Vettones as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In 220 BC Hannibal laid siege to the fort and captured it. With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania Lusitania due to its favorable location on a Roman road, known as the Vía de la Plata, which connected it with Emerita Augusta (present day Mérida) to the south and Asturica Augusta (present-day Astorga) to the north. Salamanca's Tormes bridge, built in the 1st century, was a part of this road.

The origin of the name is unknown. Polybius calls it Helmantike, while Ptolemy has Salmatike. Titus Livius and Plutarchus have Hermandica and Salmatike, respectively. Polyaenus has Salmantida or Salmatis. In a foundational myth, the city was associated with Teucer, mythological king of Salamis.

With the fall of the Roman Empire, the Alans established in Lusitania. Later the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory. The city was already an episcopal see, and signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo.

Salamanca surrendered to the Umayyad invasion, led by Musa bin Nusair, in 712 AD. The area from this city on the Tormes River north to the Duero River then became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers. The constant fighting of the Kingdom of León, later reinforced by union with the Kingdom of Castile, against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement.[citation needed] After the battle of Simancas (939) the Christians resettled this area. After the 1085 seizure of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins[which?] in 1102.

One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca, although formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most significant and prestigious academic centres in Europe.[citation needed]

A 1614 painting depicting a lecture at the University of Salamanca.

The 15th century was plagued by social conflict and tensions among the urban elites (a complex development, often oversimplified as an infighting between bandos), with occasional outbursts of grave episodes of violence, conveying a chronic feeling of insecurity.

The late 15th century population has been tentatively estimated at 15,000–25,000. By the turn of the 16th century most of the population dwelled at the right (north) bank of the Tormes, with a small arrabal in the south bank inhabited by roughly 300 people.

During the 16th century, the city reached its height of splendour (around 6,500 students and a total population of 24,000). During that period, the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time;[citation needed] these groups of mostly-Dominican scholars were designated the School of Salamanca. The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, and founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts,[citation needed] including rights as a corporeal being (right to life), economic rights (right to own property) and spiritual rights (rights to freedom of thought and rights related to intrinsic human dignity).

In 1551, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius, physician and anatomist, was in line with Catholic doctrine. Vesalius came to Salamanca that same year to appear before the board and was acquitted.

Salamanca suffered the general downturns of the Kingdom of Castile during the 17th century, but in the 18th century it experienced a rebirth.[citation needed] In this period, the new baroque cathedral and main square (Plaza Mayor) were finished.

In the Peninsular War theatre of the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Salamanca took place on 22 July 1812 in the nearby fields of Arapiles, in which an Anglo-Portuguese Army led by Wellington decisively defeated the French army of Marmont. The western quarter of Salamanca was seriously damaged by cannon fire. The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history and thirteen thousand men were killed or wounded in the space of only a few short hours.

Salamanca City map in 1858.

During the devastating Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) the city quickly went over to the Nationalist side and was temporarily used as the de facto headquarters for the rebel faction. Francisco Franco was proclaimed Generalissimo on 21 September 1936 while at the city. In April 1937, the FET y de las JONS, the single party of the ensuing dictatorship, was created via a Unification Decree issued at the city upon the merging of the fascist Falange and the traditionalist carlists. The Nationalists soon moved most of the administrative premises to Burgos, which, being more central, was better suited for this purpose. However, some administrative apparatus, Franco's headquarters (located at the Palacio Episcopal, next to the Old Cathedral) and the military commands stayed in Salamanca, along with the German and Italian fascist delegations, making it the de facto Nationalist capital and centre of power during the entire civil war. Like much of fervently Catholic and largely rural Leon and Old Castile regions, Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Francisco Franco's regime for its long duration.

In 1988, the old city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1998, it was declared a European Capital of Culture for year 2002 (shared with Bruges). During 14 and 15 October 2005, it hosted the XV Ibero-American Summits of Heads of State and Governments.

Since 1996, Salamanca has been the designated site of the archives of the Spanish Civil War (Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española). The original documents were assembled by the Francoist regime, selectively obtained from the administrative departments of various institutions and organizations during the Spanish Civil War as a repressive instrument used against opposition groups and individuals. The socialist government moved the Catalan part of the archive to Barcelona in 2006 despite opposition from the local authorities and popular protests.

Location

The city lies on the banks of the Tormes river, a major left-bank tributary of the Douro. It is also part of the Vía de la Plata, an ancient S–N path in Western Spain. It is situated approximately 200 kilometres (120 miles) west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km (50 mi) east of the Spanish-Portuguese border.

Climate

With an altitude of over 800 meters, Salamanca has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) according to the Köppen climate classification, with some cold semi-arid climate (BSk) climatic influences, resulting in large diurnal temperature variations, with hot summers and chilly winters, and nearly-semi-arid levels of precipitation. Salamanca doesn't have a real wet season. Most of the precipitation falls outside of the summer, with upticks at the end of the spring and during the winter; all winters have snow during few days per year, although heavy snowfalls are uncommon, but not unheard of. The city averages around 7 days of snowy days per year, morning frost during winters is very common, as on a normal year, Salamanca has on average 76 days with low temperatures below freezing.

Climate data for Salamanca Airport 790 m (2,590 ft) 1981-2010 normals, 1945-2021 extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
25.0
(77.0)
25.8
(78.4)
31.0
(87.8)
34.5
(94.1)
38.6
(101.5)
39.8
(103.6)
41.0
(105.8)
39.0
(102.2)
31.0
(87.8)
24.8
(76.6)
19.7
(67.5)
41.0
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
11.2
(52.2)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
20.6
(69.1)
26.6
(79.9)
30.0
(86.0)
29.5
(85.1)
25.1
(77.2)
18.9
(66.0)
12.8
(55.0)
9.4
(48.9)
18.7
(65.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
5.5
(41.9)
8.3
(46.9)
10.1
(50.2)
14.0
(57.2)
18.8
(65.8)
21.5
(70.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.6
(63.7)
12.6
(54.7)
7.9
(46.2)
4.9
(40.8)
12.2
(54.0)
Average low °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.7
(35.1)
3.8
(38.8)
7.3
(45.1)
11.0
(51.8)
12.9
(55.2)
12.6
(54.7)
10.0
(50.0)
6.4
(43.5)
2.4
(36.3)
0.4
(32.7)
5.6
(42.1)
Record low °C (°F) −15.6
(3.9)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−9.0
(15.8)
−5.5
(22.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.0
(35.6)
5.0
(41.0)
4.5
(40.1)
0.4
(32.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−10.6
(12.9)
−12.0
(10.4)
−20.0
(−4.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.2)
25
(1.0)
21
(0.8)
38
(1.5)
47
(1.9)
29
(1.1)
11
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
32
(1.3)
46
(1.8)
40
(1.6)
42
(1.7)
372
(14.6)
Average precipitation days 6 5 5 7 8 4 2 2 4 7 7 7 64
Average snowy days 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 7
Average relative humidity (%) 82 73 63 62 59 52 47 51 59 71 79 83 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 118 154 211 224 265 317 358 330 251 183 130 104 2,667
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Plateresque façade of the University of Salamanca.

The University of Salamanca was founded in 1134 and in 1218 it was given the royal charter of foundation ("Estudio General") by Alfonso IX of León. It was the first university to receive the title of "University" in 1254. Under the patronage of the learned Alfonso X, its wealth and reputation greatly increased (1252–1282), and its schools of canon law and civil law attracted students even from the Universities of Paris and Bologna.[when?] In the 16th century, the city's fortunes depended on those of the University. About the time Christopher Columbus was lecturing there on his discoveries, Hernán Cortés took classes at Salamanca, but returned home in 1501 at age 17, without completing his course of study. (About ten years later the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca.)

Plaza Mayor at night

The city's economy is dominated by the university and tourism, but other sectors including agriculture and livestock rearing along with construction and manufacturing are also significant. Not surprisingly, in December 2007 83% of the working population, equivalent to 55,838, were employed in the service sector.

Industry

Industrial activity accounted for 5% of the working population, or 3,340 workers employed over 360 businesses. Two of the largest businesses, both of them numbered among the largest 100 enterprises in the region, are the veterinary vaccine manufacturer "Laboratorios Intervet", and the fertilizer specialist manufacturers S.A. Mirat, which is the city's oldest industrial company, having been established originally as a starch factory in 1812.

The New Cathedral from the Tormes river

Road

Highways

Other roads

Airport

Salamanca Airport, located in the military base of Matacán, is located about 14 km (9 mi) east of the city.

Public transport

There are 13 bus lines during the day and two night lines. Also, a tram line has been proposed.

The Old City of Salamanca was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. In 2002, Salamanca shared the title of European Capital of Culture with Bruges. In 2005, Salamanca celebrated the 250th anniversary of the construction of the Plaza Mayor with a number of European events (Plaza Mayor de Europa).[citation needed]

Festivals

Holy Week

Holy Week procession.

The Holy Week in Salamanca (Semana Santa) is the most well-known feast in the city. Salamanca is renowned for the solemn and sober processions celebrated during Holy Week. 16 confraternities, 10,000 brothers or "cofrades", 50 floats or "pasos" celebrate the Passion of Christ with 20 processions and thousands of followers, tourist and visitors.[citation needed]

Some of the celebrations have been performed for centuries. The confraternities carry artistic pasos created by important Spanish artists such as Luis Salvador Carmona, Alejandro Carnicero or Mariano Benlliure. in 2003 the Semana Santa of Salamanca obtained the official declaration of International Touristic Interest.

Other

Salamanca is also famous throughout Spain and the rest of Europe for its celebrations of "Nochevieja Universitaria," loosely translated as "University New Year".[better source needed] It is usually held on the Thursday of the last week of school in December and two weeks before the real New Year's Eve. On this day, students congregate in the Plaza Mayor, Salamanca to watch free performances and take part in the countdown to midnight.

Sports

From 1923 onward, "Los Charros,” formally the Union Deportiva Salamanca, were the Salamanca football team. In 2013, the club went bankrupt and its activities were abandoned. After its dissolution, some managers of the entity decided to refound the farm team to continue competing, maintaining the legacy of the historic club. Thus they created the Club de Fútbol Salmantino.

The first high jump over 8 feet (2.44 m) was made in Salamanca, by Javier Sotomayor in 1993. His jump, of 2.45 m (8 feet 0.46 inch), is still the world record in the event.

Local teams

Cinema

The picturesque setting provided by the city has been featured in several films, including Ridley Scott's 1492: Conquest of Paradise and Miloš Forman's Goya's Ghosts. Alejandro Amenábar's 2019 historical film While at War is set in Salamanca and features scenes shot there. Salamanca was also the setting for the 2008 political thriller Vantage Point, although the movie was almost exclusively filmed in Mexico.

Gastronomy

Typical hornazo.

Among many local dishes, chanfaina [es] (steamed rice with pork) is very popular. Another distinctive dish is the cocido, a slow-cooked chickpea-based casserole.[citation needed] However, hornazo, a meat pie, is the most popular dish.

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  2. "Noticias - Salamanca: enseñanza de español mueve 46 millones de euros". El Castellano. Retrieved17 August 2011.
  3. "Salamanca Ciudad del Español". Espanolensalamanca.com. Retrieved5 August 2017.
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  5. "La cristiandad y el reino. Universitas". www.usal.es. December 2017. Retrieved20 December 2017.
  6. Blanco-González, Antonio; Macarro Alcalde, Carlos; Alario García, Cristina (2017). "La aldea del Hierro Inicial del Cerro de San Vicente (Salamanca, España): Resultados de las excavaciones entre 1990 y 2006 a la luz de algunos debates actuales"(PDF). Munibe Antropologia-Arkeologia. San Sebastián: Aranzadi Zientzia Elkartea (68): 217–236. ISSN 1132-2217.
  7. "History of Salamanca - Salamanca The City to learn Spanish". Espanolensalamanca.com. Retrieved5 August 2017.
  8. Monsalvo, José María (2009). "Las violencias banderizas en la Salamanca medieval. Algunos problemas de interpretación". Imago Temporis: Medium Aevum. Lleida: Universitat de Lleida. III: 469–470. doi:10.21001/imagotemporis.vi3.216359 (inactive 31 October 2021). hdl:10459.1/44476. ISSN 1888-3931.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2021 (link)
  9. Martín Martín, José Luis (1982). "Estructura demográfica y profesional de Salamanca a finales de la Edad Media"(PDF). Salamanca. Revista de Estudios (1): 16. ISSN 0211-9730.
  10. Martín Martín 1982, p. 28.
  11. Phifer, Mike (29 January 2020). "Masterstroke at Salamanca". Warfare History Network. Retrieved7 July 2020.
  12. Hugh Thomas, pág. 550
  13. Hugh Thomas, pág. 650
  14. Monfort, César Carreras; Cabrillana, Glòria Munilla (5 August 2017). "Patrimoni digital: un nou mitjà al servei de les institucions culturals". Editorial UOC. Retrieved5 August 2017 – via Google Books.
  15. Vaca Lorenzo, Ángel (2002). "La Vía de la Plata a su paso por Salamanca"(PDF). Salamanca. Revista de Estudios. Salamanca: Diputación Provincial de Salamanca (48): 13–50. ISSN 0211-9730.
  16. "Madrid to Salamanca". Madrid to Salamanca. Retrieved2020-08-06.
  17. d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Salamanca, Spain - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved2020-08-06.
  18. "Monthly Averages for Salamanca Airport, Spain". Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved18 July 2021.
  19. "Monthly Averages for Salamanca Airport, Spain". Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved20 October 2009.
  20. http://www.aemet.es/es/serviciosclimaticos/datosclimatologicos/efemerides_extremos*?w=0&k=cle&l=2867&datos=det&x=2867&m=13&v=todos%7Ctitle= Extremes in Salamanca Airport
  21. "Salamanca - Datos Económicos y Sociales"(PDF). cajaespana.es. 2009. Archived from the original(PDF) on 15 February 2016. Retrieved17 August 2011.
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  25. Easter | Salamanca. Salamanca.es. Retrieved on 5 September 2013.
  26. "University New Year". Drinkriberawine.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved5 August 2017.
  27. La RFEF desciende a la UDS por las deudas con los futbolistas - UDS -Noticias de La Gaceta de Salamanca. Lagacetadesalamanca.es (2013-06-29). Retrieved on 5 September 2013.
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Museums

Coordinates: 40°57′42″N5°40′03″W /40.961612°N 5.667607°W /40.961612; -5.667607

Salamanca
Salamanca Language Watch Edit For people and other places named Salamanca see Salamanca disambiguation This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Salamanca news newspapers books scholar JSTOR January 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message Salamanca ˌ s ae l e ˈ m ae ŋ k e SAL e MANK e Spanish salaˈmaŋka is a city situated in western Spain and is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile and Leon The city lies on several rolling hills by the Tormes River Its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 As of 2018 the municipality has a population of 143 978 SalamancaMunicipalityFlagCoat of armsSalamancaLocation of Salamanca in SpainShow map of SpainSalamancaSalamanca Castile and Leon Show map of Castile and LeonSalamancaSalamanca Europe Show map of EuropeCoordinates 40 58 N 5 40 W 40 967 N 5 667 W 40 967 5 667CountrySpainAutonomous communityCastile and LeonProvinceSalamancaArea Total38 6 km2 14 9 sq mi Elevation802 m 2 631 ft Population 2018 1 Total143 978 Density3 700 km2 9 700 sq mi Time zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Area code s 34 Spain 923 Salamanca Websitewww salamanca esUNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameOld City of SalamancaIncludesOld Quarter of the City Colegio de los Irlandeses Iglesia de San Marcos es Iglesia de Sancti Spiritus Convento de las Claras es Casa Convento de Santa Teresa es Iglesia de San Juan Barbalos es Iglesia de San Cristobal es CriteriaCultural i ii iv Reference381revInscription1988 12th Session Area50 78 ha 125 5 acres Buffer zone130 3 ha 322 acres It is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16 of Spain s market for the teaching of the Spanish language 2 3 Salamanca attracts thousands of international students 4 The University of Salamanca founded in 1218 is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university Pope Alexander IV gave universal validity to its degrees 5 With 30 000 students the university is together with tourism a primary source of income in Salamanca It is on the Via de la Plata path of the Camino de Santiago Contents 1 History 2 Geography 2 1 Location 2 2 Climate 3 University 4 Economy 4 1 Industry 5 Transport 5 1 Road 5 2 Airport 5 3 Public transport 6 Culture and sports 6 1 Festivals 6 2 Holy Week 6 2 1 Other 6 3 Sports 6 4 Local teams 6 5 Cinema 6 6 Gastronomy 7 Sister cities and twin towns 8 Notable people 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External linksHistory EditSee also Timeline of Salamanca Remains of a house at the archeological site of the Cerro de San Vicente c 800 400 BC a hamlet assigned to the Early Iron Age 6 The city originates as a Celtiberian fort of the pre Roman period built by the Vaccaei or the Vettones as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river In 220 BC Hannibal laid siege to the fort and captured it 7 With the fall of the Carthaginians to the Romans the city of Helmantica as it was known began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania Lusitania due to its favorable location on a Roman road known as the Via de la Plata which connected it with Emerita Augusta present day Merida to the south and Asturica Augusta present day Astorga to the north Salamanca s Tormes bridge built in the 1st century was a part of this road The origin of the name is unknown Polybius calls it Helmantike while Ptolemy has Salmatike Titus Livius and Plutarchus have Hermandica and Salmatike respectively Polyaenus has Salmantida or Salmatis In a foundational myth the city was associated with Teucer mythological king of Salamis With the fall of the Roman Empire the Alans established in Lusitania Later the city was conquered by the Visigoths and included in their territory The city was already an episcopal see and signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo Salamanca surrendered to the Umayyad invasion led by Musa bin Nusair in 712 AD The area from this city on the Tormes River north to the Duero River then became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al Andalus rulers The constant fighting of the Kingdom of Leon later reinforced by union with the Kingdom of Castile against the Caliphate depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement citation needed After the battle of Simancas 939 the Christians resettled this area After the 1085 seizure of Toledo by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile the definitive resettlement of the city took place Raymond of Burgundy instructed by his father in law Alfonso VI of Leon led a group of settlers of various origins which in 1102 One of the most important moments in Salamanca s history was the year 1218 when Alfonso IX of Leon granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca although formal teaching had existed at least since 1130 Soon it became one of the most significant and prestigious academic centres in Europe citation needed A 1614 painting depicting a lecture at the University of Salamanca The 15th century was plagued by social conflict and tensions among the urban elites a complex development often oversimplified as an infighting between bandos with occasional outbursts of grave episodes of violence conveying a chronic feeling of insecurity 8 The late 15th century population has been tentatively estimated at 15 000 25 000 9 By the turn of the 16th century most of the population dwelled at the right north bank of the Tormes with a small arrabal in the south bank inhabited by roughly 300 people 10 During the 16th century the city reached its height of splendour around 6 500 students and a total population of 24 000 During that period the University of Salamanca hosted the most important intellectuals of the time citation needed these groups of mostly Dominican scholars were designated the School of Salamanca The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law and founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts citation needed including rights as a corporeal being right to life economic rights right to own property and spiritual rights rights to freedom of thought and rights related to intrinsic human dignity In 1551 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius physician and anatomist was in line with Catholic doctrine Vesalius came to Salamanca that same year to appear before the board and was acquitted Salamanca suffered the general downturns of the Kingdom of Castile during the 17th century but in the 18th century it experienced a rebirth citation needed In this period the new baroque cathedral and main square Plaza Mayor were finished In the Peninsular War theatre of the Napoleonic Wars the Battle of Salamanca took place on 22 July 1812 in the nearby fields of Arapiles in which an Anglo Portuguese Army led by Wellington decisively defeated the French army of Marmont The western quarter of Salamanca was seriously damaged by cannon fire The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history 11 and thirteen thousand men were killed or wounded in the space of only a few short hours Salamanca City map in 1858 During the devastating Spanish Civil War 1936 1939 the city quickly went over to the Nationalist side and was temporarily used as the de facto headquarters for the rebel faction Francisco Franco was proclaimed Generalissimo on 21 September 1936 while at the city In April 1937 the FET y de las JONS the single party of the ensuing dictatorship was created via a Unification Decree issued at the city upon the merging of the fascist Falange and the traditionalist carlists The Nationalists soon moved most of the administrative premises to Burgos which being more central was better suited for this purpose However some administrative apparatus Franco s headquarters located at the Palacio Episcopal next to the Old Cathedral and the military commands stayed in Salamanca along with the German and Italian fascist delegations making it the de facto Nationalist capital and centre of power during the entire civil war 12 13 Like much of fervently Catholic and largely rural Leon and Old Castile regions Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Francisco Franco s regime for its long duration In 1988 the old city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site In 1998 it was declared a European Capital of Culture for year 2002 shared with Bruges During 14 and 15 October 2005 it hosted the XV Ibero American Summits of Heads of State and Governments Since 1996 Salamanca has been the designated site of the archives of the Spanish Civil War Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Espanola The original documents were assembled by the Francoist regime selectively obtained from the administrative departments of various institutions and organizations during the Spanish Civil War as a repressive instrument used against opposition groups and individuals 14 The socialist government moved the Catalan part of the archive to Barcelona in 2006 despite opposition from the local authorities and popular protests Geography EditLocation Edit The city lies on the banks of the Tormes river a major left bank tributary of the Douro It is also part of the Via de la Plata an ancient S N path in Western Spain 15 It is situated approximately 200 kilometres 120 miles west of the Spanish capital Madrid 16 and 80 km 50 mi east of the Spanish Portuguese border Climate Edit With an altitude of over 800 meters Salamanca has a warm summer Mediterranean climate Csb according to the Koppen climate classification with some cold semi arid climate BSk climatic influences resulting in large diurnal temperature variations with hot summers and chilly winters and nearly semi arid levels of precipitation Salamanca doesn t have a real wet season Most of the precipitation falls outside of the summer with upticks at the end of the spring and during the winter all winters have snow during few days per year although heavy snowfalls are uncommon but not unheard of 17 The city averages around 7 days of snowy days per year morning frost during winters is very common as on a normal year Salamanca has on average 76 days with low temperatures below freezing 18 Climate data for Salamanca Airport 790 m 2 590 ft 1981 2010 normals 1945 2021 extremesMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 19 8 67 6 25 0 77 0 25 8 78 4 31 0 87 8 34 5 94 1 38 6 101 5 39 8 103 6 41 0 105 8 39 0 102 2 31 0 87 8 24 8 76 6 19 7 67 5 41 0 105 8 Average high C F 8 6 47 5 11 2 52 2 14 9 58 8 16 5 61 7 20 6 69 1 26 6 79 9 30 0 86 0 29 5 85 1 25 1 77 2 18 9 66 0 12 8 55 0 9 4 48 9 18 7 65 7 Daily mean C F 4 0 39 2 5 5 41 9 8 3 46 9 10 1 50 2 14 0 57 2 18 8 65 8 21 5 70 7 21 1 70 0 17 6 63 7 12 6 54 7 7 9 46 2 4 9 40 8 12 2 54 0 Average low C F 0 7 30 7 0 2 31 6 1 7 35 1 3 8 38 8 7 3 45 1 11 0 51 8 12 9 55 2 12 6 54 7 10 0 50 0 6 4 43 5 2 4 36 3 0 4 32 7 5 6 42 1 Record low C F 15 6 3 9 20 0 4 0 9 0 15 8 5 5 22 1 2 3 27 9 2 0 35 6 5 0 41 0 4 5 40 1 0 4 32 7 4 7 23 5 10 6 12 9 12 0 10 4 20 0 4 0 Average precipitation mm inches 30 1 2 25 1 0 21 0 8 38 1 5 47 1 9 29 1 1 11 0 4 12 0 5 32 1 3 46 1 8 40 1 6 42 1 7 372 14 6 Average precipitation days 6 5 5 7 8 4 2 2 4 7 7 7 64Average snowy days 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 7Average relative humidity 82 73 63 62 59 52 47 51 59 71 79 83 65Mean monthly sunshine hours 118 154 211 224 265 317 358 330 251 183 130 104 2 667Source Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia 19 20 University Edit Plateresque facade of the University of Salamanca The University of Salamanca was founded in 1134 and in 1218 it was given the royal charter of foundation Estudio General by Alfonso IX of Leon It was the first university to receive the title of University in 1254 Under the patronage of the learned Alfonso X its wealth and reputation greatly increased 1252 1282 and its schools of canon law and civil law attracted students even from the Universities of Paris and Bologna when In the 16th century the city s fortunes depended on those of the University About the time Christopher Columbus was lecturing there on his discoveries Hernan Cortes took classes at Salamanca but returned home in 1501 at age 17 without completing his course of study About ten years later the conquistador Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca Economy Edit Plaza Mayor at night The city s economy is dominated by the university and tourism but other sectors including agriculture and livestock rearing along with construction and manufacturing are also significant Not surprisingly in December 2007 83 of the working population equivalent to 55 838 were employed in the service sector 21 Industry Edit Industrial activity accounted for 5 of the working population or 3 340 workers employed over 360 businesses 21 Two of the largest businesses both of them numbered among the largest 100 enterprises in the region are the veterinary vaccine manufacturer Laboratorios Intervet and the fertilizer specialist manufacturers S A Mirat which is the city s oldest industrial company having been established originally as a starch factory in 1812 22 Transport Edit The New Cathedral from the Tormes river Road Edit Highways A50 Autovia de la Cultura Avila Salamanca A62 Autovia de Castilla Burgos Valladolid Salamanca Ciudad Rodrigo A66 Autovia Ruta de la Plata Gijon Oviedo Mieres Puerto de Pajares Leon Benavente Zamora Salamanca Bejar Plasencia Merida Sevilla SA 11 North access to Salamanca SA 20 South access to Salamanca The Roman bridge Other roads N 501 Avila Penaranda de Bracamonte Salamanca N 620 Burgos Venta de Banos Valladolid Tordesillas Salamanca Ciudad Rodrigo Portugal Airport Edit Salamanca Airport located in the military base of Matacan is located about 14 km 9 mi east of the city Public transport Edit There are 13 bus lines during the day and two night lines Also a tram line has been proposed 23 Culture and sports EditThe Old City of Salamanca was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 24 In 2002 Salamanca shared the title of European Capital of Culture with Bruges In 2005 Salamanca celebrated the 250th anniversary of the construction of the Plaza Mayor with a number of European events Plaza Mayor de Europa citation needed Festivals Edit Holy Week Edit Main article Holy Week in Salamanca Holy Week procession The Holy Week in Salamanca Semana Santa is the most well known feast in the city Salamanca is renowned for the solemn and sober processions celebrated during Holy Week 16 confraternities 10 000 brothers or cofrades 50 floats or pasos celebrate the Passion of Christ with 20 processions and thousands of followers tourist and visitors citation needed Some of the celebrations have been performed for centuries The confraternities carry artistic pasos created by important Spanish artists such as Luis Salvador Carmona Alejandro Carnicero or Mariano Benlliure in 2003 the Semana Santa of Salamanca obtained the official declaration of International Touristic Interest 25 Other Edit Salamanca is also famous throughout Spain and the rest of Europe for its celebrations of Nochevieja Universitaria loosely translated as University New Year 26 better source needed It is usually held on the Thursday of the last week of school in December and two weeks before the real New Year s Eve On this day students congregate in the Plaza Mayor Salamanca to watch free performances and take part in the countdown to midnight Sports Edit Helmantico Stadium From 1923 onward Los Charros formally the Union Deportiva Salamanca were the Salamanca football team In 2013 the club went bankrupt and its activities were abandoned 27 After its dissolution some managers of the entity decided to refound the farm team to continue competing maintaining the legacy of the historic club Thus they created the Club de Futbol Salmantino The first high jump over 8 feet 2 44 m was made in Salamanca by Javier Sotomayor in 1993 His jump of 2 45 m 8 feet 0 46 inch is still the world record in the event Local teams Edit Salamanca CF football team Unionistas de Salamanca CF football team CB Avenida basketball team Cinema Edit The picturesque setting provided by the city has been featured in several films including Ridley Scott s 1492 Conquest of Paradise and Milos Forman s Goya s Ghosts Alejandro Amenabar s 2019 historical film While at War is set in Salamanca and features scenes shot there Salamanca was also the setting for the 2008 political thriller Vantage Point although the movie was almost exclusively filmed in Mexico Gastronomy Edit Typical hornazo Among many local dishes chanfaina es steamed rice with pork is very popular Another distinctive dish is the cocido a slow cooked chickpea based casserole citation needed However hornazo a meat pie is the most popular dish Sister cities and twin towns EditCoimbra Portugal since 1981 28 Wurzburg Germany since 1981 29 Notable people EditFernando Gallego 1440 1507 Spanish painter Miguel de Unamuno 1864 1936 writer professor of Greek and rector of the university Jose Maria Lamamie de Clairac y Colina 1887 1956 politician Jose Maria Gil Robles 1898 1980 politician Francisco Rodriguez Adrados 1922 2020 Hellenist linguist and translator Eleuterio Sanchez born 1942 former Spanish thief today lawyer Vicente del Bosque born 1950 football player and coach Jose Ignacio Sanchez Galan born 1950 Spanish engineer and manager Yann Martel born 1963 Canadian writer oscar Gonzalez Marcos born 1982 Spanish professional footballer Alvaro Arbeloa born 1983 Spanish professional footballer Fernando Vergez Alzaga born 1 March 1945 Secretary General of the Governorate of Vatican City State Charo Lopez born 1943 Spanish actressSee also EditSalmanticenses and Complutenses Monument to Columbus Salamanca References Edit Municipal Register of Spain 2018 National Statistics Institute Noticias Salamanca ensenanza de espanol mueve 46 millones de euros El Castellano Retrieved 17 August 2011 Salamanca Ciudad del Espanol Espanolensalamanca com Retrieved 5 August 2017 La USAL inaugura los cursos de verano con 2 000 estudiantes extranjeros Elmundo es Retrieved 17 August 2011 La cristiandad y el reino Universitas www usal es December 2017 Retrieved 20 December 2017 Blanco Gonzalez Antonio Macarro Alcalde Carlos Alario Garcia Cristina 2017 La aldea del Hierro Inicial del Cerro de San Vicente Salamanca Espana Resultados de las excavaciones entre 1990 y 2006 a la luz de algunos debates actuales PDF Munibe Antropologia Arkeologia San Sebastian Aranzadi Zientzia Elkartea 68 217 236 ISSN 1132 2217 History of Salamanca Salamanca The City to learn Spanish Espanolensalamanca com Retrieved 5 August 2017 Monsalvo Jose Maria 2009 Las violencias banderizas en la Salamanca medieval Algunos problemas de interpretacion Imago Temporis Medium Aevum Lleida Universitat de Lleida III 469 470 doi 10 21001 imagotemporis vi3 216359 inactive 31 October 2021 hdl 10459 1 44476 ISSN 1888 3931 CS1 maint DOI inactive as of October 2021 link Martin Martin Jose Luis 1982 Estructura demografica y profesional de Salamanca a finales de la Edad Media PDF Salamanca Revista de Estudios 1 16 ISSN 0211 9730 Martin Martin 1982 p 28 Phifer Mike 29 January 2020 Masterstroke at Salamanca Warfare History Network Retrieved 7 July 2020 Hugh Thomas pag 550 Hugh Thomas pag 650 Monfort Cesar Carreras Cabrillana Gloria Munilla 5 August 2017 Patrimoni digital un nou mitja al servei de les institucions culturals Editorial UOC Retrieved 5 August 2017 via Google Books Vaca Lorenzo Angel 2002 La Via de la Plata a su paso por Salamanca PDF Salamanca Revista de Estudios Salamanca Diputacion Provincial de Salamanca 48 13 50 ISSN 0211 9730 Madrid to Salamanca Madrid to Salamanca Retrieved 2020 08 06 d o o Yu Media Group Salamanca Spain Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast Weather Atlas Retrieved 2020 08 06 Monthly Averages for Salamanca Airport Spain Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia Retrieved 18 July 2021 Monthly Averages for Salamanca Airport Spain Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia Retrieved 20 October 2009 http www aemet es es serviciosclimaticos datosclimatologicos efemerides extremos w 0 amp k cle amp l 2867 amp datos det amp x 2867 amp m 13 amp v todos 7Ctitle Extremes in Salamanca Airport a b Salamanca Datos Economicos y Sociales PDF cajaespana es 2009 Archived from the original PDF on 15 February 2016 Retrieved 17 August 2011 MIRAT Historia Antecedentes mirat net Retrieved 17 August 2011 Presentan un estudio de viabilidad para la implantacion del tranvia en Salamanca 20minutos es 16 May 2008 Retrieved 17 August 2011 Old City of Salamanca World Heritage Centre UNESCO Retrieved 2 March 2017 Easter Salamanca Salamanca es Retrieved on 5 September 2013 University New Year Drinkriberawine com Archived from the original on 18 January 2013 Retrieved 5 August 2017 La RFEF desciende a la UDS por las deudas con los futbolistas UDS Noticias de La Gaceta de Salamanca Lagacetadesalamanca es 2013 06 29 Retrieved on 5 September 2013 Salamanca www diariodeleon es Diario de Leon 25 September 2011 Lirios en el Parque Wurzburg la imagen de hoy de Puparelli www lagacetadesalamanca es La Gaceta de Salamanca 9 January 2019 Bibliography EditSee also Bibliography of the history of SalamancaExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Salamanca Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Salamanca Wikisource has the text of The New Student s Reference Work article Salamanca City Council of Salamanca Official Tourist Information Office Wiki of the city of Salamanca General information on Salamanca General information about events in Salamanca Salamanca travel guide Salamanca city guide at HitchHikers Handbook Flag of Salamanca Museums Art Nouveau and Art Deco Museum Casa Lis Car History Museum Cathedral Museum Coordinates 40 57 42 N 5 40 03 W 40 961612 N 5 667607 W 40 961612 5 667607 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Salamanca amp oldid 1053134101, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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