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Wikipedia

Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all single bonds. A fat known as a glyceride is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: a short glycerol backbone and fatty acids that each contain a long linear or branched chain of carbon (C) atoms. Along the chain, some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds (-C-C-) and others are linked by double bonds (-C=C-). A double bond along the carbon chain can react with a pair of hydrogen atoms to change into a single -C-C- bond, with each H atom now bonded to one of the two C atoms. Glyceride fats without any carbon chain double bonds are called saturated because they are "saturated with" hydrogen atoms, having no double bonds available to react with more hydrogen.

Most animal fats are saturated. The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated. Various foods contain different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat. Many processed foods like foods deep-fried in hydrogenated oil and sausage are high in saturated fat content. Some store-bought baked goods are as well, especially those containing partially hydrogenated oils. Other examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol include animal fat products such as lard or schmaltz, fatty meats and dairy products made with whole or reduced fat milk like yogurt, ice cream, cheese and butter. Certain vegetable products have high saturated fat content, such as coconut oil and palm kernel oil.

Guidelines released by many medical organizations, including the World Health Organization, have advocated for reduction in the intake of saturated fat to promote health and reduce the risk from cardiovascular diseases. Many review articles also recommend a diet low in saturated fat in order to lower risks of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or death.

While nutrition labels regularly combine them, the saturated fatty acids appear in different proportions among food groups. Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in "tropical" oils (e.g., palm kernel, coconut) and dairy products. The saturated fat in meat, eggs, cacao, and nuts is primarily the triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids.

Saturated fat profile of common foods; Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat
Food Lauric acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid
Coconut oil 47% 18% 9% 3%
Palm kernel oil 48% 1% 44% 5%
Butter 3% 11% 29% 13%
Ground beef 0% 4% 26% 15%
Salmon 0% 1% 29% 3%
Egg yolks 0% 0.3% 27% 10%
Cashews 2% 1% 10% 7%
Soybean oil 0% 0% 11% 4%
Cocoa butter 1% 0–4% 24.5–33.7% 33.7–40.2%

Some common examples of fatty acids:

Food Saturated Mono-
unsaturated
Poly-
unsaturated
As weight percent (%) of total fat
Cooking oils
Algal oil 4 92 4
Canola 8 64 28
Coconut oil 87 13 0
Corn oil 13 24 59
Cottonseed oil 27 19 54
Olive oil 14 73 11
Palm kernel oil 86 12 2
Palm oil 51 39 10
Peanut oil 17 46 32
Rice bran oil 25 38 37
Safflower oil, high oleic 6 75 14
Safflower oil, linoleic 6 14 75
Soybean oil 15 24 58
Sunflower oil 11 20 69
Mustard oil 11 59 21
Dairy products
Butterfat 66 30 4
Cheese, regular 64 29 3
Cheese, light 60 30 0
Ice cream, gourmet 62 29 4
Ice cream, light 62 29 4
Milk, whole 62 28 4
Milk, 2% 62 30 0
*Whipping cream 66 26 5
Meats
Beef 33 38 5
Ground sirloin 38 44 4
Pork chop 35 44 8
Ham 35 49 16
Chicken breast 29 34 21
Chicken 34 23 30
Turkey breast 30 20 30
Turkey drumstick 32 22 30
Fish, orange roughy 23 15 46
Salmon 28 33 28
Hot dog, beef 42 48 5
Hot dog, turkey 28 40 22
Burger, fast food 36 44 6
Cheeseburger, fast food 43 40 7
Breaded chicken sandwich 20 39 32
Grilled chicken sandwich 26 42 20
Sausage, Polish 37 46 11
Sausage, turkey 28 40 22
Pizza, sausage 41 32 20
Pizza, cheese 60 28 5
Nuts
Almonds dry roasted 9 65 21
Cashews dry roasted 20 59 17
Macadamia dry roasted 15 79 2
Peanut dry roasted 14 50 31
Pecans dry roasted 8 62 25
Flaxseeds, ground 8 23 65
Sesame seeds 14 38 44
Soybeans 14 22 57
Sunflower seeds 11 19 66
Walnuts dry roasted 9 23 63
Sweets and baked goods
Candy, chocolate bar 59 33 3
Candy, fruit chews 14 44 38
Cookie, oatmeal raisin 22 47 27
Cookie, chocolate chip 35 42 18
Cake, yellow 60 25 10
Pastry, Danish 50 31 14
Fats added during cooking or at the table
Butter, stick 63 29 3
Butter, whipped 62 29 4
Margarine, stick 18 39 39
Margarine, tub 16 33 49
Margarine, light tub 19 46 33
Lard 39 45 11
Shortening 25 45 26
Chicken fat 30 45 21
Beef fat 41 43 3
Goose fat 33 55 11
Dressing, blue cheese 16 54 25
Dressing, light Italian 14 24 58
Other
Egg yolk fat 36 44 16
Avocado 16 71 13
Unless else specified in boxes, then reference is:
* 3% is trans fats

Cardiovascular disease

The effect of saturated fat on heart disease has been extensively studied. There are strong, consistent, and graded relationships between saturated fat intake, blood cholesterol levels, and cardiovascular disease. The relationships are accepted as causal.

Many health authorities, such as the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the British Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, among others, advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In 2020, the World Health Organization recommended lowering dietary intake of saturated fats to less than 10% of total energy consumption, and increasing intake of unsaturated fats. There is moderate-quality evidence that reducing the proportion of saturated fat in the diet, and replacing it with unsaturated fats or carbohydrates over a period of at least two years, leads to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. A 2021 review found that diets high in saturated fat were associated with higher mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease.

In 2019, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) published a report "Saturated fats and health" which examined 47 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Their report concluded that higher saturated fat consumption is linked to raised blood cholesterol and higher intakes of saturated fat are associated with increased risk of heart disease.

Dyslipidemia

The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for some types of cardiovascular disease.

Abnormal blood lipid levels, that is high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad" cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

Meta-analyses have found a significant relationship between saturated fat and serum cholesterol levels. High total cholesterol levels, which may be caused by many factors, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, other indicators measuring cholesterol such as high total/HDL cholesterol ratio are more predictive than total serum cholesterol. In a study of myocardial infarction in 52 countries, the ApoB/ApoA1 (related to LDL and HDL, respectively) ratio was the strongest predictor of CVD among all risk factors. There are other pathways involving obesity, triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, and thrombogenicity, among others, that play a role in CVD, although it seems, in the absence of an adverse blood lipid profile, the other known risk factors have only a weak atherogenic effect. Different saturated fatty acids have differing effects on various lipid levels.

Cancer

Breast cancer

A meta-analysis published in 2003 found a significant positive relationship in both control and cohort studies between saturated fat and breast cancer. However two subsequent reviews have found weak or insignificant associations of saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk, and note the prevalence of confounding factors.

Colorectal cancer

One review found limited evidence for a positive relationship between consuming animal fat and incidence of colorectal cancer.

Ovarian cancer

Meta-analyses of clinical studies found evidence for increased risk of ovarian cancer by high consumption of saturated fat.

Prostate cancer

Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid and palmitic acid and dietary myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids and serum palmitic combined with alpha-tocopherol supplementation are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. These associations may, however, reflect differences in intake or metabolism of these fatty acids between the precancer cases and controls, rather than being an actual cause.

Bones

Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. The data from one study indicated that bone mineral density is negatively associated with saturated fat intake and that men may be particularly vulnerable.

Recommendations to reduce, limit or replace dietary intake of trans fats and saturated fats, in favor of unsaturated fats, are made by the World Health Organization, American Heart Association, Health Canada, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the UK National Health Service, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, the Australian Department of Health and Aging, the Singapore Ministry of Health, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the New Zealand Ministry of Health, and Hong Kong's Department of Health.

In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) expert consultation report concluded that "intake of saturated fatty acids is directly related to cardiovascular risk. The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10% of daily energy intake and less than 7% for high-risk groups. If populations are consuming less than 10%, they should not increase that level of intake. Within these limits, the intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be replaced by fats with a lower content of these particular fatty acids. In developing countries, however, where energy intake for some population groups may be inadequate, energy expenditure is high and body fat stores are low (BMI <18.5 kg/m2). The amount and quality of fat supply have to be considered keeping in mind the need to meet energy requirements. Specific sources of saturated fat, such as coconut and palm oil, provide low-cost energy and may be an important source of energy for the poor."

A 2004 statement released by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determined that "Americans need to continue working to reduce saturated fat intake…" In addition, reviews by the American Heart Association led the Association to recommend reducing saturated fat intake to less than 7% of total calories according to its 2006 recommendations. This concurs with similar conclusions made by the US Department of Health and Human Services, which determined that reduction in saturated fat consumption would positively affect health and reduce the prevalence of heart disease.

The United Kingdom, National Health Service claims the majority of British people eat too much saturated fat. The British Heart Foundation also advises people to cut down on saturated fat. People are advised to cut down on saturated fat and read labels on the food they buy. The British Nutrition Foundation have said that based on the totality of available evidence the saturated fatty acids should make up no more than 10% of total dietary energy.

A 2004 review stated that "no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified" and recommended that the influence of varying saturated fatty acid intakes against a background of different individual lifestyles and genetic backgrounds should be the focus in future studies.

Blanket recommendations to lower saturated fat were criticized at a 2010 conference debate of the American Dietetic Association for focusing too narrowly on reducing saturated fats rather than emphasizing increased consumption of healthy fats and unrefined carbohydrates. Concern was expressed over the health risks of replacing saturated fats in the diet with refined carbohydrates, which carry a high risk of obesity and heart disease, particularly at the expense of polyunsaturated fats which may have health benefits. None of the panelists recommended heavy consumption of saturated fats, emphasizing instead the importance of overall dietary quality to cardiovascular health.

In a 2017 comprehensive review of the literature and clinical trials, the American Heart Association published a recommendation that saturated fat intake be reduced or replaced by products containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, a dietary adjustment that could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 30%.

Two-dimensional representation of the saturated fatty acid myristic acid
A space-filling model of the saturated fatty acid myristic acid

The two-dimensional illustration has implicit hydrogen atoms bonded to each of the carbon atoms in the polycarbon tail of the myristic acid molecule (there are 13 carbon atoms in the tail; 14 carbon atoms in the entire molecule).

Carbon atoms are also implicitly drawn, as they are portrayed as intersections between two straight lines. "Saturated," in general, refers to a maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon of the polycarbon tail as allowed by the Octet Rule. This also means that only single bonds (sigma bonds) will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail.

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Saturated fat
Saturated fat Article Talk Language Watch Edit A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all single bonds A fat known as a glyceride is made of two kinds of smaller molecules a short glycerol backbone and fatty acids that each contain a long linear or branched chain of carbon C atoms Along the chain some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds C C and others are linked by double bonds C C 1 A double bond along the carbon chain can react with a pair of hydrogen atoms to change into a single C C bond with each H atom now bonded to one of the two C atoms Glyceride fats without any carbon chain double bonds are called saturated because they are saturated with hydrogen atoms having no double bonds available to react with more hydrogen Most animal fats are saturated The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated 1 Various foods contain different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat Many processed foods like foods deep fried in hydrogenated oil and sausage are high in saturated fat content Some store bought baked goods are as well especially those containing partially hydrogenated oils 2 3 4 Other examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol include animal fat products such as lard or schmaltz fatty meats and dairy products made with whole or reduced fat milk like yogurt ice cream cheese and butter 5 Certain vegetable products have high saturated fat content such as coconut oil and palm kernel oil 6 Guidelines released by many medical organizations including the World Health Organization have advocated for reduction in the intake of saturated fat to promote health and reduce the risk from cardiovascular diseases Many review articles also recommend a diet low in saturated fat in order to lower risks of cardiovascular diseases 7 diabetes or death 8 Contents 1 Fat profiles 2 Examples of saturated fatty acids 3 Association with diseases 3 1 Cardiovascular disease 3 1 1 Dyslipidemia 3 2 Cancer 3 2 1 Breast cancer 3 2 2 Colorectal cancer 3 2 3 Ovarian cancer 3 2 4 Prostate cancer 3 3 Bones 4 Dietary recommendations 5 Molecular description 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingFat profiles EditWhile nutrition labels regularly combine them the saturated fatty acids appear in different proportions among food groups Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in tropical oils e g palm kernel coconut and dairy products The saturated fat in meat eggs cacao and nuts is primarily the triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids Saturated fat profile of common foods Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat 9 Food Lauric acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acidCoconut oil 47 18 9 3 Palm kernel oil 48 1 44 5 Butter 3 11 29 13 Ground beef 0 4 26 15 Salmon 0 1 29 3 Egg yolks 0 0 3 27 10 Cashews 2 1 10 7 Soybean oil 0 0 11 4 Cocoa butter 10 1 0 4 24 5 33 7 33 7 40 2 Examples of saturated fatty acids EditMain article List of saturated fatty acids Some common examples of fatty acids Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms contained in butter Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms contained in coconut oil palm kernel oil and breast milk Myristic acid with 14 carbon atoms contained in cow s milk and dairy products Palmitic acid with 16 carbon atoms contained in palm oil and meat Stearic acid with 18 carbon atoms also contained in meat and cocoa butter viewtalkedit Food Saturated Mono unsaturated Poly unsaturatedAs weight percent of total fatCooking oilsAlgal oil 11 4 92 4Canola 12 8 64 28Coconut oil 87 13 0Corn oil 13 24 59Cottonseed oil 12 27 19 54Olive oil 13 14 73 11Palm kernel oil 12 86 12 2Palm oil 12 51 39 10Peanut oil 14 17 46 32Rice bran oil 25 38 37Safflower oil high oleic 15 6 75 14Safflower oil linoleic 12 16 6 14 75Soybean oil 15 24 58Sunflower oil 17 11 20 69Mustard oil 11 59 21Dairy productsButterfat 12 66 30 4Cheese regular 64 29 3Cheese light 60 30 0Ice cream gourmet 62 29 4Ice cream light 62 29 4Milk whole 62 28 4Milk 2 62 30 0 Whipping cream 18 66 26 5MeatsBeef 33 38 5Ground sirloin 38 44 4Pork chop 35 44 8Ham 35 49 16Chicken breast 29 34 21Chicken 34 23 30Turkey breast 30 20 30Turkey drumstick 32 22 30Fish orange roughy 23 15 46Salmon 28 33 28Hot dog beef 42 48 5Hot dog turkey 28 40 22Burger fast food 36 44 6Cheeseburger fast food 43 40 7Breaded chicken sandwich 20 39 32Grilled chicken sandwich 26 42 20Sausage Polish 37 46 11Sausage turkey 28 40 22Pizza sausage 41 32 20Pizza cheese 60 28 5NutsAlmonds dry roasted 9 65 21Cashews dry roasted 20 59 17Macadamia dry roasted 15 79 2Peanut dry roasted 14 50 31Pecans dry roasted 8 62 25Flaxseeds ground 8 23 65Sesame seeds 14 38 44Soybeans 14 22 57Sunflower seeds 11 19 66Walnuts dry roasted 9 23 63Sweets and baked goodsCandy chocolate bar 59 33 3Candy fruit chews 14 44 38Cookie oatmeal raisin 22 47 27Cookie chocolate chip 35 42 18Cake yellow 60 25 10Pastry Danish 50 31 14Fats added during cooking or at the tableButter stick 63 29 3Butter whipped 62 29 4Margarine stick 18 39 39Margarine tub 16 33 49Margarine light tub 19 46 33Lard 39 45 11Shortening 25 45 26Chicken fat 30 45 21Beef fat 41 43 3Goose fat 19 33 55 11Dressing blue cheese 16 54 25Dressing light Italian 14 24 58OtherEgg yolk fat 20 36 44 16Avocado 21 16 71 13Unless else specified in boxes then reference is 22 3 is trans fatsAssociation with diseases EditCardiovascular disease Edit The effect of saturated fat on heart disease has been extensively studied 23 There are strong consistent and graded relationships between saturated fat intake blood cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease 8 The relationships are accepted as causal 8 24 25 Many health authorities such as the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 26 the British Dietetic Association 27 American Heart Association 8 the World Heart Federation 28 the British National Health Service 29 among others 30 31 advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases In 2020 the World Health Organization recommended lowering dietary intake of saturated fats to less than 10 of total energy consumption and increasing intake of unsaturated fats 32 There is moderate quality evidence that reducing the proportion of saturated fat in the diet and replacing it with unsaturated fats or carbohydrates over a period of at least two years leads to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease 23 A 2021 review found that diets high in saturated fat were associated with higher mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease 33 In 2019 the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition SACN published a report Saturated fats and health which examined 47 systematic reviews and meta analyses Their report concluded that higher saturated fat consumption is linked to raised blood cholesterol and higher intakes of saturated fat are associated with increased risk of heart disease 34 35 Dyslipidemia Edit See also Lipid hypothesis The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia which in turn is a risk factor for some types of cardiovascular disease 36 37 38 39 40 Abnormal blood lipid levels that is high total cholesterol high levels of triglycerides high levels of low density lipoprotein LDL bad cholesterol or low levels of high density lipoprotein HDL good cholesterol cholesterol are all associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke 28 Meta analyses have found a significant relationship between saturated fat and serum cholesterol levels 8 41 High total cholesterol levels which may be caused by many factors are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease 42 43 However other indicators measuring cholesterol such as high total HDL cholesterol ratio are more predictive than total serum cholesterol 43 In a study of myocardial infarction in 52 countries the ApoB ApoA1 related to LDL and HDL respectively ratio was the strongest predictor of CVD among all risk factors 44 There are other pathways involving obesity triglyceride levels insulin sensitivity endothelial function and thrombogenicity among others that play a role in CVD although it seems in the absence of an adverse blood lipid profile the other known risk factors have only a weak atherogenic effect 45 Different saturated fatty acids have differing effects on various lipid levels 46 Cancer Edit Breast cancer Edit Main article Epidemiology and etiology of breast cancer Specific dietary fatty acids A meta analysis published in 2003 found a significant positive relationship in both control and cohort studies between saturated fat and breast cancer 47 However two subsequent reviews have found weak or insignificant associations of saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk 48 49 and note the prevalence of confounding factors 48 50 Colorectal cancer Edit One review found limited evidence for a positive relationship between consuming animal fat and incidence of colorectal cancer 51 Ovarian cancer Edit Meta analyses of clinical studies found evidence for increased risk of ovarian cancer by high consumption of saturated fat 52 Prostate cancer Edit Further information Prostate cancer Oils and fatty acids Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid 53 54 and palmitic acid 54 and dietary myristic 55 and palmitic 55 saturated fatty acids and serum palmitic combined with alpha tocopherol supplementation 53 are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in a dose dependent manner These associations may however reflect differences in intake or metabolism of these fatty acids between the precancer cases and controls rather than being an actual cause 54 Bones Edit Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies The data from one study indicated that bone mineral density is negatively associated with saturated fat intake and that men may be particularly vulnerable 56 Dietary recommendations EditRecommendations to reduce limit or replace dietary intake of trans fats and saturated fats in favor of unsaturated fats are made by the World Health Organization 57 American Heart Association 8 Health Canada 58 the US Department of Health and Human Services 59 the UK National Health Service 60 the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition 34 the Australian Department of Health and Aging 61 the Singapore Ministry of Health 62 the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 63 the New Zealand Ministry of Health 64 and Hong Kong s Department of Health 65 In 2003 the World Health Organization WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization FAO expert consultation report concluded that intake of saturated fatty acids is directly related to cardiovascular risk 66 The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10 of daily energy intake and less than 7 for high risk groups If populations are consuming less than 10 they should not increase that level of intake Within these limits the intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be replaced by fats with a lower content of these particular fatty acids In developing countries however where energy intake for some population groups may be inadequate energy expenditure is high and body fat stores are low BMI lt 18 5 kg m2 The amount and quality of fat supply have to be considered keeping in mind the need to meet energy requirements Specific sources of saturated fat such as coconut and palm oil provide low cost energy and may be an important source of energy for the poor 66 A 2004 statement released by the Centers for Disease Control CDC determined that Americans need to continue working to reduce saturated fat intake 67 In addition reviews by the American Heart Association led the Association to recommend reducing saturated fat intake to less than 7 of total calories according to its 2006 recommendations 68 69 This concurs with similar conclusions made by the US Department of Health and Human Services which determined that reduction in saturated fat consumption would positively affect health and reduce the prevalence of heart disease 70 The United Kingdom National Health Service claims the majority of British people eat too much saturated fat The British Heart Foundation also advises people to cut down on saturated fat People are advised to cut down on saturated fat and read labels on the food they buy 71 72 The British Nutrition Foundation have said that based on the totality of available evidence the saturated fatty acids should make up no more than 10 of total dietary energy 73 A 2004 review stated that no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified and recommended that the influence of varying saturated fatty acid intakes against a background of different individual lifestyles and genetic backgrounds should be the focus in future studies 74 Blanket recommendations to lower saturated fat were criticized at a 2010 conference debate of the American Dietetic Association for focusing too narrowly on reducing saturated fats rather than emphasizing increased consumption of healthy fats and unrefined carbohydrates Concern was expressed over the health risks of replacing saturated fats in the diet with refined carbohydrates which carry a high risk of obesity and heart disease particularly at the expense of polyunsaturated fats which may have health benefits None of the panelists recommended heavy consumption of saturated fats emphasizing instead the importance of overall dietary quality to cardiovascular health 75 In a 2017 comprehensive review of the literature and clinical trials the American Heart Association published a recommendation that saturated fat intake be reduced or replaced by products containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats a dietary adjustment that could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 30 8 Molecular description Edit Two dimensional representation of the saturated fatty acid myristic acid A space filling model of the saturated fatty acid myristic acid The two dimensional illustration has implicit hydrogen atoms bonded to each of the carbon atoms in the polycarbon tail of the myristic acid molecule there are 13 carbon atoms in the tail 14 carbon atoms in the entire molecule Carbon atoms are also implicitly drawn as they are portrayed as intersections between two straight lines Saturated in general refers to a maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon of the polycarbon tail as allowed by the Octet Rule This also means that only single bonds sigma bonds will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail See also EditList of saturated fatty acids List of vegetable oils Trans fat Food groups Food guide pyramid Healthy diet Diet and heart disease Fast food Junk food Advanced glycation endproduct ANGPTL4 Iodine value Framingham Heart Study Seven Countries Study Ancel Keys D Mark Hegsted Western pattern dietReferences Edit a b Reece Jane Campbell Neil 2002 Biology San Francisco Benjamin Cummings pp 69 70 ISBN 978 0 8053 6624 2 Saturated fats American Heart Association 2014 Retrieved 1 March 2014 Top food sources of saturated fat in the US Harvard University School of Public Health 2014 Retrieved 1 March 2014 Saturated Unsaturated and Trans Fats choosemyplate gov 2020 Saturated Fat American Heart Association 2020 What are oils ChooseMyPlate gov US Department of Agriculture 2015 Archived from the original on 9 June 2015 Retrieved 13 June 2015 Hooper L Martin N Abdelhamid A Davey Smith G June 2015 Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 6 6 CD011737 doi 10 1002 14651858 CD011737 PMID 26068959 a b c d e f g Sacks FM Lichtenstein AH Wu JH Appel LJ Creager MA Kris Etherton PM Miller M Rimm EB Rudel LL Robinson JG Stone NJ Van Horn LV July 2017 Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association Circulation 136 3 e1 e23 doi 10 1161 CIR 0000000000000510 PMID 28620111 S2CID 367602 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 20 United States Department of Agriculture 2007 Archived from the original on 14 April 2016 Kumar Vijay January 2014 Cocoa Butter and its Alternatives Cite journal requires journal help Thrive Culinary Algae Oil Retrieved 7 January 2019 a b c d e f Anderson D Fatty acid composition of fats and oils PDF Colorado Springs University of Colorado Department of Chemistry Retrieved 8 April 2017 NDL FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Retrieved 21 May 2013 Basic Report 04042 Oil peanut salad or cooking USDA Retrieved 16 January 2015 Oil vegetable safflower oleic nutritiondata com Conde Nast Retrieved 10 April 2017 Oil vegetable safflower linoleic nutritiondata com Conde Nast Retrieved 10 April 2017 Oil vegetable sunflower nutritiondata com Conde Nast Retrieved 27 September 2010 USDA Basic Report Cream fluid heavy whipping Nutrition And Health The Goose Fat Information Service Egg yolk raw fresh nutritiondata com Conde Nast Retrieved 24 August 2009 09038 Avocados raw California National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 26 United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Retrieved 14 August 2014 Feinberg School gt Nutrition gt Nutrition Fact Sheet Lipids Northwestern University Archived from the original on 20 July 2011 a b Hooper Lee Martin Nicole Jimoh Oluseyi F Kirk Christian Foster Eve Abdelhamid Asmaa S 21 August 2020 Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8 CD011737 doi 10 1002 14651858 CD011737 pub3 PMC 8092457 PMID 32827219 Graham I Atar D Borch Johnsen K Boysen G Burell G Cifkova R et al 2007 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice executive summary European Heart Journal 28 19 2375 2414 doi 10 1093 eurheartj ehm316 PMID 17726041 Labarthe D 2011 Chapter 17 What Causes Cardiovascular Diseases Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease a global challenge 2nd ed Jones and Bartlett Publishers ISBN 978 0 7637 4689 6 Kris Etherton PM Innis S September 2007 Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada Dietary Fatty Acids Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107 9 1599 1611 1603 doi 10 1016 j jada 2007 07 024 PMID 17936958 Food Fact Sheet Cholesterol PDF British Dietetic Association Retrieved 3 May 2012 a b Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors World Heart Federation 30 May 2017 Retrieved 3 May 2012 Lower your cholesterol National Health Service Retrieved 3 May 2012 Nutrition Facts at a Glance Nutrients Saturated Fat Food and Drug Administration 22 December 2009 Retrieved 3 May 2012 Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats including saturated fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids monounsaturated fatty acids trans fatty acids and cholesterol European Food Safety Authority 25 March 2010 Retrieved 3 May 2012 Healthy diet key facts World Health Organization 29 April 2020 Retrieved 6 July 2021 Kim Y Youjin J Giovannucii EL 2021 Association between dietary fat intake and mortality from all causes cardiovascular disease and cancer A systematic review and meta analysis of prospective cohort studies Clinical Nutrition 40 3 1060 1070 doi 10 1016 j clnu 2020 07 007 PMID 32723506 S2CID 220852791 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link a b Saturated Fats and Health Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition SACN Retrieved 26 July 2021 SACN s Saturated fats and health Report The Nutrition Society Retrieved 24 October 2021 Faculty of Public Health of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom Position Statement on Fat PDF Retrieved 25 January 2011 Report of a Joint WHO FAO Expert Consultation 2003 Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases PDF World Health Organization Retrieved 11 March 2011 Cholesterol Irish Heart Foundation Retrieved 28 February 2011 U S Department of Agriculture and U S Department of Health and Human Services December 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 PDF 7th ed Washington DC U S Government Printing Office Cannon C O Gara P 2007 Critical Pathways in Cardiovascular Medicine 2nd ed Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins p 243 ISBN 9780781794398 Clarke R Frost C Collins R Appleby P Peto R 1997 Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol quantitative meta analysis of metabolic ward studies BMJ Clinical Research Ed 314 7074 112 7 doi 10 1136 bmj 314 7074 112 PMC 2125600 PMID 9006469 Bucher HC Griffith LE Guyatt GH February 1999 Systematic review on the risk and benefit of different cholesterol lowering interventions Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19 2 187 195 doi 10 1161 01 atv 19 2 187 PMID 9974397 a b Lewington S Whitlock G Clarke R Sherliker P Emberson J Halsey J Qizilbash N Peto R Collins R December 2007 Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age sex and blood pressure a meta analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55 000 vascular deaths Lancet 370 9602 1829 39 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 07 61778 4 PMID 18061058 S2CID 54293528 Labarthe D 2011 Chapter 11 Adverse Blood Lipid Profile Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease a global challenge 2 ed Jones and Bartlett Publishers p 290 ISBN 978 0 7637 4689 6 Labarthe D 2011 Chapter 11 Adverse Blood Lipid Profile Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease a global challenge 2nd ed Jones and Bartlett Publishers p 277 ISBN 978 0 7637 4689 6 Thijssen MA Mensink RP 2005 Fatty acids and atherosclerotic risk Atherosclerosis Diet and Drugs Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 170 Springer pp 165 94 doi 10 1007 3 540 27661 0 5 ISBN 978 3 540 22569 0 PMID 16596799 Boyd NF Stone J Vogt KN Connelly BS Martin LJ Minkin S November 2003 Dietary fat and breast cancer risk revisited a meta analysis of the published literature British Journal of Cancer 89 9 1672 1685 doi 10 1038 sj bjc 6601314 PMC 2394401 PMID 14583769 a b Hanf V Gonder U 1 December 2005 Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer foods nutrients and breast cancer risk European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 123 2 139 149 doi 10 1016 j ejogrb 2005 05 011 PMID 16316809 Lof M Weiderpass E February 2009 Impact of diet on breast cancer risk Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 21 1 80 85 doi 10 1097 GCO 0b013e32831d7f22 PMID 19125007 S2CID 9513690 Freedman LS Kipnis V Schatzkin A Potischman N March April 2008 Methods of Epidemiology Evaluating the Fat Breast Cancer Hypothesis Comparing Dietary Instruments and Other Developments Cancer Journal Sudbury Mass 14 2 69 74 doi 10 1097 PPO 0b013e31816a5e02 PMC 2496993 PMID 18391610 Lin OS 2009 Acquired risk factors for colorectal cancer Cancer Epidemiology Methods in Molecular Biology 472 pp 361 72 doi 10 1007 978 1 60327 492 0 16 ISBN 978 1 60327 491 3 PMID 19107442 Huncharek M Kupelnick B 2001 Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer a meta analysis of 6 689 subjects from 8 observational studies Nutrition and Cancer 40 2 87 91 doi 10 1207 S15327914NC402 2 PMID 11962260 S2CID 24890525 a b Mannisto S Pietinen P Virtanen MJ Salminen I Albanes D Giovannucci E Virtamo J December 2003 Fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in a nested case control study in male smokers Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers amp Prevention 12 12 1422 8 PMID 14693732 a b c Crowe FL Allen NE Appleby PN Overvad K Aardestrup IV Johnsen NF Tjonneland A Linseisen J Kaaks R Boeing H Kroger J Trichopoulou A Zavitsanou A Trichopoulos D Sacerdote C Palli D Tumino R Agnoli C Kiemeney LA Bueno de Mesquita HB Chirlaque MD Ardanaz E Larranaga N Quiros JR Sanchez MJ Gonzalez CA Stattin P Hallmans G Bingham S Khaw KT Rinaldi S Slimani N Jenab M Riboli E Key TJ November 2008 Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and risk of prostate cancer in a case control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 5 1353 63 doi 10 3945 ajcn 2008 26369 PMID 18996872 a b Kurahashi N Inoue M Iwasaki M Sasazuki S Tsugane AS April 2008 Dairy product saturated fatty acid and calcium intake and prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of Japanese men Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers amp Prevention 17 4 930 7 doi 10 1158 1055 9965 EPI 07 2681 PMID 18398033 S2CID 551427 Corwin RL Hartman TJ Maczuga SA Graubard BI 2006 Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density in humans Analysis of NHANES III The Journal of Nutrition 136 1 159 165 doi 10 1093 jn 136 1 159 PMID 16365076 S2CID 4443420 see the article Food pyramid nutrition for more information Choosing foods with healthy fats Health Canada 10 October 2018 Retrieved 24 September 2019 Cut Down on Saturated Fats PDF United States Department of Health and Human Services Retrieved 24 September 2019 Fat the facts United Kingdom s National Health Service 27 April 2018 Retrieved 24 September 2019 Fat Australia s National Health and Medical Research Council and Department of Health and Ageing 24 September 2012 Retrieved 24 September 2019 Getting the Fats Right Singapore s Ministry of Health Retrieved 24 September 2019 Health Diet India s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Retrieved 24 September 2019 Making healthier food choices New Zealand s Ministry of Health Retrieved 3 June 2021 Know More about Fat Hong Kong s Department of Health Retrieved 24 September 2019 a b Joint WHO FAO Expert Consultation 2003 Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases WHO technical report series 916 PDF World Health Organization pp 81 94 ISBN 978 92 4 120916 8 Retrieved 4 April 2016 Trends in Intake of Energy Protein Carbohydrate Fat and Saturated Fat United States 1971 2000 Centers for Disease Control 2004 Archived from the original on 1 December 2008 Lichtenstein AH Appel LJ Brands M Carnethon M Daniels S Franch HA Franklin B Kris Etherton P Harris WS Howard B Karanja N Lefevre M Rudel L Sacks F Van Horn L Winston M Wylie Rosett J July 2006 Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006 a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee Circulation 114 1 82 96 doi 10 1161 CIRCULATIONAHA 106 176158 PMID 16785338 S2CID 647269 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Smith SC Jackson R Pearson TA Fuster V Yusuf S Faergeman O Wood DA Alderman M Horgan J Home P Hunn M Grundy SM June 2004 Principles for national and regional guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention a scientific statement from the World Heart and Stroke Forum PDF Circulation 109 25 3112 21 doi 10 1161 01 CIR 0000133427 35111 67 PMID 15226228 Dietary Guidelines for Americans PDF United States Department of Agriculture 2005 Eat less saturated fat Nhs uk 26 March 2020 Retrieved 1 November 2021 Fats explained British Heart Foundation The science of fat British Nutrition Foundation Retrieved 24 October 2021 German JB Dillard CJ September 2004 Saturated fats what dietary intake American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 3 550 559 doi 10 1093 ajcn 80 3 550 PMID 15321792 Zelman K 2011 The Great Fat Debate A Closer Look at the Controversy Questioning the Validity of Age Old Dietary Guidance Journal of the American Dietetic Association 111 5 655 658 doi 10 1016 j jada 2011 03 026 PMID 21515106 Further reading EditFeinman RD October 2010 Saturated fat and health recent advances in research Lipids 45 10 891 2 doi 10 1007 s11745 010 3446 8 PMC 2974200 PMID 20827513 Howard BV Van Horn L Hsia J Manson JE Stefanick ML Wassertheil Smoller S et al 2006 Low fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease the Women s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial Journal of the American Medical Association 295 6 655 66 doi 10 1001 jama 295 6 655 PMID 16467234 Zelman K May 2011 The great fat debate a closer look at the controversy questioning the validity of age old dietary guidance Journal of the American Dietetic Association 111 5 655 8 doi 10 1016 j jada 2011 03 026 PMID 21515106 Biology portal Chemistry portal Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saturated fat amp oldid 1055743706, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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