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Wikipedia

Satire

"Satires" redirects here. For other uses, see Satires (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with satyr or saltire.

Satire is a genre of the visual, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.

1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a great deal of satire of the contemporary, social, and political scene.

A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm —"in satire, irony is militant", according to literary critic Northrop Frye but parody, burlesque, exaggeration, juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing. This "militant" irony or sarcasm often professes to approve of (or at least accept as natural) the very things the satirist wishes to question.

Satire is found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, literature, plays, commentary, music, film and television shows, and media such as lyrics.

Contents

The word satire comes from the Latin word satur and the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura literally means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".

The word satura as used by Quintilian, however, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be later intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, that is a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin (satura tota nostra est). He was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius.

To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes:

As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; and satura (which had had no verbal, adverbial, or adjectival forms) was immediately broadened by appropriation from the Greek word for “satyr” (satyros) and its derivatives. The odd result is that the English “satire” comes from the Latin satura; but "satirize", "satiric", etc., are of Greek origin. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus; St. Jerome, for example, was called by one of his enemies 'a satirist in prose' ('satyricus scriptor in prosa'). Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, and in England, by the 16th century, it was written 'satyre.'

The word satire derives from satura, and its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time.

The rules of satire are such that it must do more than make you laugh. No matter how amusing it is, it doesn't count unless you find yourself wincing a little even as you chuckle.

Laughter is not an essential component of satire; in fact there are types of satire that are not meant to be "funny" at all. Conversely, not all humour, even on such topics as politics, religion or art is necessarily "satirical", even when it uses the satirical tools of irony, parody, and burlesque.

Even light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, and then make them think".

Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study. They provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, and the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.

Historically, satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy, religion and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power (be it political, economic, religious, symbolic, or otherwise), by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to clarify, amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, and it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse.

For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions. The satiric impulse, and its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.

The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, and the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, and especially satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders, especially Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations.

Satire is a diverse genre which is complex to classify and define, with a wide range of satiric "modes".

Horatian, Juvenalian, Menippean

"Le satire e l'epistole di Q. Orazio Flacco", printed in 1814.

Satirical literature can commonly be categorized as either Horatian, Juvenalian, or Menippean.

Horatian

Horatian satire, named for the Roman satirist Horace (65–8 BCE), playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle, mild, and light-hearted humour. Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) wrote Satires to gently ridicule the dominant opinions and "philosophical beliefs of ancient Rome and Greece" (Rankin). Rather than writing in harsh or accusing tones, he addressed issues with humor and clever mockery. Horatian satire follows this same pattern of "gently [ridiculing] the absurdities and follies of human beings" (Drury).

It directs wit, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly, rather than evil. Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society.

A Horatian satirist's goal is to heal the situation with smiles, rather than by anger. Horatian satire is a gentle reminder to take life less seriously and evokes a wry smile. A Horatian satirist makes fun of general human folly rather than engaging in specific or personal attacks. Shamekia Thomas suggests, "In a work using Horatian satire, readers often laugh at the characters in the story who are the subject of mockery as well as themselves and society for behaving in those ways." Alexander Pope has been established as an author whose satire "heals with morals what it hurts with wit" (Green). Alexander Pope—and Horatian satire—attempt to teach.

Juvenalian

Juvenalian satire, named for the writings of the Roman satirist Juvenal (late first century – early second century AD), is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian. Juvenal disagreed with the opinions of the public figures and institutions of the Republic and actively attacked them through his literature. "He utilized the satirical tools of exaggeration and parody to make his targets appear monstrous and incompetent" (Podzemny). Juvenal's satire follows this same pattern of abrasively ridiculing societal structures. Juvenal also, unlike Horace, attacked public officials and governmental organizations through his satires, regarding their opinions as not just wrong, but evil.

Following in this tradition, Juvenalian satire addresses perceived social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule. This form is often pessimistic, characterized by the use of irony, sarcasm, moral indignation and personal invective, with less emphasis on humor. Strongly polarized political satire can often be classified as Juvenalian.

A Juvenal satirist's goal is generally to provoke some sort of political or societal change because he sees his opponent or object as evil or harmful. A Juvenal satirist mocks "societal structure, power, and civilization" (Thomas) by exaggerating the words or position of his opponent in order to jeopardize their opponent's reputation and/or power. Jonathan Swift has been established as an author who "borrowed heavily from Juvenal's techniques in [his critique] of contemporary English society" (Podzemny).

Menippean

See Menippean satire.

Satire versus teasing

In the history of theatre there has always been a conflict between engagement and disengagement on politics and relevant issue, between satire and grotesque on one side, and jest with teasing on the other. Max Eastman defined the spectrum of satire in terms of "degrees of biting", as ranging from satire proper at the hot-end, and "kidding" at the violet-end; Eastman adopted the term kidding to denote what is just satirical in form, but is not really firing at the target. Nobel laureate satirical playwright Dario Fo pointed out the difference between satire and teasing (sfottò). Teasing is the reactionary side of the comic; it limits itself to a shallow parody of physical appearance. The side-effect of teasing is that it humanizes and draws sympathy for the powerful individual towards which it is directed. Satire instead uses the comic to go against power and its oppressions, has a subversive character, and a moral dimension which draws judgement against its targets. Fo formulated an operational criterion to tell real satire from sfottò, saying that real satire arouses an outraged and violent reaction, and that the more they try to stop you, the better is the job you are doing. Fo contends that, historically, people in positions of power have welcomed and encouraged good-humoured buffoonery, while modern day people in positions of power have tried to censor, ostracize and repress satire.

Teasing (sfottò) is an ancient form of simple buffoonery, a form of comedy without satire's subversive edge. Teasing includes light and affectionate parody, good-humoured mockery, simple one-dimensional poking fun, and benign spoofs. Teasing typically consists of an impersonation of someone monkeying around with his exterior attributes, tics, physical blemishes, voice and mannerisms, quirks, way of dressing and walking, and/or the phrases he typically repeats. By contrast, teasing never touches on the core issue, never makes a serious criticism judging the target with irony; it never harms the target's conduct, ideology and position of power; it never undermines the perception of his morality and cultural dimension. Sfottò directed towards a powerful individual makes him appear more human and draws sympathy towards him. Hermann Göring propagated jests and jokes against himself, with the aim of humanizing his image.

Classifications by topics

Types of satire can also be classified according to the topics it deals with. From the earliest times, at least since the plays of Aristophanes, the primary topics of literary satire have been politics, religion and sex. This is partly because these are the most pressing problems that affect anybody living in a society, and partly because these topics are usually taboo. Among these, politics in the broader sense is considered the pre-eminent topic of satire. Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire, while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs. Satire on sex may overlap with blue comedy, off-color humor and dick jokes.

Scatology has a long literary association with satire, as it is a classical mode of the grotesque, the grotesque body and the satiric grotesque. Shit plays a fundamental role in satire because it symbolizes death, the turd being "the ultimate dead object". The satirical comparison of individuals or institutions with human excrement, exposes their "inherent inertness, corruption and dead-likeness". The ritual clowns of clown societies, like among the Pueblo Indians, have ceremonies with filth-eating. In other cultures, sin-eating is an apotropaic rite in which the sin-eater (also called filth-eater), by ingesting the food provided, takes "upon himself the sins of the departed". Satire about death overlaps with black humor and gallows humor.

Another classification by topics is the distinction between political satire, religious satire and satire of manners. Political satire is sometimes called topical satire, satire of manners is sometimes called satire of everyday life, and religious satire is sometimes called philosophical satire. Comedy of manners, sometimes also called satire of manners, criticizes mode of life of common people; political satire aims at behavior, manners of politicians, and vices of political systems. Historically, comedy of manners, which first appeared in British theater in 1620, has uncritically accepted the social code of the upper classes. Comedy in general accepts the rules of the social game, while satire subverts them.

Another analysis of satire is the spectrum of his possible tones: wit, ridicule, irony, sarcasm, cynicism, the sardonic and invective.

The type of humour that deals with creating laughter at the expense of the person telling the joke is called reflexive humour. Reflexive humour can take place at dual levels of directing humour at self or at the larger community the self identifies with. The audience's understanding of the context of reflexive humour is important for its receptivity and success. Satire is found not only in written literary forms. In preliterate cultures it manifests itself in ritual and folk forms, as well as in trickster tales and oral poetry.

It appears also in graphic arts, music, sculpture, dance, cartoon strips, and graffiti. Examples are Dada sculptures, Pop Art works, music of Gilbert and Sullivan and Erik Satie, punk and rock music. In modern media culture, stand-up comedy is an enclave in which satire can be introduced into mass media, challenging mainstream discourse. Comedy roasts, mock festivals, and stand-up comedians in nightclubs and concerts are the modern forms of ancient satiric rituals.

Ancient Egypt

The satirical papyrus at the British Museum
Satirical ostracon showing a cat guarding geese, c.1120 BC, Egypt.
Figured ostracon showing a cat waiting on a mouse, Egypt

One of the earliest examples of what we might call satire, The Satire of the Trades, is in Egyptian writing from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The text's apparent readers are students, tired of studying. It argues that their lot as scribes is not only useful, but far superior to that of the ordinary man. Scholars such as Helck think that the context was meant to be serious.

The Papyrus Anastasi I (late 2nd millennium BC) contains a satirical letter which first praises the virtues of its recipient, but then mocks the reader's meagre knowledge and achievements.

Ancient Greece

The Greeks had no word for what later would be called "satire", although the terms cynicism and parody were used. Modern critics call the Greek playwright Aristophanes one of the best known early satirists: his plays are known for their critical political and societal commentary, particularly for the political satire by which he criticized the powerful Cleon (as in The Knights). He is also notable for the persecution he underwent. Aristophanes' plays turned upon images of filth and disease. His bawdy style was adopted by Greek dramatist-comedian Menander. His early play Drunkenness contains an attack on the politician Callimedon.

The oldest form of satire still in use is the Menippean satire by Menippus of Gadara. His own writings are lost. Examples from his admirers and imitators mix seriousness and mockery in dialogues and present parodies before a background of diatribe. As in the case of Aristophanes plays, menippean satire turned upon images of filth and disease.

Roman world

The first Roman to discuss satire critically was Quintilian, who invented the term to describe the writings of Gaius Lucilius. The two most prominent and influential ancient Roman satirists are Horace and Juvenal, who wrote during the early days of the Roman Empire. Other important satirists in ancient Latin are Gaius Lucilius and Persius. Satire in their work is much wider than in the modern sense of the word, including fantastic and highly coloured humorous writing with little or no real mocking intent. When Horace criticized Augustus, he used veiled ironic terms. In contrast, Pliny reports that the 6th-century-BC poet Hipponax wrote satirae that were so cruel that the offended hanged themselves.

In the 2nd century AD, Lucian wrote True History, a book satirizing the clearly unrealistic travelogues/adventures written by Ctesias, Iambulus, and Homer. He states that he was surprised they expected people to believe their lies, and stating that he, like them, has no actual knowledge or experience, but shall now tell lies as if he did. He goes on to describe a far more obviously extreme and unrealistic tale, involving interplanetary exploration, war among alien life forms, and life inside a 200 mile long whale back in the terrestrial ocean, all intended to make obvious the fallacies of books like Indica and The Odyssey.

Medieval Islamic world

Main articles: Arabic satire and Persian satire

Medieval Arabic poetry included the satiric genre hija. Satire was introduced into Arabic prose literature by the author Al-Jahiz in the 9th century. While dealing with serious topics in what are now known as anthropology, sociology and psychology, he introduced a satirical approach, "based on the premise that, however serious the subject under review, it could be made more interesting and thus achieve greater effect, if only one leavened the lump of solemnity by the insertion of a few amusing anecdotes or by the throwing out of some witty or paradoxical observations. He was well aware that, in treating of new themes in his prose works, he would have to employ a vocabulary of a nature more familiar in hija, satirical poetry." For example, in one of his zoological works, he satirized the preference for longer human penis size, writing: "If the length of the penis were a sign of honor, then the mule would belong to the (honorable tribe of) Quraysh". Another satirical story based on this preference was an Arabian Nights tale called "Ali with the Large Member".

In the 10th century, the writer Tha'alibi recorded satirical poetry written by the Arabic poets As-Salami and Abu Dulaf, with As-Salami praising Abu Dulaf's wide breadth of knowledge and then mocking his ability in all these subjects, and with Abu Dulaf responding back and satirizing As-Salami in return. An example of Arabic political satire included another 10th-century poet Jarir satirizing Farazdaq as "a transgressor of the Sharia" and later Arabic poets in turn using the term "Farazdaq-like" as a form of political satire.

The terms "comedy" and "satire" became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Islamic philosophers and writers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija (satirical poetry). They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or troubled beginnings and happy endings, associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature.

Ubayd Zakani introduced satire in Persian literature during the 14th century. His work is noted for its satire and obscene verses, often political or bawdy, and often cited in debates involving homosexual practices. He wrote the Resaleh-ye Delgosha, as well as Akhlaq al-Ashraf ("Ethics of the Aristocracy") and the famous humorous fable Masnavi Mush-O-Gorbeh (Mouse and Cat), which was a political satire. His non-satirical serious classical verses have also been regarded as very well written, in league with the other great works of Persian literature. Between 1905 and 1911, Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi and other Iranian writers wrote notable satires.

Medieval Europe

In the Early Middle Ages, examples of satire were the songs by Goliards or vagants now best known as an anthology called Carmina Burana and made famous as texts of a composition by the 20th-century composer Carl Orff. Satirical poetry is believed to have been popular, although little has survived. With the advent of the High Middle Ages and the birth of modern vernacular literature in the 12th century, it began to be used again, most notably by Chaucer. The disrespectful manner was considered "unchristian" and ignored, except for the moral satire, which mocked misbehaviour in Christian terms. Examples are Livre des Manières by Étienne de Fougères [fr] (~1178), and some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Sometimes epic poetry (epos) was mocked, and even feudal society, but there was hardly a general interest in the genre.

Early modern western satire

Pieter Bruegel's 1568 satirical painting The Blind Leading the Blind.

Direct social commentary via satire returned with a vengeance in the 16th century, when farcical texts such as the works of François Rabelais tackled more serious issues (and incurred the wrath of the crown as a result).

Two major satirists of Europe in the Renaissance were Giovanni Boccaccio and François Rabelais. Other examples of Renaissance satire include Till Eulenspiegel, Reynard the Fox, Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff (1494), Erasmus's Moriae Encomium (1509), Thomas More's Utopia (1516), and Carajicomedia (1519).

The Elizabethan (i.e. 16th-century English) writers thought of satire as related to the notoriously rude, coarse and sharp satyr play. Elizabethan "satire" (typically in pamphlet form) therefore contains more straightforward abuse than subtle irony. The French Huguenot Isaac Casaubon pointed out in 1605 that satire in the Roman fashion was something altogether more civilised. Casaubon discovered and published Quintilian's writing and presented the original meaning of the term (satira, not satyr), and the sense of wittiness (reflecting the "dishfull of fruits") became more important again. Seventeenth-century English satire once again aimed at the "amendment of vices" (Dryden).

In the 1590s a new wave of verse satire broke with the publication of Hall's Virgidemiarum, six books of verse satires targeting everything from literary fads to corrupt noblemen. Although Donne had already circulated satires in manuscript, Hall's was the first real attempt in English at verse satire on the Juvenalian model.[page needed] The success of his work combined with a national mood of disillusion in the last years of Elizabeth's reign triggered an avalanche of satire—much of it less conscious of classical models than Hall's — until the fashion was brought to an abrupt stop by censorship.

Another satiric genre to emerge around this time was the satirical almanac, with François Rabelais's work Pantagrueline Prognostication (1532), which mocked astrological predictions. The strategies François utilized within this work were employed by later satirical almanacs, such as the Poor Robin series that spanned the 17th to 19th centuries.

Ancient and modern India

Satire (Kataksh or Vyang) has played a prominent role in Indian and Hindi literature, and is counted as one of the "ras" of literature in ancient books. With the commencement of printing of books in local language in the nineteenth century and especially after India's freedom, this grew. Many of the works of Tulsi Das, Kabir, Munshi Premchand, village minstrels, Hari katha singers, poets, Dalit singers and current day stand up Indian comedians incorporate satire, usually ridiculing authoritarians, fundamentalists and incompetent people in power. In India, it has usually been used as a means of expression and an outlet for common people to express their anger against authoritarian entities. A popular custom in Northern India of "Bura na mano Holi hai" continues, in which comedians on the stage mock local people of importance (who are usually brought in as special guests).

Age of Enlightenment

'A Welch wedding' Satirical Cartoon c.1780

The Age of Enlightenment, an intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th centuries advocating rationality, produced a great revival of satire in Britain. This was fuelled by the rise of partisan politics, with the formalisation of the Tory and Whig parties—and also, in 1714, by the formation of the Scriblerus Club, which included Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, John Arbuthnot, Robert Harley, Thomas Parnell, and Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. This club included several of the notable satirists of early-18th-century Britain. They focused their attention on Martinus Scriblerus, "an invented learned fool... whose work they attributed all that was tedious, narrow-minded, and pedantic in contemporary scholarship". In their hands astute and biting satire of institutions and individuals became a popular weapon. The turn to the 18th century was characterized by a switch from Horatian, soft, pseudo-satire, to biting "juvenal" satire.

Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo-Irish satirists, and one of the first to practise modern journalistic satire. For instance, In his A Modest Proposal Swift suggests that Irish peasants be encouraged to sell their own children as food for the rich, as a solution to the "problem" of poverty. His purpose is of course to attack indifference to the plight of the desperately poor. In his book Gulliver's Travels he writes about the flaws in human society in general and English society in particular. John Dryden wrote an influential essay entitled "A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire" that helped fix the definition of satire in the literary world. His satirical Mac Flecknoe was written in response to a rivalry with Thomas Shadwell and eventually inspired Alexander Pope to write his satirical Dunciad.

Alexander Pope (b. May 21, 1688) was a satirist known for his Horatian satirist style and translation of the Iliad. Famous throughout and after the long 18th century, Pope died in 1744. Pope, in his The Rape of the Lock, is delicately chiding society in a sly but polished voice by holding up a mirror to the follies and vanities of the upper class. Pope does not actively attack the self-important pomp of the British aristocracy, but rather presents it in such a way that gives the reader a new perspective from which to easily view the actions in the story as foolish and ridiculous. A mockery of the upper class, more delicate and lyrical than brutal, Pope nonetheless is able to effectively illuminate the moral degradation of society to the public. The Rape of the Lock assimilates the masterful qualities of a heroic epic, such as the Iliad, which Pope was translating at the time of writing The Rape of the Lock. However, Pope applied these qualities satirically to a seemingly petty egotistical elitist quarrel to prove his point wryly. Other satirical works by Pope include the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot.

Daniel Defoe pursued a more journalistic type of satire, being famous for his The True-Born Englishman which mocks xenophobic patriotism, and The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters—advocating religious toleration by means of an ironical exaggeration of the highly intolerant attitudes of his time.

The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th-century England. The medium developed under the direction of its greatest exponent, James Gillray from London. With his satirical works calling the king (George III), prime ministers and generals (especially Napoleon) to account, Gillray's wit and keen sense of the ridiculous made him the pre-eminent cartoonist of the era.

Ebenezer Cooke (1665–1732), author of "The Sot-Weed Factor" (1708), was among the first writers of literary satire in Colonial America. Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) and others followed, using satire to shape an emerging nation's culture through its sense of the ridiculous.

Satire in Victorian England

A Victorian satirical sketch depicting a gentleman's donkey race in 1852

Several satiric papers competed for the public's attention in the Victorian era (1837–1901) and Edwardian period, such as Punch (1841) and Fun (1861).

Perhaps the most enduring examples of Victorian satire, however, are to be found in the Savoy Operas of Gilbert and Sullivan. In fact, in The Yeomen of the Guard, a jester is given lines that paint a very neat picture of the method and purpose of the satirist, and might almost be taken as a statement of Gilbert's own intent:

"I can set a braggart quailing with a quip,
The upstart I can wither with a whim;
He may wear a merry laugh upon his lip,
But his laughter has an echo that is grim!"

Novelists such as Charles Dickens (1812-1870) often used passages of satiric writing in their treatment of social issues.

Continuing the tradition of Swiftian journalistic satire, Sidney Godolphin Osborne (1808-1889) was the most prominent writer of scathing "Letters to the Editor" of the London Times. Famous in his day, he is now all but forgotten. His maternal grandfather William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland was considered to be a possible candidate for the authorship of the Junius letters. If this were true, we can read Osborne as following in his grandfather's satiric "Letters to the Editor" path. Osborne's satire was so bitter and biting that at one point he received a public censure from Parliament's then Home Secretary Sir James Graham. Osborne wrote mostly in the Juvenalian mode over a wide range of topics mostly centered on British government's and landlords' mistreatment of poor farm workers and field laborers. He bitterly opposed the New Poor Laws and was passionate on the subject of the British government's botched response to the Great Irish Famine and the mistreatment of British soldiers during the Crimean War.

A number of works of fiction during this time, influenced by Egyptomania, used the backdrop of Ancient Egypt as a device for satire. Some works, like Edgar Allan Poe's Some Words with a Mummy (1845) and Grant Allen's My New Year's Eve Among the Mummies (1878), portrayed Egyptian civilization as having already achieved many of the Victorian era's advancements (like the steam engine and gaslamps) in an effort to satire the notion of progress. Other works, like Jane Loudon's The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century, satirized Victorian curiosities with the afterlife.

Later in the nineteenth century, in the United States, Mark Twain (1835–1910) grew to become American's greatest satirist: his novel Huckleberry Finn (1884) is set in the antebellum South, where the moral values Twain wishes to promote are completely turned on their heads. His hero, Huck, is a rather simple but goodhearted lad who is ashamed of the "sinful temptation" that leads him to help a fugitive slave. In fact his conscience, warped by the distorted moral world he has grown up in, often bothers him most when he is at his best. He is prepared to do good, believing it to be wrong.

Twain's younger contemporary Ambrose Bierce (1842–1913) gained notoriety as a cynic, pessimist and black humorist with his dark, bitterly ironic stories, many set during the American Civil War, which satirized the limitations of human perception and reason. Bierce's most famous work of satire is probably The Devil's Dictionary (1906), in which the definitions mock cant, hypocrisy and received wisdom.

20th-century satire

Karl Kraus is considered the first major European satirist since Jonathan Swift. In 20th-century literature, satire was used by English authors such as Aldous Huxley (1930s) and George Orwell (1940s), which under the inspiration of Zamyatin's Russian 1921 novel We, made serious and even frightening commentaries on the dangers of the sweeping social changes taking place throughout Europe. Anatoly Lunacharsky wrote ‘Satire attains its greatest significance when a newly evolving class creates an ideology considerably more advanced than that of the ruling class, but has not yet developed to the point where it can conquer it. Herein lies its truly great ability to triumph, its scorn for its adversary and its hidden fear of it. Herein lies its venom, its amazing energy of hate, and quite frequently, its grief, like a black frame around glittering images. Herein lie its contradictions, and its power.’ Many social critics of this same time in the United States, such as Dorothy Parker and H. L. Mencken, used satire as their main weapon, and Mencken in particular is noted for having said that "one horse-laugh is worth ten thousand syllogisms" in the persuasion of the public to accept a criticism. Novelist Sinclair Lewis was known for his satirical stories such as Main Street (1920), Babbitt (1922), Elmer Gantry (1927; dedicated by Lewis to H. L. Menchen), and It Can't Happen Here (1935), and his books often explored and satirized contemporary American values. The film The Great Dictator (1940) by Charlie Chaplin is itself a parody of Adolf Hitler; Chaplin later declared that he would have not made the film if he had known about the concentration camps.

Modern Soviet satire was very popular in the 1920s and 1930s. This form of satire is recognized by its level of sophistication and intelligence used, along with its own level of parody. Since there is no longer the need of survival or revolution to write about, the modern Soviet satire is focused on the quality of life.

Benzino Napaloni and Adenoid Hynkel in The Great Dictator (1940). Chaplin later declared that he would have not made the film if he had known about the concentration camps.

In the United States 1950s, satire was introduced into American stand-up comedy most prominently by Lenny Bruce and Mort Sahl. As they challenged the taboos and conventional wisdom of the time, were ostracized by the mass media establishment as sick comedians. In the same period, Paul Krassner's magazine The Realist began publication, to become immensely popular during the 1960s and early 1970s among people in the counterculture; it had articles and cartoons that were savage, biting satires of politicians such as Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon, the Vietnam War, the Cold War and the War on Drugs. This baton was also carried by the original National Lampoon magazine, edited by Doug Kenney and Henry Beard and featuring blistering satire written by Michael O'Donoghue, P.J. O'Rourke, and Tony Hendra, among others. Prominent satiric stand-up comedian George Carlin acknowledged the influence The Realist had in his 1970s conversion to a satiric comedian.

A more humorous brand of satire enjoyed a renaissance in the UK in the early 1960s with the satire boom, led by comedians including Peter Cook, Alan Bennett, Jonathan Miller, and Dudley Moore, whose stage show Beyond the Fringe was a hit not only in Britain, but also in the United States. Other significant influences in 1960s British satire include David Frost, Eleanor Bron and the television program That Was The Week That Was.

Joseph Heller's most famous work, Catch-22 (1961), satirizes bureaucracy and the military, and is frequently cited as one of the greatest literary works of the twentieth century. Departing from traditional Hollywood farce and screwball, director and comedian Jerry Lewis used satire in his self-directed films The Bellboy (1960), The Errand Boy (1961) and The Patsy (1964) to comment on celebrity and the star-making machinery of Hollywood. The film Dr. Strangelove (1964) starring Peter Sellers was a popular satire on the Cold War.

Contemporary satire

Contemporary popular usage of the term "satire" is often very imprecise. While satire often uses caricature and parody, by no means are all uses of these or other humorous devices satiric. Refer to the careful definition of satire that heads this article. The Cambridge Companion to Roman Satire also warns of the ambiguous nature of satire:

[W]hile "satire," or perhaps rather "satiric(al)," are words we run up against constantly in analyses of contemporary culture [...], the search for any defining formal charcteristic (sic) [of satire] that will link past to present may turn out to be more frustrating than enlightening.

Puppet of Manchester United striker Eric Cantona from the British satirical puppet show Spitting Image

Satire is used on many UK television programmes, particularly popular panel shows and quiz shows such as Mock the Week (2005–ongoing) and Have I Got News for You (1990–ongoing). It is found on radio quiz shows such as The News Quiz (1977–ongoing) and The Now Show (1998–ongoing). One of the most watched UK television shows of the 1980s and early 1990s, the puppet show Spitting Image was a satire of the royal family, politics, entertainment, sport and British culture of the era. Court Flunkey from Spitting Image is a caricature of James Gillray, intended as a homage to the father of political cartooning.

Created by DMA Design in 1997, satire features prominently in the British video game series Grand Theft Auto. Another example is the Fallout series, namely Interplay-developed Fallout: A Post Nuclear Role Playing Game (1995). Other games utilizing satire include Postal (1997), State of Emergency (2002), Phone Story (2011), and 7 Billion Humans (2018).

Trey Parker and Matt Stone's South Park (1997–ongoing) relies almost exclusively on satire to address issues in American culture, with episodes addressing racism, anti-Semitism, militant atheism, homophobia, sexism, environmentalism, corporate culture, political correctness and anti-Catholicism, among many other issues.

Satirical web series and sites include Emmy-nominated video game-themed Honest Trailers (2012–), Internet phenomena-themed Encyclopedia Dramatica (2004–), Uncyclopedia (2005–), self-proclaimed "America's Finest News Source" The Onion (1988–). and The Onion's conservative counterpart The Babylon Bee (2016–).

Stephen Colbert satirically impersonated an opinionated and self-righteous television commentator on his Comedy Central program in the U.S.

In the United States, Stephen Colbert's television program, The Colbert Report (2005–14) is instructive in the methods of contemporary American satire; sketch comedy television show Saturday Night Live is also known for its satirical impressions and parodies of prominent persons and politicians, among some of the most notable, their parodies of U.S. political figures Hillary Clinton and of Sarah Palin. Colbert's character is an opinionated and self-righteous commentator who, in his TV interviews, interrupts people, points and wags his finger at them, and "unwittingly" uses a number of logical fallacies. In doing so, he demonstrates the principle of modern American political satire: the ridicule of the actions of politicians and other public figures by taking all their statements and purported beliefs to their furthest (supposedly) logical conclusion, thus revealing their perceived hypocrisy or absurdity.

In the United Kingdom, a popular modern satirist was the late Sir Terry Pratchett, author of the internationally best-selling Discworld book series. One of the most well-known and controversial British satirists is Chris Morris, co-writer and director of Four Lions.

In Canada, satire has become an important part of the comedy scene. Stephen Leacock was one of the best known early Canadian satirists, and in the early 20th century, he achieved fame by targeting the attitudes of small town life. In more recent years, Canada has had several prominent satirical television series and radio shows. Some, including CODCO, The Royal Canadian Air Farce, This Is That, and This Hour Has 22 Minutes deal directly with current news stories and political figures, while others, like History Bites present contemporary social satire in the context of events and figures in history. The Beaverton is a Canadian news satire site similar to The Onion. Canadian songwriter Nancy White uses music as the vehicle for her satire, and her comic folk songs are regularly played on CBC Radio.

In Hong Kong, there was a well-known Australian Kim Jong-Un impersonator Howard X whom often utilised satire to show his support for Hong Kong city’s pro-democracy movements and liberation of North Korea. He believed that humour is a very powerful weapon and he often made it clear that he imitates the dictator to satirize him, not to glorify him. Throughout his career as a professional impersonator, he had also worked with multiple organisations and celebrities to create parodies and to stir up conversations of politics and human rights.

Cartoonists often use satire as well as straight humour. Al Capp's satirical comic strip Li'l Abner was censored in September 1947. The controversy, as reported in Time, centred on Capp's portrayal of the US Senate. Said Edward Leech of Scripps-Howard, "We don't think it is good editing or sound citizenship to picture the Senate as an assemblage of freaks and crooks... boobs and undesirables." Walt Kelly's Pogo was likewise censored in 1952 over his overt satire of Senator Joe McCarthy, caricatured in his comic strip as "Simple J. Malarky". Garry Trudeau, whose comic strip Doonesbury focuses on satire of the political system, and provides a trademark cynical view on national events. Trudeau exemplifies humour mixed with criticism. For example, the character Mark Slackmeyer lamented that because he was not legally married to his partner, he was deprived of the "exquisite agony" of experiencing a nasty and painful divorce like heterosexuals. This, of course, satirized the claim that gay unions would denigrate the sanctity of heterosexual marriage.

Political satire by Ranan Lurie

Like some literary predecessors, many recent television satires contain strong elements of parody and caricature; for instance, the popular animated series The Simpsons and South Park both parody modern family and social life by taking their assumptions to the extreme; both have led to the creation of similar series. As well as the purely humorous effect of this sort of thing, they often strongly criticise various phenomena in politics, economic life, religion and many other aspects of society, and thus qualify as satirical. Due to their animated nature, these shows can easily use images of public figures and generally have greater freedom to do so than conventional shows using live actors.

News satire is also a very popular form of contemporary satire, appearing in as wide an array of formats as the news media itself: print (e.g. The Onion, Waterford Whispers News, Private Eye), radio (e.g. On the Hour), television (e.g. The Day Today, The Daily Show, Brass Eye) and the web (e.g. Faking News, El Koshary Today, Babylon Bee, The Beaverton, The Daily Bonnet and The Onion). Other satires are on the list of satirists and satires.

In an interview with Wikinews, Sean Mills, President of The Onion, said angry letters about their news parody always carried the same message. "It's whatever affects that person", said Mills. "So it's like, 'I love it when you make a joke about murder or rape, but if you talk about cancer, well my brother has cancer and that's not funny to me.' Or someone else can say, 'Cancer's hilarious, but don't talk about rape because my cousin got raped.' Those are rather extreme examples, but if it affects somebody personally, they tend to be more sensitive about it."

Literary satire is usually written out of earlier satiric works, reprising previous conventions, commonplaces, stance, situations and tones of voice. Exaggeration is one of the most common satirical techniques. Contrarily diminution is also a satirical technique.

For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions. In Germany and Italy satire is protected by the constitution.

Since satire belongs to the realm of art and artistic expression, it benefits from broader lawfulness limits than mere freedom of information of journalistic kind. In some countries a specific "right to satire" is recognized and its limits go beyond the "right to report" of journalism and even the "right to criticize". Satire benefits not only of the protection to freedom of speech, but also to that to culture, and that to scientific and artistic production.

Australia

In September 2017 The Juice Media received an e-mail from the Australian National Symbols Officer requesting that the use of a satirical logo, called the "Coat of Harms" based on the Australian Coat of Arms, no longer be used as they had received complaints from the members of the public. Coincidentally 5 days later a Bill was proposed to Australian parliament to amend the Criminal Code Act 1995. If passed, those found to be in breach of the new amendment can face 2–5 years imprisonment.

As of June 2018, the Criminal Code Amendment (Impersonating a Commonwealth Body) Bill 2017 was before the Australian Senate with the third reading moved May 10, 2018.

Descriptions of satire's biting effect on its target include 'venomous', 'cutting', 'stinging', vitriol. Because satire often combines anger and humor, as well as the fact that it addresses and calls into question many controversial issues, it can be profoundly disturbing.

Typical arguments

Because it is essentially ironic or sarcastic, satire is often misunderstood. A typical misunderstanding is to confuse the satirist with his persona.

Bad taste

Common uncomprehending responses to satire include revulsion (accusations of poor taste, or that "it's just not funny" for instance) and the idea that the satirist actually does support the ideas, policies, or people he is attacking. For instance, at the time of its publication, many people misunderstood Swift's purpose in A Modest Proposal, assuming it to be a serious recommendation of economically motivated cannibalism.[citation needed] Much later in history, in the weeks following 9/11 the American public at large found works of satire to be in bad taste and not appropriate for the social climate at the time. Some media outlets at the time, like essayist Roger Rosenblatt in an editorial for Time magazine's September 24th issue, would go so far as to claim that irony was dead.

Targeting the victim

Some critics of Mark Twain see Huckleberry Finn as racist and offensive, missing the point that its author clearly intended it to be satire (racism being in fact only one of a number of Mark Twain's known concerns attacked in Huckleberry Finn). This same misconception was suffered by the main character of the 1960s British television comedy satire Till Death Us Do Part. The character of Alf Garnett (played by Warren Mitchell) was created to poke fun at the kind of narrow-minded, racist, little Englander that Garnett represented. Instead, his character became a sort of anti-hero to people who actually agreed with his views. (The same situation occurred with Archie Bunker in American TV show All in the Family, a character derived directly from Garnett.[citation needed])

The Australian satirical television comedy show The Chaser's War on Everything has suffered repeated attacks based on various perceived interpretations of the "target" of its attacks. The "Make a Realistic Wish Foundation" sketch (June 2009), which attacked in classical satiric fashion the heartlessness of people who are reluctant to donate to charities, was widely interpreted as an attack on the Make a Wish Foundation, or even the terminally ill children helped by that organisation. Prime Minister of the time Kevin Rudd stated that The Chaser team "should hang their heads in shame". He went on to say that "I didn't see that but it's been described to me. ...But having a go at kids with a terminal illness is really beyond the pale, absolutely beyond the pale." Television station management suspended the show for two weeks and reduced the third season to eight episodes.

Romantic prejudice

The romantic prejudice against satire is the belief spread by the romantic movement that satire is something unworthy of serious attention; this prejudice has held considerable influence to this day. Such prejudice extends to humour and everything that arouses laughter, which are often underestimated as frivolous and unworthy of serious study. For instance, humor is generally neglected as a topic of anthropological research and teaching.

History of opposition toward notable satires

Because satire criticises in an ironic, essentially indirect way, it frequently escapes censorship in a way more direct criticism might not. Periodically, however, it runs into serious opposition, and people in power who perceive themselves as attacked attempt to censor it or prosecute its practitioners. In a classic example, Aristophanes was persecuted by the demagogue Cleon.

1599 book ban

In 1599, the Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift and the Bishop of London Richard Bancroft, whose offices had the function of licensing books for publication in England, issued a decree banning verse satire. The decree, now known as the Bishops' Ban of 1599, ordered the burning of certain volumes of satire by John Marston, Thomas Middleton, Joseph Hall, and others; it also required histories and plays to be specially approved by a member of the Queen's Privy Council, and it prohibited the future printing of satire in verse.

The motives for the ban are obscure, particularly since some of the books banned had been licensed by the same authorities less than a year earlier. Various scholars have argued that the target was obscenity, libel, or sedition. It seems likely that lingering anxiety about the Martin Marprelate controversy, in which the bishops themselves had employed satirists, played a role; both Thomas Nashe and Gabriel Harvey, two of the key figures in that controversy, suffered a complete ban on all their works. In the event, though, the ban was little enforced, even by the licensing authority itself.

21st-century polemics

In 2005, the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy caused global protests by offended Muslims and violent attacks with many fatalities in the Near East. It was not the first case of Muslim protests against criticism in the form of satire, but the Western world was surprised by the hostility of the reaction: Any country's flag in which a newspaper chose to publish the parodies was being burnt in a Near East country, then embassies were attacked, killing 139 people in mainly four countries; politicians throughout Europe agreed that satire was an aspect of the freedom of speech, and therefore to be a protected means of dialogue. Iran threatened to start an International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, which was immediately responded to by Jews with an Israeli Anti-Semitic Cartoons Contest.

In 2006 British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen released Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, a "mockumentary" that satirized everyone, from high society to frat boys. The film was criticized by many. Although Baron Cohen is Jewish, some complained that it was antisemitic, and the government of Kazakhstan boycotted the film. The film itself had been a reaction to a longer quarrel between the government and the comedian.

In 2008, popular South African cartoonist and satirist Jonathan Shapiro (who is published under the pen name Zapiro) came under fire for depicting then-president of the ANC Jacob Zuma in the act of undressing in preparation for the implied rape of 'Lady Justice' which is held down by Zuma loyalists. The cartoon was drawn in response to Zuma's efforts to duck corruption charges, and the controversy was heightened by the fact that Zuma was himself acquitted of rape in May 2006. In February 2009, the South African Broadcasting Corporation, viewed by some opposition parties as the mouthpiece of the governing ANC, shelved a satirical TV show created by Shapiro, and in May 2009 the broadcaster pulled a documentary about political satire (featuring Shapiro among others) for the second time, hours before scheduled broadcast. Apartheid South Africa also had a long history of censorship.

On December 29, 2009, Samsung sued Mike Breen, and the Korea Times for $1 million, claiming criminal defamation over a satirical column published on Christmas Day, 2009.

On April 29, 2015, the UK Independence Party (UKIP) requested Kent Police investigate the BBC, claiming that comments made about Party leader Nigel Farage by a panelist on the comedy show Have I Got News For You might hinder his chances of success in the general election (which would take place a week later), and claimed the BBC breached the Representation of the People Act. Kent Police rebuffed the request to open an investigation, and the BBC released a statement, "Britain has a proud tradition of satire, and everyone knows that the contributors on Have I Got News for You regularly make jokes at the expense of politicians of all parties."

Satire is occasionally prophetic: the jokes precede actual events. Among the eminent examples are:

  • The 1784 presaging of modern daylight saving time, later actually proposed in 1907. While an American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin anonymously published a letter in 1784 suggesting that Parisians economise on candles by arising earlier to use morning sunlight.
  • In the 1920s, an English cartoonist imagined a laughable thing for the time: a hotel for cars. He drew a multi-story car park.
  • The second episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus, which debuted in 1969, featured a sketch entitled "The Mouse Problem" (meant to satirize contemporary media exposés on homosexuality), which depicted a cultural phenomenon similar to some aspects of the modern furry fandom (which did not become widespread until the 1980s, over a decade after the sketch was first aired).
  • The comedy film Americathon, released in 1979 and set in the United States of 1998, predicted a number of trends and events that would eventually unfold in the near future, including an American debt crisis, Chinese capitalism, the fall of the Soviet Union, a presidential sex scandal, and the popularity of reality shows.
  • In January 2001, a satirical news article in The Onion, entitled "Our Long National Nightmare of Peace and Prosperity Is Finally Over" had newly elected President George Bush vowing to "develop new and expensive weapons technologies" and to "engage in at least one Gulf War-level armed conflict in the next four years". Furthermore, he would "bring back economic stagnation by implementing substantial tax cuts, which would lead to a recession". This prophesied the Iraq War, the Bush tax cuts, and the Great Recession.
  • In 1975, the first episode of Saturday Night Live included an ad for a triple blade razor called the Triple-Trac; in 2001, Gillette introduced the Mach3. In 2004, The Onion satirized Schick and Gillette's marketing of ever-increasingly multi-blade razors with a mock article proclaiming Gillette will now introduce a five-blade razor. In 2006, Gillette released the Gillette Fusion, a five-blade razor.
  • After the Iran nuclear deal in 2015, The Onion ran an article with the headline "U.S. Soothes Upset Netanyahu With Shipment Of Ballistic Missiles". Sure enough, reports broke the next day of the Obama administration offering military upgrades to Israel in the wake of the deal.
  • In July 2016, The Simpsons released the most recent in a string of satirical references to a potential Donald Trump presidency (although the first was made back in a 2000 episode). Other media sources, including the popular film Back to the Future Part II have also made similar satirical references.
  • Infinite Jest, published in 1996, described an alternate America following the presidency of Johnny Gentle, a celebrity who had not held prior political office. Gentle's signature policy was the erection of a wall between the United States and Canada for use as a hazardous waste dump. The US territory behind the wall was "given" to Canada, and the Canadian government was forced to pay for the wall. This appeared to parody the signature campaign promise and background of Donald Trump.

In June 2019 the Nigerian satire website Punocracy organised a nationwide writing competition for youth in the country with the objective to make satire a widely accepted and understood tool of socio-political commentary. Some of the entries addressed issues like gender violence, political corruption, religious hypocrisy, internet fraud, educational decay and so on. The group also declared November 9 as World Satire Day with the idea of "trying to fight against the ills in the society not by ammunition but by humour, sarcasm etcetera".

  1. The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, the censors of the press, issued Orders to the Stationers' Company on June 1 and 4, 1599, prohibiting the further printing of satires—the so-called 'Bishop's Ban'.[page needed]

Citations

  1. Elliott 2004.
  2. Frye, Northrup (1957).Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. p. 222. ISBN 0-691-06004-5.
  3. Claridge, Claudia (2010) Hyperbole in English: A Corpus-based Study of Exaggeration p.257
  4. Kharpertian, Theodore D (1990), "Thomas Pynchon and Postmodern American Satire", in Kharpertian (ed.), A hand to turn the time: the Menippean satires of Thomas Pynchon, pp. 25–7, ISBN 9780838633618. However, the use of the word lanx in this phrase is disputed by B.L. Ullman, Satura and Satire (Class.Phil. 1913).
  5. Branham 1997, p. xxiv. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBranham1997 (help)
  6. Ullman, BL (1913), "Satura and Satire", Classical Philology, 8 (2): 172–194, doi:10.1086/359771, JSTOR 262450, S2CID 161191881, The Renaissance confusion of the two origins encouraged a satire more aggressive than that of its Roman forebearers
  7. Antonia Szabari (2009) Less Rightly Said: Scandals and Readers in Sixteenth-Century France p.2
  8. "Forecast". Galaxy Science Fiction. June 1968. p. 113.
  9. Corum 2002, p. 175.
  10. "Ig", Improbable, July 5, 2004
  11. Rosenberg, Harold (1960), "Community, Values, Comedy", Commentary, The American Jewish Committee, 30: 155, the oldest form of social study is comedy... If the comedian, from Aristophanes to Joyce, does not solve sociology's problem of "the participant observer", he does demonstrate his objectivity by capturing behavior in its most intimate aspects yet in its widest typicality. Comic irony sets whole cultures side by side in a multiple exposure (e.g., Don Quixote, Ulysses), causing valuation to spring out of the recital of facts alone, in contrast to the hidden editorializing of tongue-in-cheek ideologists.
  12. Deloria, Vine (1969), "Indian humor", Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, p. 146, ISBN 9780806121291, Irony and satire provide much keener insights into a group's collective psyche and values than do years of [conventional] research as quoted in Ryan, Allan J (1999), The trickster shift: humour and irony in contemporary native art, p. 9, ISBN 9780774807043
  13. Nash, Roderick Frazier (1970), "21. The New Humor", The Call of the Wild: 1900–1916, p. 203, Humor is one of the best indicators of popular thought. To ask what strikes a period as funny is to probe its deepest values and tastes.
  14. Babcock, Barbara A. (1984), "Arrange Me Into Disorder: Fragments and Reflections on Ritual Clowning", in MacAloon (ed.), Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle. Also collected as Babcock, Barbara A Grimes (1996), Ronald, L (ed.), Readings in ritual studies, p. 5, ISBN 9780023472534, Harold Rosenberg has asserted that sociology needs to bring comedy into the foreground, including "an awareness of the comedy of sociology with its disguises", and, like Burke and Duncan, he has argued that comedy provides "the radical effect of self- knowledge which the anthropological bias excludes.
  15. Coppola, Jo (1958), "An Angry Young Magazine ...", The Realist (1), Good comedy is social criticism—although you might find that hard to believe if all you ever saw were some of the so-called clowns of videoland.... Comedy is dying today because criticism is on its deathbed... because telecasters, frightened by the threats and pressure of sponsors, blacklists and viewers, helped introduce conformity to this age... In such a climate, comedy cannot flourish. For comedy is, after all, a look at ourselves, not as we pretend to be when we look in the mirror of our imagination, but as we really are. Look at the comedy of any age and you will know volumes about that period and its people which neither historian nor anthropologist can tell you.
  16. Coppola, Jo (December 12, 1958). Comedy on Television. Commonweal. p. 288.
  17. Willi, Andreas (2003), The Languages of Aristophanes: Aspects of Linguistic Variation in Classical Attic Greek, Oxford University Press, pp. 1–2, ISBN 9780199262649
  18. Ehrenberg, Victor (1962), The people of Aristophanes: a sociology of old Attic comedy, p. 39
  19. Bevere, Antonio and Cerri, Augusto (2006) Il Diritto di informazione e i diritti della persona pp.265–6 quotation:

    nella storia della nostra cultura, la satira ha realizzato il bisogno popolare di irridere e dissacrare il gotha politico ed economico, le cui reazioni punitive non sono certo state condizionate da critiche estetiche, ma dalla tolleranza o intolleranza caratterizzanti in quel momento storico la società e i suoi governanti. (...) la reale esistenza della satira in una società deriva, (...) dal margine di tolleranza espresso dai poteri punitivi dello Stato.

  20. Amy Wiese Forbes (2010) The Satiric Decade: Satire and the Rise of Republicanism in France, 1830–1840 p.xv, quotation:

    a critical public discourse (...) Satire rose the daunting question of what role public opinion would play in government. (...) satirists criticized government activities, exposed ambiguities, and forced administrators to clarify or establish policies. Not surprisingly, heated public controversy surrounded satiric commentary, resulting in an outright ban on political satire in 1835 (...) Government officials cracked down on their humorous public criticism that challenged state authority through both its form and content. Satire had been a political resource in France for a long time, but the anxious political context of the July Monarchy had unlocked its political power. Satire also taught lessons in democracy. It fit into the July Monarchy's tense political context as a voice in favor of public political debate. Satiric expression took place in the public sphere and spoke from a position of public opinion-that is, from a position of the nation’s expressing a political voice and making claims on its government representatives and leadership. Beyond mere entertainment, satire's humor appealed to and exercised public opinion, drawing audiences into new practices of representative government.

  21. Knight, Charles A. (2004) Literature of Satire p.254
  22. Test (1991) p.9 quotation:

    A surprising variety of societies have allowed certain persons the freedom to mock other individuals and social institutions in rituals. From the earliest times the same freedom has been claimed by and granted to social groups at certain times of the year, as can be seen in such festivals as the Saturnalia, the Feast of Fools, Carnival, and similar folk festivals in India, nineteenth-century Newfoundland, and the ancient Mediterranean world.

  23. Test (1991) pp.8–9
  24. Cazeneuve (1957) p.244-5 quotation:

    Ils constituent donc pour la tribu un moyen de donner une satisfaction symbolique aux tendances anti-sociales. Les Zunis, précisément parce qu'ils sont un peuple apollinien [où la règle prédomine], avaient besoin de cette soupape de sûreté. Les Koyemshis représentent ce que M. Caillois nomme le « Sacré de transgression ».

  25. Durand (1984) p.106 quotation:

    Déjà Cazeneuve (2) [Les dieux dansent à Cibola] avait mis auparavant en relief, dans la Société « apollinienne » des Zuñi, l'institution et le symbolisme saturnal des clowns Koyemshis, véritable soupape de sûreté « dionysienne ».

  26. Yatsko, V, Russian folk funny stories
  27. Corum (2002) p.163
  28. David Worcester (1968) The Art of Satire p.16
  29. Müller, Rolf Arnold (1973). Komik und Satire (in German). Zürich: Juris-Verlag. p. 92. ISBN 978-3-260-03570-8.
  30. "What Is Horatian Satire?". wiseGEEK.
  31. "Satire Terms". nku.edu.
  32. Sharma, Raja (2011). "Comedy" in New Light-Literary Studies.
  33. Patricia, Green. "The Golden Age of Satire: Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift"(PDF).
  34. "What Is Juvenalian Satire?". wiseGEEK.
  35. "Satire Examples and Definition". Literary Devices. January 30, 2015.
  36. "Satire in Literature: Definition, Types & Examples". Education Portal.
  37. Fo (1990) p.9 quotation:

    Nella storia del teatro si ritrova sempre questo conflitto in cui si scontrano impegno e disimpegno ... grottesco, satirico e lazzo con sfottò. E spesso vince lo sfotto. tanto amato dal potere. Quando si dice che il potere ama la satira

  38. Eastman, Max (1936), "IV. Degrees of Biting", Enjoyment of Laughter, pp. 236–43, ISBN 9781412822626
  39. Fo, Dario; Lorch, Jennifer (1997), Dario Fo, p. 128, ISBN 9780719038488, In other writings Fo makes an important distinction between sfottò and satire.
  40. Fo (1990) pp.2–3

    ... Una caricatura che, è ovvio, risulta del tutto bonaria, del tutto epidermica, che indica, come dicevo prima, soltanto la parte più esteriore del loro carattere, i tic la cui messa in risalto non lede assolutamente l'operato, l'ideologia, la morale e la dimensione culturale di questi personaggi. ... ricordando che i politici provano un enorme piacere nel sentirsi presi in giro; è quasi un premio che si elargisce loro, nel momento stesso in cui li si sceglie per essere sottoposti alla caricatura, a quella caricatura. ... Di fatto questa è una forma di comicità che non si può chiamare satira, ma solo sfottò. ... Pensa quanti pretesti satirici si offrirebbero se solo quei comici del "Biberon" volessero prendere in esame il modo in cui questi personaggi gestiscono il potere e lo mantengono, o si decidessero a gettare l'occhio sulle vere magagne di questa gente, le loro violenze più o meno mascherate, le loro arroganze e soprattutto le loro ipocrisie. ...un teatro cabaret capostipite: il Bagaglino, un teatro romano che, già vent'anni fa, si metteva in una bella chiave politica dichiaratamente di estrema destra, destra spudoratamente reazionaria, scopertamente fascista. Nelle pieghe del gruppo del Bagaglino e del suo lavoro c'era sempre la caricatura feroce dell'operaio, del sindacalista, del comunista, dell'uomo di sinistra, e una caricatura bonacciona invece, e ammiccante, accattivante, degli uomini e della cultura al potere

  41. Fo (1990) quotation:

    L'ironia fatta sui tic, sulla caricatura dei connotati più o meno grotteschi dei politici presi di mira, dei loro eventuali difetti fisici, della loro particolare pronuncia, dei loro vezzi, del loro modo di vestire, del loro modo di camminare, delle frasi tipiche che vanno ripetendo. ...[lo sfottò è] una chiave buffonesca molto antica, che viene di lontano, quella di giocherellare con gli attributi esteriori e non toccare mai il problema di fondo di una critica seria che è l'analisi messa in grottesco del comportamento, la valutazione ironica della posizione, dell'ideologia del personaggio.

    [page needed]
  42. Arroyo, José Luís Blas; Casanova, Mónica Velando (2006), Discurso y sociedad: contribuciones al estudio de la lengua en..., 1, pp. 303–4, ISBN 9788480215381
  43. Morson, Gary Saul (1988), Boundaries of Genre, p. 114, ISBN 9780810108110, second, that parodies can be, as Bakhtin observes, "shallow" as well as "deep" (Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, 160), which is to say, directed at superficial as well as fundamental faults of the original. [...] the distinction between shallow and deep [...] [is] helpful in understanding the complex ways in which parodies are used. For instance, shallow parody is sometimes used to pay an author an indirect compliment. The opposite of damning with faint praise, this parody with faint criticism may be designed to show that no more fundamental criticism could be made.
  44. Luttazzi, Daniele (2005), Matrix, IT, archived from the original on December 25, 2005, Dario Fo disse a Satyricon: —La satira vera si vede dalla reazione che suscita.
  45. Luttazzi, Daniele (October 2003), Fracassi, Federica; Guerriero, Jacopo (eds.), "State a casa a fare i compiti"(interview), Nazione Indiana (in Italian), Lo sfottò è reazionario. Non cambia le carte in tavola, anzi, rende simpatica la persona presa di mira. La Russa, oggi, è quel personaggio simpatico, con la voce cavernosa, il doppiatore dei Simpson di cui Fiorello fa l’imitazione. Nessuno ricorda più il La Russa picchiatore fascista. Nessuno ricorda gli atti fascisti e reazionari di questo governo in televisione.
  46. Kremer, S Lillian (2003), Holocaust Literature: Agosín to Lentin, p. 100, ISBN 9780415929837
  47. Lipman, Stephen ‘Steve’ (1991), Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust, Northvale, NJ: J Aronson, p. 40
  48. Clark (1991) pp.116–8 quotation:

    ...religion, politics, and sexuality are the primary stuff of literary satire. Among these sacret targets, matters costive and defecatory play an important part. ... from the earliest times, satirists have utilized scatological and bathroom humor. Aristophanes, always livid and nearly scandalous in his religious, political, and sexual references...

  49. Clark, John R; Motto, Anna Lydia (1973), Satire–that blasted art, p. 20, ISBN 9780399110597
  50. Clark, John R; Motto, Anna Lydia (1980), "Menippeans & Their Satire: Concerning Monstrous Leamed Old Dogs and Hippocentaurs", Scholia Satyrica, 6 (3/4): 45, [Chapple's book Soviet satire of the twenties]... classifying the very topics his satirists satirized: housing, food, and fuel supplies, poverty, inflation, "hooliganism", public services, religion, stereotypes of nationals (the Englishman, German, &c), &c. Yet the truth of the matter is that no satirist worth his salt (Petronius, Chaucer, Rabelais, Swift, Leskov, Grass) ever avoids man's habits and living standards, or scants those delicate desiderata: religion, politics, and sex.
  51. Ferdie Addis (2012) Qual è il tuo "tallone da killer"? p.20
  52. Hodgart (2009) ch 2 The topics of satire: politics p.33

    The most pressing of the problems that face us when we close the book or leave the theatre are ultimately political ones; and so politics is the pre-eminent topic of satire. ...to some degree public affairs vex every man, if he pays taxes, does military service or even objects to the way his neighbour is behaving. There is no escape from politics where more than a dozen people are living together.
    There is an essential connection between satire and politics in the widest sense: satire is not only the commonest form of political literature, but, insofar as it tries to influence public behaviours, it is the most political part of all literature.

  53. Hodgart (2009) p.39
  54. Wilson (2002) pp. 14–5, 20 and notes 25 (p. 308), 32 (p. 309)
  55. Anspaugh, Kelly (1994) 'Bung Goes the Enemay': Wyndham Lewis and the Uses of Disgust. in Mattoid (ISSN 0314-5913) issue 48.3, pp.21–29. As quoted in Wilson (2002):

    The turd is the ultimate dead object.

  56. Lise Andries Etat des recherche. Présentation in Dix-Huitième Siècle n.32, 2000, special on Rire p.10, as quoted in Jean-Michel Racault (2005) Voyages badins, burlesques et parodiques du XVIIIe siècle, p.7, quotation: "Le corps grotesque dans ses modalités clasiques – la scatologie notamment – ..."
  57. Klein, Cecelia F. (1993) Teocuitlatl, 'Divine Excrement': The Significance of 'Holy Shit' in Ancient Mexico, in Art Journal (CAA), Vol.52, n.3, Fall 1993, pp.20–7
  58. Duprat, Annie (1982) La dégradation de l'image royale dans la caricature révolutionnaire p.178 quotation:

    Le corps grotesque est una realite populaire detournee au profit d'une representation du corps a but politique, plaquege du corps scatologique sur le corps de ceux qu'il covient de denoncer. Denonciation scatologique projetee sur le corps aristocratique pour lui signifier sa degenerescence.

  59. Parsons, Elsie Clews; Beals, Ralph L. (October–December 1934). "The Sacred Clowns of the Pueblo and Mayo-Yaqui Indians". American Anthropologist. 36 (4): 491–514. doi:10.1525/aa.1934.36.4.02a00020. JSTOR 661824.
  60. Hyers, M. Conrad (1996) [1996]. The Spirituality of Comedy: comic heroism in a tragic world. Transaction Publishers. p. 145. ISBN 1-56000-218-2.
  61. Donald Alexander Mackenzie (1923) Myths of Pre-Columbian America p.229
  62. Patrick Marnham (2000) Dreaming with His Eyes Open: A Life of Diego Rivera p.297
  63. Hilda Ellis Davidson (1993) Boundaries & Thresholds p.85 quotation:

    It is this fear of what the dead in their uncontrollable power might cause which has brought forth apotropaic rites, protective rites against the dead. (...) One of these popular rites was the funeral rite of sin-eating, performed by a sin-eater, a man or woman. Through accepting the food and drink provided, he took upon himself the sins of the departed.

  64. Bloom, Edward Alan; Bloom, Lillian D. (1979), Satire's persuasive voice, ISBN 9780801408397.[page needed]
  65. Nicoll, Allardyce (1951), British drama: an historical survey from the beginnings to the present time, p. 179
  66. Hodgart (2009) p.189
  67. Pollard, Arthur (1970), "4. Tones", Satire, p. 66
  68. Clark, Arthur Melville (1946), "The Art of Satire and the Satiric Spectrum", Studies in literary modes, p. 32
  69. Zekavat, Massih (2020). "Reflexive humour and satire: a critical review". European Journal of Humour Research. 7 (4): 125–136. doi:10.7592/EJHR2019.7.4.zekavat.
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  73. Sutton, DF (1993), Ancient Comedy: The War of the Generations, New York, p. 56
  74. Bates, Alfred, ed. (1906), "Political and social satires of Aristophanes", The Drama, Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, 2, London: Historical Publishing, pp. 55–59
  75. Atkinson, JE (1992), "Curbing the Comedians: Cleon versus Aristophanes and Syracosius' Decree", The Classical Quarterly, New, 42 (1): 56–64, doi:10.1017/s0009838800042580, JSTOR 639144
  76. Anderson, John Louis, Aristophanes: the Michael Moore of his Day, archived from the original on October 19, 2006
  77. Wilson 2002, p. 17.
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  84. Hall 1969: ‘Hall's Virgidemiae was a new departure in that the true Juvenalian mode of satire was being attempted for the first time, and successfully, in English.’
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  103. Charles Press (1981). The Political Cartoon. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780838619018.
  104. "Satire, sewers and statesmen: why James Gillray was king of the cartoon". The Guardian. June 18, 2015.
  105. Brio, Sara (2018). "The Shocking Truth: Science, Religion, and Ancient Egypt in Early Nineteenth-Century Fiction". Nineteenth-Century Contexts. 40 (4): 331–344. doi:10.1080/08905495.2018.1484608. S2CID 194827445 – via Taylor and Francis Online.
  106. Dobson, Eleanor (2017). "Gods and Ghost-Light: Ancient Egypt, Electricity, and X-Rays". Victorian Literature and Culture. 45 (1): 121. doi:10.1017/S1060150316000462. S2CID 165064168 – via Cambridge University Press.
  107. David King & Cathy Porter 'Blood & Laughter: Caricatures from the 1905 Revolution' Jonathan Cape 1983 p.31
  108. Chaplin (1964) My Autobiography, p.392, quotation:

    Had I known of the actual horrors of the German concentration camps, I could not have made The Great Dictator, I could not have made fun of the homicidal insanity of the Nazis.

  109. Chapple, Richard L.; Henry, Peter (1976). "Modern Soviet Satire". The Slavic and East European Journal. 20 (3): 318. doi:10.2307/306330. ISSN 0037-6752. JSTOR 306330.
  110. Stein, Nathaniel (July 1, 2013). "Funny Pages: How the National Lampoon made American Humor". The Daily Beast. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  111. Sullivan, James (2010) Seven Dirty Words: The Life and Crimes of George Carlin p.94
  112. George Carlin (2002) Introduction to Murder At the Conspiracy Convention
  113. "David Frost's Q&A on how to be a satirist". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 2, 2015
  114. "What is Catch-22? And why does the book matter?". BBC. March 12, 2002.
  115. Dalton, Stephen (August 21, 2017). "Critics Notebook: Jerry Lewis a Comic Genius by Turns Sweet and Bitter". The Hollywood Reporter.
  116. Freudenburg, Kirk (2001). Satires of Rome: Threatening Poses from Lucilius to Juvenal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 299. ISBN 0-521-00621-X.
  117. Van Norris (2014). British Television Animation 1997–2010: Drawing Comic Tradition". p. 153. Palgrave Macmillan,
  118. "James Gillray". lambiek.net. Archived from the original on November 25, 2016.
  119. Embrick DG, Talmadge J. Wright TJ, Lukacs A (2012). Social Exclusion, Power, and Video Game Play: New Research in Digital Media and Technology, Lexington Books, p. 19, ISBN 9780739138625. Quote: "In-game television programs and advertisements, radio stations, and billboards provide a running satirical commentary on the state of civilization in general, and on the roles of males in particular."
  120. "GTA 5: a Great British export". The Telegraph. September 29, 2015.
  121. Canavan G, Robinson KS (2014). Green Planets: Ecology and Science Fiction, Wesleyan University Press, p. 278, ISBN 9780819574282.
  122. Byron G, Townshend D (2013). The Gothic World. Routledge. p. 456. ISBN 9781135053062. Quote: "[P]resent themselves as deliberately controversial, incorporating hyper-violent gameplay, dark social satire and conspicuous political incorrectness[.]"
  123. Yi, Sherry (2020). "'Is This a Joke?': The Delivery of Serious Content through Satirical Digital Games". Acta Ludologica. 1 (1): 18–30 – via CEEOL.
  124. Lavender III, Isiah (2017). Dis-Orienting Planets: Racial Representations of Asia in Science Fiction. Univ. Press of Mississippi, p. 208, ISBN 9781496811554.
  125. Deumert, Ana (2014). Sociolinguistics and Mobile Communication. Edinburgh University Press. p. 181. ISBN 9780748655779. RetrievedJune 12, 2017..
  126. Lund, Arwid (2020). Wikipedia, Work, and Capitalism. Springer: Dynamics of Virtual Work. ISBN 9783319506890., p. 48.
  127. Kaye, Sharon M. (2010). The Onion and Philosophy: Fake News Story True, Alleges Indignant Area Professor. Open Court Publishing. p. 243. ISBN 9780812696875. Quote: "People might be justified in concluding that the Onion is a legitimate small-town paper when they see headlines like "Local Woman Devotes Life To Doing God's Busy Work" (10/4/08), "God Help Him, Area Man Loves That Crazy Bitch" (11/22/08), or "Area Woman Wouldn't Mind Feeding Your Cats" (12/6/08). Even if they read the full story, they may never figure out it is a satire. Maybe if they scroll to the bottom of the webpage and notice the disclaimer, 'The Onion is not intended for readers under 18 years of age' they would realize that this is not your average news source. Maybe not--especially if they think that there might be such a thing as "adult news.""
  128. Dickson, E. J. (October 16, 2020). "What Is the Babylon Bee? Trump Retweeted the Satirical Website". Rolling Stone. RetrievedMay 20, 2021.
  129. Liz Raftery – "Who Did the Best Hillary Clinton Impression on SNL?", TV Guide, April 30, 2015. (Video) Retrieved August 15, 2015
  130. "You betcha—Tina Fey wins Emmy as Sarah Palin on 'SNL'". Los Angeles Times. September 13, 2009. RetrievedSeptember 13, 2009.
  131. "Meet Howard X, the Dictator Doppelgänger From Hong Kong". Time. Amy Gunia. March 29, 2019.
  132. "Tain't Funny – Time". Time.com. September 29, 1947. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. RetrievedAugust 29, 2009.
  133. An interview with The Onion, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 25, 2007.
  134. Griffin, Dustin H. (1994) Satire: A Critical Reintroduction p.136
  135. Geisler, Michael E. (2005) National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative p.73
  136. Pezzella, Vincenzo (2009) La diffamazione: responsabilità penale e civile pp.566–7 quotation:

    Il diritto di satira trova il suo fondamento negli artt. 21 e 33 della Costituzione che tutelano, rispettivamente, la libertà di manifestazione del pensiero e quella di elaborazione artistica e scientifica. (...) la satira, in quanto operante nell'ambito di ciò che è arte, non è strettamente correlata ad esigenze informative, dal che deriva che i suoi limiti di liveità siano ben più ammpi di quelli propri del diritto di cronaca

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  142. Test (1991) p.10
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  145. Fishin, Shelley Fisher (1997), Lighting out for the Territory: Reflections on Mark Twain and American Culture, New York: Oxford University Press
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Sources

  • Bloom, Edward A (1972), "Sacramentum Militiae: The Dynamics of Religious Satire", Studies in the Literary Imagination, 5: 119–42.
  • Bronowski, Jacob; Mazlish, Bruce (1993) [1960], The Western Intellectual Tradition From Leonardo to Hegel, Barnes & Noble, p. 252.
  • Connery, Brian A, Theorizing Satire: A Bibliography, Oakland University.
  • Dooley, David Joseph (1972), Contemporary satire, ISBN 9780039233853.
  • Feinberg, Leonard, The satirist.
  • Lee, Jae Num (1971), Scatology in Continental Satirical Writings from Aristophanes to Rabelais and English Scatological Writings from Skelton to Pope, 1,2,3 maldita madre. Swift and Scatological Satire, Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, pp. 7–22, 23–53.

Theories/critical approaches to satire as a genre

  • Connery, Brian; Combe, Kirk, eds. (1995). Theorizing Satire: Essays in Literary Criticism. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-312-12302-7.
  • Draitser, Emil (1994), Techniques of Satire: The Case of Saltykov-Shchedrin, Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-012624-9.
  • Hammer, Stephanie, Satirizing the Satirist.
  • Highet, Gilbert, Satire.
  • Kernan, Alvin, The Cankered Muse.
  • Kindermann, Udo (1978), Satyra. Die Theorie der Satire im Mittellateinischen, Vorstudie zu einer Gattungsgeschichte (in German), Nürnberg.
  • Κωστίου, Αικατερίνη (2005), Εισαγωγή στην Ποιητική της Ανατροπής: σάτιρα, ειρωνεία, παρωδία, χιούμορ (in Greek), Αθήνα: Νεφέλη

The plot of satire

  • Seidel, Michael, Satiric Inheritance.
  • Zdero, Rad (2008), Entopia: Revolution of the Ants.
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Satire
Satire Article Talk Language Watch Edit Satires redirects here For other uses see Satires disambiguation Not to be confused with satyr or saltire Satire is a genre of the visual literary and performing arts usually in the form of fiction and less frequently non fiction in which vices follies abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals corporations government or society itself into improvement 1 Although satire is usually meant to be humorous its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society 1867 edition of Punch a ground breaking British magazine of popular humour including a great deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm in satire irony is militant according to literary critic Northrop Frye 2 but parody burlesque exaggeration 3 juxtaposition comparison analogy and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing This militant irony or sarcasm often professes to approve of or at least accept as natural the very things the satirist wishes to question Satire is found in many artistic forms of expression including internet memes literature plays commentary music film and television shows and media such as lyrics Contents 1 Etymology and roots 2 Humour 3 Social and psychological functions 4 Classifications 4 1 Horatian Juvenalian Menippean 4 1 1 Horatian 4 1 2 Juvenalian 4 1 3 Menippean 4 2 Satire versus teasing 4 3 Classifications by topics 5 Development 5 1 Ancient Egypt 5 2 Ancient Greece 5 3 Roman world 5 4 Medieval Islamic world 5 5 Medieval Europe 5 6 Early modern western satire 5 7 Ancient and modern India 5 8 Age of Enlightenment 5 9 Satire in Victorian England 5 10 20th century satire 5 11 Contemporary satire 6 Techniques 7 Legal status 7 1 Australia 8 Censorship and criticism 8 1 Typical arguments 8 1 1 Bad taste 8 1 2 Targeting the victim 8 1 3 Romantic prejudice 8 2 History of opposition toward notable satires 8 2 1 1599 book ban 8 2 2 21st century polemics 9 Satirical prophecy 10 Satire celebration 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 13 1 Citations 13 2 Sources 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 15 1 Theories critical approaches to satire as a genre 15 2 The plot of satire 16 External linksEtymology and roots EditThe word satire comes from the Latin word satur and the subsequent phrase lanx satura Satur meant full but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to miscellany or medley the expression lanx satura literally means a full dish of various kinds of fruits 4 The word satura as used by Quintilian however was used to denote only Roman verse satire a strict genre that imposed hexameter form a narrower genre than what would be later intended as satire 4 5 Quintilian famously said that satura that is a satire in hexameter verses was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin satura tota nostra est He was aware of and commented on Greek satire but at the time did not label it as such although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes Old Comedy The first critic to use the term satire in the modern broader sense was Apuleius 4 To Quintilian the satire was a strict literary form but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition Robert Elliott writes As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor as one modern scholar has pointed out it clamours for extension and satura which had had no verbal adverbial or adjectival forms was immediately broadened by appropriation from the Greek word for satyr satyros and its derivatives The odd result is that the English satire comes from the Latin satura but satirize satiric etc are of Greek origin By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus St Jerome for example was called by one of his enemies a satirist in prose satyricus scriptor in prosa Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire satura becomes satyra and in England by the 16th century it was written satyre 1 The word satire derives from satura and its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr 6 In the 17th century philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr contrary to the belief up to that time 7 Humour EditThe rules of satire are such that it must do more than make you laugh No matter how amusing it is it doesn t count unless you find yourself wincing a little even as you chuckle 8 Laughter is not an essential component of satire 9 in fact there are types of satire that are not meant to be funny at all Conversely not all humour even on such topics as politics religion or art is necessarily satirical even when it uses the satirical tools of irony parody and burlesque Even light hearted satire has a serious after taste the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as first make people laugh and then make them think 10 Social and psychological functions EditSatire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society the oldest form of social study 11 They provide the keenest insights into a group s collective psyche reveal its deepest values and tastes and the society s structures of power 12 13 Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non comic and non artistic disciplines like history or anthropology 11 14 15 16 In a prominent example from ancient Greece philosopher Plato when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society referred him to the plays of Aristophanes 17 18 Historically satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics economy religion and other prominent realms of power 19 Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary playing as a public opinion counterweight to power be it political economic religious symbolic or otherwise by challenging leaders and authorities For instance it forces administrations to clarify amend or establish their policies Satire s job is to expose problems and contradictions and it s not obligated to solve them 20 Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse 21 For its nature and social role satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions 22 The satiric impulse and its ritualized expressions carry out the function of resolving social tension 23 Institutions like the ritual clowns by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies represent a safety valve which re establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society 24 25 The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it 19 and the state of civil liberties and human rights Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system and especially satire is suppressed A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin political satire existed in the form of anecdotes 26 that made fun of Soviet political leaders especially Brezhnev famous for his narrow mindedness and love for awards and decorations Classifications EditSatire is a diverse genre which is complex to classify and define with a wide range of satiric modes 27 28 Horatian Juvenalian Menippean Edit Le satire e l epistole di Q Orazio Flacco printed in 1814 Satirical literature can commonly be categorized as either Horatian Juvenalian or Menippean 29 Horatian Edit Horatian satire named for the Roman satirist Horace 65 8 BCE playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle mild and light hearted humour Horace Quintus Horatius Flaccus wrote Satires to gently ridicule the dominant opinions and philosophical beliefs of ancient Rome and Greece Rankin 30 Rather than writing in harsh or accusing tones he addressed issues with humor and clever mockery Horatian satire follows this same pattern of gently ridiculing the absurdities and follies of human beings Drury 31 It directs wit exaggeration and self deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly rather than evil Horatian satire s sympathetic tone is common in modern society 32 A Horatian satirist s goal is to heal the situation with smiles rather than by anger Horatian satire is a gentle reminder to take life less seriously and evokes a wry smile 31 A Horatian satirist makes fun of general human folly rather than engaging in specific or personal attacks Shamekia Thomas suggests In a work using Horatian satire readers often laugh at the characters in the story who are the subject of mockery as well as themselves and society for behaving in those ways Alexander Pope has been established as an author whose satire heals with morals what it hurts with wit Green 33 Alexander Pope and Horatian satire attempt to teach Juvenalian Edit See also Satires of Juvenal Juvenalian satire named for the writings of the Roman satirist Juvenal late first century early second century AD is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian Juvenal disagreed with the opinions of the public figures and institutions of the Republic and actively attacked them through his literature He utilized the satirical tools of exaggeration and parody to make his targets appear monstrous and incompetent Podzemny 34 Juvenal s satire follows this same pattern of abrasively ridiculing societal structures Juvenal also unlike Horace attacked public officials and governmental organizations through his satires regarding their opinions as not just wrong but evil Following in this tradition Juvenalian satire addresses perceived social evil through scorn outrage and savage ridicule This form is often pessimistic characterized by the use of irony sarcasm moral indignation and personal invective with less emphasis on humor Strongly polarized political satire can often be classified as Juvenalian A Juvenal satirist s goal is generally to provoke some sort of political or societal change because he sees his opponent or object as evil or harmful 35 A Juvenal satirist mocks societal structure power and civilization Thomas 36 by exaggerating the words or position of his opponent in order to jeopardize their opponent s reputation and or power Jonathan Swift has been established as an author who borrowed heavily from Juvenal s techniques in his critique of contemporary English society Podzemny 34 Menippean Edit See Menippean satire Satire versus teasing Edit In the history of theatre there has always been a conflict between engagement and disengagement on politics and relevant issue between satire and grotesque on one side and jest with teasing on the other 37 Max Eastman defined the spectrum of satire in terms of degrees of biting as ranging from satire proper at the hot end and kidding at the violet end Eastman adopted the term kidding to denote what is just satirical in form but is not really firing at the target 38 Nobel laureate satirical playwright Dario Fo pointed out the difference between satire and teasing sfotto 39 Teasing is the reactionary side of the comic it limits itself to a shallow parody of physical appearance The side effect of teasing is that it humanizes and draws sympathy for the powerful individual towards which it is directed Satire instead uses the comic to go against power and its oppressions has a subversive character and a moral dimension which draws judgement against its targets 40 41 42 43 Fo formulated an operational criterion to tell real satire from sfotto saying that real satire arouses an outraged and violent reaction and that the more they try to stop you the better is the job you are doing 44 Fo contends that historically people in positions of power have welcomed and encouraged good humoured buffoonery while modern day people in positions of power have tried to censor ostracize and repress satire 37 40 Teasing sfotto is an ancient form of simple buffoonery a form of comedy without satire s subversive edge Teasing includes light and affectionate parody good humoured mockery simple one dimensional poking fun and benign spoofs Teasing typically consists of an impersonation of someone monkeying around with his exterior attributes tics physical blemishes voice and mannerisms quirks way of dressing and walking and or the phrases he typically repeats By contrast teasing never touches on the core issue never makes a serious criticism judging the target with irony it never harms the target s conduct ideology and position of power it never undermines the perception of his morality and cultural dimension 40 42 Sfotto directed towards a powerful individual makes him appear more human and draws sympathy towards him 45 Hermann Goring propagated jests and jokes against himself with the aim of humanizing his image 46 47 Classifications by topics Edit Types of satire can also be classified according to the topics it deals with From the earliest times at least since the plays of Aristophanes the primary topics of literary satire have been politics religion and sex 48 49 50 51 This is partly because these are the most pressing problems that affect anybody living in a society and partly because these topics are usually taboo 48 52 Among these politics in the broader sense is considered the pre eminent topic of satire 52 Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs 53 Satire on sex may overlap with blue comedy off color humor and dick jokes Scatology has a long literary association with satire 48 54 55 as it is a classical mode of the grotesque the grotesque body and the satiric grotesque 48 56 Shit plays a fundamental role in satire because it symbolizes death the turd being the ultimate dead object 54 55 The satirical comparison of individuals or institutions with human excrement exposes their inherent inertness corruption and dead likeness 54 57 58 The ritual clowns of clown societies like among the Pueblo Indians have ceremonies with filth eating 59 60 In other cultures sin eating is an apotropaic rite in which the sin eater also called filth eater 61 62 by ingesting the food provided takes upon himself the sins of the departed 63 Satire about death overlaps with black humor and gallows humor Another classification by topics is the distinction between political satire religious satire and satire of manners 64 Political satire is sometimes called topical satire satire of manners is sometimes called satire of everyday life and religious satire is sometimes called philosophical satire Comedy of manners sometimes also called satire of manners criticizes mode of life of common people political satire aims at behavior manners of politicians and vices of political systems Historically comedy of manners which first appeared in British theater in 1620 has uncritically accepted the social code of the upper classes 65 Comedy in general accepts the rules of the social game while satire subverts them 66 Another analysis of satire is the spectrum of his possible tones wit ridicule irony sarcasm cynicism the sardonic and invective 67 68 The type of humour that deals with creating laughter at the expense of the person telling the joke is called reflexive humour 69 Reflexive humour can take place at dual levels of directing humour at self or at the larger community the self identifies with The audience s understanding of the context of reflexive humour is important for its receptivity and success 69 Satire is found not only in written literary forms In preliterate cultures it manifests itself in ritual and folk forms as well as in trickster tales and oral poetry 23 It appears also in graphic arts music sculpture dance cartoon strips and graffiti Examples are Dada sculptures Pop Art works music of Gilbert and Sullivan and Erik Satie punk and rock music 23 In modern media culture stand up comedy is an enclave in which satire can be introduced into mass media challenging mainstream discourse 23 Comedy roasts mock festivals and stand up comedians in nightclubs and concerts are the modern forms of ancient satiric rituals 23 Development EditAncient Egypt Edit The satirical papyrus at the British Museum Satirical ostracon showing a cat guarding geese c 1120 BC Egypt Figured ostracon showing a cat waiting on a mouse Egypt One of the earliest examples of what we might call satire The Satire of the Trades 70 is in Egyptian writing from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC The text s apparent readers are students tired of studying It argues that their lot as scribes is not only useful but far superior to that of the ordinary man Scholars such as Helck 71 think that the context was meant to be serious The Papyrus Anastasi I 72 late 2nd millennium BC contains a satirical letter which first praises the virtues of its recipient but then mocks the reader s meagre knowledge and achievements Ancient Greece Edit The Greeks had no word for what later would be called satire although the terms cynicism and parody were used Modern critics call the Greek playwright Aristophanes one of the best known early satirists his plays are known for their critical political and societal commentary 73 particularly for the political satire by which he criticized the powerful Cleon as in The Knights He is also notable for the persecution he underwent 73 74 75 76 Aristophanes plays turned upon images of filth and disease 77 His bawdy style was adopted by Greek dramatist comedian Menander His early play Drunkenness contains an attack on the politician Callimedon The oldest form of satire still in use is the Menippean satire by Menippus of Gadara His own writings are lost Examples from his admirers and imitators mix seriousness and mockery in dialogues and present parodies before a background of diatribe As in the case of Aristophanes plays menippean satire turned upon images of filth and disease 77 Roman world Edit The first Roman to discuss satire critically was Quintilian who invented the term to describe the writings of Gaius Lucilius The two most prominent and influential ancient Roman satirists are Horace and Juvenal who wrote during the early days of the Roman Empire Other important satirists in ancient Latin are Gaius Lucilius and Persius Satire in their work is much wider than in the modern sense of the word including fantastic and highly coloured humorous writing with little or no real mocking intent When Horace criticized Augustus he used veiled ironic terms In contrast Pliny reports that the 6th century BC poet Hipponax wrote satirae that were so cruel that the offended hanged themselves 78 In the 2nd century AD Lucian wrote True History a book satirizing the clearly unrealistic travelogues adventures written by Ctesias Iambulus and Homer He states that he was surprised they expected people to believe their lies and stating that he like them has no actual knowledge or experience but shall now tell lies as if he did He goes on to describe a far more obviously extreme and unrealistic tale involving interplanetary exploration war among alien life forms and life inside a 200 mile long whale back in the terrestrial ocean all intended to make obvious the fallacies of books like Indica and The Odyssey Medieval Islamic world Edit Main articles Arabic satire and Persian satire Medieval Arabic poetry included the satiric genre hija Satire was introduced into Arabic prose literature by the author Al Jahiz in the 9th century While dealing with serious topics in what are now known as anthropology sociology and psychology he introduced a satirical approach based on the premise that however serious the subject under review it could be made more interesting and thus achieve greater effect if only one leavened the lump of solemnity by the insertion of a few amusing anecdotes or by the throwing out of some witty or paradoxical observations He was well aware that in treating of new themes in his prose works he would have to employ a vocabulary of a nature more familiar in hija satirical poetry 79 For example in one of his zoological works he satirized the preference for longer human penis size writing If the length of the penis were a sign of honor then the mule would belong to the honorable tribe of Quraysh Another satirical story based on this preference was an Arabian Nights tale called Ali with the Large Member 80 In the 10th century the writer Tha alibi recorded satirical poetry written by the Arabic poets As Salami and Abu Dulaf with As Salami praising Abu Dulaf s wide breadth of knowledge and then mocking his ability in all these subjects and with Abu Dulaf responding back and satirizing As Salami in return 81 An example of Arabic political satire included another 10th century poet Jarir satirizing Farazdaq as a transgressor of the Sharia and later Arabic poets in turn using the term Farazdaq like as a form of political satire 82 The terms comedy and satire became synonymous after Aristotle s Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world where it was elaborated upon by Islamic philosophers and writers such as Abu Bischr his pupil Al Farabi Avicenna and Averroes Due to cultural differences they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms such as hija satirical poetry They viewed comedy as simply the art of reprehension and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troubled beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy After the Latin translations of the 12th century the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature 83 Ubayd Zakani introduced satire in Persian literature during the 14th century His work is noted for its satire and obscene verses often political or bawdy and often cited in debates involving homosexual practices He wrote the Resaleh ye Delgosha as well as Akhlaq al Ashraf Ethics of the Aristocracy and the famous humorous fable Masnavi Mush O Gorbeh Mouse and Cat which was a political satire His non satirical serious classical verses have also been regarded as very well written in league with the other great works of Persian literature Between 1905 and 1911 Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi and other Iranian writers wrote notable satires Medieval Europe Edit In the Early Middle Ages examples of satire were the songs by Goliards or vagants now best known as an anthology called Carmina Burana and made famous as texts of a composition by the 20th century composer Carl Orff Satirical poetry is believed to have been popular although little has survived With the advent of the High Middle Ages and the birth of modern vernacular literature in the 12th century it began to be used again most notably by Chaucer The disrespectful manner was considered unchristian and ignored except for the moral satire which mocked misbehaviour in Christian terms Examples are Livre des Manieres by Etienne de Fougeres fr 1178 and some of Chaucer s Canterbury Tales Sometimes epic poetry epos was mocked and even feudal society but there was hardly a general interest in the genre Early modern western satire Edit Pieter Bruegel s 1568 satirical painting The Blind Leading the Blind Direct social commentary via satire returned with a vengeance in the 16th century when farcical texts such as the works of Francois Rabelais tackled more serious issues and incurred the wrath of the crown as a result Two major satirists of Europe in the Renaissance were Giovanni Boccaccio and Francois Rabelais Other examples of Renaissance satire include Till Eulenspiegel Reynard the Fox Sebastian Brant s Narrenschiff 1494 Erasmus s Moriae Encomium 1509 Thomas More s Utopia 1516 and Carajicomedia 1519 The Elizabethan i e 16th century English writers thought of satire as related to the notoriously rude coarse and sharp satyr play Elizabethan satire typically in pamphlet form therefore contains more straightforward abuse than subtle irony The French Huguenot Isaac Casaubon pointed out in 1605 that satire in the Roman fashion was something altogether more civilised Casaubon discovered and published Quintilian s writing and presented the original meaning of the term satira not satyr and the sense of wittiness reflecting the dishfull of fruits became more important again Seventeenth century English satire once again aimed at the amendment of vices Dryden In the 1590s a new wave of verse satire broke with the publication of Hall s Virgidemiarum six books of verse satires targeting everything from literary fads to corrupt noblemen Although Donne had already circulated satires in manuscript Hall s was the first real attempt in English at verse satire on the Juvenalian model 84 page needed The success of his work combined with a national mood of disillusion in the last years of Elizabeth s reign triggered an avalanche of satire much of it less conscious of classical models than Hall s until the fashion was brought to an abrupt stop by censorship note 1 Another satiric genre to emerge around this time was the satirical almanac with Francois Rabelais s work Pantagrueline Prognostication 1532 which mocked astrological predictions The strategies Francois utilized within this work were employed by later satirical almanacs such as the Poor Robin series that spanned the 17th to 19th centuries 86 Ancient and modern India Edit Satire Kataksh or Vyang has played a prominent role in Indian and Hindi literature and is counted as one of the ras of literature in ancient books 87 With the commencement of printing of books in local language in the nineteenth century and especially after India s freedom this grew 88 Many of the works of Tulsi Das Kabir Munshi Premchand 89 90 village minstrels Hari katha singers poets Dalit singers and current day stand up Indian comedians incorporate satire usually ridiculing authoritarians fundamentalists and incompetent people in power 91 92 93 In India it has usually been used as a means of expression and an outlet for common people to express their anger against authoritarian entities 94 A popular custom in Northern India of Bura na mano Holi hai continues in which comedians on the stage mock local people of importance who are usually brought in as special guests 95 96 97 Age of Enlightenment Edit A Welch wedding Satirical Cartoon c 1780 The Age of Enlightenment an intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th centuries advocating rationality produced a great revival of satire in Britain This was fuelled by the rise of partisan politics with the formalisation of the Tory and Whig parties and also in 1714 by the formation of the Scriblerus Club which included Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift John Gay John Arbuthnot Robert Harley Thomas Parnell and Henry St John 1st Viscount Bolingbroke This club included several of the notable satirists of early 18th century Britain They focused their attention on Martinus Scriblerus an invented learned fool whose work they attributed all that was tedious narrow minded and pedantic in contemporary scholarship 98 In their hands astute and biting satire of institutions and individuals became a popular weapon The turn to the 18th century was characterized by a switch from Horatian soft pseudo satire to biting juvenal satire 99 Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo Irish satirists and one of the first to practise modern journalistic satire For instance In his A Modest Proposal Swift suggests that Irish peasants be encouraged to sell their own children as food for the rich as a solution to the problem of poverty His purpose is of course to attack indifference to the plight of the desperately poor In his book Gulliver s Travels he writes about the flaws in human society in general and English society in particular John Dryden wrote an influential essay entitled A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire 100 that helped fix the definition of satire in the literary world His satirical Mac Flecknoe was written in response to a rivalry with Thomas Shadwell and eventually inspired Alexander Pope to write his satirical Dunciad Alexander Pope b May 21 1688 was a satirist known for his Horatian satirist style and translation of the Iliad Famous throughout and after the long 18th century Pope died in 1744 101 Pope in his The Rape of the Lock is delicately chiding society in a sly but polished voice by holding up a mirror to the follies and vanities of the upper class Pope does not actively attack the self important pomp of the British aristocracy but rather presents it in such a way that gives the reader a new perspective from which to easily view the actions in the story as foolish and ridiculous A mockery of the upper class more delicate and lyrical than brutal Pope nonetheless is able to effectively illuminate the moral degradation of society to the public The Rape of the Lock assimilates the masterful qualities of a heroic epic such as the Iliad which Pope was translating at the time of writing The Rape of the Lock However Pope applied these qualities satirically to a seemingly petty egotistical elitist quarrel to prove his point wryly 102 Other satirical works by Pope include the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot Daniel Defoe pursued a more journalistic type of satire being famous for his The True Born Englishman which mocks xenophobic patriotism and The Shortest Way with the Dissenters advocating religious toleration by means of an ironical exaggeration of the highly intolerant attitudes of his time The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England 103 The medium developed under the direction of its greatest exponent James Gillray from London 104 With his satirical works calling the king George III prime ministers and generals especially Napoleon to account Gillray s wit and keen sense of the ridiculous made him the pre eminent cartoonist of the era 104 Ebenezer Cooke 1665 1732 author of The Sot Weed Factor 1708 was among the first writers of literary satire in Colonial America Benjamin Franklin 1706 1790 and others followed using satire to shape an emerging nation s culture through its sense of the ridiculous Satire in Victorian England Edit A Victorian satirical sketch depicting a gentleman s donkey race in 1852 Several satiric papers competed for the public s attention in the Victorian era 1837 1901 and Edwardian period such as Punch 1841 and Fun 1861 Perhaps the most enduring examples of Victorian satire however are to be found in the Savoy Operas of Gilbert and Sullivan In fact in The Yeomen of the Guard a jester is given lines that paint a very neat picture of the method and purpose of the satirist and might almost be taken as a statement of Gilbert s own intent I can set a braggart quailing with a quip The upstart I can wither with a whim He may wear a merry laugh upon his lip But his laughter has an echo that is grim Novelists such as Charles Dickens 1812 1870 often used passages of satiric writing in their treatment of social issues Continuing the tradition of Swiftian journalistic satire Sidney Godolphin Osborne 1808 1889 was the most prominent writer of scathing Letters to the Editor of the London Times Famous in his day he is now all but forgotten His maternal grandfather William Eden 1st Baron Auckland was considered to be a possible candidate for the authorship of the Junius letters If this were true we can read Osborne as following in his grandfather s satiric Letters to the Editor path Osborne s satire was so bitter and biting that at one point he received a public censure from Parliament s then Home Secretary Sir James Graham Osborne wrote mostly in the Juvenalian mode over a wide range of topics mostly centered on British government s and landlords mistreatment of poor farm workers and field laborers He bitterly opposed the New Poor Laws and was passionate on the subject of the British government s botched response to the Great Irish Famine and the mistreatment of British soldiers during the Crimean War A number of works of fiction during this time influenced by Egyptomania 105 used the backdrop of Ancient Egypt as a device for satire Some works like Edgar Allan Poe s Some Words with a Mummy 1845 and Grant Allen s My New Year s Eve Among the Mummies 1878 portrayed Egyptian civilization as having already achieved many of the Victorian era s advancements like the steam engine and gaslamps in an effort to satire the notion of progress 106 Other works like Jane Loudon s The Mummy Or a Tale of the Twenty Second Century satirized Victorian curiosities with the afterlife 105 Later in the nineteenth century in the United States Mark Twain 1835 1910 grew to become American s greatest satirist his novel Huckleberry Finn 1884 is set in the antebellum South where the moral values Twain wishes to promote are completely turned on their heads His hero Huck is a rather simple but goodhearted lad who is ashamed of the sinful temptation that leads him to help a fugitive slave In fact his conscience warped by the distorted moral world he has grown up in often bothers him most when he is at his best He is prepared to do good believing it to be wrong Twain s younger contemporary Ambrose Bierce 1842 1913 gained notoriety as a cynic pessimist and black humorist with his dark bitterly ironic stories many set during the American Civil War which satirized the limitations of human perception and reason Bierce s most famous work of satire is probably The Devil s Dictionary 1906 in which the definitions mock cant hypocrisy and received wisdom 20th century satire Edit Karl Kraus is considered the first major European satirist since Jonathan Swift 21 In 20th century literature satire was used by English authors such as Aldous Huxley 1930s and George Orwell 1940s which under the inspiration of Zamyatin s Russian 1921 novel We made serious and even frightening commentaries on the dangers of the sweeping social changes taking place throughout Europe Anatoly Lunacharsky wrote Satire attains its greatest significance when a newly evolving class creates an ideology considerably more advanced than that of the ruling class but has not yet developed to the point where it can conquer it Herein lies its truly great ability to triumph its scorn for its adversary and its hidden fear of it Herein lies its venom its amazing energy of hate and quite frequently its grief like a black frame around glittering images Herein lie its contradictions and its power 107 Many social critics of this same time in the United States such as Dorothy Parker and H L Mencken used satire as their main weapon and Mencken in particular is noted for having said that one horse laugh is worth ten thousand syllogisms in the persuasion of the public to accept a criticism Novelist Sinclair Lewis was known for his satirical stories such as Main Street 1920 Babbitt 1922 Elmer Gantry 1927 dedicated by Lewis to H L Menchen and It Can t Happen Here 1935 and his books often explored and satirized contemporary American values The film The Great Dictator 1940 by Charlie Chaplin is itself a parody of Adolf Hitler Chaplin later declared that he would have not made the film if he had known about the concentration camps 108 Modern Soviet satire was very popular in the 1920s and 1930s This form of satire is recognized by its level of sophistication and intelligence used along with its own level of parody Since there is no longer the need of survival or revolution to write about the modern Soviet satire is focused on the quality of life 109 Benzino Napaloni and Adenoid Hynkel in The Great Dictator 1940 Chaplin later declared that he would have not made the film if he had known about the concentration camps 108 In the United States 1950s satire was introduced into American stand up comedy most prominently by Lenny Bruce and Mort Sahl 23 As they challenged the taboos and conventional wisdom of the time were ostracized by the mass media establishment as sick comedians In the same period Paul Krassner s magazine The Realist began publication to become immensely popular during the 1960s and early 1970s among people in the counterculture it had articles and cartoons that were savage biting satires of politicians such as Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon the Vietnam War the Cold War and the War on Drugs This baton was also carried by the original National Lampoon magazine edited by Doug Kenney and Henry Beard and featuring blistering satire written by Michael O Donoghue P J O Rourke and Tony Hendra among others 110 Prominent satiric stand up comedian George Carlin acknowledged the influence The Realist had in his 1970s conversion to a satiric comedian 111 112 A more humorous brand of satire enjoyed a renaissance in the UK in the early 1960s with the satire boom led by comedians including Peter Cook Alan Bennett Jonathan Miller and Dudley Moore whose stage show Beyond the Fringe was a hit not only in Britain but also in the United States Other significant influences in 1960s British satire include David Frost Eleanor Bron and the television program That Was The Week That Was 113 Joseph Heller s most famous work Catch 22 1961 satirizes bureaucracy and the military and is frequently cited as one of the greatest literary works of the twentieth century 114 Departing from traditional Hollywood farce and screwball director and comedian Jerry Lewis used satire in his self directed films The Bellboy 1960 The Errand Boy 1961 and The Patsy 1964 to comment on celebrity and the star making machinery of Hollywood 115 The film Dr Strangelove 1964 starring Peter Sellers was a popular satire on the Cold War Contemporary satire Edit Contemporary popular usage of the term satire is often very imprecise While satire often uses caricature and parody by no means are all uses of these or other humorous devices satiric Refer to the careful definition of satire that heads this article The Cambridge Companion to Roman Satire also warns of the ambiguous nature of satire W hile satire or perhaps rather satiric al are words we run up against constantly in analyses of contemporary culture the search for any defining formal charcteristic sic of satire that will link past to present may turn out to be more frustrating than enlightening 116 Puppet of Manchester United striker Eric Cantona from the British satirical puppet show Spitting Image Satire is used on many UK television programmes particularly popular panel shows and quiz shows such as Mock the Week 2005 ongoing and Have I Got News for You 1990 ongoing It is found on radio quiz shows such as The News Quiz 1977 ongoing and The Now Show 1998 ongoing One of the most watched UK television shows of the 1980s and early 1990s the puppet show Spitting Image was a satire of the royal family politics entertainment sport and British culture of the era 117 Court Flunkey from Spitting Image is a caricature of James Gillray intended as a homage to the father of political cartooning 118 Created by DMA Design in 1997 satire features prominently in the British video game series Grand Theft Auto 119 120 Another example is the Fallout series namely Interplay developed Fallout A Post Nuclear Role Playing Game 1995 121 Other games utilizing satire include Postal 1997 122 State of Emergency 2002 122 Phone Story 2011 and 7 Billion Humans 2018 123 Trey Parker and Matt Stone s South Park 1997 ongoing relies almost exclusively on satire to address issues in American culture with episodes addressing racism anti Semitism militant atheism homophobia sexism environmentalism corporate culture political correctness and anti Catholicism among many other issues Satirical web series and sites include Emmy nominated video game themed Honest Trailers 2012 124 Internet phenomena themed Encyclopedia Dramatica 2004 125 Uncyclopedia 2005 126 self proclaimed America s Finest News Source The Onion 1988 127 and The Onion s conservative counterpart The Babylon Bee 2016 128 Stephen Colbert satirically impersonated an opinionated and self righteous television commentator on his Comedy Central program in the U S In the United States Stephen Colbert s television program The Colbert Report 2005 14 is instructive in the methods of contemporary American satire sketch comedy television show Saturday Night Live is also known for its satirical impressions and parodies of prominent persons and politicians among some of the most notable their parodies of U S political figures Hillary Clinton 129 and of Sarah Palin 130 Colbert s character is an opinionated and self righteous commentator who in his TV interviews interrupts people points and wags his finger at them and unwittingly uses a number of logical fallacies In doing so he demonstrates the principle of modern American political satire the ridicule of the actions of politicians and other public figures by taking all their statements and purported beliefs to their furthest supposedly logical conclusion thus revealing their perceived hypocrisy or absurdity In the United Kingdom a popular modern satirist was the late Sir Terry Pratchett author of the internationally best selling Discworld book series One of the most well known and controversial British satirists is Chris Morris co writer and director of Four Lions In Canada satire has become an important part of the comedy scene Stephen Leacock was one of the best known early Canadian satirists and in the early 20th century he achieved fame by targeting the attitudes of small town life In more recent years Canada has had several prominent satirical television series and radio shows Some including CODCO The Royal Canadian Air Farce This Is That and This Hour Has 22 Minutes deal directly with current news stories and political figures while others like History Bites present contemporary social satire in the context of events and figures in history The Beaverton is a Canadian news satire site similar to The Onion Canadian songwriter Nancy White uses music as the vehicle for her satire and her comic folk songs are regularly played on CBC Radio In Hong Kong there was a well known Australian Kim Jong Un impersonator Howard X whom often utilised satire to show his support for Hong Kong city s pro democracy movements and liberation of North Korea He believed that humour is a very powerful weapon and he often made it clear that he imitates the dictator to satirize him not to glorify him Throughout his career as a professional impersonator he had also worked with multiple organisations and celebrities to create parodies and to stir up conversations of politics and human rights 131 Cartoonists often use satire as well as straight humour Al Capp s satirical comic strip Li l Abner was censored in September 1947 The controversy as reported in Time centred on Capp s portrayal of the US Senate Said Edward Leech of Scripps Howard We don t think it is good editing or sound citizenship to picture the Senate as an assemblage of freaks and crooks boobs and undesirables 132 Walt Kelly s Pogo was likewise censored in 1952 over his overt satire of Senator Joe McCarthy caricatured in his comic strip as Simple J Malarky Garry Trudeau whose comic strip Doonesbury focuses on satire of the political system and provides a trademark cynical view on national events Trudeau exemplifies humour mixed with criticism For example the character Mark Slackmeyer lamented that because he was not legally married to his partner he was deprived of the exquisite agony of experiencing a nasty and painful divorce like heterosexuals This of course satirized the claim that gay unions would denigrate the sanctity of heterosexual marriage Political satire by Ranan Lurie Like some literary predecessors many recent television satires contain strong elements of parody and caricature for instance the popular animated series The Simpsons and South Park both parody modern family and social life by taking their assumptions to the extreme both have led to the creation of similar series As well as the purely humorous effect of this sort of thing they often strongly criticise various phenomena in politics economic life religion and many other aspects of society and thus qualify as satirical Due to their animated nature these shows can easily use images of public figures and generally have greater freedom to do so than conventional shows using live actors News satire is also a very popular form of contemporary satire appearing in as wide an array of formats as the news media itself print e g The Onion Waterford Whispers News Private Eye radio e g On the Hour television e g The Day Today The Daily Show Brass Eye and the web e g Faking News El Koshary Today Babylon Bee The Beaverton The Daily Bonnet and The Onion Other satires are on the list of satirists and satires In an interview with Wikinews Sean Mills President of The Onion said angry letters about their news parody always carried the same message It s whatever affects that person said Mills So it s like I love it when you make a joke about murder or rape but if you talk about cancer well my brother has cancer and that s not funny to me Or someone else can say Cancer s hilarious but don t talk about rape because my cousin got raped Those are rather extreme examples but if it affects somebody personally they tend to be more sensitive about it 133 Techniques EditLiterary satire is usually written out of earlier satiric works reprising previous conventions commonplaces stance situations and tones of voice 134 Exaggeration is one of the most common satirical techniques 3 Contrarily diminution is also a satirical technique Legal status EditFor its nature and social role satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions 22 In Germany 135 and Italy 19 136 satire is protected by the constitution Since satire belongs to the realm of art and artistic expression it benefits from broader lawfulness limits than mere freedom of information of journalistic kind 136 In some countries a specific right to satire is recognized and its limits go beyond the right to report of journalism and even the right to criticize 136 Satire benefits not only of the protection to freedom of speech but also to that to culture and that to scientific and artistic production 19 136 Australia Edit Main article The Juice Media Controversy In September 2017 The Juice Media received an e mail from the Australian National Symbols Officer requesting that the use of a satirical logo called the Coat of Harms based on the Australian Coat of Arms no longer be used as they had received complaints from the members of the public 137 Coincidentally 5 days later a Bill was proposed to Australian parliament to amend the Criminal Code Act 1995 138 If passed those found to be in breach of the new amendment can face 2 5 years imprisonment 139 As of June 2018 the Criminal Code Amendment Impersonating a Commonwealth Body Bill 2017 was before the Australian Senate with the third reading moved May 10 2018 140 Censorship and criticism EditDescriptions of satire s biting effect on its target include venomous cutting stinging 141 vitriol Because satire often combines anger and humor as well as the fact that it addresses and calls into question many controversial issues it can be profoundly disturbing Typical arguments Edit Because it is essentially ironic or sarcastic satire is often misunderstood A typical misunderstanding is to confuse the satirist with his persona 142 Bad taste Edit Common uncomprehending responses to satire include revulsion accusations of poor taste or that it s just not funny for instance and the idea that the satirist actually does support the ideas policies or people he is attacking For instance at the time of its publication many people misunderstood Swift s purpose in A Modest Proposal assuming it to be a serious recommendation of economically motivated cannibalism citation needed Much later in history in the weeks following 9 11 the American public at large found works of satire to be in bad taste and not appropriate for the social climate at the time Some media outlets at the time like essayist Roger Rosenblatt in an editorial for Time magazine s September 24th issue would go so far as to claim that irony was dead 143 Targeting the victim Edit Some critics of Mark Twain see Huckleberry Finn as racist and offensive missing the point that its author clearly intended it to be satire racism being in fact only one of a number of Mark Twain s known concerns attacked in Huckleberry Finn 144 145 This same misconception was suffered by the main character of the 1960s British television comedy satire Till Death Us Do Part The character of Alf Garnett played by Warren Mitchell was created to poke fun at the kind of narrow minded racist little Englander that Garnett represented Instead his character became a sort of anti hero to people who actually agreed with his views The same situation occurred with Archie Bunker in American TV show All in the Family a character derived directly from Garnett citation needed The Australian satirical television comedy show The Chaser s War on Everything has suffered repeated attacks based on various perceived interpretations of the target of its attacks The Make a Realistic Wish Foundation sketch June 2009 which attacked in classical satiric fashion the heartlessness of people who are reluctant to donate to charities was widely interpreted as an attack on the Make a Wish Foundation or even the terminally ill children helped by that organisation Prime Minister of the time Kevin Rudd stated that The Chaser team should hang their heads in shame He went on to say that I didn t see that but it s been described to me But having a go at kids with a terminal illness is really beyond the pale absolutely beyond the pale 146 Television station management suspended the show for two weeks and reduced the third season to eight episodes Romantic prejudice Edit The romantic prejudice against satire is the belief spread by the romantic movement that satire is something unworthy of serious attention this prejudice has held considerable influence to this day 147 Such prejudice extends to humour and everything that arouses laughter which are often underestimated as frivolous and unworthy of serious study 148 For instance humor is generally neglected as a topic of anthropological research and teaching 149 History of opposition toward notable satires Edit Because satire criticises in an ironic essentially indirect way it frequently escapes censorship in a way more direct criticism might not Periodically however it runs into serious opposition and people in power who perceive themselves as attacked attempt to censor it or prosecute its practitioners In a classic example Aristophanes was persecuted by the demagogue Cleon 1599 book ban Edit In 1599 the Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift and the Bishop of London Richard Bancroft whose offices had the function of licensing books for publication in England issued a decree banning verse satire The decree now known as the Bishops Ban of 1599 ordered the burning of certain volumes of satire by John Marston Thomas Middleton Joseph Hall and others it also required histories and plays to be specially approved by a member of the Queen s Privy Council and it prohibited the future printing of satire in verse 150 The motives for the ban are obscure particularly since some of the books banned had been licensed by the same authorities less than a year earlier Various scholars have argued that the target was obscenity libel or sedition It seems likely that lingering anxiety about the Martin Marprelate controversy in which the bishops themselves had employed satirists played a role both Thomas Nashe and Gabriel Harvey two of the key figures in that controversy suffered a complete ban on all their works In the event though the ban was little enforced even by the licensing authority itself 21st century polemics Edit In 2005 the Jyllands Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy caused global protests by offended Muslims and violent attacks with many fatalities in the Near East It was not the first case of Muslim protests against criticism in the form of satire but the Western world was surprised by the hostility of the reaction Any country s flag in which a newspaper chose to publish the parodies was being burnt in a Near East country then embassies were attacked killing 139 people in mainly four countries politicians throughout Europe agreed that satire was an aspect of the freedom of speech and therefore to be a protected means of dialogue Iran threatened to start an International Holocaust Cartoon Competition which was immediately responded to by Jews with an Israeli Anti Semitic Cartoons Contest In 2006 British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen released Borat Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan a mockumentary that satirized everyone from high society to frat boys The film was criticized by many Although Baron Cohen is Jewish some complained that it was antisemitic and the government of Kazakhstan boycotted the film The film itself had been a reaction to a longer quarrel between the government and the comedian In 2008 popular South African cartoonist and satirist Jonathan Shapiro who is published under the pen name Zapiro came under fire for depicting then president of the ANC Jacob Zuma in the act of undressing in preparation for the implied rape of Lady Justice which is held down by Zuma loyalists 151 The cartoon was drawn in response to Zuma s efforts to duck corruption charges and the controversy was heightened by the fact that Zuma was himself acquitted of rape in May 2006 In February 2009 the South African Broadcasting Corporation viewed by some opposition parties as the mouthpiece of the governing ANC 152 shelved a satirical TV show created by Shapiro 153 and in May 2009 the broadcaster pulled a documentary about political satire featuring Shapiro among others for the second time hours before scheduled broadcast 154 Apartheid South Africa also had a long history of censorship On December 29 2009 Samsung sued Mike Breen and the Korea Times for 1 million claiming criminal defamation over a satirical column published on Christmas Day 2009 155 156 On April 29 2015 the UK Independence Party UKIP requested Kent Police investigate the BBC claiming that comments made about Party leader Nigel Farage by a panelist on the comedy show Have I Got News For You might hinder his chances of success in the general election which would take place a week later and claimed the BBC breached the Representation of the People Act 157 Kent Police rebuffed the request to open an investigation and the BBC released a statement Britain has a proud tradition of satire and everyone knows that the contributors on Have I Got News for You regularly make jokes at the expense of politicians of all parties 157 Satirical prophecy EditSatire is occasionally prophetic the jokes precede actual events 158 159 Among the eminent examples are The 1784 presaging of modern daylight saving time later actually proposed in 1907 While an American envoy to France Benjamin Franklin anonymously published a letter in 1784 suggesting that Parisians economise on candles by arising earlier to use morning sunlight 160 In the 1920s an English cartoonist imagined a laughable thing for the time a hotel for cars He drew a multi story car park 159 The second episode of Monty Python s Flying Circus which debuted in 1969 featured a sketch entitled The Mouse Problem meant to satirize contemporary media exposes on homosexuality which depicted a cultural phenomenon similar to some aspects of the modern furry fandom which did not become widespread until the 1980s over a decade after the sketch was first aired The comedy film Americathon released in 1979 and set in the United States of 1998 predicted a number of trends and events that would eventually unfold in the near future including an American debt crisis Chinese capitalism the fall of the Soviet Union a presidential sex scandal and the popularity of reality shows In January 2001 a satirical news article in The Onion entitled Our Long National Nightmare of Peace and Prosperity Is Finally Over 161 had newly elected President George Bush vowing to develop new and expensive weapons technologies and to engage in at least one Gulf War level armed conflict in the next four years Furthermore he would bring back economic stagnation by implementing substantial tax cuts which would lead to a recession This prophesied the Iraq War the Bush tax cuts and the Great Recession In 1975 the first episode of Saturday Night Live included an ad for a triple blade razor called the Triple Trac in 2001 Gillette introduced the Mach3 In 2004 The Onion satirized Schick and Gillette s marketing of ever increasingly multi blade razors with a mock article proclaiming Gillette will now introduce a five blade razor 162 In 2006 Gillette released the Gillette Fusion a five blade razor After the Iran nuclear deal in 2015 The Onion ran an article with the headline U S Soothes Upset Netanyahu With Shipment Of Ballistic Missiles Sure enough reports broke the next day of the Obama administration offering military upgrades to Israel in the wake of the deal 163 In July 2016 The Simpsons released the most recent in a string of satirical references to a potential Donald Trump presidency although the first was made back in a 2000 episode Other media sources including the popular film Back to the Future Part II have also made similar satirical references 164 Infinite Jest published in 1996 described an alternate America following the presidency of Johnny Gentle a celebrity who had not held prior political office Gentle s signature policy was the erection of a wall between the United States and Canada for use as a hazardous waste dump The US territory behind the wall was given to Canada and the Canadian government was forced to pay for the wall This appeared to parody the signature campaign promise and background of Donald Trump 165 Satire celebration EditIn June 2019 the Nigerian satire website Punocracy organised a nationwide writing competition for youth in the country with the objective to make satire a widely accepted and understood tool of socio political commentary 166 Some of the entries addressed issues like gender violence political corruption religious hypocrisy internet fraud educational decay and so on 167 The group also declared November 9 as World Satire Day with the idea of trying to fight against the ills in the society not by ammunition but by humour sarcasm etcetera 168 See also EditCulture jamming Freedom of the press Onomasti komodein Parody religion Satiric misspellings Sage writingNotes Edit The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London the censors of the press issued Orders to the Stationers Company on June 1 and 4 1599 prohibiting the further printing of satires the so called Bishop s Ban 85 page needed References EditCitations Edit a b Elliott 2004 Frye Northrup 1957 Anatomy of Criticism Princeton NJ Princeton UP p 222 ISBN 0 691 06004 5 a b Claridge Claudia 2010 Hyperbole in English A Corpus based Study of Exaggeration p 257 a b c Kharpertian Theodore D 1990 Thomas Pynchon and Postmodern American Satire in Kharpertian ed A hand to turn the time the Menippean satires of Thomas Pynchon pp 25 7 ISBN 9780838633618 However the use of the word lanx in this phrase is disputed by B L Ullman Satura and Satire Class Phil 1913 Branham 1997 p xxiv sfn error no target CITEREFBranham1997 help Ullman BL 1913 Satura and Satire Classical Philology 8 2 172 194 doi 10 1086 359771 JSTOR 262450 S2CID 161191881 The Renaissance confusion of the two origins encouraged a satire more aggressive than that of its Roman forebearers Antonia Szabari 2009 Less Rightly Said Scandals and Readers in Sixteenth Century France p 2 Forecast Galaxy Science Fiction June 1968 p 113 Corum 2002 p 175 Ig Improbable July 5 2004 a b Rosenberg Harold 1960 Community Values Comedy Commentary The American Jewish Committee 30 155 the oldest form of social study is comedy If the comedian from Aristophanes to Joyce does not solve sociology s problem of the participant observer he does demonstrate his objectivity by capturing behavior in its most intimate aspects yet in its widest typicality Comic irony sets whole cultures side by side in a multiple exposure e g Don Quixote Ulysses causing valuation to spring out of the recital of facts alone in contrast to the hidden editorializing of tongue in cheek ideologists Deloria Vine 1969 Indian humor Custer Died For Your Sins An Indian Manifesto p 146 ISBN 9780806121291 Irony and satire provide much keener insights into a group s collective psyche and values than do years of conventional research as quoted in Ryan Allan J 1999 The trickster shift humour and irony in contemporary native art p 9 ISBN 9780774807043 Nash Roderick Frazier 1970 21 The New Humor The Call of the Wild 1900 1916 p 203 Humor is one of the best indicators of popular thought To ask what strikes a period as funny is to probe its deepest values and tastes Babcock Barbara A 1984 Arrange Me Into Disorder Fragments and Reflections on Ritual Clowning in MacAloon ed Rite Drama Festival Spectacle Also collected as Babcock Barbara A Grimes 1996 Ronald L ed Readings in ritual studies p 5 ISBN 9780023472534 Harold Rosenberg has asserted that sociology needs to bring comedy into the foreground including an awareness of the comedy of sociology with its disguises and like Burke and Duncan he has argued that comedy provides the radical effect of self knowledge which the anthropological bias excludes Coppola Jo 1958 An Angry Young Magazine The Realist 1 Good comedy is social criticism although you might find that hard to believe if all you ever saw were some of the so called clowns of videoland Comedy is dying today because criticism is on its deathbed because telecasters frightened by the threats and pressure of sponsors blacklists and viewers helped introduce conformity to this age In such a climate comedy cannot flourish For comedy is after all a look at ourselves not as we pretend to be when we look in the mirror of our imagination but as we really are Look at the comedy of any age and you will know volumes about that period and its people which neither historian nor anthropologist can tell you Coppola Jo December 12 1958 Comedy on Television Commonweal p 288 Willi Andreas 2003 The Languages of Aristophanes Aspects of Linguistic Variation in Classical Attic Greek Oxford University Press pp 1 2 ISBN 9780199262649 Ehrenberg Victor 1962 The people of Aristophanes a sociology of old Attic comedy p 39 a b c d Bevere Antonio and Cerri Augusto 2006 Il Diritto di informazione e i diritti della persona pp 265 6 quotation nella storia della nostra cultura la satira ha realizzato il bisogno popolare di irridere e dissacrare il gotha politico ed economico le cui reazioni punitive non sono certo state condizionate da critiche estetiche ma dalla tolleranza o intolleranza caratterizzanti in quel momento storico la societa e i suoi governanti la reale esistenza della satira in una societa deriva dal margine di tolleranza espresso dai poteri punitivi dello Stato Amy Wiese Forbes 2010 The Satiric Decade Satire and the Rise of Republicanism in France 1830 1840 p xv quotation a critical public discourse Satire rose the daunting question of what role public opinion would play in government satirists criticized government activities exposed ambiguities and forced administrators to clarify or establish policies Not surprisingly heated public controversy surrounded satiric commentary resulting in an outright ban on political satire in 1835 Government officials cracked down on their humorous public criticism that challenged state authority through both its form and content Satire had been a political resource in France for a long time but the anxious political context of the July Monarchy had unlocked its political power Satire also taught lessons in democracy It fit into the July Monarchy s tense political context as a voice in favor of public political debate Satiric expression took place in the public sphere and spoke from a position of public opinion that is from a position of the nation s expressing a political voice and making claims on its government representatives and leadership Beyond mere entertainment satire s humor appealed to and exercised public opinion drawing audiences into new practices of representative government a b Knight Charles A 2004 Literature of Satire p 254 a b Test 1991 p 9 quotation A surprising variety of societies have allowed certain persons the freedom to mock other individuals and social institutions in rituals From the earliest times the same freedom has been claimed by and granted to social groups at certain times of the year as can be seen in such festivals as the Saturnalia the Feast of Fools Carnival and similar folk festivals in India nineteenth century Newfoundland and the ancient Mediterranean world a b c d e f Test 1991 pp 8 9 Cazeneuve 1957 p 244 5 quotation Ils constituent donc pour la tribu un moyen de donner une satisfaction symbolique aux tendances anti sociales Les Zunis precisement parce qu ils sont un peuple apollinien ou la regle predomine avaient besoin de cette soupape de surete Les Koyemshis representent ce que M Caillois nomme le Sacre de transgression Durand 1984 p 106 quotation Deja Cazeneuve 2 Les dieux dansent a Cibola avait mis auparavant en relief dans la Societe apollinienne des Zuni l institution et le symbolisme saturnal des clowns Koyemshis veritable soupape de surete dionysienne Yatsko V Russian folk funny stories Corum 2002 p 163 David Worcester 1968 The Art of Satire p 16 Muller Rolf Arnold 1973 Komik und Satire in German Zurich Juris Verlag p 92 ISBN 978 3 260 03570 8 What Is Horatian Satire wiseGEEK a b Satire Terms nku edu Sharma Raja 2011 Comedy in New Light Literary Studies Patricia Green The Golden Age of Satire Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift PDF a b What Is Juvenalian Satire wiseGEEK Satire Examples and Definition Literary Devices January 30 2015 Satire in Literature Definition Types amp Examples Education Portal a b Fo 1990 p 9 quotation Nella storia del teatro si ritrova sempre questo conflitto in cui si scontrano impegno e disimpegno grottesco satirico e lazzo con sfotto E spesso vince lo sfotto tanto amato dal potere Quando si dice che il potere ama la satira Eastman Max 1936 IV Degrees of Biting Enjoyment of Laughter pp 236 43 ISBN 9781412822626 Fo Dario Lorch Jennifer 1997 Dario Fo p 128 ISBN 9780719038488 In other writings Fo makes an important distinction between sfotto and satire a b c Fo 1990 pp 2 3 Una caricatura che e ovvio risulta del tutto bonaria del tutto epidermica che indica come dicevo prima soltanto la parte piu esteriore del loro carattere i tic la cui messa in risalto non lede assolutamente l operato l ideologia la morale e la dimensione culturale di questi personaggi ricordando che i politici provano un enorme piacere nel sentirsi presi in giro e quasi un premio che si elargisce loro nel momento stesso in cui li si sceglie per essere sottoposti alla caricatura a quella caricatura Di fatto questa e una forma di comicita che non si puo chiamare satira ma solo sfotto Pensa quanti pretesti satirici si offrirebbero se solo quei comici del Biberon volessero prendere in esame il modo in cui questi personaggi gestiscono il potere e lo mantengono o si decidessero a gettare l occhio sulle vere magagne di questa gente le loro violenze piu o meno mascherate le loro arroganze e soprattutto le loro ipocrisie un teatro cabaret capostipite il Bagaglino un teatro romano che gia vent anni fa si metteva in una bella chiave politica dichiaratamente di estrema destra destra spudoratamente reazionaria scopertamente fascista Nelle pieghe del gruppo del Bagaglino e del suo lavoro c era sempre la caricatura feroce dell operaio del sindacalista del comunista dell uomo di sinistra e una caricatura bonacciona invece e ammiccante accattivante degli uomini e della cultura al potere Fo 1990 quotation L ironia fatta sui tic sulla caricatura dei connotati piu o meno grotteschi dei politici presi di mira dei loro eventuali difetti fisici della loro particolare pronuncia dei loro vezzi del loro modo di vestire del loro modo di camminare delle frasi tipiche che vanno ripetendo lo sfotto e una chiave buffonesca molto antica che viene di lontano quella di giocherellare con gli attributi esteriori e non toccare mai il problema di fondo di una critica seria che e l analisi messa in grottesco del comportamento la valutazione ironica della posizione dell ideologia del personaggio page needed a b Arroyo Jose Luis Blas Casanova Monica Velando 2006 Discurso y sociedad contribuciones al estudio de la lengua en 1 pp 303 4 ISBN 9788480215381 Morson Gary Saul 1988 Boundaries of Genre p 114 ISBN 9780810108110 second that parodies can be as Bakhtin observes shallow as well as deep Problems of Dostoevsky s Poetics 160 which is to say directed at superficial as well as fundamental faults of the original the distinction between shallow and deep is helpful in understanding the complex ways in which parodies are used For instance shallow parody is sometimes used to pay an author an indirect compliment The opposite of damning with faint praise this parody with faint criticism may be designed to show that no more fundamental criticism could be made Luttazzi Daniele 2005 Matrix IT archived from the original on December 25 2005 Dario Fo disse a Satyricon La satira vera si vede dalla reazione che suscita Luttazzi Daniele October 2003 Fracassi Federica Guerriero Jacopo eds State a casa a fare i compiti interview Nazione Indiana in Italian Lo sfotto e reazionario Non cambia le carte in tavola anzi rende simpatica la persona presa di mira La Russa oggi e quel personaggio simpatico con la voce cavernosa il doppiatore dei Simpson di cui Fiorello fa l imitazione Nessuno ricorda piu il La Russa picchiatore fascista Nessuno ricorda gli atti fascisti e reazionari di questo governo in televisione Kremer S Lillian 2003 Holocaust Literature Agosin to Lentin p 100 ISBN 9780415929837 Lipman Stephen Steve 1991 Laughter in hell the use of humour during the Holocaust Northvale NJ J Aronson p 40 a b c d Clark 1991 pp 116 8 quotation religion politics and sexuality are the primary stuff of literary satire Among these sacret targets matters costive and defecatory play an important part from the earliest times satirists have utilized scatological and bathroom humor Aristophanes always livid and nearly scandalous in his religious political and sexual references Clark John R Motto Anna Lydia 1973 Satire that blasted art p 20 ISBN 9780399110597 Clark John R Motto Anna Lydia 1980 Menippeans amp Their Satire Concerning Monstrous Leamed Old Dogs and Hippocentaurs Scholia Satyrica 6 3 4 45 Chapple s book Soviet satire of the twenties classifying the very topics his satirists satirized housing food and fuel supplies poverty inflation hooliganism public services religion stereotypes of nationals the Englishman German amp c amp c Yet the truth of the matter is that no satirist worth his salt Petronius Chaucer Rabelais Swift Leskov Grass ever avoids man s habits and living standards or scants those delicate desiderata religion politics and sex Ferdie Addis 2012 Qual e il tuo tallone da killer p 20 a b Hodgart 2009 ch 2 The topics of satire politics p 33 The most pressing of the problems that face us when we close the book or leave the theatre are ultimately political ones and so politics is the pre eminent topic of satire to some degree public affairs vex every man if he pays taxes does military service or even objects to the way his neighbour is behaving There is no escape from politics where more than a dozen people are living together There is an essential connection between satire and politics in the widest sense satire is not only the commonest form of political literature but insofar as it tries to influence public behaviours it is the most political part of all literature Hodgart 2009 p 39 a b c Wilson 2002 pp 14 5 20 and notes 25 p 308 32 p 309 a b Anspaugh Kelly 1994 Bung Goes the Enemay Wyndham Lewis and the Uses of Disgust in Mattoid ISSN 0314 5913 issue 48 3 pp 21 29 As quoted in Wilson 2002 The turd is the ultimate dead object Lise Andries Etat des recherche Presentation in Dix Huitieme Siecle n 32 2000 special on Rire p 10 as quoted in Jean Michel Racault 2005 Voyages badins burlesques et parodiques du XVIIIe siecle p 7 quotation Le corps grotesque dans ses modalites clasiques la scatologie notamment Klein Cecelia F 1993 Teocuitlatl Divine Excrement The Significance of Holy Shit in Ancient Mexico in Art Journal CAA Vol 52 n 3 Fall 1993 pp 20 7 Duprat Annie 1982 La degradation de l image royale dans la caricature revolutionnaire p 178 quotation Le corps grotesque est una realite populaire detournee au profit d une representation du corps a but politique plaquege du corps scatologique sur le corps de ceux qu il covient de denoncer Denonciation scatologique projetee sur le corps aristocratique pour lui signifier sa degenerescence Parsons Elsie Clews Beals Ralph L October December 1934 The Sacred Clowns of the Pueblo and Mayo Yaqui Indians American Anthropologist 36 4 491 514 doi 10 1525 aa 1934 36 4 02a00020 JSTOR 661824 Hyers M Conrad 1996 1996 The Spirituality of Comedy comic heroism in a tragic world Transaction Publishers p 145 ISBN 1 56000 218 2 Donald Alexander Mackenzie 1923 Myths of Pre Columbian America p 229 Patrick Marnham 2000 Dreaming with His Eyes Open A Life of Diego Rivera p 297 Hilda Ellis Davidson 1993 Boundaries amp Thresholds p 85 quotation It is this fear of what the dead in their uncontrollable power might cause which has brought forth apotropaic rites protective rites against the dead One of these popular rites was the funeral rite of sin eating performed by a sin eater a man or woman Through accepting the food and drink provided he took upon himself the sins of the departed Bloom Edward Alan Bloom Lillian D 1979 Satire s persuasive voice ISBN 9780801408397 page needed Nicoll Allardyce 1951 British drama an historical survey from the beginnings to the present time p 179 Hodgart 2009 p 189 Pollard Arthur 1970 4 Tones Satire p 66 Clark Arthur Melville 1946 The Art of Satire and the Satiric Spectrum Studies in literary modes p 32 a b Zekavat Massih 2020 Reflexive humour and satire a critical review European Journal of Humour Research 7 4 125 136 doi 10 7592 EJHR2019 7 4 zekavat Lichtheim M 1973 Ancient Egyptian Literature I pp 184 93 Helck W 1970 Die Lehre des DwA xtjj Wiesbaden Gardiner Alan H 1911 Egyptian Hieratic Texts I Literary Texts of the New Kingdom I Leipzig a b Sutton DF 1993 Ancient Comedy The War of the Generations New York p 56 Bates Alfred ed 1906 Political and social satires of Aristophanes The Drama Its History Literature and Influence on Civilization 2 London Historical Publishing pp 55 59 Atkinson JE 1992 Curbing the Comedians Cleon versus Aristophanes and Syracosius Decree The Classical Quarterly New 42 1 56 64 doi 10 1017 s0009838800042580 JSTOR 639144 Anderson John Louis Aristophanes the Michael Moore of his Day archived from the original on October 19 2006 a b Wilson 2002 p 17 Cuddon 1998 Satire Dictionary of Literary Terms Oxford Bosworth 1976 p 32 Marzolph Ulrich van Leeuwen Richard Wassouf Hassan 2004 The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia ABC CLIO pp 97 8 ISBN 1 57607 204 5 Bosworth 1976 pp 77 8 Bosworth 1976 p 70 Webber Edwin J January 1958 Comedy as Satire in Hispano Arabic Spain Hispanic Review University of Pennsylvania Press 26 1 1 11 doi 10 2307 470561 JSTOR 470561 Hall 1969 Hall s Virgidemiae was a new departure in that the true Juvenalian mode of satire was being attempted for the first time and successfully in English Davenport 1969 sfn error no target CITEREFDavenport1969 help Palmeri Frank 2003 Satire history novel Narrative forms 1665 1815 University of Delaware Press pp 47 49 ISBN 978 1 61149 232 3 ह स य व य ग य कव त ह न द म Hasya Vyangya Kavita In Hindi funny poetry suvicharhindi com November 4 2016 Retrieved April 19 2019 Pritam Sarojani 51 Shresth Vyang Rachnayen Diamond pocket books Premchand Munshi Gopal Madan My Life and Times Roli Books Premchand Munshi Premchand Ki Amar Kahaniyan Shankarji Sung by The Modi song Rough cut productions Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan Archived from the original on December 11 2021 Retrieved April 16 2019 Kunal Kamra The accidental revolutionary Live Mint March 17 2018 Retrieved April 16 2019 Gujarat Varsity Cancels Show by Anti National Comedian Kunal Kamra After Alumni Complaint The Wire Retrieved April 16 2019 Tyagi Ravindranath Urdu Hindi Hashya Vyang Rajkamal Prakashan Sekhri Abhinandan April 17 2019 Interview with Kunal Kamra News laundry Retrieved April 19 2019 Gujarati Ashok Vyang Ke Rang Prabhat Prakashan Jaimini Arun 2013 Hasya Vyang Ki Shikhar Kavitaye ISBN 978 8183615686 The Broadview Anthology of British Literature The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century 3 p 435 Weinbrot Howard D 2007 Eighteenth Century Satire Essays on Text and Context from Dryden to Peter p 136 Dryden John Lynch Jack ed Discourse Rutgers Biography of Alexander Pope Synopsis Biography com Jonathan J Szwec 2011 Satire in 18th Century British Society Alexander Pope s The Rape of the Lock and Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal Student Pulse 3 6 Charles Press 1981 The Political Cartoon Fairleigh Dickinson University Press p 34 ISBN 9780838619018 a b Satire sewers and statesmen why James Gillray was king of the cartoon The Guardian June 18 2015 a b Brio Sara 2018 The Shocking Truth Science Religion and Ancient Egypt in Early Nineteenth Century Fiction Nineteenth Century Contexts 40 4 331 344 doi 10 1080 08905495 2018 1484608 S2CID 194827445 via Taylor and Francis Online Dobson Eleanor 2017 Gods and Ghost Light Ancient Egypt Electricity and X Rays Victorian Literature and Culture 45 1 121 doi 10 1017 S1060150316000462 S2CID 165064168 via Cambridge University Press David King amp Cathy Porter Blood amp Laughter Caricatures from the 1905 Revolution Jonathan Cape 1983 p 31 a b Chaplin 1964 My Autobiography p 392 quotation Had I known of the actual horrors of the German concentration camps I could not have made The Great Dictator I could not have made fun of the homicidal insanity of the Nazis Chapple Richard L Henry Peter 1976 Modern Soviet Satire The Slavic and East European Journal 20 3 318 doi 10 2307 306330 ISSN 0037 6752 JSTOR 306330 Stein Nathaniel July 1 2013 Funny Pages How the National Lampoon made American Humor The Daily Beast Retrieved July 22 2020 Sullivan James 2010 Seven Dirty Words The Life and Crimes of George Carlin p 94 George Carlin 2002 Introduction to Murder At the Conspiracy Convention David Frost s Q amp A on how to be a satirist The Guardian London Retrieved February 2 2015 What is Catch 22 And why does the book matter BBC March 12 2002 Dalton Stephen August 21 2017 Critics Notebook Jerry Lewis a Comic Genius by Turns Sweet and Bitter The Hollywood Reporter Freudenburg Kirk 2001 Satires of Rome Threatening Poses from Lucilius to Juvenal Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 299 ISBN 0 521 00621 X Van Norris 2014 British Television Animation 1997 2010 Drawing Comic Tradition p 153 Palgrave Macmillan James Gillray lambiek net Archived from the original on November 25 2016 Embrick DG Talmadge J Wright TJ Lukacs A 2012 Social Exclusion Power and Video Game Play New Research in Digital Media and Technology Lexington Books p 19 ISBN 9780739138625 Quote In game television programs and advertisements radio stations and billboards provide a running satirical commentary on the state of civilization in general and on the roles of males in particular GTA 5 a Great British export The Telegraph September 29 2015 Canavan G Robinson KS 2014 Green Planets Ecology and Science Fiction Wesleyan University Press p 278 ISBN 9780819574282 a b Byron G Townshend D 2013 The Gothic World Routledge p 456 ISBN 9781135053062 Quote P resent themselves as deliberately controversial incorporating hyper violent gameplay dark social satire and conspicuous political incorrectness Yi Sherry 2020 Is This a Joke The Delivery of Serious Content through Satirical Digital Games Acta Ludologica 1 1 18 30 via CEEOL Lavender III Isiah 2017 Dis Orienting Planets Racial Representations of Asia in Science Fiction Univ Press of Mississippi p 208 ISBN 9781496811554 Deumert Ana 2014 Sociolinguistics and Mobile Communication Edinburgh University Press p 181 ISBN 9780748655779 Retrieved June 12 2017 Lund Arwid 2020 Wikipedia Work and Capitalism Springer Dynamics of Virtual Work ISBN 9783319506890 p 48 Kaye Sharon M 2010 The Onion and Philosophy Fake News Story True Alleges Indignant Area Professor Open Court Publishing p 243 ISBN 9780812696875 Quote People might be justified in concluding that the Onion is a legitimate small town paper when they see headlines like Local Woman Devotes Life To Doing God s Busy Work 10 4 08 God Help Him Area Man Loves That Crazy Bitch 11 22 08 or Area Woman Wouldn t Mind Feeding Your Cats 12 6 08 Even if they read the full story they may never figure out it is a satire Maybe if they scroll to the bottom of the webpage and notice the disclaimer The Onion is not intended for readers under 18 years of age they would realize that this is not your average news source Maybe not especially if they think that there might be such a thing as adult news Dickson E J October 16 2020 What Is the Babylon Bee Trump Retweeted the Satirical Website Rolling Stone Retrieved May 20 2021 Liz Raftery Who Did the Best Hillary Clinton Impression on SNL TV Guide April 30 2015 Video Retrieved August 15 2015 You betcha Tina Fey wins Emmy as Sarah Palin on SNL Los Angeles Times September 13 2009 Retrieved September 13 2009 Meet Howard X the Dictator Doppelganger From Hong Kong Time Amy Gunia March 29 2019 Tain t Funny Time Time com September 29 1947 Archived from the original on October 23 2007 Retrieved August 29 2009 An interview with The Onion David Shankbone Wikinews November 25 2007 Griffin Dustin H 1994 Satire A Critical Reintroduction p 136 Geisler Michael E 2005 National Symbols Fractured Identities Contesting the National Narrative p 73 a b c d Pezzella Vincenzo 2009 La diffamazione responsabilita penale e civile pp 566 7 quotation Il diritto di satira trova il suo fondamento negli artt 21 e 33 della Costituzione che tutelano rispettivamente la liberta di manifestazione del pensiero e quella di elaborazione artistica e scientifica la satira in quanto operante nell ambito di cio che e arte non e strettamente correlata ad esigenze informative dal che deriva che i suoi limiti di liveita siano ben piu ammpi di quelli propri del diritto di cronaca theJuice on Twitter Twitter Retrieved June 10 2018 corporateName Commonwealth Parliament address Parliament House Canberra Criminal Code Amendment Impersonating a Commonwealth Body Bill 2017 Retrieved June 10 2018 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link ParlInfo Criminal Code Amendment Impersonating a Commonwealth Body Bill 2017 parlinfo aph gov au Retrieved June 10 2018 corporateName Commonwealth Parliament address Parliament House Canberra Criminal Code Amendment Impersonating a Commonwealth Body Bill 2017 Retrieved June 10 2018 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Kinservik Matthew J 2002 Disciplining Satire The Censorship of Satiric Comedy on the Eighteenth p 21 Test 1991 p 10 Jones William R 2009 People Have to Watch What They Say What Horace Juvenal and 9 11 Can Tell Us about Satire and History Helios 36 1 27 28 doi 10 1353 hel 0 0017 ISSN 1935 0228 S2CID 162089939 Leonard James S Tenney Thomas A Davis Thadious M December 1992 Satire or Evasion Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn Duke University Press p 224 ISBN 978 0 8223 1174 4 Fishin Shelley Fisher 1997 Lighting out for the Territory Reflections on Mark Twain and American Culture New York Oxford University Press Hang your heads Rudd tells Chaser boys Australian Broadcasting Corporation June 4 2009 Retrieved June 5 2009 Sutherland James 1958 English Satire Martin Rod A 2007 The Psychology of Humor An Integrative Approach pp 27 8 ISBN 9780080465999 Apte Mahadev L 1985 Introduction Humor and laughter an anthropological approach p 23 ISBN 9780801493072 The general neglect of humor as a topic of anthropological research is reflected in teaching practice Most introductory textbooks do not even list humor as a significant characteristic of cultural systems together with kinship social roles behavioral patterns religion language economic transactions political institutions values and material culture Arber Edward ed 1875 94 A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London 1554 1640 III London p 677 Zuma claims R7m over Zapiro cartoon Mail and Guardian ZA December 18 2008 How a lone cameraman dented SABC s credibility Mail and Guardian ZA Archived from the original on September 12 2005 ZNews Zapiro s puppet show Dispatch ZA Archived from the original on March 26 2012 SABC pulls Zapiro doccie again Mail and Guardian ZA September 26 2009 Samsung Sues Satirist Claiming Criminal Defamation Over Satirical Column Poking Fun At Samsung Techdirt May 11 2010 Retrieved June 9 2012 Glionna John M May 10 2010 Samsung doesn t find satirical spoof amusing Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on October 19 2017 a b Ukip asks police to investigate the BBC over Have I Got News for You BBC Retrieved June 18 2015 Krassner Paul August 26 2003 Terminal velocity television is here New York Press 16 35 a b Luttazzi Daniele 2007 Lepidezze postribolari in Italian Feltrinelli p 275 Franklin Benjamin April 26 1784 Aux auteurs du Journal Journal de Paris in French 117 Wrote anonymously Its first publication was in the journal s Economie section An Economical Project revised English version ed retrieved May 26 2007 has a title that is not Franklin s see Aldridge A O 1956 Franklin s essay on daylight saving American Literature 28 1 23 29 doi 10 2307 2922719 JSTOR 2922719 Bush Our Long National Nightmare of Peace And Prosperity Is Finally Over The Onion Retrieved June 9 2012 Fuck Everything We re Doing Five Blades The Onion Archived from the original on November 16 2017 Retrieved October 30 2020 Where Satire Meets Truth Did The Onion Just Predict a Real Israeli Headline Haaretz Retrieved January 1 2016 Back to the future how the Simpsons and others predicted President Trump The Guardian Retrieved February 5 2017 Donald Trump wants to build a wall on the border with Mexico Can he do it PBS Retrieved August 3 2020 Punocracy Prize for Satire PuPS Writing Competition 2019 for Nigerians Up to N100 000 in prizes Retrieved November 19 2019 Shortlist 2019 Punocracy Prize for Satire Retrieved November 19 2019 Group holds award ceremony for satire writing Premium Times Retrieved November 19 2019 Sources Edit Jonson Ben Miola Robert S 2000 Every Man in His Humour Quarto Version Manchester University Press ISBN 9780719015656 Bibliography EditBosworth Clifford Edmund 1976 The Mediaeval Islamic Underworld The Banu Sasan in Arabic Society and Literature Brill Publishers ISBN 90 04 04392 6 Branham R Bracht Kinney Daniel 1997 Introduction ISBN 9780520211186 to Petronius Satyrica p xxiv Clark John R 1991 The Modern Satiric Grotesque and its traditions Lexington U of Kentucky P ISBN 9780813130323 Corum Robert T 2002 The rhetoric of disgust and contempt in Boileau in Birberick Anne Lynn Ganim Russell eds The Shape of Change Essays in Early Modern Literature and La Fontaine in Honor of David Lee Rubin ISBN 9042014490 Elliott Robert C 2004 The nature of satire Encyclopaedia Britannica Fo Dario 1990 Satira e sfotto in Allegri Luigi ed Dialogo provocatorio sul comico il tragico la follia e la ragione interview in Italian pp 2 9 Fo Dario 1993 Provocative Dialogue on the Comic the Tragic Folly and Reason London Methuen Publishing transl Frye Northrop 1957 Anatomy of Criticism in particular the discussion of the 4 myths Hall Joseph 1969 Davenport A ed The Poems Liverpool University Press Hodgart Matthew Connery Brian 2009 1969 Satire Origins and Principles ISBN 9781412833646 Pietrasik Vanessa 2011 La satire en jeu Critique et scepticisme en Allemagne a la fin du XVIIIe siecle in French Tusson Du Lerot editeur Charente Test George Austin 1991 Elliott s Bind or What Is Satire Anyway inSatire Spirit amp Art ISBN 9780813010878 Wilson R Rawdon 2002 The hydra s tale imagining disgust ISBN 9780888643681 Further reading EditBloom Edward A 1972 Sacramentum Militiae The Dynamics of Religious Satire Studies in the Literary Imagination 5 119 42 Bronowski Jacob Mazlish Bruce 1993 1960 The Western Intellectual Tradition From Leonardo to Hegel Barnes amp Noble p 252 Connery Brian A Theorizing Satire A Bibliography Oakland University Dooley David Joseph 1972 Contemporary satire ISBN 9780039233853 Feinberg Leonard The satirist Lee Jae Num 1971 Scatology in Continental Satirical Writings from Aristophanes to Rabelais and English Scatological Writings from Skelton to Pope 1 2 3 maldita madre Swift and Scatological Satire Albuquerque U of New Mexico P pp 7 22 23 53 Theories critical approaches to satire as a genre Edit Connery Brian Combe Kirk eds 1995 Theorizing Satire Essays in Literary Criticism New York St Martin s Press p 212 ISBN 0 312 12302 7 Draitser Emil 1994 Techniques of Satire The Case of Saltykov Shchedrin Berlin New York Mouton de Gruyter ISBN 3 11 012624 9 Hammer Stephanie Satirizing the Satirist Highet Gilbert Satire Kernan Alvin The Cankered Muse Kindermann Udo 1978 Satyra Die Theorie der Satire im Mittellateinischen Vorstudie zu einer Gattungsgeschichte in German Nurnberg Kwstioy Aikaterinh 2005 Eisagwgh sthn Poihtikh ths Anatrophs satira eirwneia parwdia xioymor in Greek A8hna NefelhThe plot of satire Edit Seidel Michael Satiric Inheritance Zdero Rad 2008 Entopia Revolution of the Ants External links EditHarry Furniss Parliamentary Satire Book 1890s UK Parliament Living HeritageWikiquote has quotations related to SatireLook up satire in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to Satire Garnett Richard 1911 Satire In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 24 11th ed Cambridge University Press pp 228 229 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w 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