fbpx
Wikipedia

Sathya Sai Baba

Sathya Sai Baba (born Ratnakaram Sathyanarayana Raju; 23 November 1926 – 24 April 2011) was an Indian guru and philanthropist. At the age of fourteen he claimed that he was the reincarnation of Shirdi Sai Baba, and left his home in order to serve the society and be an example to his followers.

Sathya Sai Baba
Personal
Born
Ratnakaram Sathyanarayana Raju
(1926-11-23)23 November 1926
Died24 April 2011(2011-04-24) (aged 84)
NationalityIndian
Founder ofSathya Sai Organization
PhilosophyLove all. Serve all. Help Ever. Hurt Never.

Sai Baba's purported materialisations of vibhuti (holy ash) and other small objects such as rings, necklaces, and watches, along with reports of miraculous healings, resurrections, clairvoyance, bilocation, and alleged omnipotence and omniscience, were a source of both fame and controversy. Multiple studies have concluded that his acts were based on sleight of hand or had other explanations that were not supernatural, although his devotees believe them to be signs of his divinity.

The Sathya Sai Organisation, founded by Sathya Sai Baba "to enable its members to undertake service activities as a means to spiritual advancement", has over 1,200 Sathya Sai Centres (branches) in 126 countries. Through this organisation, Sathya Sai Baba established a network of free super speciality hospitals and general hospitals, clinics, drinking water projects, a university, auditoriums, ashrams, and schools.

Contents

Early life

Almost everything known about Sathya Sai Baba's early life stems from the hagiography that grew around him, narratives that hold special meaning to his devotees and are considered by them to be evidence of his divine nature. According to these sources, Sathya Narayana Raju was born on 23 November 1926 to Meesaraganda Easwaramma and Peddavenkama Raju Ratnakaram, to a Bhatraju family, a community of religious musicians and balladeers, in the village of Puttaparthi which was the Madras Presidency of British India. His birth was alleged by his mother Easwaramma to be of a miraculous conception. He was the fourth among the five children of his parents.

Sathya Sai Baba's siblings included elder brother Ratnakaram Seshama Raju (1911–1985), elder sisters Venkamma (1918–1993) and Parvathamma (1920–1998), and younger brother Janakiramaiah (1931–2003).

As a child, he was described as "unusually intelligent" and charitable, though not necessarily academically inclined, as his interests were of a more spiritual nature. He was uncommonly talented in devotional music, dance and drama. From a young age, he has been alleged to have been capable of materialising objects such as food and sweets out of thin air.

Proclamation

Sathya Sai Baba at the age of 14, soon after proclaiming he was the reincarnation of Shirdi Sai Baba

On 8 March 1940, while living with his elder brother Seshama Raju in Uravakonda, a small town near Puttaparthi, 14-year-old Sathya was allegedly stung by a scorpion. He lost consciousness for several hours and in the next few days underwent a noticeable change in behaviour. There were "symptoms of laughing and weeping, eloquence and silence." It is claimed that then "he began to sing Sanskrit verses, a language of which it is alleged he had no prior knowledge." Doctors concluded his behaviour to be hysteria. Concerned, his parents brought Sathya back home to Puttaparthi and took him to many priests, doctors and exorcists. One of the exorcists at Kadiri, a town near Puttaparthi, went to the extent of torturing him with the aim of curing him.

On 23 May 1940, Sathya called household members and reportedly materialised sugar candy (prasad) and flowers for them. His father became furious at seeing this, thinking his son was bewitched. He took a stick and threatened to beat him if Sathya did not reveal who he really was, the young Sathya responded calmly and firmly "I am Sai Baba", a reference to Sai Baba of Shirdi. This was the first time he proclaimed himself to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi—a saint who became famous in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Maharashtra and had died eight years before Sathya was born. It was then he came to be known as 'Sathya Sai Baba'.

First mandir and development of Puttaparthi

In 1944, a mandir for Sai Baba's devotees was built near the village of Puttaparthi. It is now referred to as the "old mandir". The construction of Prashanthi Nilayam, the current ashram, began in 1948 and was completed in 1950. In 1954, Sai Baba established a small free general hospital in the village of Puttaparthi. He won fame for his reputed mystical powers and ability to heal. In 1957 Sai Baba went on a North Indian temple tour.

Stroke, prediction of reincarnation and sole foreign tour

In 1963, it was asserted that Sai Baba suffered a stroke and four severe heart attacks, which left him paralysed on one side. These events culminated in an event where he apparently healed himself in front of the thousands of people gathered in Prashanthi Nilayam who were then praying for his recovery.

On recovering, Sai Baba announced that he would one day next be reborn as an incarnation named Prema Sai Baba in the neighbouring state of Karnataka. He stated, "I am Shiva-Sakthi, born in the gotra (lineage) of Bharadwaja, according to a boon won by that sage from Siva and Sakthi. Siva was born in the gotra of that sage as Sai Baba of Shirdi; Shiva and Sakthi have incarnated as Myself in his gotra now; Sakthi alone will incarnate as the third Sai (Prema Sai Baba) in the same gotra in Mandya district of Karnataka State." He stated he would be born again eight years after his death at the age of 96, but died at the age of 84.

On 29 June 1968, Sai Baba made his only overseas trip, to Kenya and Uganda.

Later years

In 1968, he established Dharmakshetra or the Sathyam Mandir in Mumbai. In 1973, he established the Shivam Mandir in Hyderabad. On 19 January 1981, in Chennai, he inaugurated the Sundaram Mandir.

In a 1993 incident, four intruders armed with knives entered his bedroom, either as an assassination attempt or as part of a power struggle between his followers. Sai Baba was unharmed. During the scuffle and the police response, the intruders and two of Sai Baba's attendants were killed. The official investigation left questions unanswered.

In March 1995, Sai Baba started a project to provide drinking water to 1.2 million people in the drought-prone Rayalaseema region in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. In April 1999 he inaugurated the Ananda Nilayam Mandir in Madurai, Tamil Nadu.

In 2001 he established another free super-speciality hospital in Bangalore to benefit the poor.

Old age, illness and death

In 2003, Sai Baba suffered a fractured hip when a student standing on an iron stool slipped and the boy and stool both fell on him. After that he gave darshana from a car or his porte chair. After 2004, Sai Baba used a wheelchair and began to make fewer public appearances.

On 28 March 2011, Sai Baba was admitted to the Sri Sathya Sai Super Speciality Hospital, named after and started by himself, at Prashantigram at Puttaparthi, following respiration-related problems. After nearly a month of hospitalisation, during which his condition progressively deteriorated, he died on Sunday, 24 April at 7:40 IST, aged 84.

Sai Baba had predicted that he would die at age 96 and would remain healthy until then. After he died, some devotees suggested that he was referring to that many lunar years, as counted by Telugu-speaking Hindus, rather than solar years, and using the Indian way of accounting for age, which counts the year to come as part of the person's life. Other devotees have spoken of his anticipated resurrection, reincarnation or awakening.

Funeral and mourning

His body lay in state for two days and was buried with full state honours on 27 April 2011. An estimated 500,000 people attended the burial. Political leaders and prominent figures attending included then Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Congress president Sonia Gandhi, Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi (who later became Prime Minister of India), cricketer Sachin Tendulkar and Union Ministers S. M. Krishna and Ambika Soni.

Political leaders who offered their condolences included the then Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa and the Dalai Lama. Cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, whose birthday was that day, cancelled his birthday celebrations. The Hindu newspaper reported that "Sri Sathya Sai Baba's propagation of spiritualism and preaching of Hindu philosophy never came in the way of his commitment to secular beliefs."

The Government of Karnataka declared 25 and 26 April as days of mourning and Andhra Pradesh declared 25, 26, and 27 April as days of mourning.

Sri Sathya Sai Baba Mahasamadhi at Prasanthi Nilayam

The Sathya Sai Organisation (or Sri Sathya Sai Seva Organization) was founded in the 1960s by Sathya Sai Baba. Initially called the "Sri Sathya Sai Seva Samithi", it was established "to enable its members to undertake service activities as a means to spiritual advancement."

The Sathya Sai Organisation reports that there are an estimated 1,200 Sathya Sai Baba Centres in 114 countries. However, the number of active Sai Baba followers is hard to determine. Estimates vary from 6 million up to nearly 100 million. In India itself, Sai Baba drew followers predominantly from the upper-middle-class, the urban sections of society who have the "most wealth, education and exposure to Western ideas." In 2002, he claimed to have followers in 178 countries.

Sathya Sai Baba founded a large number of schools and colleges, hospitals, and other charitable institutions in India and abroad, the net financial capital of which is usually estimated at Rs. 400 billion (US$9 billion). However, estimates as high as 1.4 trillion rupees (about US$31.5bn) have also been made.

After his death, questions about the manner in which the finances of the organisation were going to be managed led to speculations of impropriety, with some reports suggesting that suitcases containing cash and/or gold had been removed from his personal lodgings.

On 17 June 2011, officials from the Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust opened his private residence in the presence of government, bank and tax department officials. In the private residence, which had been sealed since his death, they inventoried 98 kg of gold ornaments, approximate value Rs 21 crores (US$4.7m), 307 kg of silver ornaments, approximate value Rs 16 million (US$0.36m), and Rs 116 million (US$2.6m) in cash. The cash was deposited into the Sai Trust's account at the State Bank of India with payment of government taxes (thus transferring them from religious gifts to Trust assets.) The gold and other items were inventoried, assessed, and placed in secure storage. In July, district authorities inventoried an additional Rs 7.7 million (US$0.17m) in valuables in another 4 rooms. The total value of these items is believed to exceed 7.8 million US dollars. Also inventoried at Yajurmandir were thousands of pure silk sarees, dhotis, shirts, 500 pairs of shoes, dozens of bottles of perfume and hairspray, watches, a large number of silver and gold "mangala sutrams", and precious stones such as diamonds. There were also 750 saffron and white robes of the type Sai Baba wore. In July 2011, a similar opening of his Bangalore-area ashram tallied 6 kg of gold coins and jewellery, 245 kg of silver articles and Rs 8 million in cash. These items and goods are believed to have been donated over the years by Sai Baba's devotees from all over the world as religious gifts.

A 1999 stamp devoted to the Sri Sathya Sai Water Supply Project
Sathya Sai Baba on a 2013 stamp of India

On 23 November 1999, the Department of Posts, Government of India, released a postage stamp and a postal cover in recognition of the service rendered by Sai Baba in addressing the problem of providing safe drinking water to the rural masses. Another commemorative stamp was released on the occasion of what would have been his 88th birthday during November 2013.

In January 2007, an event was held in Chennai Nehru Stadium organised by the Chennai Citizens' Conclave to thank Sai Baba for the 2 billion water project which brought water from the River Krishna in Andhra Pradesh to Chennai city. Four chief ministers attended the function.

Prasanthi Nilayam

Puttaparthi, A.P.
Main article: Prasanthi Nilayam
Chaitanya Jyoti Museum devoted to the life and teachings of Sathya Sai Baba

Puttaparthi, where Sai Baba was born and lived, was originally a small, remote South Indian village in Andhra Pradesh. Now there is an extensive university complex, a speciality hospital, and two museums: the Sanathana Samskruti or Eternal Heritage Museum, sometimes called the Museum of All Religions, and the Chaitanya Jyoti, devoted exclusively to the life and teachings of Sai Baba; the latter has won several international awards for its architectural design. There is also a planetarium, a railway station, a hill-view stadium, an administrative building, an airport, an indoor sports stadium and more. High-ranking Indian politicians such as the former president A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Andhra Pradesh former chief minister Konijeti Rosaiah and Karnataka chief minister B. S. Yeddyurappa have been official guests at the ashram in Puttaparthi. It was reported that well over a million people attended Sai Baba's 80th birthday celebration, including 13,000 delegates from India and 180 other countries.[citation needed]

Hill in Prashanthi Nilayam with statues of Hanuman, Krishna, Shirdi Sai Baba, Shiva, Buddha, Christ, Zarathustra.

Sai Baba resided much of the time in his main ashram, Prashanthi Nilayam (Abode of Highest Peace), at Puttaparthi. In the summer he often left for his other ashram, Brindavan, in Kadugodi, Whitefield, a town on the outskirts of Bangalore. Occasionally he visited his Sai Shruti ashram in Kodaikanal.

Reliable sources often describe Sai Baba's following as a "movement". A study by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) states "A worldwide mass religious movement is growing around the Indian holy man and miracle worker, Sathya Sai Baba." Later noting, "The Sai Baba movement is likely to eventually become another worldwide religion." Among scholars, we find it referred to often as either a "New Religious Movement" (NRM) or as a cult, it appears it is not immune to what Robbins and Zablocki, two social science researchers, call "the divisive polarization, which, at least until recently, has plagued the academic study of religious movements." referencing a wide divide of two camps within academia, each preferring one term over the other (i.e. NRM or cult) for such groups'; It's been noted by Eugene Gallagher, that in more modern times "'New Religious movement', on the other hand, is a classification preferred by most academics, who see 'cult' as a pejorative term and intend to replace it with a more neutral label." It is regarded by most scholars to be of Hindu persuasion.

Sai Baba claimed to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi, and his followers considered him to be the Avatar of Shiva. Sai Baba of Shirdi was known to combine Islamic and Hindu teachings; still Charles S. J. White, of The American University at Washington D.C., noted of Sathya Sai Baba in 1972, that "there is no discernible Muslim influence." Stephanie Tallings, in The Harvard international Review, noted Sai Baba's following is drawn from people of all religions, ethnicities, and social classes. Lawrence A. Babb, of the Amherst College in Massachusetts, labelled Sai Baba movement as a cult in the 1980s, calling it "deeply and authentically Hindu..." and noted, "The most striking feature of this cult, however, is the extremely strong emphasis given to the miraculous." However, a scholarly review claims Babb misapplies the word “cult”, responding, "the so-called 'cult' of Satya Sai Baba seems to possess all such characteristics which are, according to the author, central to a religious movement." Deborah A. Swallow, of the University of Cambridge, referred to it as a cult and said that the "ritual and theology, then, unlike Sai Baba [of Shirdi]'s, is distinctly Hindu in form and content." But John D. Kelly, a professor of anthropology at the University of Chicago, wrote about Hindu missions in Fiji that the Sathya Sai Organization (which is part of the movement) rejected the label Hindu. According to Kelly, they see their founder as the "living synthesis of the world's religious traditions" and prefer to be classified as an interfaith movement. But he observed that Sai Baba mission is a Hindu mission as active as Christian or Muslim missions. In a 2001 scholarly book Tulasi Srinivas, notes, "The Sathya Sai global civil religious movement incorporates Hindu and Muslim practices, Buddhist, Christian, and Zoroastrian influences, and "New Age"-style rituals and beliefs.’ And in the appendix of the book (p. 349) lists 10 scholarly authors/researchers in both Europe and America who all refer to it as a New Religious Movement (NRM).

Sai Baba was known for his quote "Love All, Serve All. Help Ever, Hurt Never."[self-published source?] Internationally, his devotees gather daily, or weekly on Sundays or Thursdays or both, for devotional songs, prayer, spiritual meditation, service to the community (Seva), and to participate in "Education in Human Values" (SSEHV) known as "Bal Vikas" (Blossoming of the Child).

Followers believed in seeking the spiritual benefit of Sai Baba's darshan, scheduled for morning and afternoon each day. Sai Baba would interact with people, accept letters or call groups or individuals for interviews. Devotees considered it a great privilege to have an interview and sometimes a single person, group or family was invited for a private interview for answers to spiritual questions and general guidance.

The Vancouver Sun in 2001 reported that Sai Baba told his adherents not to browse the internet.

Accusations

Accusations against Sathya Sai Baba by his critics over the years have included sleight of hand, sexual abuse, money laundering, fraud in the performance of service projects, and murder.

In 1972 Abraham Kovoor made the first public criticism of Sathya Sai Baba when he looked into a claim publicly narrated by one devotee that Sai Baba had created a new model of a Seiko watch, and found the claim to be untrue.

In April 1976, Hossur Narasimhaiah, a physicist, rationalist and then vice-chancellor of Bangalore University, founded and chaired a committee "to rationally and scientifically investigate miracles and other verifiable superstitions". Narasimhaiah wrote Sai Baba three widely publicised letters challenging him to perform his miracles under controlled conditions. The letters were ignored. Sathya Sai Baba said that he ignored Narasimhaiah's challenge because he felt that a scientific approach to spiritual issues was improper, adding that "Science must confine its inquiry only to things belonging to the human senses, while spiritualism transcends the senses. If you want to understand the nature of spiritual power you can do so only through the path of spirituality and not science. What science has been able to unravel is merely a fraction of the cosmic phenomena ..." Narasimhaiah's committee was dissolved in August 1977. Narasimhaiah held the fact that Sai Baba ignored his letters to be an indication that his miracles were fraudulent. As a result of this episode, a public debate raged for several months in Indian newspapers.

Indian rationalist Basava Premanand, who began campaigning against Sathya Sai Baba in 1976, unsuccessfully attempted to sue him in 1986 for violations of the Gold Control Act, citing Sai Baba's purported materialisations of gold objects. When the case was dismissed, Premanand unsuccessfully appealed on the grounds that claimed spiritual power is not a defence recognised in law.

A 1995 TV documentary Guru Busters, produced by filmmaker Robert Eagle for the UK's Channel 4, accused Sai Baba of faking his materialisations. The clip from the film was mentioned in the Deccan Chronicle, on 23 November 1992, in a front-page headline "DD Tape Unveils Baba Magic".

Claims of Sai Baba resurrecting American devotee Walter Cowan in 1971 have been discussed by British journalist Mick Brown in his book The Spiritual Tourist from 1998, and subsequently by Erlendur Haraldsson, who interviewed doctors attending Cowan at the hospital; these physicians reported that Cowan had been dangerously ill but had not died.

Brown also related his experiences with the alleged manifestations of vibhuti from Sai Baba's pictures in houses in London, which he felt were not fraudulent or the result of trickery. Brown wrote with regards to Sai Baba's claims of omniscience, that "sceptics have produced documentation clearly showing discrepancies between Baba's reading of historical events and biblical prophecies, and the established accounts."

Allegations of abuse

In January 2002, a documentary produced by Denmark's national television and radio broadcast company, Danmarks Radio (DR), called Seduced By Sai Baba, analysed videos of public manifestations of Sai Baba and suggested that they could be explained as sleight of hand. The documentary also presented interviews with Alaya Rahm, former devotee of Sathya Sai Baba, where he alleged abuse by Sathya Sai Baba. As a result, in 2002 the parliament of the United Kingdom discussed the danger to male children of British families intending to visit the ashram of Sathya Sai Baba in case of individual audiences with the guru.

In 2004, the BBC produced a documentary titled The Secret Swami as part of its series "The World Uncovered". One central theme of the BBC documentary was again Alaya Rahm's sexual abuse allegations against Sathya Sai Baba. This documentary interviewed him together with Mark Roche, who had spent 25 years of his life since 1969 in the movement and alleged abuse by Sai Baba. The show also featured allegations from Sai Baba critic Basava Premanand. Premanand stated in the documentary that, in his opinion, Sai Baba faked his materialisations.

Responses

Sathya Sai Baba and his followers reject any allegations of misconduct. Devotee Bill Aitken was quoted by The Week as saying that Sathya Sai Baba's reputation had not been harmed by the negative stories published about him. He said that the more detractors railed against Sathya Sai Baba, the more new devotees went to see him.

In the article Divine Downfall, published in the Daily Telegraph, Anil Kumar, the ex-principal of the Sathya Sai Educational Institute, said that he believed that the controversy was part of Sathya Sai Baba's divine plan and that all great religious teachers had to face criticism during their lives. Anil Kumar also said that allegations had been levelled at Sathya Sai Baba since childhood, but with every criticism he had become more and more triumphant.

In the book Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition, Lawrence A. Babb wrote of Sathya Sai Baba, "Whoever he is, he is certainly more than the mere parlour magician many of his critics claim that he is."

Sathya Sai Baba publicly responded to the allegations in his Christmas day message on 25 December 2000:

Some people out of their mean-mindedness are trying to tarnish the image of Sai Baba. I am not after name and fame. So, I do not lose anything by their false allegations. My glory will go on increasing day by day. It will never diminish even a bit if they were to publicise their false allegations in the whole world in bold letters. Some devotees seem to be perturbed over these false statements. They are not true devotees at all. Having known the mighty power of Sai, why should they be afraid of the 'cawing of crows'? One should not get carried away by all that is written on walls, said in political meetings or the vulgar tales carried by the print media.

The Times of India on 26 December 2000 quoted Sathya Sai Baba as saying:

Jesus Christ underwent many hardships, and was put to the cross because of jealousy. Many around him could not bear the good work he did and the large number of followers he gathered. One of his disciples, Judas, betrayed him. In those days there was one Judas, but today there are thousands. Just as that Judas was tempted to betray Jesus, the Judases of today, too, are bought out to lie. Jealousy was the motive behind the allegations levelled at him.

In an official letter made public in December 2001, Atal Bihari Vajpayee (then Prime Minister of India and a devotee of Sai Baba), P.N. Bhagwati (Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India), Ranganath Misra (Chair Person, National Human Rights Commissioner of India and Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India), Najma Heptulla (President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union; UNDP Distinguished Human Development Ambassador) and Shivraj Patil (Member of Parliament, India; Formerly of the Lok Sabha & Union Minister) all signed the following statement:

We are deeply pained and anguished by the wild, reckless and concocted allegations made by certain vested interests and people against Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba. We would normally expect that responsible media would ascertain the true facts before printing such a calumny – especially when the person is revered globally as an embodiment of love and selfless service to humanity.

  1. "Obituary: Indian guru Sai Baba". BBC. 24 April 2011. Satya Sai Baba was born Sathyanarayana Raju on 23 November 1926
  2. Babb, Lawrence A. (1983). "Sathya Sai Baba's Magic". Anthropological Quarterly. 56 (3): 116–124. doi:10.2307/3317305. JSTOR 3317305.
  3. Das, M. K. (2015). "Televising religion: A study of Sathya Sai Baba's funeral broadcast in Gangtok, India"(PDF). Anthropological Notebooks. 21 (3): 83–104.
  4. Weiss, Richard (December 2005). "THE GLOBAL GURU: SAI BABA AND THE MIRACLE OF THE MODERN"(PDF). New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies. 7 (2): 5–19.
  5. Kent, Alexandra (2005). Divinity and Diversity: A Hindu Revitalization Movement in Malaysia. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-87-91114-40-3.
  6. Singleton, Mark; Goldberg, Ellen (27 November 2013). Gurus of Modern Yoga. ISBN 9780199374953.
  7. Babb, Lawrence A. (1991). Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition. University of California Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-520-07636-5.
  8. Datta, Tanya (17 June 2004). "Sai Baba: God-man or con man?". BBC News. Retrieved7 December 2020.
  9. Johannes Quack (2012). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-0-19-981260-8.
  10. Harmeet Shah Singh (24 April 2011) [Sunday (Easter Day)]. "Indian spiritual guru dies at 85". CNN. Retrieved7 December 2020.
  11. Palmer, Norris W. "Baba's World". In: Forsthoefel, Thomas A.; Humes, Cynthia Ann (eds.) (2005). Gurus in America. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-6574-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  12. "SSSCT- Sri Sathya Sai Seva Organisation". srisathyasai.org.in.
  13. "Our Branches". Official website – International Sai Organisation. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  14. "Thousands flock to funeral of India guru Satya Sai Baba". BBC News. 27 April 2011.
  15. "Sai Baba's legacy". Deccan Herald. 24 April 2011.
  16. "'Sai Baba did everything govt could not'". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013.
  17. Urban, Hugh B. (2003). "Avatar for Our Age: Sathya Sai Baba and the Cultural Contradictions of Late Capitalism". Religion. Elsevier. 33 (1): 74. doi:10.1016/S0048-721X(02)00080-5. eISSN 1096-1151. ISSN 0048-721X. S2CID 143800572.
  18. Palmer, Norris W. (2005). "Baba's World: A Global Guru and His Movement". In A. Forsthoefel, Thomas; Ann Humes, Cynthia (eds.). Gurus in America. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-7914-6574-5.
  19. Rao, A. Srinivasa. "A phenomenon called Sathya Sai Baba". India Today. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  20. Srinivas, Tulasi (10 June 2010). Winged Faith: Rethinking Globalization and Religious Pluralism through the Sathya Sai Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-231-52052-2.
  21. Spurr, Michael James. "Sathya Sai Baba as Avatar: "His Story" and the History of an Idea"(PDF). University of Canterbury.
  22. Singleton, Mark; Goldberg, Ellen (27 November 2013). Gurus of Modern Yoga. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-937495-3.
  23. Haraldsson, Erlendur, Miracles are my visiting cards – An investigative inquiry on Sathya Sai Baba, (1997 revised and updated edition published by Sai Towers, Prasanthi Nilayam, India), p. 55, ISBN 81-86822-32-1
  24. Eade, John; Mele, Christopher, eds. (1 January 2002). Understanding the City. Wiley. doi:10.1002/9780470693582. ISBN 9780470693582.
  25. "Vaastu dosham at hospital he built, say Sai kin". The Times of India. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013.
  26. Kent, Alexandra (1 January 2000). "Creating Divine Unity: Chinese Recruitment in the Sathya Sai Baba Movement of Malaysia". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 15 (1): 5–27. doi:10.1080/135379000112116. ISSN 1353-7903. S2CID 143315480.
  27. Bowen, David (1988). The Sathya Sai Baba Community in Bradford: Its Origin and Development, Religious Beliefs and Practices. Department of Theology and Religious Studies, University of Leeds. ISBN 9781871363029.
  28. "Sri Sathya Sai 80th year of Advent". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 23 November 2005. Retrieved10 January 2010.
  29. Jason Burke (24 April 2011). "Sai Baba, spiritual guru to millions, dies at 85". the Guardian.
  30. "Satya Sai Baba, Indian guru, dies at 84". BBC News. 24 April 2011.
  31. "Who is Sri Sathya Sai Baba?". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 24 April 2011. Retrieved25 April 2011.
  32. "Religion Obituaries; Satya Sai Baba". The Telegraph. London. 24 April 2011.
  33. Madhusoodan, M K (25 April 2011). "Sathya Sai Baba escaped murder attempt". Daily News and Analysis.
  34. Staff Reporter (13 February 2004). "Water projects: CM all praise for Satya Sai Trust". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved9 October 2019.
  35. Balakrishnan, Deepa (23 November 2007). "Sai Baba turns 82, is still going strong". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved6 January 2010.
  36. "Sai Baba in stable condition: Hospital". Hindustan Times. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  37. "Baba's health condition 'stable'". The Times of India. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  38. "Spiritual leader Sathya Sai Baba passes away". The Times of India. 24 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  39. Babb, Lawrence A. (1991). Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition. University of California Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-520-07636-5. His present incarnation, he says, ... He will die at the age of ninety-six, but his body will stay young until then.
  40. Mohammed Shafeeq. However it was soon clearly shown that the lunar reckoning does not work. Post. Durban: 27 April 2011. pg. 4
  41. Sri Philip M. Prasad, Malayalam Daily. Kerala, India: 25 April 2011. "What Baba has foretold was indeed correct. According to the Roman calendar he has completed 85 years. But one can note that generally in all of Baba's discourses Baba had been referring to the star (lunar) basis in calculations. In Indian astrology there are 27 stars in a month starting with Aswathy and ending with Revathy. Accordingly a year of 12 months is composed of 324 days. Sai Baba was born on 23 November 1926. From that day till his death day, 24 April 2011 there were a total of 33,899 days. If this is divided with 324, we get 95 years and 54 days. Accordingly, under the star basis of calculation he was in his 96th year having completed 54 days when he left his physical body."
  42. The Hindustan Times, New Delhi: 25 April 2011.
  43. Narayan, Sreejith (2012). Sai, Thy Kingdom Come. ISBN 978-1-62314-842-3.
  44. News 9, 24 April 2011, 16:00 IST
  45. "Sathya Sai Baba gets a tearful farewell at his Puttaparthi home". India Today. 27 April 2011. Retrieved27 April 2011.
  46. "Indian guru Sai Baba dies in hospital – Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  47. "Sathya Sai Baba buried in Puttaparthi". DNA. 27 April 2011. Retrieved27 April 2011.
  48. "Tearful farewell to Sathya Sai Baba". CNN-IBN. 27 April 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved27 April 2011.
  49. "L.K.Advani Reaction on Sathya Sai Baba's Death :TV9 – Mirchi 9 – Telugu News | Andhra News | Hyderabad | Andhra | India | Brain | Studies | University". Mirchi9.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  50. "L.K.Advani Reaction on Sathya Sai Baba's Death, TV9 – L.K.Advani Reaction on Sathya Sai Baba's Death at". 70mmonline.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  51. "World has lost a great spiritual leader – Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa". asiantribune.com.
  52. "Dalai Lama Mourns Sri Sathya Sai Baba's Death". outlookindia.com. 25 April 2011. Retrieved29 May 2011.
  53. "Sachin mourns SaiBaba death on his b'day". IBNLive. 24 April 2011. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011.
  54. "A secular spiritual leader". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 April 2011.
  55. "Sai Baba Of India-Sri Sathya Sai Baba Centers- Sai Baba organisation worldwide". saibabaofindia.com.
  56. "Sai Baba turns 84". Thestar.com.my. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved6 January 2010.
  57. "The Sai Organization: Numbers to Sai Centres and Names of Countries". Sathyasai.org. Retrieved6 January 2010.
  58. Adherents cites Chryssides, George. Exploring New Religions. London, UK: Cassells (1999) (10 million)
    *Brown, Mick (2000-10-28). "Divine Downfall". Daily Telegraph. [1]. Retrieved 2007-03-12
    *Edwards, Linda (2001). A Brief Guide to Beliefs: Ideas, Theologies, Mysteries, and Movements. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22259-5.
  59. The Economist, "Sai Baba", 14 May 2011, p. 110.
  60. Bradsher, Keith (1 December 2002). "A Friend in India to All the World". The New York Times. Retrieved13 January 2010.
  61. Palmer, Norris W. "Baba's World". In: Forsthoefel, Thomas A.; Humes, Cynthia Ann (eds.) (2005).Gurus in America. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0-7914-6574-5.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  62. "Sathya Sai Baba passes away, leaves behind Rs 40,000-cr worth empire with no clear succession plan". Economic Times. 25 April 2011. Sai Baba leaves behind a wide network of charitable institutions, hospitals, schools, colleges, which some estimate to be worth about Rs 40,000 crore
  63. Amarnath K. Menon (25 April 2011). "Up in the Heir: The secret world of Sathya Sai Baba's Rs 40,000 cr empire". India Today. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved9 June 2011.
  64. Indo-Asian News Service (24 April 2011). "Sai Baba's death leaves question mark on Rs 40,000 crore empire". Deccan Herald. Retrieved9 June 2011.
  65. "Sathya Sai Baba trust worth Rs 1.4 lakh crore?". CNN-IBN. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved9 June 2011.
  66. "What's inside Sathya Sai's personal chamber?". Zee News. 2 June 2011. Retrieved9 June 2011.
  67. Express News Service (31 May 2011). "Trust hesitant on unlocking Sai Babas residence". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved9 June 2011.
  68. Deccan Herald, Tuesday 17 June. 2011, "Huge amount of gold, silver, cash found in Sai Baba's Chamber" http://www.deccanherald.com/content/169535/huge-amount-gold-silver-cash.html.
  69. "Assets worth Rs 77L seized at Sai ashram". The Times of India. 3 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013.
  70. "Treasure island: Sai Baba's gold trove". Press Trust of India. 17 June 2011. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011.
  71. G.S. Radhakrishna (17 June 2011). "Open sesame! Baba & his chamber of secrets". The Telegraph of India. Calcutta, India. and this graphic
  72. "Three-day count at Baba's ashram yields treasure". The Times of India. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013.
  73. "Perfumes, sarees form Sai Baba's inventory". Deccan Herald.
  74. "SSSCT-Service Projects – Water Supply – Anantapur". Srisathyasai.org.in. 23 November 1999. Retrieved7 January 2010.
  75. "Postal stamp on Sathya Sai Baba released". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 November 2013.
  76. "Postal department to release stamp on Sathya Sai Baba – The Times of India". The Times Of India.
  77. Felicitation for Water Project Indian Express.
  78. Krishnamoorthy, M. (2 April 2005). "Enlightening experience in India". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 12 April 2005. Retrieved6 January 2010.
  79. Places to see at Puttaparthi. Available online
  80. The Hindu, "A 5-point recipe for happiness" 24 November 2006 Available online
  81. The Hindu, "Warm welcome to PM at Puttaparthi",12 February 2004 Available online
  82. Deccan Herald, "Sathya Sai's birthday celebrations on" by Terry Kennedy, 23 November 2005, Available online Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  83. The ashrams of Sathya Sai Baba. Referenced from the official Sathya Sai Organization website, Available online
  84. Kent, Alexandra (1999). "UNITY IN DIVERSITY: Portraying the Visions of the Sathya Sai Baba Movement of Malaysia". Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 13–2 (2): 29–51. JSTOR 40800435.
  85. Sahoo, Ajaya Kumar (2013). "Reconstructing Religious and Cultural Identity of Indians in the Diaspora: The Role of Sri Sathya Sai Baba Movement". Sociological Bulletin. 62 (1 (January–April 2013)): 23–39. doi:10.1177/0038022920130102. JSTOR 23621024. S2CID 152184838.
  86. Clooney, Francis X. (2011). "Death of a God-man? Sai Baba Dies at 85". America Magazine.
  87. "Cultural Trends Study – India's Sai Baba Movement"(PDF). CIA.
  88. Pereira, Shane N. (2008). "A New Religious Movement in Singapore: Syncretism and Variation in the Sathya Sai Baba Movement". Asian Journal of Social Science. 36 (2): 250–270. doi:10.1163/156853108X298699. JSTOR 23677933.
  89. Ekacha, Sanitsuda (2001). "Keeping the Faith: Thai Buddhism at the Crossroads". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 9 (2): 126–128. doi:10.1525/nr.2005.9.2.126.
  90. Swallow, D.A. (1976). "Living Saints and Their Devotees". In Jonathan Webber (ed.). Research in Social Anthropology, 1975–1980: A Register of Theses Accepted for Higher Degrees at British Universities, 1975–1980. Royal Anthropological Institute. pp. 385–386. ISBN 9780900632334.
  91. Robbins & Zablocki (2001). Misunderstanding Cults: Searching for Objectivity in a Controversial Field. University of Toronto Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-8020-4373-3.
  92. Gallagher, Eugene (November 2008 – February 2008). ""Cults" and "New Religious Movements"". History of Religions. University of Chicago Press. 47 (2/3): 205–220. doi:10.1086/524210. JSTOR 10.1086/524210. S2CID 161448414.
  93. Babb, L. A. (1987). "Sathya Sai Baba's Saintly Play". In Hawley, J.S. (ed.). Saints and Virtues. London (UK): University of California Press. pp. 168–186. ISBN 978-0-520-06163-7.
  94. Alexandra Kent Divinity and diversity: a Hindu revitalization movement in Malaysia, NIAS, 2005
  95. Handoo, Jawaharlal in Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 48, No. 2 (1989), pp. 326–32 reviewing Lawrence A. Babb's book Redemptive Encounters. Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition page 1
  96. Nagel, Alexandra (note: Nagel is a critical former follower) "De Sai Paradox: Tegenstrijdigheden van en rondom Sathya Sai Baba"/"The Sai Paradox contradictions of and surrounding Sathya Sai Baba" from the magazine "Religieuze Bewegingen in Nederland, 'Sekten' "/"Religious movements in the Netherlands, 'Cults/Sects' ", 1994, nr. 29. published by the Free University of Amsterdam press, (1994) ISBN 90-5383-341-2
    Dutch original: "Ofschoon Sai Baba gezegd heeft mensen van allerlei religieuze gezindten te helpen terug te gaan naar oude waarden en normen, en ofschoon zijn logo de symbolen van de andere grote godsdiensten bevat, is de sfeer rondom Sai Baba duidelijk hindoeïstisch gekleurd. Alle moslim-elementen bijv. waarvan verondersteld zou kunnen worden dat hij die zou hebben meegenomen uit zijn leven als Sai Baba van Shirdi, heeft hij laten vallen. Het enig echt herkenbare wat hij van Shirdi Baba nog heeft, is het veelvuldig gebruik van as, – wat hij dan niet uit een dhuni haalt zoals Shirdi Baba deed, maar materialiseert (of tevoorschijn goochelt)"
  97. Chryssides, George D. (2012). Historical dictionary of new religious movements. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810861947.
  98. White, Charles S. J. (1972). "The Sai Baba Movement: Approaches to the Study of India Saints". The Journal of Asian Studies. 31 (4): 863–878. doi:10.2307/2052105. JSTOR 2052105.
  99. Tallings, Stephanies (Summer 2000). "Avatar of Stability: Sai Baba's Teachings". Harvard International Review. 22 (2): 14–15.
  100. Handoo, Jawaharlal (1989). "Reviewed Work: Redemptive Encounters. Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition by Lawrence A. Babb"(PDF). Asian Folklore Studies. 48 (2): 327. doi:10.2307/1177938. JSTOR 1177938.
  101. Swallow, D. A. (2008). "Ashes and Powers: Myth, Rite and Miracle in an Indian God-Man's Cult". Modern Asian Studies. 16 (1): 123–158. doi:10.1017/S0026749X0000072X. JSTOR 312277.
  102. Kelly, J.D. (1995). "Bhakti and Postcolonial Politics: Hindu Missions to Fiji". In van der Veer, P. (ed.). Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. Philadelphia (US): University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 43–72. ISBN 978-0-8122-1537-3.
  103. Srinivas, Tulasi (June 2010). Winged Faith: Rethinking Globalization and Religious Pluralism through the Sathya Sai Movement. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231149334.
  104. Charlene Leslie-Chaden (2004). A compendium of the teachings of Sri Sathya Sai Baba. Sai Towers Publishing. p. 526. ISBN 978-81-7899-042-2. Retrieved24 April 2011. [self-published source]
  105. Architectural digest. Conde Nast Publications. 1 May 1994. Retrieved24 April 2011.
  106. "Sri Sathya Sai Baba Organization in Canada – Home Page". Sathyasai.ca. 1 May 2006. Retrieved7 January 2010.
  107. Guidelines for AMERICAN SATHYA SAI BABA CENTERS. The Sathya Sai Baba Central Council of the United States of America (2006)
  108. "The Sri Sathya Sai Baba Centre of Toronto – York". Sathyasaitoronto.org. Retrieved7 January 2010.
  109. Neutill, Rani. "Emeralds and desperation: My mother and Sathya Sai Baba". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved29 April 2020.
  110. "Sai Baba: Holy man? Sex abuser? Both?". 26 April 2011. Retrieved9 October 2019.
  111. Ruhela S.P., Sri Sathya Sai Baba and the Press, pp. 1–5, 1997 ISBN 81-7533-041-4
  112. Ruhela S.P., How to Receive Sri Sathya Sai Baba's Grace, pp. 277, 2006 ISBN 81-7182-089-1
  113. Rahul Singh (2 November 2009). "The Spell Breaker". Outlook. Retrieved16 October 2013.
  114. Haraldson, op. cit, pp 204–205
  115. Interview given by Sai Baba to R. K. Karanjia of Blitz news magazine in September 1976 Available online
  116. Haraldsson, pp 209
  117. Haraldsson, op. cit., pp. 206
  118. Tanya Datta (17 June 2004). "Sai Baba: Goan or con man?". BBC News. Retrieved4 January 2010.
  119. "Eagle & Eagle". Eagletv.co.uk. Retrieved7 January 2010. Doordarshan clip
  120. Haraldsson, op. cit., pp. 295–301
  121. Mick Brown, The Spiritual Tourist, 1998, Bloomsbury Publishing, ISBN 1-58234-034-X "In the House of God", pp. 73–74
  122. Hislop, John S. My Baba and I 1985 published by Birth Day Publishing Company, San Diego, California ISBN 0-9600958-8-8, "The Resurrection of Walter Cowan", pages 28–31
  123. Lane, David (2014). The Mystical: Exploring the Transcendent. Mt San Antonio College. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9781565431737.
  124. Brown Mick, The Spiritual Tourist, "The Miracle in North London", pp. 29–30, 1998 ISBN 158234034X
  125. Øyvind Kyrø, Steen Jensen (2002). Seduced by Sai Baba (Documentary). DR. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010.
  126. [2] UK Parliament official web site
  127. "Programmes | This World | Secret Swami". BBC News. 11 June 2004. Retrieved7 January 2010.
  128. Eamon Hardy, Tanya Datta (2004). Secret Swami (Documentary). BBC News. Retrieved4 January 2010.
  129. Aitken, Bill (27 November 2005),"Miracle of Welfare". Archived from the original on 9 September 2006. Retrieved9 September 2006.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  130. Brown, Mick (28 October 2000). "Divine Downfall". Daily Telegraph.
  131. Sathya Sai Speaks Vol.33, pg.389
  132. Rao, Manu (26 December 2000), Sai Baba lashes out at detractors http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bangalore/sai-baba-lashes-out-at-detractors/articleshow/534425761.cms
  133. Letter from A.B. Vajpayee (the then Prime Minister of India), http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/fline/fl2810/stories/20110520281002600.htm
  134. Official Letter, http://www.saibaba.ws/images/letter_pm_india.gif
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Sathya Sai Baba
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSathya Sai Baba.

Sathya Sai Baba
Sathya Sai Baba Language Watch Edit Sathya Sai Baba born Ratnakaram Sathyanarayana Raju 23 November 1926 24 April 2011 1 was an Indian guru and philanthropist 2 3 At the age of fourteen he claimed that he was the reincarnation of Shirdi Sai Baba 4 5 and left his home in order to serve the society and be an example to his followers 6 7 Sathya Sai BabaPersonalBornRatnakaram Sathyanarayana Raju 1926 11 23 23 November 1926 Puttaparthi Madras Presidency British India now in Andhra Pradesh Died24 April 2011 2011 04 24 aged 84 Puttaparthi Andhra Pradesh IndiaNationalityIndianFounder ofSathya Sai OrganizationPhilosophyLove all Serve all Help Ever Hurt Never Sai Baba s purported materialisations of vibhuti holy ash and other small objects such as rings necklaces and watches along with reports of miraculous healings resurrections clairvoyance bilocation and alleged omnipotence and omniscience were a source of both fame and controversy 8 Multiple studies have concluded that his acts were based on sleight of hand or had other explanations that were not supernatural although his devotees believe them to be signs of his divinity 9 10 11 The Sathya Sai Organisation founded by Sathya Sai Baba to enable its members to undertake service activities as a means to spiritual advancement 12 has over 1 200 Sathya Sai Centres branches in 126 countries 13 Through this organisation Sathya Sai Baba established a network of free super speciality hospitals and general hospitals clinics drinking water projects a university auditoriums ashrams and schools 14 15 16 Contents 1 Biography 1 1 Early life 1 2 Proclamation 1 3 First mandir and development of Puttaparthi 1 4 Stroke prediction of reincarnation and sole foreign tour 1 5 Later years 1 6 Old age illness and death 1 6 1 Funeral and mourning 2 Sathya Sai Organisation 3 Recognition 4 Ashrams and mandirs 4 1 Prasanthi Nilayam 5 Characteristics beliefs and practices of devotees 6 Criticism 6 1 Accusations 6 2 Allegations of abuse 6 3 Responses 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBiography EditEarly life Edit Almost everything known about Sathya Sai Baba s early life stems from the hagiography that grew around him narratives that hold special meaning to his devotees and are considered by them to be evidence of his divine nature 7 17 18 According to these sources Sathya Narayana Raju was born on 23 November 1926 to Meesaraganda Easwaramma and Peddavenkama Raju Ratnakaram to a Bhatraju family 19 20 a community of religious musicians and balladeers 21 22 in the village of Puttaparthi which was the Madras Presidency of British India 7 23 24 His birth was alleged by his mother Easwaramma to be of a miraculous conception 4 7 He was the fourth among the five children of his parents Sathya Sai Baba s siblings included elder brother Ratnakaram Seshama Raju 1911 1985 elder sisters Venkamma 1918 1993 and Parvathamma 1920 1998 and younger brother Janakiramaiah 1931 2003 25 As a child he was described as unusually intelligent and charitable though not necessarily academically inclined as his interests were of a more spiritual nature 7 18 He was uncommonly talented in devotional music dance and drama 18 5 From a young age he has been alleged to have been capable of materialising objects such as food and sweets out of thin air 26 Proclamation Edit Sathya Sai Baba at the age of 14 soon after proclaiming he was the reincarnation of Shirdi Sai Baba On 8 March 1940 while living with his elder brother Seshama Raju in Uravakonda a small town near Puttaparthi 14 year old Sathya was allegedly stung by a scorpion 26 He lost consciousness for several hours 5 and in the next few days underwent a noticeable change in behaviour There were symptoms of laughing and weeping eloquence and silence It is claimed that then he began to sing Sanskrit verses a language of which it is alleged he had no prior knowledge 4 Doctors concluded his behaviour to be hysteria 4 Concerned his parents brought Sathya back home to Puttaparthi and took him to many priests doctors and exorcists One of the exorcists at Kadiri a town near Puttaparthi went to the extent of torturing him with the aim of curing him On 23 May 1940 Sathya called household members and reportedly materialised sugar candy prasad and flowers for them His father became furious at seeing this thinking his son was bewitched He took a stick and threatened to beat him if Sathya did not reveal who he really was the young Sathya responded calmly and firmly I am Sai Baba a reference to Sai Baba of Shirdi 4 5 This was the first time he proclaimed himself to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi a saint who became famous in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Maharashtra and had died eight years before Sathya was born 4 It was then he came to be known as Sathya Sai Baba First mandir and development of Puttaparthi Edit In 1944 a mandir for Sai Baba s devotees was built near the village of Puttaparthi It is now referred to as the old mandir 27 The construction of Prashanthi Nilayam the current ashram began in 1948 and was completed in 1950 7 27 In 1954 Sai Baba established a small free general hospital in the village of Puttaparthi 28 He won fame for his reputed mystical powers and ability to heal 29 In 1957 Sai Baba went on a North Indian temple tour 24 Stroke prediction of reincarnation and sole foreign tour Edit In 1963 it was asserted that Sai Baba suffered a stroke and four severe heart attacks which left him paralysed on one side These events culminated in an event where he apparently healed himself in front of the thousands of people gathered in Prashanthi Nilayam who were then praying for his recovery 7 On recovering Sai Baba announced that he would one day next be reborn as an incarnation named Prema Sai Baba in the neighbouring state of Karnataka 7 He stated I am Shiva Sakthi born in the gotra lineage of Bharadwaja according to a boon won by that sage from Siva and Sakthi Siva was born in the gotra of that sage as Sai Baba of Shirdi Shiva and Sakthi have incarnated as Myself in his gotra now Sakthi alone will incarnate as the third Sai Prema Sai Baba in the same gotra in Mandya district of Karnataka State 7 He stated he would be born again eight years after his death at the age of 96 but died at the age of 84 30 On 29 June 1968 Sai Baba made his only overseas trip to Kenya and Uganda Later years Edit In 1968 he established Dharmakshetra or the Sathyam Mandir in Mumbai In 1973 he established the Shivam Mandir in Hyderabad On 19 January 1981 in Chennai he inaugurated the Sundaram Mandir In a 1993 incident four intruders armed with knives entered his bedroom either as an assassination attempt or as part of a power struggle between his followers Sai Baba was unharmed During the scuffle and the police response the intruders and two of Sai Baba s attendants were killed The official investigation left questions unanswered 31 32 33 In March 1995 Sai Baba started a project to provide drinking water to 1 2 million people in the drought prone Rayalaseema region in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh 34 In April 1999 he inaugurated the Ananda Nilayam Mandir in Madurai Tamil Nadu In 2001 he established another free super speciality hospital in Bangalore to benefit the poor Old age illness and death Edit In 2003 Sai Baba suffered a fractured hip when a student standing on an iron stool slipped and the boy and stool both fell on him After that he gave darshana from a car or his porte chair 35 After 2004 Sai Baba used a wheelchair and began to make fewer public appearances On 28 March 2011 Sai Baba was admitted to the Sri Sathya Sai Super Speciality Hospital named after and started by himself at Prashantigram at Puttaparthi following respiration related problems 36 37 After nearly a month of hospitalisation during which his condition progressively deteriorated he died on Sunday 24 April at 7 40 IST aged 84 38 Sai Baba had predicted that he would die at age 96 and would remain healthy until then 39 After he died some devotees suggested that he was referring to that many lunar years as counted by Telugu speaking Hindus rather than solar years 40 and using the Indian way of accounting for age which counts the year to come as part of the person s life 41 Other devotees have spoken of his anticipated resurrection reincarnation or awakening 42 43 Funeral and mourning Edit His body lay in state for two days and was buried with full state honours on 27 April 2011 44 An estimated 500 000 people attended the burial Political leaders and prominent figures attending included then Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Congress president Sonia Gandhi Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi who later became Prime Minister of India cricketer Sachin Tendulkar and Union Ministers S M Krishna and Ambika Soni 45 46 47 48 Political leaders who offered their condolences included the then Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh 44 49 50 Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa 51 and the Dalai Lama 52 Cricketer Sachin Tendulkar whose birthday was that day cancelled his birthday celebrations 53 The Hindu newspaper reported that Sri Sathya Sai Baba s propagation of spiritualism and preaching of Hindu philosophy never came in the way of his commitment to secular beliefs 54 The Government of Karnataka declared 25 and 26 April as days of mourning and Andhra Pradesh declared 25 26 and 27 April as days of mourning 44 Sri Sathya Sai Baba Mahasamadhi at Prasanthi NilayamSathya Sai Organisation EditMain article Sathya Sai Organisation The Sathya Sai Organisation or Sri Sathya Sai Seva Organization was founded in the 1960s by Sathya Sai Baba 12 Initially called the Sri Sathya Sai Seva Samithi 55 it was established to enable its members to undertake service activities as a means to spiritual advancement 12 The Sathya Sai Organisation reports that there are an estimated 1 200 Sathya Sai Baba Centres in 114 countries 56 57 However the number of active Sai Baba followers is hard to determine 7 Estimates vary from 6 million 58 up to nearly 100 million 59 In India itself Sai Baba drew followers predominantly from the upper middle class the urban sections of society who have the most wealth education and exposure to Western ideas 17 In 2002 he claimed to have followers in 178 countries 60 61 Sathya Sai Baba founded a large number of schools and colleges hospitals and other charitable institutions in India and abroad the net financial capital of which is usually estimated at Rs 400 billion US 9 billion 62 63 64 However estimates as high as 1 4 trillion rupees about US 31 5bn have also been made 65 After his death questions about the manner in which the finances of the organisation were going to be managed led to speculations of impropriety with some reports suggesting that suitcases containing cash and or gold had been removed from his personal lodgings 64 66 67 On 17 June 2011 officials from the Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust opened his private residence in the presence of government bank and tax department officials 68 In the private residence which had been sealed since his death they inventoried 98 kg of gold ornaments approximate value Rs 21 crores US 4 7m 307 kg of silver ornaments approximate value Rs 16 million US 0 36m and Rs 116 million US 2 6m in cash The cash was deposited into the Sai Trust s account at the State Bank of India with payment of government taxes thus transferring them from religious gifts to Trust assets The gold and other items were inventoried assessed and placed in secure storage In July district authorities inventoried an additional Rs 7 7 million US 0 17m in valuables in another 4 rooms 69 The total value of these items is believed to exceed 7 8 million US dollars 70 Also inventoried at Yajurmandir were thousands of pure silk sarees dhotis shirts 500 pairs of shoes dozens of bottles of perfume and hairspray watches a large number of silver and gold mangala sutrams and precious stones such as diamonds There were also 750 saffron and white robes of the type Sai Baba wore 71 In July 2011 a similar opening of his Bangalore area ashram tallied 6 kg of gold coins and jewellery 245 kg of silver articles and Rs 8 million in cash These items and goods are believed to have been donated over the years by Sai Baba s devotees from all over the world as religious gifts 72 73 Recognition Edit A 1999 stamp devoted to the Sri Sathya Sai Water Supply Project Sathya Sai Baba on a 2013 stamp of India On 23 November 1999 the Department of Posts Government of India released a postage stamp and a postal cover in recognition of the service rendered by Sai Baba in addressing the problem of providing safe drinking water to the rural masses 74 Another commemorative stamp was released on the occasion of what would have been his 88th birthday during November 2013 75 76 In January 2007 an event was held in Chennai Nehru Stadium organised by the Chennai Citizens Conclave to thank Sai Baba for the 2 billion water project which brought water from the River Krishna in Andhra Pradesh to Chennai city Four chief ministers attended the function 77 Ashrams and mandirs EditPrasanthi Nilayam Edit Puttaparthi A P Main article Prasanthi Nilayam Chaitanya Jyoti Museum devoted to the life and teachings of Sathya Sai Baba Puttaparthi where Sai Baba was born and lived was originally a small remote South Indian village in Andhra Pradesh Now there is an extensive university complex a speciality hospital and two museums the Sanathana Samskruti or Eternal Heritage Museum sometimes called the Museum of All Religions and the Chaitanya Jyoti devoted exclusively to the life and teachings of Sai Baba the latter has won several international awards for its architectural design 78 There is also a planetarium a railway station a hill view stadium an administrative building an airport an indoor sports stadium and more 79 High ranking Indian politicians such as the former president A P J Abdul Kalam former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee Andhra Pradesh former chief minister Konijeti Rosaiah and Karnataka chief minister B S Yeddyurappa have been official guests at the ashram in Puttaparthi 80 81 It was reported that well over a million people attended Sai Baba s 80th birthday celebration including 13 000 delegates from India and 180 other countries 82 citation needed Hill in Prashanthi Nilayam with statues of Hanuman Krishna Shirdi Sai Baba Shiva Buddha Christ Zarathustra Sai Baba resided much of the time in his main ashram Prashanthi Nilayam Abode of Highest Peace at Puttaparthi In the summer he often left for his other ashram Brindavan in Kadugodi Whitefield a town on the outskirts of Bangalore Occasionally he visited his Sai Shruti ashram in Kodaikanal 83 Characteristics beliefs and practices of devotees EditMain article Sathya Sai Baba movement Reliable sources often describe Sai Baba s following as a movement 84 85 86 A study by the Central Intelligence Agency CIA states A worldwide mass religious movement is growing around the Indian holy man and miracle worker Sathya Sai Baba Later noting The Sai Baba movement is likely to eventually become another worldwide religion 87 Among scholars we find it referred to often as either a New Religious Movement NRM 88 89 or as a cult 3 90 it appears it is not immune to what Robbins and Zablocki two social science researchers call the divisive polarization which at least until recently has plagued the academic study of religious movements referencing a wide divide of two camps within academia each preferring one term over the other i e NRM or cult for such groups 91 It s been noted by Eugene Gallagher that in more modern times New Religious movement on the other hand is a classification preferred by most academics who see cult as a pejorative term and intend to replace it with a more neutral label 92 It is regarded by most scholars to be of Hindu persuasion 93 94 95 96 Sai Baba claimed to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi and his followers considered him to be the Avatar of Shiva 97 Sai Baba of Shirdi was known to combine Islamic and Hindu teachings still Charles S J White of The American University at Washington D C noted of Sathya Sai Baba in 1972 that there is no discernible Muslim influence 98 Stephanie Tallings in The Harvard international Review noted Sai Baba s following is drawn from people of all religions ethnicities and social classes 99 Lawrence A Babb of the Amherst College in Massachusetts labelled Sai Baba movement as a cult in the 1980s calling it deeply and authentically Hindu and noted The most striking feature of this cult however is the extremely strong emphasis given to the miraculous 2 However a scholarly review claims Babb misapplies the word cult responding the so called cult of Satya Sai Baba seems to possess all such characteristics which are according to the author central to a religious movement 100 Deborah A Swallow of the University of Cambridge referred to it as a cult and said that the ritual and theology then unlike Sai Baba of Shirdi s is distinctly Hindu in form and content 101 But John D Kelly a professor of anthropology at the University of Chicago wrote about Hindu missions in Fiji that the Sathya Sai Organization which is part of the movement rejected the label Hindu According to Kelly they see their founder as the living synthesis of the world s religious traditions and prefer to be classified as an interfaith movement But he observed that Sai Baba mission is a Hindu mission as active as Christian or Muslim missions 102 In a 2001 scholarly book Tulasi Srinivas notes The Sathya Sai global civil religious movement incorporates Hindu and Muslim practices Buddhist Christian and Zoroastrian influences and New Age style rituals and beliefs And in the appendix of the book p 349 lists 10 scholarly authors researchers in both Europe and America who all refer to it as a New Religious Movement NRM 103 Sai Baba was known for his quote Love All Serve All Help Ever Hurt Never 104 self published source 105 Internationally his devotees gather daily or weekly on Sundays or Thursdays or both for devotional songs 106 prayer 107 spiritual meditation service to the community Seva 108 and to participate in Education in Human Values SSEHV 107 known as Bal Vikas Blossoming of the Child Followers believed in seeking the spiritual benefit of Sai Baba s darshan scheduled for morning and afternoon each day Sai Baba would interact with people accept letters or call groups or individuals for interviews Devotees considered it a great privilege to have an interview and sometimes a single person group or family was invited for a private interview for answers to spiritual questions and general guidance 5 109 The Vancouver Sun in 2001 reported that Sai Baba told his adherents not to browse the internet 110 Criticism EditAccusations Edit Accusations against Sathya Sai Baba by his critics over the years have included sleight of hand sexual abuse money laundering fraud in the performance of service projects and murder 8 11 In 1972 Abraham Kovoor made the first public criticism of Sathya Sai Baba 111 when he looked into a claim publicly narrated by one devotee 111 that Sai Baba had created a new model of a Seiko watch and found the claim to be untrue 112 113 In April 1976 Hossur Narasimhaiah a physicist rationalist and then vice chancellor of Bangalore University founded and chaired a committee to rationally and scientifically investigate miracles and other verifiable superstitions Narasimhaiah wrote Sai Baba three widely publicised letters challenging him to perform his miracles under controlled conditions The letters were ignored 114 Sathya Sai Baba said that he ignored Narasimhaiah s challenge because he felt that a scientific approach to spiritual issues was improper adding that Science must confine its inquiry only to things belonging to the human senses while spiritualism transcends the senses If you want to understand the nature of spiritual power you can do so only through the path of spirituality and not science What science has been able to unravel is merely a fraction of the cosmic phenomena 115 Narasimhaiah s committee was dissolved in August 1977 Narasimhaiah held the fact that Sai Baba ignored his letters to be an indication that his miracles were fraudulent 116 As a result of this episode a public debate raged for several months in Indian newspapers 117 Indian rationalist Basava Premanand who began campaigning against Sathya Sai Baba in 1976 unsuccessfully attempted to sue him in 1986 for violations of the Gold Control Act citing Sai Baba s purported materialisations of gold objects When the case was dismissed Premanand unsuccessfully appealed on the grounds that claimed spiritual power is not a defence recognised in law 118 A 1995 TV documentary Guru Busters produced by filmmaker Robert Eagle for the UK s Channel 4 accused Sai Baba of faking his materialisations 119 The clip from the film was mentioned in the Deccan Chronicle on 23 November 1992 in a front page headline DD Tape Unveils Baba Magic 120 Claims of Sai Baba resurrecting American devotee Walter Cowan in 1971 have been discussed by British journalist Mick Brown in his book The Spiritual Tourist from 1998 121 122 and subsequently by Erlendur Haraldsson who interviewed doctors attending Cowan at the hospital these physicians reported that Cowan had been dangerously ill but had not died 123 Brown also related his experiences with the alleged manifestations of vibhuti from Sai Baba s pictures in houses in London which he felt were not fraudulent or the result of trickery 124 Brown wrote with regards to Sai Baba s claims of omniscience that sceptics have produced documentation clearly showing discrepancies between Baba s reading of historical events and biblical prophecies and the established accounts 121 Allegations of abuse Edit In January 2002 a documentary produced by Denmark s national television and radio broadcast company Danmarks Radio DR called Seduced By Sai Baba analysed videos of public manifestations of Sai Baba and suggested that they could be explained as sleight of hand 125 The documentary also presented interviews with Alaya Rahm former devotee of Sathya Sai Baba where he alleged abuse by Sathya Sai Baba 8 As a result in 2002 the parliament of the United Kingdom discussed the danger to male children of British families intending to visit the ashram of Sathya Sai Baba in case of individual audiences with the guru 126 In 2004 the BBC produced a documentary titled The Secret Swami as part of its series The World Uncovered 127 One central theme of the BBC documentary was again Alaya Rahm s sexual abuse allegations against Sathya Sai Baba 128 This documentary interviewed him together with Mark Roche who had spent 25 years of his life since 1969 in the movement and alleged abuse by Sai Baba 128 The show also featured allegations from Sai Baba critic Basava Premanand Premanand stated in the documentary that in his opinion Sai Baba faked his materialisations 8 Responses Edit Sathya Sai Baba and his followers reject any allegations of misconduct 14 Devotee Bill Aitken was quoted by The Week as saying that Sathya Sai Baba s reputation had not been harmed by the negative stories published about him He said that the more detractors railed against Sathya Sai Baba the more new devotees went to see him 129 In the article Divine Downfall published in the Daily Telegraph Anil Kumar the ex principal of the Sathya Sai Educational Institute said that he believed that the controversy was part of Sathya Sai Baba s divine plan and that all great religious teachers had to face criticism during their lives Anil Kumar also said that allegations had been levelled at Sathya Sai Baba since childhood but with every criticism he had become more and more triumphant 130 In the book Redemptive Encounters Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition Lawrence A Babb wrote of Sathya Sai Baba Whoever he is he is certainly more than the mere parlour magician many of his critics claim that he is 7 Sathya Sai Baba publicly responded to the allegations in his Christmas day message on 25 December 2000 Some people out of their mean mindedness are trying to tarnish the image of Sai Baba I am not after name and fame So I do not lose anything by their false allegations My glory will go on increasing day by day It will never diminish even a bit if they were to publicise their false allegations in the whole world in bold letters Some devotees seem to be perturbed over these false statements They are not true devotees at all Having known the mighty power of Sai why should they be afraid of the cawing of crows One should not get carried away by all that is written on walls said in political meetings or the vulgar tales carried by the print media 131 The Times of India on 26 December 2000 quoted Sathya Sai Baba as saying Jesus Christ underwent many hardships and was put to the cross because of jealousy Many around him could not bear the good work he did and the large number of followers he gathered One of his disciples Judas betrayed him In those days there was one Judas but today there are thousands Just as that Judas was tempted to betray Jesus the Judases of today too are bought out to lie Jealousy was the motive behind the allegations levelled at him 132 In an official letter made public in December 2001 Atal Bihari Vajpayee then Prime Minister of India and a devotee of Sai Baba 61 P N Bhagwati Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India Ranganath Misra Chair Person National Human Rights Commissioner of India and Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India Najma Heptulla President of the Inter Parliamentary Union UNDP Distinguished Human Development Ambassador and Shivraj Patil Member of Parliament India Formerly of the Lok Sabha amp Union Minister all signed the following statement We are deeply pained and anguished by the wild reckless and concocted allegations made by certain vested interests and people against Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba We would normally expect that responsible media would ascertain the true facts before printing such a calumny especially when the person is revered globally as an embodiment of love and selfless service to humanity 133 134 References Edit Obituary Indian guru Sai Baba BBC 24 April 2011 Satya Sai Baba was born Sathyanarayana Raju on 23 November 1926 a b Babb Lawrence A 1983 Sathya Sai Baba s Magic Anthropological Quarterly 56 3 116 124 doi 10 2307 3317305 JSTOR 3317305 a b Das M K 2015 Televising religion A study of Sathya Sai Baba s funeral broadcast in Gangtok India PDF Anthropological Notebooks 21 3 83 104 a b c d e f Weiss Richard December 2005 THE GLOBAL GURU SAI BABA AND THE MIRACLE OF THE MODERN PDF New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 7 2 5 19 a b c d e Kent Alexandra 2005 Divinity and Diversity A Hindu Revitalization Movement in Malaysia Nordic Institute of Asian Studies pp 37 39 ISBN 978 87 91114 40 3 Singleton Mark Goldberg Ellen 27 November 2013 Gurus of Modern Yoga ISBN 9780199374953 a b c d e f g h i j k Babb Lawrence A 1991 Redemptive Encounters Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition University of California Press p 164 ISBN 978 0 520 07636 5 a b c d Datta Tanya 17 June 2004 Sai Baba God man or con man BBC News Retrieved 7 December 2020 Johannes Quack 2012 Disenchanting India Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India Oxford University Press pp 120 ISBN 978 0 19 981260 8 Harmeet Shah Singh 24 April 2011 Sunday Easter Day Indian spiritual guru dies at 85 CNN Retrieved 7 December 2020 a b Palmer Norris W Baba s World In Forsthoefel Thomas A Humes Cynthia Ann eds 2005 Gurus in America Albany NY State University of New York Press ISBN 0 7914 6574 8 CS1 maint extra text authors list link a b c SSSCT Sri Sathya Sai Seva Organisation srisathyasai org in Our Branches Official website International Sai Organisation Retrieved 30 September 2013 a b Thousands flock to funeral of India guru Satya Sai Baba BBC News 27 April 2011 Sai Baba s legacy Deccan Herald 24 April 2011 Sai Baba did everything govt could not The Times of India Archived from the original on 1 October 2013 a b Urban Hugh B 2003 Avatar for Our Age Sathya Sai Baba and the Cultural Contradictions of Late Capitalism Religion Elsevier 33 1 74 doi 10 1016 S0048 721X 02 00080 5 eISSN 1096 1151 ISSN 0048 721X S2CID 143800572 a b c Palmer Norris W 2005 Baba s World A Global Guru and His Movement In A Forsthoefel Thomas Ann Humes Cynthia eds Gurus in America Albany NY State University of New York Press p 99 ISBN 978 0 7914 6574 5 Rao A Srinivasa A phenomenon called Sathya Sai Baba India Today Retrieved 22 November 2019 Srinivas Tulasi 10 June 2010 Winged Faith Rethinking Globalization and Religious Pluralism through the Sathya Sai Movement Columbia University Press p 54 ISBN 978 0 231 52052 2 Spurr Michael James Sathya Sai Baba as Avatar His Story and the History of an Idea PDF University of Canterbury Singleton Mark Goldberg Ellen 27 November 2013 Gurus of Modern Yoga Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 937495 3 Haraldsson Erlendur Miracles are my visiting cards An investigative inquiry on Sathya Sai Baba 1997 revised and updated edition published by Sai Towers Prasanthi Nilayam India p 55 ISBN 81 86822 32 1 a b Eade John Mele Christopher eds 1 January 2002 Understanding the City Wiley doi 10 1002 9780470693582 ISBN 9780470693582 Vaastu dosham at hospital he built say Sai kin The Times of India 25 April 2011 Archived from the original on 3 January 2013 a b Kent Alexandra 1 January 2000 Creating Divine Unity Chinese Recruitment in the Sathya Sai Baba Movement of Malaysia Journal of Contemporary Religion 15 1 5 27 doi 10 1080 135379000112116 ISSN 1353 7903 S2CID 143315480 a b Bowen David 1988 The Sathya Sai Baba Community in Bradford Its Origin and Development Religious Beliefs and Practices Department of Theology and Religious Studies University of Leeds ISBN 9781871363029 Sri Sathya Sai 80th year of Advent The Hindu Chennai India 23 November 2005 Retrieved 10 January 2010 Jason Burke 24 April 2011 Sai Baba spiritual guru to millions dies at 85 the Guardian Satya Sai Baba Indian guru dies at 84 BBC News 24 April 2011 Who is Sri Sathya Sai Baba NDTV Press Trust of India 24 April 2011 Retrieved 25 April 2011 Religion Obituaries Satya Sai Baba The Telegraph London 24 April 2011 Madhusoodan M K 25 April 2011 Sathya Sai Baba escaped murder attempt Daily News and Analysis Staff Reporter 13 February 2004 Water projects CM all praise for Satya Sai Trust The Hindu ISSN 0971 751X Retrieved 9 October 2019 Balakrishnan Deepa 23 November 2007 Sai Baba turns 82 is still going strong CNN IBN Archived from the original on 25 August 2010 Retrieved 6 January 2010 Sai Baba in stable condition Hospital Hindustan Times 5 April 2011 Archived from the original on 9 May 2011 Retrieved 24 April 2011 Baba s health condition stable The Times of India 6 April 2011 Archived from the original on 5 November 2012 Retrieved 24 April 2011 Spiritual leader Sathya Sai Baba passes away The Times of India 24 April 2011 Archived from the original on 9 February 2012 Retrieved 24 April 2011 Babb Lawrence A 1991 Redemptive Encounters Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition University of California Press p 166 ISBN 978 0 520 07636 5 His present incarnation he says He will die at the age of ninety six but his body will stay young until then Mohammed Shafeeq However it was soon clearly shown that the lunar reckoning does not work Post Durban 27 April 2011 pg 4 Sri Philip M Prasad Malayalam Daily Kerala India 25 April 2011 What Baba has foretold was indeed correct According to the Roman calendar he has completed 85 years But one can note that generally in all of Baba s discourses Baba had been referring to the star lunar basis in calculations In Indian astrology there are 27 stars in a month starting with Aswathy and ending with Revathy Accordingly a year of 12 months is composed of 324 days Sai Baba was born on 23 November 1926 From that day till his death day 24 April 2011 there were a total of 33 899 days If this is divided with 324 we get 95 years and 54 days Accordingly under the star basis of calculation he was in his 96th year having completed 54 days when he left his physical body The Hindustan Times New Delhi 25 April 2011 Narayan Sreejith 2012 Sai Thy Kingdom Come ISBN 978 1 62314 842 3 a b c News 9 24 April 2011 16 00 IST Sathya Sai Baba gets a tearful farewell at his Puttaparthi home India Today 27 April 2011 Retrieved 27 April 2011 Indian guru Sai Baba dies in hospital Central amp South Asia Al Jazeera English Retrieved 24 April 2011 Sathya Sai Baba buried in Puttaparthi DNA 27 April 2011 Retrieved 27 April 2011 Tearful farewell to Sathya Sai Baba CNN IBN 27 April 2011 Archived from the original on 30 April 2011 Retrieved 27 April 2011 L K Advani Reaction on Sathya Sai Baba s Death TV9 Mirchi 9 Telugu News Andhra News Hyderabad Andhra India Brain Studies University Mirchi9 com Archived from the original on 23 March 2012 Retrieved 24 April 2011 L K Advani Reaction on Sathya Sai Baba s Death TV9 L K Advani Reaction on Sathya Sai Baba s Death at 70mmonline com Archived from the original on 18 October 2011 Retrieved 24 April 2011 World has lost a great spiritual leader Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa asiantribune com Dalai Lama Mourns Sri Sathya Sai Baba s Death outlookindia com 25 April 2011 Retrieved 29 May 2011 Sachin mourns SaiBaba death on his b day IBNLive 24 April 2011 Archived from the original on 26 April 2011 A secular spiritual leader The Hindu Chennai India 25 April 2011 Sai Baba Of India Sri Sathya Sai Baba Centers Sai Baba organisation worldwide saibabaofindia com Sai Baba turns 84 Thestar com my 3 December 2009 Archived from the original on 21 May 2011 Retrieved 6 January 2010 The Sai Organization Numbers to Sai Centres and Names of Countries Sathyasai org Retrieved 6 January 2010 Adherents cites Chryssides George Exploring New Religions London UK Cassells 1999 10 million Brown Mick 2000 10 28 Divine Downfall Daily Telegraph 1 Retrieved 2007 03 12 Edwards Linda 2001 A Brief Guide to Beliefs Ideas Theologies Mysteries and Movements Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 0 664 22259 5 The Economist Sai Baba 14 May 2011 p 110 Bradsher Keith 1 December 2002 A Friend in India to All the World The New York Times Retrieved 13 January 2010 a b Palmer Norris W Baba s World In Forsthoefel Thomas A Humes Cynthia Ann eds 2005 Gurus in America Albany New York State University of New York Press pp 97 98 ISBN 978 0 7914 6574 5 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Sathya Sai Baba passes away leaves behind Rs 40 000 cr worth empire with no clear succession plan Economic Times 25 April 2011 Sai Baba leaves behind a wide network of charitable institutions hospitals schools colleges which some estimate to be worth about Rs 40 000 crore Amarnath K Menon 25 April 2011 Up in the Heir The secret world of Sathya Sai Baba s Rs 40 000 cr empire India Today Archived from the original on 24 April 2011 Retrieved 9 June 2011 a b Indo Asian News Service 24 April 2011 Sai Baba s death leaves question mark on Rs 40 000 crore empire Deccan Herald Retrieved 9 June 2011 Sathya Sai Baba trust worth Rs 1 4 lakh crore CNN IBN 26 April 2011 Archived from the original on 30 April 2011 Retrieved 9 June 2011 What s inside Sathya Sai s personal chamber Zee News 2 June 2011 Retrieved 9 June 2011 Express News Service 31 May 2011 Trust hesitant on unlocking Sai Babas residence CNN IBN Archived from the original on 3 June 2011 Retrieved 9 June 2011 Deccan Herald Tuesday 17 June 2011 Huge amount of gold silver cash found in Sai Baba s Chamber http www deccanherald com content 169535 huge amount gold silver cash html Assets worth Rs 77L seized at Sai ashram The Times of India 3 July 2011 Archived from the original on 28 September 2013 Treasure island Sai Baba s gold trove Press Trust of India 17 June 2011 Archived from the original on 18 June 2011 G S Radhakrishna 17 June 2011 Open sesame Baba amp his chamber of secrets The Telegraph of India Calcutta India and this graphic Three day count at Baba s ashram yields treasure The Times of India 21 July 2011 Archived from the original on 15 August 2013 Perfumes sarees form Sai Baba s inventory Deccan Herald SSSCT Service Projects Water Supply Anantapur Srisathyasai org in 23 November 1999 Retrieved 7 January 2010 Postal stamp on Sathya Sai Baba released The Hindu Chennai India 24 November 2013 Postal department to release stamp on Sathya Sai Baba The Times of India The Times Of India Felicitation for Water Project Indian Express Krishnamoorthy M 2 April 2005 Enlightening experience in India The Star Online Archived from the original on 12 April 2005 Retrieved 6 January 2010 Places to see at Puttaparthi Available online The Hindu A 5 point recipe for happiness 24 November 2006 Available online The Hindu Warm welcome to PM at Puttaparthi 12 February 2004 Available online Deccan Herald Sathya Sai s birthday celebrations on by Terry Kennedy 23 November 2005 Available online Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine The ashrams of Sathya Sai Baba Referenced from the official Sathya Sai Organization website Available online Kent Alexandra 1999 UNITY IN DIVERSITY Portraying the Visions of the Sathya Sai Baba Movement of Malaysia Crossroads An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13 2 2 29 51 JSTOR 40800435 Sahoo Ajaya Kumar 2013 Reconstructing Religious and Cultural Identity of Indians in the Diaspora The Role of Sri Sathya Sai Baba Movement Sociological Bulletin 62 1 January April 2013 23 39 doi 10 1177 0038022920130102 JSTOR 23621024 S2CID 152184838 Clooney Francis X 2011 Death of a God man Sai Baba Dies at 85 America Magazine Cultural Trends Study India s Sai Baba Movement PDF CIA Pereira Shane N 2008 A New Religious Movement in Singapore Syncretism and Variation in the Sathya Sai Baba Movement Asian Journal of Social Science 36 2 250 270 doi 10 1163 156853108X298699 JSTOR 23677933 Ekacha Sanitsuda 2001 Keeping the Faith Thai Buddhism at the Crossroads Nova Religio The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions 9 2 126 128 doi 10 1525 nr 2005 9 2 126 Swallow D A 1976 Living Saints and Their Devotees In Jonathan Webber ed Research in Social Anthropology 1975 1980 A Register of Theses Accepted for Higher Degrees at British Universities 1975 1980 Royal Anthropological Institute pp 385 386 ISBN 9780900632334 Robbins amp Zablocki 2001 Misunderstanding Cults Searching for Objectivity in a Controversial Field University of Toronto Press pp 3 5 ISBN 978 0 8020 4373 3 Gallagher Eugene November 2008 February 2008 Cults and New Religious Movements History of Religions University of Chicago Press 47 2 3 205 220 doi 10 1086 524210 JSTOR 10 1086 524210 S2CID 161448414 Babb L A 1987 Sathya Sai Baba s Saintly Play In Hawley J S ed Saints and Virtues London UK University of California Press pp 168 186 ISBN 978 0 520 06163 7 Alexandra Kent Divinity and diversity a Hindu revitalization movement in Malaysia NIAS 2005 Handoo Jawaharlal in Asian Folklore Studies Vol 48 No 2 1989 pp 326 32 reviewing Lawrence A Babb s book Redemptive Encounters Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition page 1 Nagel Alexandra note Nagel is a critical former follower De Sai Paradox Tegenstrijdigheden van en rondom Sathya Sai Baba The Sai Paradox contradictions of and surrounding Sathya Sai Baba from the magazine Religieuze Bewegingen in Nederland Sekten Religious movements in the Netherlands Cults Sects 1994 nr 29 published by the Free University of Amsterdam press 1994 ISBN 90 5383 341 2 Dutch original Ofschoon Sai Baba gezegd heeft mensen van allerlei religieuze gezindten te helpen terug te gaan naar oude waarden en normen en ofschoon zijn logo de symbolen van de andere grote godsdiensten bevat is de sfeer rondom Sai Baba duidelijk hindoeistisch gekleurd Alle moslim elementen bijv waarvan verondersteld zou kunnen worden dat hij die zou hebben meegenomen uit zijn leven als Sai Baba van Shirdi heeft hij laten vallen Het enig echt herkenbare wat hij van Shirdi Baba nog heeft is het veelvuldig gebruik van as wat hij dan niet uit een dhuni haalt zoals Shirdi Baba deed maar materialiseert of tevoorschijn goochelt Chryssides George D 2012 Historical dictionary of new religious movements Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 9780810861947 White Charles S J 1972 The Sai Baba Movement Approaches to the Study of India Saints The Journal of Asian Studies 31 4 863 878 doi 10 2307 2052105 JSTOR 2052105 Tallings Stephanies Summer 2000 Avatar of Stability Sai Baba s Teachings Harvard International Review 22 2 14 15 Handoo Jawaharlal 1989 Reviewed Work Redemptive Encounters Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition by Lawrence A Babb PDF Asian Folklore Studies 48 2 327 doi 10 2307 1177938 JSTOR 1177938 Swallow D A 2008 Ashes and Powers Myth Rite and Miracle in an Indian God Man s Cult Modern Asian Studies 16 1 123 158 doi 10 1017 S0026749X0000072X JSTOR 312277 Kelly J D 1995 Bhakti and Postcolonial Politics Hindu Missions to Fiji In van der Veer P ed Nation and Migration The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora Philadelphia US University of Pennsylvania Press pp 43 72 ISBN 978 0 8122 1537 3 Srinivas Tulasi June 2010 Winged Faith Rethinking Globalization and Religious Pluralism through the Sathya Sai Movement Columbia University Press ISBN 9780231149334 Charlene Leslie Chaden 2004 A compendium of the teachings of Sri Sathya Sai Baba Sai Towers Publishing p 526 ISBN 978 81 7899 042 2 Retrieved 24 April 2011 self published source Architectural digest Conde Nast Publications 1 May 1994 Retrieved 24 April 2011 Sri Sathya Sai Baba Organization in Canada Home Page Sathyasai ca 1 May 2006 Retrieved 7 January 2010 a b Guidelines for AMERICAN SATHYA SAI BABA CENTERS The Sathya Sai Baba Central Council of the United States of America 2006 The Sri Sathya Sai Baba Centre of Toronto York Sathyasaitoronto org Retrieved 7 January 2010 Neutill Rani Emeralds and desperation My mother and Sathya Sai Baba www aljazeera com Retrieved 29 April 2020 Sai Baba Holy man Sex abuser Both 26 April 2011 Retrieved 9 October 2019 a b Ruhela S P Sri Sathya Sai Baba and the Press pp 1 5 1997 ISBN 81 7533 041 4 Ruhela S P How to Receive Sri Sathya Sai Baba s Grace pp 277 2006 ISBN 81 7182 089 1 Rahul Singh 2 November 2009 The Spell Breaker Outlook Retrieved 16 October 2013 Haraldson op cit pp 204 205 Interview given by Sai Baba to R K Karanjia of Blitz news magazine in September 1976 Available online Haraldsson pp 209 Haraldsson op cit pp 206 Tanya Datta 17 June 2004 Sai Baba Goan or con man BBC News Retrieved 4 January 2010 Eagle amp Eagle Eagletv co uk Retrieved 7 January 2010 Doordarshan clip Haraldsson op cit pp 295 301 a b Mick Brown The Spiritual Tourist 1998 Bloomsbury Publishing ISBN 1 58234 034 X In the House of God pp 73 74 Hislop John S My Baba and I 1985 published by Birth Day Publishing Company San Diego California ISBN 0 9600958 8 8 The Resurrection of Walter Cowan pages 28 31 Lane David 2014 The Mystical Exploring the Transcendent Mt San Antonio College pp 62 63 ISBN 9781565431737 Brown Mick The Spiritual Tourist The Miracle in North London pp 29 30 1998 ISBN 158234034X Oyvind Kyro Steen Jensen 2002 Seduced by Sai Baba Documentary DR Archived from the original on 4 February 2010 2 UK Parliament official web site Programmes This World Secret Swami BBC News 11 June 2004 Retrieved 7 January 2010 a b Eamon Hardy Tanya Datta 2004 Secret Swami Documentary BBC News Retrieved 4 January 2010 Aitken Bill 27 November 2005 Miracle of Welfare Archived from the original on 9 September 2006 Retrieved 9 September 2006 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Brown Mick 28 October 2000 Divine Downfall Daily Telegraph Sathya Sai Speaks Vol 33 pg 389 Rao Manu 26 December 2000 Sai Baba lashes out at detractors http timesofindia indiatimes com city bangalore sai baba lashes out at detractors articleshow 534425761 cms Letter from A B Vajpayee the then Prime Minister of India http www hindu com thehindu fline fl2810 stories 20110520281002600 htm Official Letter http www saibaba ws images letter pm india gifFurther reading EditSamuel H Sandweiss 1975 Sai Baba the Holy Man and the Psychiatrist p 240 ISBN 978 0 960 09581 0 John S Hislop 1985 My Baba and I ISBN 978 0 960 09588 9 Phyllis Krystal 1994 Sai Baba The Ultimate Experience p 260 ISBN 978 0 877 28794 0 Don Mario Mazzoleni 1994 A Catholic Priest Meets Sai Baba p 285 ISBN 978 0 962 98351 1 Erlendur Haraldsson 1997 Modern Miracles An Investigative Report on These Psychic Phenomena Associated With Sathya Sai Baba p 315 ISBN 978 0 803 89384 9 Vladimir Antonov 2008 Sathya Sai Baba The Christ of Our Days p 38 ISBN 978 1 438 25276 6 Tommy S W Wong 2009 How Sai Baba Attracts Without Direct Contact p 108 ISBN 978 1 448 60416 6 Tulasi Srinivas 2010 Winged Faith Rethinking Globalization and Religious Pluralism Through the Sathya Sai Movement Columbia University Press p 430 ISBN 978 0 231 14933 4 David Smith 2016 Hinduism Religions in the Modern World Traditions and Transformations Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 85880 9 External links EditWikiquote has quotations related to Sathya Sai BabaWikimedia Commons has media related to Sathya Sai Baba International Sai Organization Sathya Sai Baba at Curlie Works by or about Sathya Sai Baba at Internet Archive Works by or about Sathya Sai Baba in libraries WorldCat catalog Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sathya Sai Baba amp oldid 1053997736, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.