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Satellite state

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A satellite state is a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country. The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets, and is used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War or to Mongolia or Tannu Tuva between 1924 and 1990, for example. As used for Central and Eastern European countries it implies that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. In some contexts it also refers to other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War—such as North Korea (especially in the years surrounding the Korean War of 1950–1953) and Cuba (particularly after it joined the Comecon in 1972), and to some countries in the American sphere of influence—such as South Vietnam (particularly during the Vietnam war). In Western usage, the term has seldom been applied to states other than those in the Soviet orbit. In Soviet usage, the term applied to the states in the orbit of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan.

The Oxford English Dictionary traces the use of the phrase satellite state in English back at least as far as 1916.

In times of war or political tension, satellite states sometimes serve as buffers between an enemy country and the nation exerting control over the satellites. "Satellite state" is one of several contentious terms used to describe the (alleged) subordination of one state to another. Other such terms include puppet state and neo-colony. In general, the term "satellite state" implies deep ideological and military allegiance to the hegemonic power, whereas "puppet state" implies political and military dependence, and "neo-colony" implies (often abject) economic dependence.[citation needed] Depending on which aspect of dependence is being emphasised, a state may fall into more than one category.[citation needed]

Contents

Interwar period

When the Mongolian Revolution of 1921 broke out, Mongolian revolutionaries expelled Russian White Guards (during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923 following the Communist October Revolution of 1917) from Mongolia, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army. The revolution also officially ended Manchurian sovereignty over Mongolia, which had existed since 1691. Although the theocratic Bogd Khanate of Mongolia still nominally continued, with successive series of violent struggles, Soviet influence got ever stronger, and after the death of the Bogd Khaan ("Great Khan", or "Emperor"), the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 26, 1924. A nominally independent and sovereign country, it has been described as being a satellite state of the Soviet Union in the years from 1924 until 1990.

During the Russian Civil War, the Soviet Red Army troops took Tuva in January 1920, which had also been part of the Qing Empire of China and a protectorate of Imperial Russia. The Tuvan People's Republic, was proclaimed independent in 1921 and was a satellite state of Soviet Union until its annexation in 1944 by the Soviet Union.

Another early Soviet satellite state in Asia was the short-lived Far East Republic in Siberia.

Post-World War II

At the end of World War II, most eastern and central European countries were occupied by the Soviet Union, and along with the Soviet Union made up what is sometimes called the Soviet Empire. The Soviets remained in these countries after the war's end. Through a series of coalition governments including Communist parties, and then a forced liquidation of coalition members disliked by the Soviets, Stalinist systems were established in each country. Stalinists gained control of existing governments, police, press and radio outlets in these countries. Soviet satellite states in Europe included:

The three Communist countries of Eastern Europe which managed to shake off Soviet control were Albania, Romania and Yugoslavia. The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia is sometimes referred to as a Soviet satellite, though it broke from Soviet orbit in the 1948 Tito–Stalin split, with the Cominform offices being moved from Belgrade to Bucharest, and Yugoslavia subsequently formed the Non-Aligned Movement. The People's Socialist Republic of Albania, under the leadership of Stalinist Enver Hoxha, broke ties with the Soviet Union in the 1960 Soviet–Albanian split following the Soviet de-Stalinization process. In 1961, with Chinese support, Albania managed to wrestle itself from Soviet influence. The last country was Romania, with the de-satellization of Communist Romania starting in 1956 and ending by 1965. Romania was fully aligned with the Soviet Union until the early 1960s, throughout its first 15 years as a Communist state. However, serious economic disagreements with Moscow resulted in a 1964 formal rejection of all Soviet designs and interference in the affairs of other Communist states.

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan can also be considered a Soviet satellite; from 1978 until 1991, the central government in Kabul was aligned with the Eastern Bloc, and was directly supported by Soviet military between 1979 and 1989. The short-lived East Turkestan Republic (1944–1949) was a Soviet satellite until it was absorbed into the People's Republic of China along with the rest of Xinjiang.

The Mongolian People's Republic was a Soviet satellite from 1924 to 1991. It was so tightly controlled by the Soviet Union that it ceased to exist in February 1992, less than two months after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945-1991); (later the Socialist Republic of Vietnam) was also a satellite state of the Soviet Union from independence day (2 September 1945) to the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991). The Soviet Union supplied the North Vietnam with a large amount of weapons, food, ... as well as sent experts to consult during the Vietnam War. After Vietnam War, the Soviet Union maintained billions of dollars in economic aid to Vietnam, which lasted until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Some commentators have expressed concern that United States military and diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and elsewhere might lead, or perhaps have already led, to the existence of American satellite states. William Pfaff has warned that a permanent American presence in Iraq would "turn Iraq into an American satellite state". The term has also been used in the past to describe the relationship between Lebanon and Syria, as Syria has been accused of intervening in Lebanese political affairs. In addition, Eswatini and Lesotho have both been described as satellite states of South Africa.

  1. Betts, R. R. (January 1945). "The European Satellite States: Their War Contribution and Present Position". International Affairs. 21 (1): 15–29. JSTOR 3018989.
  2. "Source: NATO website 2nd Footnote at bottom". nato.int. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved9 May 2018.
  3. Sik, Ko Swan (1990). Nationality and International Law in Asian Perspective. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7923-0876-8.
  4. Wood, Alan (2005) [1990]. Stalin and Stalinism. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-415-30732-1. Retrieved2009-09-10.
  5. Narangoa, Li; Cribb, Robert B (2003). Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia: 1895–1945. pp. 13, 66. ISBN 978-0-7007-1482-7.
  6. Wettig 2008, p. 69
  7. Rao 2006, p. 280
  8. Langley 2006, p. 30
  9. Merkl 2004, p. 53
  10. Rajagopal 2003, p. 75
  11. Schmid, Alex Peter (October 19, 1985). "Social Defence and Soviet Military Power: An Inquiry Into the Relevance of an Alternative Defence Concept : Report". Center for the Study of Social Conflict (C.O.M.T.), State University of Leiden – via Google Books.
  12. Olsen 2000, p. 19
  13. Crampton, R. J. (July 15, 2014). "The Balkans Since the Second World War". Routledge – via Google Books.
  14. "Political Handbook of the World 1998". Springer. February 1, 2016 – via Google Books.
  15. "[news] Serbia Accuses US Of Wanting To Create Satellite State Out Of Kosovo". www.mail-archive.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved9 May 2018.
  16. On Israel: An Interview with Norman Finkelstein, by Jon Bailes & Cihan Aksan; published Autumn 2008; via archive.org
  17. Cooley, John (June 18, 2008). "How to silence that Iran war drumbeat". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved2009-11-09.
  18. Wachter, Paul (January 26, 2002). "Who killed Elie Hobeika?". Salon. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved2009-11-09.
  19. Mehran Kamrava (2008). Understanding Comparative Politics: A Framework for Analysis. Routledge. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-415-77304-1.

Satellite state
Satellite state Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Satellite state news newspapers books scholar JSTOR June 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message A satellite state is a country that is formally independent in the world but under heavy political economic and military influence or control from another country 1 The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets and is used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries 2 of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War or to Mongolia or Tannu Tuva between 1924 and 1990 3 for example As used for Central and Eastern European countries it implies that the countries in question were satellites under the hegemony of the Soviet Union In some contexts it also refers to other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War such as North Korea especially in the years surrounding the Korean War of 1950 1953 and Cuba particularly after it joined the Comecon in 1972 and to some countries in the American sphere of influence such as South Vietnam particularly during the Vietnam war In Western usage the term has seldom been applied to states other than those in the Soviet orbit In Soviet usage the term applied to the states in the orbit of Nazi Germany Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan The Oxford English Dictionary traces the use of the phrase satellite state in English back at least as far as 1916 In times of war or political tension satellite states sometimes serve as buffers between an enemy country and the nation exerting control over the satellites 4 Satellite state is one of several contentious terms used to describe the alleged subordination of one state to another Other such terms include puppet state and neo colony In general the term satellite state implies deep ideological and military allegiance to the hegemonic power whereas puppet state implies political and military dependence and neo colony implies often abject economic dependence citation needed Depending on which aspect of dependence is being emphasised a state may fall into more than one category citation needed Contents 1 Soviet satellite states 1 1 Interwar period 1 2 Post World War II 2 Post Cold War use of the term 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesSoviet satellite states EditInterwar period Edit When the Mongolian Revolution of 1921 broke out Mongolian revolutionaries expelled Russian White Guards during the Russian Civil War of 1917 1923 following the Communist October Revolution of 1917 from Mongolia with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army The revolution also officially ended Manchurian sovereignty over Mongolia which had existed since 1691 Although the theocratic Bogd Khanate of Mongolia still nominally continued with successive series of violent struggles Soviet influence got ever stronger and after the death of the Bogd Khaan Great Khan or Emperor the Mongolian People s Republic was proclaimed on November 26 1924 A nominally independent and sovereign country it has been described as being a satellite state of the Soviet Union in the years from 1924 until 1990 3 5 During the Russian Civil War the Soviet Red Army troops took Tuva in January 1920 which had also been part of the Qing Empire of China and a protectorate of Imperial Russia The Tuvan People s Republic was proclaimed independent in 1921 and was a satellite state of Soviet Union until its annexation in 1944 by the Soviet Union 5 Another early Soviet satellite state in Asia was the short lived Far East Republic in Siberia 5 Post World War II Edit At the end of World War II most eastern and central European countries were occupied by the Soviet Union 6 and along with the Soviet Union made up what is sometimes called the Soviet Empire The Soviets remained in these countries after the war s end 7 Through a series of coalition governments including Communist parties and then a forced liquidation of coalition members disliked by the Soviets Stalinist systems were established in each country 7 Stalinists gained control of existing governments police press and radio outlets in these countries 7 Soviet satellite states in Europe included 7 8 9 10 People s Republic of Albania 1946 1961 Polish People s Republic 1947 1989 People s Republic of Bulgaria 1946 1990 Romanian People s Republic 1947 1965 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 1948 1989 German Democratic Republic 1949 1990 Hungarian People s Republic 1949 1989 The three Communist countries of Eastern Europe which managed to shake off Soviet control were Albania Romania and Yugoslavia 11 The Federal People s Republic of Yugoslavia is sometimes referred to as a Soviet satellite 7 8 though it broke from Soviet orbit in the 1948 Tito Stalin split with the Cominform offices being moved from Belgrade to Bucharest and Yugoslavia subsequently formed the Non Aligned Movement The People s Socialist Republic of Albania under the leadership of Stalinist Enver Hoxha broke ties with the Soviet Union in the 1960 Soviet Albanian split following the Soviet de Stalinization process 12 In 1961 with Chinese support Albania managed to wrestle itself from Soviet influence 11 The last country was Romania with the de satellization of Communist Romania starting in 1956 and ending by 1965 13 Romania was fully aligned with the Soviet Union until the early 1960s throughout its first 15 years as a Communist state However serious economic disagreements with Moscow resulted in a 1964 formal rejection of all Soviet designs and interference in the affairs of other Communist states 14 The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan can also be considered a Soviet satellite from 1978 until 1991 the central government in Kabul was aligned with the Eastern Bloc and was directly supported by Soviet military between 1979 and 1989 The short lived East Turkestan Republic 1944 1949 was a Soviet satellite until it was absorbed into the People s Republic of China along with the rest of Xinjiang The Mongolian People s Republic was a Soviet satellite from 1924 to 1991 It was so tightly controlled by the Soviet Union that it ceased to exist in February 1992 less than two months after the dissolution of the Soviet Union citation needed Democratic Republic of Vietnam 1945 1991 later the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was also a satellite state of the Soviet Union from independence day 2 September 1945 to the collapse of the Soviet Union 1991 The Soviet Union supplied the North Vietnam with a large amount of weapons food as well as sent experts to consult during the Vietnam War After Vietnam War the Soviet Union maintained billions of dollars in economic aid to Vietnam which lasted until the dissolution of the Soviet Union Post Cold War use of the term EditSome commentators have expressed concern that United States military and diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and elsewhere might lead or perhaps have already led to the existence of American satellite states 15 16 William Pfaff has warned that a permanent American presence in Iraq would turn Iraq into an American satellite state 17 The term has also been used in the past to describe the relationship between Lebanon and Syria as Syria has been accused of intervening in Lebanese political affairs 18 In addition Eswatini and Lesotho have both been described as satellite states of South Africa 19 See also EditBuffer state Client state Vassal state Puppet state Neo colony Protectorate Banana republicNotes Edit Betts R R January 1945 The European Satellite States Their War Contribution and Present Position International Affairs 21 1 15 29 JSTOR 3018989 Source NATO website 2nd Footnote at bottom nato int Archived from the original on 16 August 2017 Retrieved 9 May 2018 a b Sik Ko Swan 1990 Nationality and International Law in Asian Perspective p 39 ISBN 978 0 7923 0876 8 Wood Alan 2005 1990 Stalin and Stalinism Routledge p 62 ISBN 978 0 415 30732 1 Retrieved 2009 09 10 a b c Narangoa Li Cribb Robert B 2003 Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia 1895 1945 pp 13 66 ISBN 978 0 7007 1482 7 Wettig 2008 p 69 a b c d e Rao 2006 p 280 a b Langley 2006 p 30 Merkl 2004 p 53 Rajagopal 2003 p 75 a b Schmid Alex Peter October 19 1985 Social Defence and Soviet Military Power An Inquiry Into the Relevance of an Alternative Defence Concept Report Center for the Study of Social Conflict C O M T State University of Leiden via Google Books Olsen 2000 p 19 Crampton R J July 15 2014 The Balkans Since the Second World War Routledge via Google Books Political Handbook of the World 1998 Springer February 1 2016 via Google Books news Serbia Accuses US Of Wanting To Create Satellite State Out Of Kosovo www mail archive com Archived from the original on 10 September 2017 Retrieved 9 May 2018 On Israel An Interview with Norman Finkelstein by Jon Bailes amp Cihan Aksan published Autumn 2008 via archive org Cooley John June 18 2008 How to silence that Iran war drumbeat Christian Science Monitor Retrieved 2009 11 09 Wachter Paul January 26 2002 Who killed Elie Hobeika Salon Archived from the original on May 23 2010 Retrieved 2009 11 09 Mehran Kamrava 2008 Understanding Comparative Politics A Framework for Analysis Routledge pp 73 ISBN 978 0 415 77304 1 References EditLangley Andrew 2006 The Collapse of the Soviet Union The End of an Empire Compass Point Books ISBN 0 7565 2009 6 Merkl Peter H 2004 German Unification Penn State Press ISBN 0 271 02566 2 Olsen Neil 2000 Albania Oxfam ISBN 0 85598 432 5 Rajagopal Balakrishnan 2003 International law from below development social movements and Third World resistance Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 01671 1 Rao B V 2006 History of Modern Europe Ad 1789 2002 A D 1789 2002 Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd ISBN 1 932705 56 2 Wettig Gerhard 2008 Stalin and the Cold War in Europe Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 0 7425 5542 9 Wood Alan 2005 Stalin and Stalinism Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 30732 1 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Satellite state amp oldid 1051311108, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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