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Salah

This article is about the Islamic prayers. For other uses, see Salah (disambiguation).
"Salat" redirects here. For other uses, see Salat (disambiguation).

Salah (Arabic:صَلاة, pl salawat, romanized: Arabic pronunciation: , ( in construct state) lit. 'prayer'), also known as namāz (Persian:نماز‎) and also spelled salat, are prayers performed by Muslims. Facing the qibla, the direction of the Kaaba with respect to those praying, Muslims pray first standing and later kneeling or sitting on the ground, reciting from the Quran and glorifying and praising Allah as they bow and prostrate themselves in between. Salah is composed of prescribed repetitive cycles of bows and prostrations, called rakat (sing. rak'ah). The number of rak'ahs, also known as units of prayer, varies from prayer to prayer. Ritual purity and wudu are prerequisites for performing the prayers.

Salah
Muslims doing Ruku (bowing) during a prayer
Official nameصلاة
Also calledPrayer in Islam
Observed byMuslim
TypeIslamic
SignificanceA Muslim prayer offered to God according to legal jurisprudence.
Observances
Related toTilawa, Ruku, Sujud
System of the prayer time.

The daily obligatory prayers collectively form the second of the five pillars in Islam, observed five times every day at prescribed times. These are Fajr (observed at dawn), Zuhr prayer (observed at noon), Asr (observed late in the afternoon), Maghrib (observed at dusk), and Isha (observed after sunset). Salah can be performed either in solitude, or collectively (known as jama'ah). When performed in jama'ah, worshippers line up in parallel rows behind a leader, known as the imam. Special prayers are exclusively performed in congregation, such as the Friday prayer and the Eid prayers, and are coupled with two sermons each, delivered by the imam.

Contents

Ṣalāh (صلاة) is an Arabic word that means to pray or bless. The word is used primarily by English speakers only to refer to the five obligatory prayers of Islam.

Outside the Arab world, the most widespread terms are the Persian word namāz (Persian:نماز) and its derivatives. It is used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages (e.g. Persian and some languages of South Asia), as well as by speakers of the Turkic and Slavic languages. In Lak and Avar, chak (чак) and kak (как) are used, respectively. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the term solat is used, as well as a local term, sembahyang (meaning "the act of worshipping", from the words sembah - worship, and hyang - god or deity).

In the Quran

The noun ṣalāh (‏صلاة‎) is used 82 times in the Quran. Gerrans listed: 2:3, 2:43, 2:45, 2:83, 2:110, 2:153,2:157, 2:177, 2:238,2:277, 4:43, 4:77, 4:101, 4:102, 4:103, 4:142, 4:162, 5:6, 5:12, 5:55, 5:58, 5:91, 5:106, 6:72, 6:92, 6:162, 7:170, 8:3, 8:35, 9:5, 9:11, 9:18, 9:54, 9:71, 9:99, 9:103, 10:87, 11:87, 11:114, 13:22, 14:31, 14:37, 14:40, 17:78, 17:110, 19:31, 19:55, 19:59, 20:14, 20:132, 21:73, 22:35, 22:40, 22:41, 22:78, 23:2, 23:9, 24:37, 24:41, 24:56, 24:58, 29:45, 30:31, 31:4, 31:17, 33:33, 35:18, 35:29, 42:38, 58:13, 62:9, 62:10, 70:23, 70:34, 73:20, 98:5, 107:5.

There are about 15 other derivatives of its triliteral root ṣ-l. Words connected to salah (such as mosque, wudu, dhikr, etc.) are used in approximately one-sixth of Quranic verses. "Surely my prayer, and my sacrifice and my life and my death are (all) for God", and "I am Allah, there is no god but I, therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance" are both examples of this.

Main article: Prayer compensation

The primary purpose of salah is to act as a person's communication with Allah. Purification of the heart is the ultimate religious objective of Salah. Via salah, a believer can grow closer to Allah and in turn strengthen their faith. Just as humans physically require food and supplement to stay healthy and alive, the soul requires prayer and closeness to God to stay sustained and healthy. In short, it spiritually sustains the human soul.

Tafsir of the Quran can give four reasons for the observation of salah. First, in order to commend God, God's servants, together with the angels, do salah ("blessing, salutations") Second, salah is done involuntarily by all beings in Creation, in the sense that they are always in contact with God by virtue of Him creating and sustaining them. Third, Muslims voluntarily offer salah to reveal that it is the particular form of worship that belongs to the prophets. Fourth, salah is described as the second pillar of Islam.

Various prescribed movements in Salah, which collectively constitute a rak'ah. From left to right: Rukū', qiyām/i'tidal, sujūd, takbīr and qu'ūd/julūs.
Main article: Rakat

Each Salah is made up of repeating units known as rakat (Arabic:رَكَعَات sing. rak'ah). Each prayer may consist of two to four rakat. Each rak'ah consists of specific movements and recitations. On the major elements there is consensus, but on minor details there may be different views. Between each position there is a very slight pause. The takbir which is read as Allaahu Akbar (lit. God is The Greatest), is recited during the time when one goes from one position of prayer to another.

Beginning

Before prayer, a Muslim should always perform Wudhu, an act in which he first washes his hands, cleans his mouth and nose, washes his face, washes his arms up to the elbow, then with his wet hands wipes over his head including his ears and then finally washes his feet.

Intention, known as niyyah, is a prerequisite for salah, and what distinguishes real worship from 'going through the motions'. Some authorities hold that intention suffices in the heart, and some require that it be spoken, usually under the breath.

The person praying begins in a standing position known as qiyam, although people who find it difficult to do so may begin while sitting or lying on the ground. This is followed by the raising of the hands to the head and recitation of the takbīr, known in combination as takbīrat al-iḥrām or takbīrat at-taḥrīmah (consecratory takbir).Takbir is read as Allaahu Akbar (lit. God is The Greatest). One then lowers their hands. First Takbir represents the beginning of prayer. From this point forward one praying may not converse, eat, or do things that are otherwise halal. A Muslim must keep his vision low during prayer, looking at the place where his face will contact the ground during prostration.

Common elements of each rakat

Still standing, the next principal act is the recitation of Al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran. This chapter begins with praise of God and then a supplication is made to God . In the first and second rakat, another portion of the Quran is recited following the Fatiha. This is followed by saying Allaahu Akbar ( lit. " God is The Greatest ") and raising the hands up to the ear lobes(Rafah yadain) followed by Rakooh which is bowing from the waist, with palms placed on the knees (depending on the madhhab, rules may differ for women). While bowing, those praying generally utter words of praise under their breath, such asسبحان ربي العظيم (lit. "Glory be to my Lord, the Most Magnificent"), thrice or more. As the worshipper straightens their back, they sayسمع الله لمن حمده (lit. "God hears the one who praises him.") andربنا لك الحمد (rabbanā laka l-ḥamd, "Our Lord, all praise be to you.")

Yemeni Muslim in sujūd, performing salah in the desert during the North Yemen Civil War (above). Syrians in sujūd performing salah in jama'ah behind an imam (below).

This is followed by saying Allaahu Akbar ( lit. " God is The Greatest ") and raising the hands up to the ear lobes and then the worshipper kneels and prostrates with the forehead, nose, knees, palms and toes touching the floor, sayingسبحان ربى الأعلى (lit. "Glory be to my Lord, the Most High"). After a short while in prostration the worshipper very briefly rises to sit, then returns to the ground a second time. Lifting the head from the second prostration completes a rak'ah. If this is the second or last raka'ah, the worshiper proceeds to sit and recite the tashahhud, salawat and other prayers. Many schools hold that the right index finger is raised when reciting the salawat. If the worshipper then intends to finish their prayer, they perform the taslim (illustrated below), or continue with a new rak'ah. Mistakes in salah are believed to be compensated for by prostrating twice at the end of the prayer, known as sujud sahwi. The taslim is read as Assalamualaikum wa rahmatullah (lit "Peace and mercy of Allah be upon you All"). Taslim represents end of prayer.

Performing the Taslim
Reciting the salam facing the right direction Reciting the salam facing the left direction

Prayers in Islam are classified into categories based on degrees of obligation. One common classification is fard or wajib ("compulsory"), sunnah ("tradition") and nafl ("voluntary").

Compulsory prayers

The five daily prayers are obligatory on every Muslim who has reached the age of puberty, with the exception of those for whom it may not be possible due to physical or mental disabilities, and those menstruating (hayd) or experiencing postnatal bleeding (nifas). Those who are sick or otherwise physically unable to offer their prayers in the traditional form are permitted to offer their prayers while sitting or lying, as they are able. Each of the five prayers has a prescribed time, depending on the movement of the sun. These are the Fajr prayer (2 rakat, observed at dawn), Zuhr prayer (4 rakat, observed at noon), Asr prayer (4 rakat, observed late in the afternoon), Maghrib prayer (3 rakat, observed at dusk), and the Isha prayer (4 rakat, observed after sunset). Salah must be prayed in its time. In certain circumstances, one may be unable to offer one's prayer within the prescribed time. In this case, the prayer must be offered as soon as possible. Several hadith narrate that Muhammad stated that it is permissible to pray salah out of its permissible time if a person accidentally sleeps through the prescribed time. However, knowingly sleeping through the prescribed time for Salah is deemed impermissible by most scholars.

Display showing prayer times in a Turkish mosque.

Qasr (Shorterning Prayers)

When travelling over long distances, one may shorten the Zuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib and 'Isha'a prayers to 2 rakat, a practice known as qasr.

Jam' ( Combining Prayers)

In Shia Ja'fari Fiqh, one may perform jam' bayn as-salātayn, which refers to praying the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers in combination at one of its time, as well as the Maghrib and Isha'a prayers at one of its time. However, praying separately is considered better. Neither qasr nor jam' bayn as-salātayn can be applied to the Fajr prayer.

Barring the Hanafites, Sunni jurisprudence also permit to combine Maghrib and 'Isha'a prayers or Dhuhr and 'Asr prayers if they are traveling and incapable of independently performing the prayers. Amongst Sunnis, Salafi Muslims allow the combining of two consecutive prayers for a wide range of reasons; such as when various needs arise or due to any difficulty. Taking precedence from Imams of the Salaf and early Muhaddithun; many Salafis amongst the Ahl-i Hadith school permit combining two consecutive prayers generally, although praying separately is preferred.

Sunni view

Of the fard category are the five daily prayers, as well as the Gathering prayer (Jumu'ah), while the Eid prayers and Witr are of the Wajib/Fard category. Abandoning the obligatory prayers due to negligence is Kufr (disbelief) according to the stricter Hanbali madhhab of Sunni Islam, while the other Sunni madhhabs consider doing so a major sin. However, all four madhhabs agree that denial of the mandatory status of these prayers invalidates the faith of those who do so, rendering them apostates. The Islamic prophet Muhammad is reported to have said: "Between man and polytheism and unbelief is the abandonment of salat." (Sahih Muslim Book 1, hadith 154).

Fard prayers (as with all fard actions) are further classed as either fard al-ayn (obligation of the self) and fard al-kifayah (obligation of sufficiency).[citation needed] Fard al-Ayn are actions considered obligatory on individuals, for which the individual will be held to account if the actions are neglected. Fard al-Kifayah are actions considered obligatory on the Muslim community at large, so that if some people within the community carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy, but if no one carries it out, all incur a collective punishment.

Followers of Imam Abu Hanifa also include a 6th obligatory prayer, witr. It is supposed to be the last prayer of the night and is composed of an odd number of rakat. This obligation is considered a lesser obligation to the other 5 obligatory prayers, in that its rejection isn't an act of disbelief according to the Hanafi school. The other schools consider this to be a Sunnah muakkadah (emphasized sunnah).

Some Islamic scholars require men to offer the mandatory salat in congregation (jama'ah), behind an imam when they are able however, according to most Islamic scholars, prayer in congregation is mustahabb (recommended) for men, when they are able.

Special congregational prayers

Main article: Friday prayer
Women praying in Najaf, Iraq on Eid al-Fitr

The Jumu'ah is a congregational prayer on Friday, which replaces the Zuhr prayer. It is compulsory upon men to pray this in congregation, while women may pray it so or offer Zuhr prayer instead. Jumu'ah consists of a sermon (khutbah), after which two rakats are prayed. Since the khutbah replaces the two rakat of Zuhr, it is believed that listening to it carefully compensates the thawāb of 2 rakat.

The salah of the 'Idayn is said on the mornings of ''Eid al-Fitr and 'Eid an-nahr. The Eid prayer is classified by some as fard, likely an individual obligation (fard al-ayn) though some Islamic scholars argue it is only a collective obligation (fard al-kifayah). It consists of two rakats, with seven (or three for the followers Imam Abu Hanifa) takbirs offered before the start of the first rakat and five (or three for the followers of Imam Abu Hanifa) before the second. After the salah is completed, a sermon (khutbah) is offered. However, the khutbah is not an integral part of the Eid salah. The Eid salah must be offered between sunrise and true noon i.e. between the time periods for Fajr and Zuhr.

Supererogatory prayers

Sunnah and nafl

Sunni Muslims perform optional sunnah salah (voluntary prayers offered by Muhammad) of two categories: sunnah mu'akkadah (verified sunnah) and sunnah ghair-mu'akkadah (unverified sunnah). The primary difference between the two being the frequency of Muhammad having performed the relevant salah. Certain sunnah prayers have prescribed times. Those ordained for before each of the fard prayers must be offered between the first call to prayer (adhan) and the second call (iqamah), which signifies the start of the fard prayer. Those sunnah ordained for after the fard prayers can be said any time between the end of the fard prayers and the end of the current prayer's waqt.

While Sunni Muslims classify these prayers as sunnah, Shia consider them nafl. Nafl salah are voluntary and can be offered at any time. Many Sunni Muslims also offer two rakats of nafl salah after the Zuhr and Maghrib prayers. During the Isha prayer, they pray the two rakats of nafl after the two sunnah mu'akkadah and wajib prayers. There are many specific conditions or situations when one may wish to offer nafl prayers. They cannot be offered at sunrise, true noon, or sunset. The prohibition against salah at these times is to prevent the practice of sun worship. Some Muslims offer voluntary prayers immediately before and after the five prescribed prayers. A table of these prayers is given below.

Table of supererogatory prayers with compulsory prayers, with minor differences between madhhabs
Compulsory (fard) prayer Prescribed time Voluntary before fard Obligatory Voluntary after fard Total

The prescribed times of the prayers depicted in place of the position of the sun in the sky, relative to the worshipper.

Sunni Shia Sunni Shia Sunni Shia Sunni Shia
Fajr Begins at dawn, may be performed up to sunrise after Fajr nafl prayer 2 rakat¤ 2 rakat 2 rakat None 2 rakat 4 r. 6 r.
Zuhr From when the sun has passed the zenith, may be performed up to the time of Asr. 4 rakat¤ 4 rakat 4 rakat 2 rakat¤ 8 r. 10 r. 16 r.
Asr From when the shadow cast by an object is twice its length, may be performed up to the time of Maghrib. 4 rakat 4 rakat 4 rakat None 8 r. 8 r. 16 r.
Maghrib Begins at sunset, may be performed up to the end of dusk. 2 rakat 3 rakat 3 rakat 2 rakat¤ 2 r. 7 r. 11 r.
Isha Begins with the night, may be performed up to dawn 4 rakat 4 rakat 7 r.× 4 r. 2 rakat¤ 2 r. 13 r. 10 r.
Jumu'ah From when the sun has passed the zenith, may be performed up to the time of Asr, on Fridays. 2 rakat 2 rakat 2 rakat with khutbah 4 rakat¤

2 rakat¤

2 r. nafl

2 rakat 14 r. 6 r.
¤: denotes sunnah mu'akkadah (verified sunnah), which must be offered by adherents of the Hanafi madhhab.

‡: denotes sunnah ghair-mu'akkadah (unverified sunnah).

×: offered as two prayers of 4 and 3 rakat each, with the 3 rakat considered wajib and performed after the 4 fard rakat.

Prayers of the night

Though not a mandatory part of the course, most Muslims supplicate after completing salah.

Tahajjud (Arabic:تَهَجُّد) are supererogatory prayers offered late at night. Prayers of this kind are observed from midnight to the prescribed time of the Fajr prayer. The prayer includes any number of even rakat, performed in twos or fours, followed by three or more odd rakat of witr prayer. Shia Muslims offer similar prayers, simply called nightly prayers (Arabic:صَلَوَات اللَّيل). These are considered highly meritorious, and can be offered in the same time as tahajjud. These prayers include eleven rakat: 8 nafl (4 prayers of 2 rakat each), 2 rakat shaf' prayer and 1 rakat witr. Witr (Arabic:وِتر lit. 'string') are prayers offered either with the Isha prayer or with the tahajjud/salawat al-layl. Some consider this prayer compulsory (wajib), while others consider it supererogatory. These are performed in odd numbers of rakats, with slight differences between madhhabs. The prayer usually includes the qunūt.

Other prayers

The word istikharah is derived from the root ḵ-y-r (خير) "well-being, goodness, choice, selection". Salat al-Istikhaarah is a prayer offered when a Muslim needs guidance on a particular matter. To say this salah one should pray two rakats of non-obligatory salah to completion. After completion one should request God that which on is better. The intention for the salah should be in one's heart to pray two rakats of salah followed by Istikhaarah. The salah can be offered at any of the times where salah is not forbidden. Other prayers include the tahiyyat al-masjid, which Muslims are encouraged to offer these two rakat.

A Sunni Muslim (left) and Shia Muslim (right) performing the Friday prayer in Tehran. Some Sunnis perform salah with the hands clasped ("qabd"), while Shia offer salah with their hands at their sides ("sadl").

Muslims believe that Muhammad practiced, taught, and disseminated the worship ritual in the whole community of Muslims and made it part of their life. The practice has, therefore, been concurrently and perpetually practiced by the community in each of the generations. The authority for the basic forms of the salah is neither the hadiths nor the Quran, but rather the consensus of Muslims.

This is not inconsistent with another fact that Muslims have shown diversity in their practice since the earliest days of practice, so the salah practiced by one Muslim may differ from another's in minor details. In some cases the Hadith suggest some of this diversity of practice was known of and approved by the Prophet himself.

Most differences arise because of different interpretations of the Islamic legal sources by the different schools of law (madhhabs) in Sunni Islam, and by different legal traditions within Shia Islam. In the case of ritual worship these differences are generally minor, and should rarely cause dispute.

A turbah or mohr is a small piece of soil or clay, often a clay tablet, used during salah to symbolize earth.

Specific differences

Common differences, which may vary between schools and gender, include:

  • Position of legs and feet.
  • Position of hands, including fingers
  • Place where eyes should focus
  • The minimum amount of recitation
  • Loudness of recitation: audible, or moving of lips, or just listening (Loud prayer [ar], Silent prayer [ar])
  • Which of the principal elements of the prayer are indispensable, versus recommended, optional, etc.

Shia Muslims, after the end of the prayer, raise their hands three times, reciting Allahu akbar whereas Sunnis look at the right and then left shoulder saying taslim. Also, Shias often read "Qunoot" in the second Rakat, while Sunnis usually do this after salah. The use of a turbah is compulsory in most Shi'a schools of Islam, and disapproved among many Sunnis.[citation needed]

A 2015 Pew Research Center study found that women are 2% more likely than men to pray on a daily basis.

Bosniaks praying in an open field, ca. 1906
Main article: Salah al jama'ah
President Joko Widodo of Indonesia (front row, fourth from left) joining prayer in congregation with Vice President Jusuf Kalla (third from left), other cabinet members, and other worshippers.
Friday prayer for Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Prayer in the congregation (jama'ah) is considered to have more social and spiritual benefits than praying by oneself. As per hadith traditions, the reward of a prayer in congregation increases twenty-five times. A hadith says: "The prayer in congregation is twenty five times superior to the prayer offered by person alone."(Sahih Bukhari 646).

When praying in congregation, the people stand in straight parallel rows behind one person who conducts the prayer, called imam, also called the 'leader'. The imam must be above the rest in knowledge, action, piety, and justness and possess faith and commitment the people trust, Balanced Perception of Religion and the best knowledge of the Quran. The prayer is offered as normal, with the congregation following the imam in order as he/she offers the salah.

Standing arrangement

For two people of the same gender, they would stand in line, the imam would stand on the left, and the other person is on the right. For more than two people, the imam stands one row ahead of the rest.[citation needed]

When the Worshippers consist of men and women combined, a man is chosen as the imam. In this situation, women are typically forbidden from assuming this role. This point, though unanimously agreed on by the major schools of Islam, is disputed by some groups, based partly on a hadith whose interpretation is controversial. When the congregation consists entirely of women and pre-pubescent children, one woman is chosen as imam. When men, women, and children are praying, the children's rows are usually between the men's and women's rows, with the men at the front and women at the back. Another configuration is where the men's and women's rows are side by side, separated by a curtain or other barrier, with the primary intention being for there to be no direct line of sight between male and female Worshippers.

Men standing in prayer in Tulehu, Indonesia.

Table notes

  1. According to Shia Muslims, these are to be said in two and two rakats (four in total). This is not the case for Sunni Muslims.
  2. Replaced by Jumu'ah on Fridays, which consists of two rakats.
  3. According to Sunni Muslims, there is a difference between Sunnat-Mu'akkadah (obligatory) and Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkadah (voluntary). Unlike for the Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkadah, the Sunnat-Mu'akkadah was prayed by Muhammed daily.
  4. Mustahab (praiseworthy) to do everyday. (Shias)
  5. According to Shia Muslims, this prayer is termed nawafil.
  6. According to Imam Abu Hanifa, "Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes twice its height (plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Zuhr)." For the rest of Imams, "Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes equal to its length (plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Zuhr)." Asr ends as the sun begins to set.
  7. According to Shia Muslims, Asr prayer and Isha prayer have no set times but are said any time starting from midday. Zuhr and Asr prayers must be offered before sunset, and the time for Asr starts after Zuhr has been prayed. Maghrib and Isha prayers must be offered before midnight, and the time for Isha prayer can start after Maghrib has been prayed, as long as no more light remains in the western sky signifying the arrival of the true night.
  8. Further information on the usage of the word "Isha" (evening) see Quran 12:16, Quran 79:46
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Salah
Salah Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Salat This article is about the Islamic prayers For other uses see Salah disambiguation Salat redirects here For other uses see Salat disambiguation Salah Arabic ص لاة pl salawat romanized Arabic pronunciation sˤa laː h sˤaˈlaːt in construct state lit prayer 1 also known as namaz Persian نماز and also spelled salat are prayers performed by Muslims Facing the qibla the direction of the Kaaba with respect to those praying Muslims pray first standing and later kneeling or sitting on the ground reciting from the Quran and glorifying and praising Allah as they bow and prostrate themselves in between Salah is composed of prescribed repetitive cycles of bows and prostrations called rakat sing rak ah The number of rak ahs also known as units of prayer varies from prayer to prayer Ritual purity and wudu are prerequisites for performing the prayers 2 3 4 SalahMuslims doing Ruku bowing during a prayerOfficial nameصلاةAlso calledPrayer in IslamObserved byMuslimTypeIslamicSignificanceA Muslim prayer offered to God according to legal jurisprudence ObservancesFriday prayer Duha Eid prayers Tarawih Rain prayerRelated toTilawa Ruku SujudSystem of the prayer time The daily obligatory prayers collectively form the second of the five pillars in Islam observed five times every day at prescribed times These are Fajr observed at dawn Zuhr prayer observed at noon Asr observed late in the afternoon Maghrib observed at dusk and Isha observed after sunset Salah can be performed either in solitude or collectively known as jama ah When performed in jama ah worshippers line up in parallel rows behind a leader known as the imam Special prayers are exclusively performed in congregation such as the Friday prayer and the Eid prayers and are coupled with two sermons each delivered by the imam 2 Contents 1 Etymology 1 1 In the Quran 2 Religious significance 3 Procedure 3 1 Beginning 3 2 Common elements of each rakat 4 Types of salah 4 1 Compulsory prayers 4 1 1 Qasr Shorterning Prayers 4 1 2 Jam Combining Prayers 4 1 3 Sunni view 4 2 Special congregational prayers 4 3 Supererogatory prayers 4 3 1 Sunnah and nafl 4 3 2 Prayers of the night 4 3 3 Other prayers 5 Differences in practice 5 1 Specific differences 6 Prayer in congregation 6 1 Standing arrangement 7 See also 8 Notes 8 1 Table notes 9 References 10 Further readingEtymology EditṢalah sˤaˈlaː h صلاة is an Arabic word that means to pray or bless 5 The word is used primarily by English speakers only to refer to the five obligatory prayers of Islam Outside the Arab world the most widespread terms are the Persian word namaz Persian نماز and its derivatives It is used by speakers of the Indo Iranian languages e g Persian and some languages of South Asia 6 as well as by speakers of the Turkic and Slavic languages In Lak and Avar chak chak and kak kak are used respectively In Malaysia and Indonesia the term solat is used as well as a local term sembahyang meaning the act of worshipping from the words sembah worship and hyang god or deity 7 In the Quran Edit The noun ṣalah صلاة is used 82 times in the Quran 8 Gerrans listed 2 3 2 43 2 45 2 83 2 110 2 153 2 157 2 177 2 238 2 277 4 43 4 77 4 101 4 102 4 103 4 142 4 162 5 6 5 12 5 55 5 58 5 91 5 106 6 72 6 92 6 162 7 170 8 3 8 35 9 5 9 11 9 18 9 54 9 71 9 99 9 103 10 87 11 87 11 114 13 22 14 31 14 37 14 40 17 78 17 110 19 31 19 55 19 59 20 14 20 132 21 73 22 35 22 40 22 41 22 78 23 2 23 9 24 37 24 41 24 56 24 58 29 45 30 31 31 4 31 17 33 33 35 18 35 29 42 38 58 13 62 9 62 10 70 23 70 34 73 20 98 5 107 5 9 There are about 15 other derivatives of its triliteral root ṣ l 8 Words connected to salah such as mosque wudu dhikr etc are used in approximately one sixth of Quranic verses 10 Surely my prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are all for God 11 a and I am Allah there is no god but I therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance 12 b are both examples of this Religious significance EditMain article Prayer compensation The primary purpose of salah is to act as a person s communication with Allah 13 Purification of the heart is the ultimate religious objective of Salah Via salah a believer can grow closer to Allah and in turn strengthen their faith Just as humans physically require food and supplement to stay healthy and alive the soul requires prayer and closeness to God to stay sustained and healthy In short it spiritually sustains the human soul 14 Tafsir of the Quran can give four reasons for the observation of salah First in order to commend God God s servants together with the angels do salah blessing salutations 15 c Second salah is done involuntarily by all beings in Creation in the sense that they are always in contact with God by virtue of Him creating and sustaining them 16 d Third Muslims voluntarily offer salah to reveal that it is the particular form of worship that belongs to the prophets e Fourth salah is described as the second pillar of Islam 5 Procedure Edit Various prescribed movements in Salah which collectively constitute a rak ah From left to right Ruku qiyam i tidal sujud takbir and qu ud julus Main article Rakat Each Salah is made up of repeating units known as rakat Arabic ر ك ع ات sing rak ah Each prayer may consist of two to four rakat Each rak ah consists of specific movements and recitations On the major elements there is consensus but on minor details there may be different views Between each position there is a very slight pause The takbir which is read as Allaahu Akbar lit God is The Greatest is recited during the time when one goes from one position of prayer to another Beginning Edit Before prayer a Muslim should always perform Wudhu an act in which he first washes his hands cleans his mouth and nose washes his face washes his arms up to the elbow then with his wet hands wipes over his head including his ears and then finally washes his feet Intention known as niyyah is a prerequisite for salah and what distinguishes real worship from going through the motions Some authorities hold that intention suffices in the heart and some require that it be spoken usually under the breath 17 18 The person praying begins in a standing position known as qiyam although people who find it difficult to do so may begin while sitting or lying on the ground 5 This is followed by the raising of the hands to the head and recitation of the takbir known in combination as takbirat al iḥram or takbirat at taḥrimah consecratory takbir Takbir is read as Allaahu Akbar lit God is The Greatest One then lowers their hands First Takbir represents the beginning of prayer From this point forward one praying may not converse eat or do things that are otherwise halal A Muslim must keep his vision low during prayer looking at the place where his face will contact the ground during prostration 18 19 20 Common elements of each rakat Edit Still standing the next principal act is the recitation of Al Fatiha the first chapter of the Quran This chapter begins with praise of God and then a supplication is made to God In the first and second rakat another portion of the Quran is recited following the Fatiha This is followed by saying Allaahu Akbar lit God is The Greatest and raising the hands up to the ear lobes Rafah yadain followed by Rakooh which is bowing from the waist with palms placed on the knees depending on the madhhab rules may differ for women While bowing those praying generally utter words of praise under their breath such as سبحان ربي العظيم lit Glory be to my Lord the Most Magnificent thrice or more As the worshipper straightens their back they say سمع الله لمن حمده lit God hears the one who praises him and ربنا لك الحمد rabbana laka l ḥamd Our Lord all praise be to you 18 Yemeni Muslim in sujud performing salah in the desert during the North Yemen Civil War above Syrians in sujud performing salah in jama ah behind an imam below This is followed by saying Allaahu Akbar lit God is The Greatest and raising the hands up to the ear lobes and then the worshipper kneels and prostrates with the forehead nose knees palms and toes touching the floor saying سبحان ربى الأعلى lit Glory be to my Lord the Most High After a short while in prostration the worshipper very briefly rises to sit then returns to the ground a second time Lifting the head from the second prostration completes a rak ah If this is the second or last raka ah the worshiper proceeds to sit and recite the tashahhud salawat and other prayers 18 Many schools hold that the right index finger is raised when reciting the salawat 18 If the worshipper then intends to finish their prayer they perform the taslim illustrated below or continue with a new rak ah Mistakes in salah are believed to be compensated for by prostrating twice at the end of the prayer known as sujud sahwi 21 The taslim is read as Assalamualaikum wa rahmatullah lit Peace and mercy of Allah be upon you All Taslim represents end of prayer Performing the Taslim Reciting the salam facing the right direction Reciting the salam facing the left directionTypes of salah EditPrayers in Islam are classified into categories based on degrees of obligation One common classification is fard or wajib compulsory sunnah tradition and nafl voluntary 22 Compulsory prayers Edit The five daily prayers are obligatory on every Muslim who has reached the age of puberty with the exception of those for whom it may not be possible due to physical or mental disabilities 23 and those menstruating hayd or experiencing postnatal bleeding nifas 24 Those who are sick or otherwise physically unable to offer their prayers in the traditional form are permitted to offer their prayers while sitting or lying as they are able 25 Each of the five prayers has a prescribed time depending on the movement of the sun These are the Fajr prayer 2 rakat observed at dawn Zuhr prayer 4 rakat observed at noon Asr prayer 4 rakat observed late in the afternoon Maghrib prayer 3 rakat observed at dusk and the Isha prayer 4 rakat observed after sunset Salah must be prayed in its time In certain circumstances one may be unable to offer one s prayer within the prescribed time In this case the prayer must be offered as soon as possible Several hadith narrate that Muhammad stated that it is permissible to pray salah out of its permissible time if a person accidentally sleeps through the prescribed time However knowingly sleeping through the prescribed time for Salah is deemed impermissible by most scholars 26 Display showing prayer times in a Turkish mosque Qasr Shorterning Prayers Edit When travelling over long distances one may shorten the Zuhr Asr Maghrib and Isha a prayers to 2 rakat a practice known as qasr 27 Jam Combining Prayers Edit In Shia Ja fari Fiqh one may perform jam bayn as salatayn which refers to praying the Zuhr and Asr prayers in combination at one of its time as well as the Maghrib and Isha a prayers at one of its time However praying separately is considered better Neither qasr nor jam bayn as salatayn can be applied to the Fajr prayer 28 Barring the Hanafites Sunni jurisprudence also permit to combine Maghrib and Isha a prayers or Dhuhr and Asr prayers if they are traveling and incapable of independently performing the prayers Amongst Sunnis Salafi Muslims allow the combining of two consecutive prayers for a wide range of reasons such as when various needs arise or due to any difficulty 29 30 31 32 Taking precedence from Imams of the Salaf and early Muhaddithun many Salafis amongst the Ahl i Hadith school permit combining two consecutive prayers generally although praying separately is preferred 33 34 Sunni view Edit Of the fard category are the five daily prayers as well as the Gathering prayer Jumu ah while the Eid prayers and Witr are of the Wajib Fard category 35 Abandoning the obligatory prayers due to negligence is Kufr disbelief according to the stricter Hanbali madhhab of Sunni Islam while the other Sunni madhhabs consider doing so a major sin However all four madhhabs agree that denial of the mandatory status of these prayers invalidates the faith of those who do so rendering them apostates The Islamic prophet Muhammad is reported to have said Between man and polytheism and unbelief is the abandonment of salat Sahih Muslim Book 1 hadith 154 36 Fard prayers as with all fard actions are further classed as either fard al ayn obligation of the self and fard al kifayah obligation of sufficiency citation needed Fard al Ayn are actions considered obligatory on individuals for which the individual will be held to account if the actions are neglected 37 Fard al Kifayah are actions considered obligatory on the Muslim community at large so that if some people within the community carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy but if no one carries it out all incur a collective punishment 38 Followers of Imam Abu Hanifa also include a 6th obligatory prayer witr It is supposed to be the last prayer of the night and is composed of an odd number of rakat This obligation is considered a lesser obligation to the other 5 obligatory prayers in that its rejection isn t an act of disbelief according to the Hanafi school The other schools consider this to be a Sunnah muakkadah emphasized sunnah Some Islamic scholars require men to offer the mandatory salat in congregation jama ah behind an imam when they are able however according to most Islamic scholars prayer in congregation is mustahabb recommended for men when they are able 39 Special congregational prayers Edit Main article Friday prayer Women praying in Najaf Iraq on Eid al Fitr The Jumu ah is a congregational prayer on Friday which replaces the Zuhr prayer It is compulsory upon men to pray this in congregation while women may pray it so or offer Zuhr prayer instead 40 Jumu ah consists of a sermon khutbah after which two rakats are prayed 41 Since the khutbah replaces the two rakat of Zuhr it is believed that listening to it carefully compensates the thawab of 2 rakat 42 The salah of the Idayn is said on the mornings of Eid al Fitr and Eid an nahr The Eid prayer is classified by some as fard likely an individual obligation fard al ayn though some Islamic scholars argue it is only a collective obligation fard al kifayah 43 It consists of two rakats with seven or three for the followers Imam Abu Hanifa takbirs offered before the start of the first rakat and five or three for the followers of Imam Abu Hanifa before the second After the salah is completed a sermon khutbah is offered However the khutbah is not an integral part of the Eid salah 44 The Eid salah must be offered between sunrise and true noon i e between the time periods for Fajr and Zuhr 27 Supererogatory prayers Edit Main article Supererogatory prayers Sunnah and nafl Edit Sunni Muslims perform optional sunnah salah voluntary prayers offered by Muhammad of two categories sunnah mu akkadah verified sunnah and sunnah ghair mu akkadah unverified sunnah The primary difference between the two being the frequency of Muhammad having performed the relevant salah Certain sunnah prayers have prescribed times Those ordained for before each of the fard prayers must be offered between the first call to prayer adhan and the second call iqamah which signifies the start of the fard prayer Those sunnah ordained for after the fard prayers can be said any time between the end of the fard prayers and the end of the current prayer s waqt 45 While Sunni Muslims classify these prayers as sunnah Shia consider them nafl Nafl salah are voluntary and can be offered at any time 46 Many Sunni Muslims also offer two rakats of nafl salah after the Zuhr and Maghrib prayers During the Isha prayer they pray the two rakats of nafl after the two sunnah mu akkadah and wajib prayers 47 There are many specific conditions or situations when one may wish to offer nafl prayers They cannot be offered at sunrise true noon or sunset The prohibition against salah at these times is to prevent the practice of sun worship 48 Some Muslims offer voluntary prayers immediately before and after the five prescribed prayers A table of these prayers is given below Table of supererogatory prayers with compulsory prayers with minor differences between madhhabs 47 Compulsory fard prayer Prescribed time Voluntary before fard t 1 Obligatory Voluntary after fard t 1 Total Fajr prayer Zuhr prayer Asr prayer Maghrib prayer Isha prayer The prescribed times of the prayers depicted in place of the position of the sun in the sky relative to the worshipper Sunni Shia Sunni Shia Sunni Shia Sunni ShiaFajr Begins at dawn may be performed up to sunrise after Fajr nafl prayer 2 rakat 2 rakat t 1 2 rakat t 1 None 2 rakat t 1 4 r 6 r Zuhr From when the sun has passed the zenith may be performed up to the time of Asr 4 rakat 4 rakat 4 rakat t 2 2 rakat t 3 8 r t 1 t 4 t 5 10 r 16 r Asr From when the shadow cast by an object is twice its length may be performed up to the time of Maghrib t 6 t 7 4 rakat 4 rakat 4 rakat None 8 r t 1 t 4 t 5 8 r 16 r Maghrib Begins at sunset may be performed up to the end of dusk 2 rakat 3 rakat 3 rakat 2 rakat t 3 2 r t 1 t 4 t 5 7 r 11 r Isha t 8 Begins with the night may be performed up to dawn t 7 4 rakat 4 rakat 7 r 4 r 2 rakat t 3 2 r t 1 t 4 t 5 13 r 10 r Jumu ah From when the sun has passed the zenith may be performed up to the time of Asr on Fridays 2 rakat 2 rakat 2 rakat with khutbah 4 rakat 2 rakat 2 r nafl 2 rakat 14 r 6 r denotes sunnah mu akkadah verified sunnah which must be offered by adherents of the Hanafi madhhab denotes sunnah ghair mu akkadah unverified sunnah offered as two prayers of 4 and 3 rakat each with the 3 rakat considered wajib and performed after the 4 fard rakat Prayers of the night Edit Though not a mandatory part of the course most Muslims supplicate after completing salah Tahajjud Arabic ت ه ج د are supererogatory prayers offered late at night Prayers of this kind are observed from midnight to the prescribed time of the Fajr prayer 49 The prayer includes any number of even rakat performed in twos or fours followed by three or more odd rakat of witr prayer 50 Shia Muslims offer similar prayers simply called nightly prayers Arabic ص ل و ات الل يل These are considered highly meritorious and can be offered in the same time as tahajjud 51 52 These prayers include eleven rakat 8 nafl 4 prayers of 2 rakat each 2 rakat shaf prayer and 1 rakat witr 52 Witr Arabic و تر lit string are prayers offered either with the Isha prayer or with the tahajjud salawat al layl Some consider this prayer compulsory wajib while others consider it supererogatory These are performed in odd numbers of rakats with slight differences between madhhabs The prayer usually includes the qunut 51 Other prayers Edit The word istikharah is derived from the root ḵ y r خير well being goodness choice selection 53 Salat al Istikhaarah is a prayer offered when a Muslim needs guidance on a particular matter To say this salah one should pray two rakats of non obligatory salah to completion After completion one should request God that which on is better 27 The intention for the salah should be in one s heart to pray two rakats of salah followed by Istikhaarah The salah can be offered at any of the times where salah is not forbidden 54 Other prayers include the tahiyyat al masjid which Muslims are encouraged to offer these two rakat 55 Differences in practice Edit A Sunni Muslim left 56 and Shia Muslim right performing the Friday prayer in Tehran Some Sunnis perform salah with the hands clasped qabd while Shia offer salah with their hands at their sides sadl Muslims believe that Muhammad practiced taught and disseminated the worship ritual in the whole community of Muslims and made it part of their life The practice has therefore been concurrently and perpetually practiced by the community in each of the generations The authority for the basic forms of the salah is neither the hadiths nor the Quran but rather the consensus of Muslims 57 58 This is not inconsistent with another fact that Muslims have shown diversity in their practice since the earliest days of practice so the salah practiced by one Muslim may differ from another s in minor details In some cases the Hadith suggest some of this diversity of practice was known of and approved by the Prophet himself 59 Most differences arise because of different interpretations of the Islamic legal sources by the different schools of law madhhabs in Sunni Islam and by different legal traditions within Shia Islam In the case of ritual worship these differences are generally minor and should rarely cause dispute 60 A turbah or mohr is a small piece of soil or clay often a clay tablet used during salah to symbolize earth Specific differences Edit Common differences which may vary between schools and gender include 61 62 63 64 65 66 Position of legs and feet Position of hands including fingers Place where eyes should focus The minimum amount of recitation Loudness of recitation audible or moving of lips or just listening Loud prayer ar Silent prayer ar Which of the principal elements of the prayer are indispensable versus recommended optional etc Shia Muslims after the end of the prayer raise their hands three times reciting Allahu akbar whereas Sunnis look at the right and then left shoulder saying taslim Also Shias often read Qunoot in the second Rakat while Sunnis usually do this after salah 67 The use of a turbah is compulsory in most Shi a schools of Islam and disapproved among many Sunnis citation needed A 2015 Pew Research Center study found that women are 2 more likely than men to pray on a daily basis 68 Prayer in congregation Edit Bosniaks praying in an open field ca 1906 Main article Salah al jama ah President Joko Widodo of Indonesia front row fourth from left joining prayer in congregation with Vice President Jusuf Kalla third from left other cabinet members and other worshippers Friday prayer for Muslims in Dhaka Bangladesh Prayer in the congregation jama ah is considered to have more social and spiritual benefits than praying by oneself 69 As per hadith traditions the reward of a prayer in congregation increases twenty five times A hadith says The prayer in congregation is twenty five times superior to the prayer offered by person alone Sahih Bukhari 646 70 When praying in congregation the people stand in straight parallel rows behind one person who conducts the prayer called imam also called the leader The imam must be above the rest in knowledge action piety and justness and possess faith and commitment the people trust Balanced Perception of Religion and the best knowledge of the Quran 26 The prayer is offered as normal with the congregation following the imam in order as he she offers the salah 71 Standing arrangement Edit For two people of the same gender they would stand in line the imam would stand on the left and the other person is on the right 72 For more than two people the imam stands one row ahead of the rest citation needed When the Worshippers consist of men and women combined a man is chosen as the imam In this situation women are typically forbidden from assuming this role This point though unanimously agreed on by the major schools of Islam is disputed by some groups based partly on a hadith whose interpretation is controversial When the congregation consists entirely of women and pre pubescent children one woman is chosen as imam 73 When men women and children are praying the children s rows are usually between the men s and women s rows with the men at the front and women at the back Another configuration is where the men s and women s rows are side by side separated by a curtain or other barrier 74 with the primary intention being for there to be no direct line of sight between male and female Worshippers 75 Men standing in prayer in Tulehu Indonesia See also EditDua Sabr Islamic term TasbihNotes Edit Quran 6 162 Quran 20 14 Quran 33 43 Quran 24 41 Quran 21 71 73 Table notes Edit a b c d e f g h i According to Shia Muslims these are to be said in two and two rakats four in total This is not the case for Sunni Muslims Replaced by Jumu ah on Fridays which consists of two rakats a b c According to Sunni Muslims there is a difference between Sunnat Mu akkadah obligatory and Sunnat Ghair Mu akkadah voluntary Unlike for the Sunnat Ghair Mu akkadah the Sunnat Mu akkadah was prayed by Muhammed daily a b c d Mustahab praiseworthy to do everyday Shias a b c d According to Shia Muslims this prayer is termed nawafil According to Imam Abu Hanifa Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes twice its height plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Zuhr For the rest of Imams Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes equal to its length plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Zuhr Asr ends as the sun begins to set a b According to Shia Muslims Asr prayer and Isha prayer have no set times but are said any time starting from midday Zuhr and Asr prayers must be offered before sunset and the time for Asr starts after Zuhr has been prayed Maghrib and Isha prayers must be offered before midnight and the time for Isha prayer can start after Maghrib has been prayed as long as no more light remains in the western sky signifying the arrival of the true night Further information on the usage of the word Isha evening see Quran 12 16 Quran 79 46References Edit Lane Edward William 1963 An Arabic English Lexicon Beirut Lebanon Librairie du Liban p 1721 Retrieved 17 May 2015 a b salat Definition amp Facts Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 4 January 2016 The Oxford Dictionary of Islam Salat oxfordislamicstudies Farrakhan M R Arefian A Jahromi G S 2016 A Reanalysis of Social Cultural Impacts and Functions of Worship A Case Study on Salah Namaz Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 2039 2117 a b c Chittick William C Murata Sachiko 1994 The vision of Islam Paragon House ISBN 9781557785169 B Morris Andrew 17 January 2012 Catholic Education Universal Principles Locally Applied ISBN 978 1 4438 3634 0 YOUSOF GHULAM SARWAR 30 December 2015 One Hundred and One Things Malay Partridge Publishing Singapore ISBN 9781482855340 a b Dukes Kais ed 2009 2017 Quran Dictionary Quranic Arabic Corpus Retrieved 26 October 2019 Gerrans S The Quran A Complete Revelation 2016 how many times is salat repeated in Quran Fars news Retrieved 17 December 2012 Muhammad Farooq i Azam Malik 2008 What is Islam Who are the Muslims Institute of Islamic Knowledge 2008 ISBN 978 0981943909 Makarem Shirazi Subhani Ayatullah Naser Ayatullah Jafar Philosophy of Islamic Laws Islamic Seminary Publications Sheihul Mufliheen October 2012 Holy Quran s Judgement XLIBRIS p 57 ISBN 978 1479724550 Elias Abu Amina 25 June 2015 The purpose of prayer in Islam Faith in Allah الإيمان بالله Retrieved 17 November 2019 BIN SAAD ADEL January 2016 A COMPREHENSIVE DISCRIPTION OF THE PROPHET S WAY OF PRAYER صفة صلاة النبي ISBN 978 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Combining two prayers Islamweb net 16 January 2018 Archived from the original on 12 November 2020 Nasir al Din al Albani Muhammad 10 September 2014 A resident may combine prayers to avoid difficulties Shaykh al Albaani Abdurrahman org Archived from the original on 3 February 2017 Silmi Shaykh Yahya THE WEAKNESS ABOUT THE NARRATION COMBINING THE PRAYER WITHOUT REASON IS A MAJOR SIN AND AN ADVICE TO BROTHER ABU KHADEEJA ABDUL WAHID Uthman Ibn Affan Library Archived from the original on 9 April 2021 Hibban Khuzaimah Ansari Abu Abu When To Combine And Shorten Prayers Salafi Research Institute Archived from the original on 24 November 2020 Schade Johannes 2006 Encyclopedia of World Religions Mars Media Foreign Media 9 January 2007 ISBN 978 1601360007 Sahih Muslim 82b The Book of Faith كتاب الإيمان Sunnah com Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم sunnah com Retrieved 26 September 2021 The Oxford Dictionary of Islam Fard al Ayn oxfordislamicstudies The Oxford Dictionary of Islam Fard al Kifayah oxfordislamicstudies Rules of Salat Part III of III Al Islam org Archived from the original on 10 May 2012 Retrieved 12 May 2012 Fahd Salem Bahammam The Muslim s Prayer Modern Guide ISBN 9781909322950 Retrieved 29 January 2018 Akhtar Rizvi Sayyid Saeed 1989 Elements of Islamic Studies Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania Margoliouth G 2003 Sabbath Muhammadan In Hastings James ed Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics 20 Selbie John A contrib Kessinger Publishing pp 893 894 ISBN 978 0 7661 3698 4 Ruling on Eid prayers Islam Question and Answer Archived from the original on 24 October 2006 Retrieved 2 January 2007 Islam Today Archived from the original on 17 October 2007 Virtue and times of regular Sunnah prayers Sunnah mu akkadah islamqa info islamqa info Archived from the original on 19 August 2012 Retrieved 14 May 2012 prayers islamicsupremecouncil com Archived from the original on 13 February 2012 Retrieved 14 May 2012 a b A Shi ite Encyclopedia Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project Ringwald Christopher D 20 November 2008 A Day Apart How Jews Christians and Muslims Find Faith Freedom and Joy on the Sabbath Oxford University Press 8 January 2007 pp 117 119 ISBN 978 0195165364 Muhammad Ali Maulana Religion of Islam Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Sixth Revised Edition edition June 1989 ISBN 978 0913321324 Islam International Publications January 2016 Salat The Muslim prayer book Islam International Publishers 1997 ISBN 978 1853725463 a b Majlisi Muhammad Baqir Salat al Layl Al Fath Al Mubin Publications a b Kassamali Kassamali Tahera Hasnain Salatul Layl Tayyiba Publishers amp Distributors Nieuwkerk Karin van October 2013 Performing Piety Singers and Actors in Egypt s Islamic Revival University of Texas Press Reprint edition 1 October 2013 ISBN 9780292745865 Iṣlahi Muḥammad Yusuf 1989 Etiquettes of Life in Islam Firdaus Mediapro Jannah 17 October 2019 The Path to Islamic Prayer English Edition Standar Version Blurb 18 October 2019 ISBN 978 1714100736 Sunan Abi Dawud 759 Prayer Kitab Al Salat كتاب الصلاة Sunnah com Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم sunnah com Retrieved 12 March 2021 Al Mawrid Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Mishkat al Masabih 981 Prayer كتاب الصلاة Sunnah com Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم sunnah com Retrieved 19 April 2021 Muhammad al Bukhari Sahih al Bukhari Book of military expeditions Retrieved 17 October 2019 Abdal Hakim Murad Understanding the Four Madhhabs Archived from the original on 29 March 2010 Retrieved 25 May 2010 Share Islam PDF islamtomorrow com Archived PDF from the original on 3 June 2013 Retrieved 25 April 2014 Page Title haqqaninaqshbandiuk com Archived from the original on 26 April 2014 Retrieved 25 April 2014 eShaykh Salat Guide for Shafi i Google Docs Archived from the original on 12 April 2016 Retrieved 25 April 2014 Salat According to Shafii Fiqh sunnah org Archived from the original on 30 May 2013 Retrieved 25 April 2014 SALAH ACCORDING TO THE HANBALI SCHOOL OF THOUGHT daruliftabirmingham co uk Archived from the original on 5 March 2013 Retrieved 25 April 2014 Imam Ali Foundation London najaf org Archived from the original on 26 April 2014 Retrieved 25 April 2014 Shia praying differences shiastudies org Retrieved 3 December 2019 Swanson Ana 30 March 2016 Why women are more religious than men The Washington Post Archived from the original on 31 March 2016 Retrieved 8 January 2018 Qara ati Muhsin 18 February 2018 The Radiance of the Secrets of Prayer ISBN 978 1496053961 Sahih al Bukhari 646 Call to Prayers Adhaan كتاب الأذان Sunnah com Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم sunnah com Retrieved 26 September 2021 Hussain Musharraf 10 October 2012 The Five Pillars of Islam Laying the Foundations of Divine Love and Service to Humanity Kube Publishing Ltd 10 October 2012 pp 77 78 ISBN 978 1847740540 Where should a person stand in relation to the imaam if just the two of them are praying together Islam Question amp Answer islamqa info Retrieved 26 September 2021 Iranian women to lead prayers BBC 1 August 2000 Retrieved 11 February 2008 Cornell Vincent J 2007 Voices of Islam Voices of life family home and society Praeger Publishers 1st edition 1 January 2007 pp 25 28 ISBN 978 0275987350 Maghniyyah Muhammad Jawad Prayer Salat According to the Five Islamic Schools of Law Islamic Culture and Relations Organisation Further reading EditSmith Jane I Haddad Yvonne Yazbeck 1993 The Oxford Handbook of American Islam 1st ed Oxford Oxford University Press pp 162 163 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Salat Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Salah amp oldid 1053109544, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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