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Saudi Arabia–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the Saudi Arabia and the United States began in 1933 when full diplomatic relations were established and became formalized in the 1951 Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement. Despite the differences between the two countries—an Islamic absolute monarchy, and a secular constitutional republic—the two countries have been allies. Former Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama have close and strong relations with senior members of the Saudi Royal Family.

U.S. President Donald Trump with the Saudi Arabia Prince Mohammed bin Salman in the White House, March 2017.

Ever since the modern U.S.–Saudi relationship began in 1945, the United States has been willing to overlook many of the kingdom's more controversial aspects such as Wahhabism, its human rights and alleged state-sponsored terrorism as long as it maintained oil production and supported U.S. national security policies. Since World War II, the two countries have been allied in opposition to Communism, in support of stable oil prices, stability in the oil fields and oil shipping of the Persian Gulf, and stability in the economies of Western countries where Saudis have invested. In particular the two countries were allies against the Soviets in Afghanistan and in the expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait in 1991. The two countries have been in disagreement with regard to the State of Israel, as well as the embargo of the U.S. and its allies by Saudi Arabia and other Middle East oil exporters during the 1973 oil crisis (which raised oil prices considerably), the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq (which Saudi Arabia opposed), aspects of the "War on Terror", and what many in the U.S. see as the pernicious influence of Saudi Arabia after the September 11 attacks. In recent years, particularly the Barack Obama administration, the relationship between the two countries became strained and witnessed major decline. However, the relationship was strengthened by President Donald Trump's trip to Saudi Arabia in May 2017. The October 2018 assassination of Saudi dissident and Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi in a Saudi consulate in Turkey caused a serious rift between the countries. The United States sanctioned some Saudi nationals, and Congress unsuccessfully attempted to cut off U.S. weapons sales to Saudi related to the war in Yemen due to opposition from the Trump administration. Turkish authorities and U.S. intelligence agencies concluded the killing was done on the order of Mohammed bin Salman, the crown prince of Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia subsidized its oil exports to the U.S. until President George W. Bush proposed the overthrow of the Iraqi government in 2002. The shale oil boom enabled the United States to become a net exporter of petroleum products in 2019, making the U.S. economy significantly less dependent on Saudi oil. Arms sales to Saudi Arabia remain an important U.S. export. The U.S. Department of Defense acts as an intermediary charging 7% of such sales, allowing it to fund training activities in other countries such as Bolivia.

Despite the strong relationship between the two countries, opinion polls between the two nations show negative feelings between the American people and Saudi people in recent years. Most American criticism pertains to lack of human rights in Saudi Arabia and the alleged role Saudi Arabia played in the September 11 attacks. A poll of Saudis by Zogby International (2002) and BBC (between October 2005 and January 2006) found 51% of Saudis had hostile feelings towards the American people in 2002; in 2005–2006, Saudi public opinion was sharply divided with 38% viewing U.S. influence positively and 38% viewing U.S. influence negatively. As of 2019, Saudi Arabian students form the 4th largest group of international students studying in the United States, representing 3.4% of all foreigners pursuing higher education in the U.S. A December 2013 poll found 57% of Americans polled had an unfavorable view of Saudi Arabia and 27% favorable.

Contents

Early history (recognition)

King Abdulaziz Al Saud, Ibn Saud as an appellation, the founder of Saudi Arabia, developed close ties with the United States. After unifying his country in 1928, he set about gaining international recognition. Great Britain was the first country to recognize Saudi Arabia as an independent state, as the British had provided protection of Saudi territories from the Turks for many years. In May 1931 the U.S. officially recognized Saudi Arabia by extending full diplomatic recognition. At the same time Ibn Saud granted a concession to the U.S. company, Standard Oil of California, allowing them to explore for oil in the country's Eastern Province, al-Hasa. The company gave the Saudi government £35,000 and also paid assorted rental fees and royalty payments.

In November 1931, a treaty was signed by both nations which included favored nation status. The relationship was still weak, however, as America did not have an interest in establishing missions in Saudi Arabia: at the time, Saudi affairs were handled by the U.S. delegation in Cairo, Egypt; The U.S. finally sent a resident ambassador in 1943.

The relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States of America was economically strengthened in 1933, when Standard Oil of California was given a concession to explore the Saudi Arabian lands for oil. The subsidiary of this company, regarded as California Arabian Standard Oil Company, later dubbed Saudi Aramco carried out a fruitful exploration in 1938, finding oil for the first time. The relationship between the two nations strengthened throughout the next decade, establishing a full diplomatic relationship through a symbolic acceptance of an American envoy in Saudi Arabia.

World War II

King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy, after the Yalta Conference in 1945.

As the U.S.–Saudi relationship was growing slowly, World War II was beginning its first phase, with Saudi Arabia remaining neutral. The U.S. was deeply involved in World War II, and as a result, U.S.–Saudi relations were put on the 'back burner'. This negligence left Saudi Arabia vulnerable to attack. Italy, an Axis power, bombed a CASOC oil installation in Dhahran crippling Saudi Arabia's oil production. This attack left Bin Saud scrambling for to find an external power that would protect the country, fearing further attacks that would most likely cease the country's oil production and the flow of pilgrims coming into Mecca to perform Hajj, the base of the Saudi power and economy at that time.

CASOC Struck oil near Dhahran, but production over the next several years remained low—only about 42.5 million barrels between 1941 and 1945; less than 1% of the output in the United States over the same time period. CASOC was later renamed the Arabian-American Oil Company (Aramco).

However, as World War II progressed, the United States began to believe that Saudi oil was of strategic importance. As a result, in the interest of national security, the U.S. began to push for greater control over the CASOC concession. On 16 February 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that "the defense of Saudi Arabia is vital to the defense of the United States", thereby making possible the extension of the Lend-Lease program to the kingdom. Later that year, the president approved the creation of the state-owned Petroleum Reserves Corporation, with the intent that it purchase all the stock of CASOC and thus gain control of Saudi oil reserves in the region. However, the plan was met with opposition and ultimately failed. Roosevelt continued to court the government, however—on 14 February 1945, he met with King Ibn Saud aboard the USS Quincy, discussing topics such as the countries' security relationship and the creation of a Jewish country in the Mandate of Palestine.

Bin Saud approved the U.S.'s request to allow the U.S. air force to fly over and construct airfields in Saudi Arabia. The oil installations were rebuilt and protected by the U.S., the pilgrims' routes were protected, and the U.S. gained a much needed direct route for military aircraft heading to Iran and the Soviet Union. The first American consulate was opened in Dhahran in 1944.

After World War II

In 1945, after World War II, Saudi citizens began to feel uncomfortable with U.S. forces still operating in Dhahran. In contrast, Saudi government and officials saw the U.S. forces as a major component of the Saudi military defense strategy. As a result, Ibn Saud balanced the two conflicts by increasing the demands on U.S. forces in Dhahran when the region was highly threatened and lowering it when the danger declined.[citation needed] At this time, due to the start of the Cold War, the U.S. was greatly concerned about Soviet communism and devised a strategy of 'containing' the spread of communism within Arabian Peninsula, putting Saudi security at the top of Washington's list of priorities. Harry S. Truman's administration also promised Bin Saud that he would protect Saudi Arabia from Soviet influence. Therefore, the U.S. increased its presence in the region to protect its interest and its allies. The security relationship between Saudi Arabia and the U.S. was therefore greatly strengthened at the start of the 'cold war'.

President Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon with their host, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, at the Mayflower Hotel in 1957

Foundation of Aramco

The United States of America and Saudi Arabian trade relationship has long revolved around two central concepts: security and oil. Throughout the next two decades, the 50s and 60s, relations between the two nations grew significantly stronger. In 1950, Aramco and Saudi Arabia agreed on a 50/50 profit distribution of the oil discovered in Saudi Arabia. In 1951 the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement was put into action, which allowed for the U.S. arms trade to Saudi Arabia, along with a United States military training mission to be centered in the Saudi Land.

King Saud comes to power (1953)

King Saud and John Kennedy meet at the king's mansion in Palm Beach, Florida in 1962

In the late 1950s, King Saud, the eldest son of Ibn Saud, came to power after his father's death. During King Saud's time U.S.–Saudi relations faced many obstacles concerning the anti-communism strategy. President Dwight D. Eisenhower's new anti-Soviet alliance combined most of "the kingdom's regional rivals and foes", which heightened Saudi suspicions. For this reason, in October 1955, Saud had joined the pro-Soviet strategy with Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. Furthermore, Saud dismissed the U.S. forces and replaced them by Egyptian forces. Thus, this act had sparked and innovated a new and a large conflict in the relationship. But in 1956, during the Suez crisis, Saud began to cooperate with the U.S. again after Eisenhower forced the reversal of the Israeli, British, and French invasion to seize the canal. King Saud had admired the act and decided to start cooperating with the U.S. As a result, Egyptian power greatly declined while U.S.–Saudi relations were simultaneously improving.

Cold War and Soviet containment

In 1957, Saud decided to renew the U.S. base in Dhahran. In less than a year, after the Egyptian–Syrian unification in 1958, Egypt's pro-Soviet strategy had returned to power. Saud had once again joined their alliance, which declined the U.S.–Saudi relationship to a fairly low point especially after he announced in 1961 that he changed his mind on renewing the U.S. base. In 1962, however, Egypt attacked Saudi Arabia from bases in Yemen during the 1962 Yemeni revolution because of Saudi Arabia's Anti-revolution propaganda, which made Saud seek the U.S. support. President John F. Kennedy immediately responded to Saud's request by sending U.S. warplanes in July 1963 to the war zone to stop the attack which was putting U.S. interests at risk. At the end of the war, shortly before Prince Faisal became king, the relationship rebuilt itself to become healthy again.

As the United Kingdom withdrew from the Persian Gulf region in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. was reluctant to take on new security commitments. Instead, the Nixon administration sought to rely on local allies to "police" American interests (see Nixon Doctrine). In the Persian Gulf region, this meant relying on Saudi Arabia and Iran as "twin pillars" of regional security. Whereas in 1970 the U.S. provided less than $16 million to Saudi Arabia in military aid, that number increased to $312 million by 1972.: 22 As part of the "twin pillars" strategy, the U.S. also attempted to improve relations between the Saudis and the Iranians, such as by persuading Iran to remove its territorial claim to Bahrain.: 21

Oil embargo and energy crises

See also: 1973 oil crisis

In November 1964, Faisal became the new king after the conflicts he had with his brother Saud, the erstwhile king. The U.S., on the other hand, was not sure about the outcome of such unplanned change in the Saudi monarchy. Faisal, however, continued the cooperation with the U.S. until October 20, 1973. Then came the low point of the relationship before 9/11, as Faisal decided to contribute in an oil embargo against the U.S. and Europe in favor of the Arab position during the Yom Kippur War. That caused an energy crisis in the U.S.

"America's complete Israel support against the Arabs makes it extremely difficult for us to continue to supply the United States with oil, or even remain friends with the United States," said Faisal in an interview with international media.

Despite the tensions caused by the oil embargo, the U.S. wished to resume relations with the Saudis. Indeed, the great oil wealth accumulated as a result of price increases allowed the Saudis to purchase large sums of American military technology. The embargo was lifted in March 1974 after the U.S. pressured Israel into negotiating with Syria over the Golan Heights. Three months later, "Washington and Riyadh signed a wide-ranging agreement on expanded economic and military cooperation." In the 1975 fiscal year, the two countries signed $2 billion worth of military contracts, including an agreement to send Saudi Arabia 60 fighter jets.: 31 The Saudis also argued (partially on behalf of American desires) to keep OPEC price increases in the mid-1970s lower than Iraq and Iran initially wanted.: 22

The Saudis' increase of oil production to stabilize the oil price and the support of anti-communism have all contributed to closer relations with the U.S. In January 1979, the U.S. sent F-15 fighters to Saudi Arabia for further protection from communism. Furthermore, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia were both supporting anti-communist groups in Afghanistan and struggling countries, one of those groups later became known as the Al-Qaida terrorist organization.

King Fahd with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Ivana and Donald Trump in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.

Government purchases

After the Cold War, U.S.–Saudi relations were improving. The U.S. and U.S. companies were actively engaged and paid handsomely for preparing and administrating the rebuilding of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia transferred $100 billion to the United States for administration, construction, weapons, and in the 1970s and 1980s higher education scholarships to the U.S. During that era the U.S. built and administrated numerous military academies, navy ports, and Air Force military airbases. Many of these military facilities were influenced by the U.S., with the needs of cold war aircraft and deployment strategies in mind. Also, the Saudis purchased a great deal of weapons that varied from F-15 war planes to M1 Abrams main battle tanks that later proved useful during the Gulf War. The U.S. pursued a policy of building up and training the Saudi military as a counterweight to Shiite extremism and revolution following the revolution in Iran. The U.S. provided top of the line equipment and training, and consulted the Saudi government frequently, acknowledging them as the most important Islamic leader in that part of the world, and a key player in the U.S. security strategy.

The Gulf War

Relations between the two nations solidified even further past the point of the oil embargo, whereas the United States of America sent nearly 500,000 soldiers to Saudi Arabia in attempt to aid in protection against Iraq. Following Operation Desert Shield, which was a response by President George H. W. Bush to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, America kept 5,000 troops in Saudi Arabia in order to maintain their protection and trade relations.

Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 led to the Gulf War, during which the security relationship between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia was greatly strengthened. Concurrently with the U.S. invasion, King Fahd declared war against Iraq. The U.S. was concerned about the safety of Saudi Arabia against Saddam's intention to invade and control the oil reserves in the region. As a result, after King Fahd's approval, President Bush deployed a significant amount of American military forces (up to 543,000 ground troops by the end of the operation) to protect Saudi Arabia from a possible Iraqi invasion; this operation was called Desert Shield. Furthermore, the U.S. sent additional troops in operation Desert Storm with nearly 100,000 Saudi troops sent by Fahd to form a U.S.–Saudi army alliance, along with troops from other allied countries, to attack Iraqi troops in Kuwait and to stop further invasion. During the ground campaign of Operation Desert Storm Iraqi troops were defeated within four days, causing the Iraqis to retreat back to Iraq.

U.S. President George W. Bush and Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia in Crawford, Texas, 25 April 2002

Since the Gulf War, the U.S. had a continued presence of 5,000 troops stationed in Saudi Arabia—a figure that rose to 10,000 during the 2003 conflict in Iraq. [[Operation Southern Watch enforced the no-fly zones over southern Iraq set up after 1991, and the country's oil exports through the shipping lanes of the Persian Gulf are protected by the U.S. Fifth Fleet, based in Bahrain.

September 11, 2001. attacks on U.S.

Main article: September 11 attacks

After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the US and Saudi Arabia began working together against a common enemy that the Saudis had already been fighting for years: Violent Islamist extremists. Saudi intelligence services had agents throughout the Muslim world sniffing out jihadist threats to the Kingdom; the US was under-resourced in these countries and badly needed help, which the Saudis were happy to provide. The global war on terror, as George W. Bush termed it, in many ways repeated the grand US-Saudi strategic alliance against the Soviet Union. The continued presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia was one of the stated motivations behind the September 11 attacks, as well as for the Khobar Towers bombing in 1996. In 2003, the U.S. withdrew most of its troops from Saudi Arabia, though one unit still remains.

2010 U.S. arms sale to Saudi Arabia

On 20 October 2010, U.S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history—an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces.

The U.S. was keen to point out that the arms transfer would increase "interoperability" with U.S. forces. In the 1990–1991 Gulf War, having U.S.-trained Saudi forces, along with military installations built to U.S. specifications, allowed the American armed forces to deploy in a comfortable and familiar battle environment. This new deal would increase these capabilities, as an advanced American military infrastructure is about to be built.

Foreign policy

Upon becoming regent in 2005, King Abdullah's first foreign trip was to China. In 2012, a Saudi–Chinese agreement to cooperate in the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes was signed. Abdullah also welcomed Russian president Vladimir Putin to Riyadh in 2007, awarding him the kingdom's highest honor, the King Abdulaziz Medal. Russia and Saudi Arabia concluded a joint venture between Saudi Aramco and LUKOIL to develop new Saudi gas fields.

2013 rift

Prince Mohammad bin Salman with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Washington, D.C., 13 June 2016

The United States after 2000 developed techniques to recover oil and gas much more cheaply, and soon became an exporter. Instead of depending on purchases of Middle Eastern oil and gas, it became a rival. Alwaleed bin Talal warned Saudi ministers in May 2013 that shale gas production in the U.S. would eventually pose a threat to the kingdom's oil-dependent economy. Despite this, the two countries still maintained a positive relationship.

In October 2013, Saudi intelligence chief Prince Bandar bin Sultan suggested a distancing of Saudi Arabia–United States relations as a result of differences between the two countries over the Syrian civil war and diplomatic overtures between Iran and the Obama administration. The Saudis rejected a rotating seat on the UN Security Council that month (despite previously campaigning for such a seat), in protest of American policy over those issues.

Saudi Arabia was cautiously supportive of a Western-negotiated interim agreement with Iran over its nuclear program. President Obama called King Abdullah to brief him about the agreement, and the White House said the leaders agreed to "consult regularly" about the U.S.'s negotiations with Iran.

Khashoggi assassination

In October 2018, the Jamal Khashoggi case put the U.S. into a difficult situation as Trump and his son-in-law, Jared Kushner, share a strong personal and official bond with Mohammad bin Salman. During an interview, Trump vowed to get to the bottom of the case and that there would be "severe punishment" if the Saudi kingdom is found to be involved in the disappearance or assassination of the journalist. A vexed reply came from the Saudi Foreign Ministry saying if Saudi Arabia "receives any action, it will respond with greater action," citing the oil-rich kingdom's "influential and vital role in the global economy."

Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his advisor Ahmad Asiri (blamed for Khashoggi's death) meeting U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, July 2016

After weeks of denial, Saudi Arabia accepted that Khashoggi died at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul during a "fistfight." Adel al-Jubeir described the journalist's death as a "murder" and a "tremendous mistake." But he denied the knowledge of whereabouts of the body. Following the case, the U.S. promised to revoke the visas of Saudi nationals responsible for Khashoggi's death.

In November 2018, Trump defended Saudi Arabia, despite the country's involvement in the killing of Khashoggi. Experts said it is impossible for Mohammad bin Salman to visit Washington or have a direct relationship with the Trump administration.

However, in November 2018, relations between the United States and Saudi Arabia re-strengthened when Trump nominated John Abizaid, a retired U.S. army general who spoke Arabic as U.S. ambassador to the country. Saudi Arabia also brought a fresh face on board, appointing their first female ambassador, Princess Reema bint Bandar Al Saud, to help calm relations in the wake of Khashoggi's death.

On 12 December 2018, United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations approved a resolution to suspend Yemen conflict-related sales of weapons to Saudi Arabia and impose sanctions on people obstructing humanitarian access in Yemen. Senator Lindsey Graham said, "This sends a global message that just because you're an ally of the United States, you can't kill with impunity. The relationship with Saudi Arabia is not working for America. It is more of a burden than an asset."

On 8 April 2019, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that 16 Saudi nationals involved in Khashoggi's murder, including Mohammed bin Salman's close aid Saud al-Qahtani, have been barred from entering the U.S.

Armenian genocide recognition

In 2019, the United States Congress issued official recognition of the Armenian genocide, which was the first time the United States has officially acknowledged the genocide, having previously only unofficially or partially recognized the genocide. Turkey, which has traditionally denied such genocide to exist, accused the United States of inflaming tensions. Donald Trump has rejected the resolution by the Congress, citing that his administration's stance on the issue had not changed. Despite Trump's denial, the resolution was sponsored by Trump's ally Saudi Arabia, highlighting increasing disdains and distrust toward Turkey from both Saudi Arabia and the United States.

Protesters against the U.S.-backed Saudi-led war on Yemen were led away handcuffed by New York police outside the U.S. mission to the UN on 11 December 2017

First conflict

While the U.S.–Saudi relationship was growing, their first conflict began when the disorder broke between the Jews and Arabs in April 1936 in the British-administrated Palestine mandate. The U.S. favored the establishment of an independent Israeli state, but Saudi Arabia on the other hand, the leading nation in the Islamic and Arab world were supporting the Arab position which sparked up their first conflict. In other words, the U.S. oil interest in Saudi Arabia could be held hostage depending on the circumstances of the conflict. U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt sent the king a letter indicating that it is true that the U.S. supports the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, but it is not in any way responsible for the establishment.[citation needed] Ibn Saud was convinced by the message that the U.S.–Saudi relations had begun to run smooth again. Moreover, in March 1938, CASCO made a big oil discovery in Saudi Arabia booming the oil industry in the country and coincidentally the U.S. became more interested in Saudi oil. As a result, on 4 February 1940, as the World War II was approaching, the U.S. had established a diplomatic presence in Saudi Arabia to have closer relations with the Saudis and to protect it from enemy hand; Bert Fish, former ambassador in Egypt was elected as the U.S. ambassador in Jeddah.

Petrodollar power

U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin and Saudi Prince Khalid bin Salman, July 2021

The United States dollar is the de facto world currency. The petrodollar system originated in the early 1970s in the wake of the Bretton Woods collapse. President Richard Nixon and his Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, feared that the abandonment of the international gold standard under the Bretton Woods arrangement (combined with a growing U.S. trade deficit, and massive debt associated with the ongoing Vietnam War) would cause a decline in the relative global demand of the U.S. dollar. In a series of meetings, the United States and the Saudi royal family made an agreement. The United States would offer military protection for Saudi Arabia's oil fields, and in return the Saudi's would price their oil sales exclusively in United States dollars (in other words, the Saudis were to refuse all other currencies, except the U.S. dollar, as payment for their oil exports).

September 11 attacks

Further information: September 11 attacks

On 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. and in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania by four hijacked airplanes killed 2,977 victims and cost an estimated $150 billion in property and infrastructure damage and economic impact, exceeding the death toll and damage caused by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 60 years earlier. 15 of the 19 hijackers in the attacks came from Saudi Arabia, as did the leader of the hijackers' organization, (Osama bin Laden). In the U.S., there followed considerable negative publicity for, and scrutiny of, Saudi Arabia and its teaching of Islam, and a reassessing of the "oil-for-security" alliance with the Al Saud. A 2002 Council on Foreign Relations Terrorist Financing Task Force report found that "for years, individuals and charities based in Saudi Arabia have been the most important source of funds for al-Qaeda. And for years, Saudi officials have turned a blind eye to this problem."

In the backlash against Saudi Arabia and Wahhabism, the Saudi government was portrayed in the media, Senate hearings, and elsewhere as

a sort of oily heart of darkness, the wellspring of a bleak, hostile value system that is the very antithesis of our own. America's seventy-year alliance with the kingdom has been reappraised as a ghastly mistake, a selling of the soul, a gas-addicted alliance with death.

There was even a proposal at the Defense Policy Board, (an arm of Department of Defense) to consider 'taking Saudi out of Arabia' by forcibly seizing control of the oil fields, giving the Hijaz back to the Hashemites, and delegating control of Medina and Mecca to a multinational committee of moderate, non-Wahhabi Muslims.

In Saudi Arabia itself, anti-American sentiment was described as "intense" and "at an all-time high".

A survey taken by the Saudi intelligence service of "educated Saudis between the ages of 25 and 41" taken shortly after the 9/11 attacks "concluded that 95 percent" of those surveyed supported Bin Laden's cause. (Support for Bin Laden reportedly waned by 2006 and by then, the Saudi population become considerably more pro-American, after Al-Qaeda linked groups staged attacks inside Saudi Arabia.) The proposal at the Defense Policy Board to "take Saudi out of Arabia" was spread as the secret U.S. plan for the kingdom.

In October 2001, The Wall Street Journal reported that Crown Prince Abdullah sent a critical letter to U.S. President George W. Bush on 29 August: "A time comes when peoples and nations part. We are at a crossroads. It is time for the United States and Saudi Arabia to look at their separate interests. Those governments that don't feel the pulse of their people and respond to it will suffer the fate of the Shah of Iran."

Visa page from Saeed al-Ghamdi's Kingdom of Saudi Arabia passport recovered from the United Airlines Flight 93 crash site

For over a year after 9/11 Saudi Minister of the Interior (a powerful post whose jurisdiction included domestic intelligence gathering), Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, insisted that the Saudi hijackers were dupes in a Zionist plot. In December 2002, a Saudi government spokesman declared that his country was the victim of unwarranted American intolerance bordering on hate.

In 2003, several terror attacks targeted U.S. compounds, the Saudi ministry of interior, and several other places occurred inside Saudi Arabia. As a result of these attacks, the U.S. decided to redevelop Saudi law enforcement agencies by providing them with anti-terrorism education, the latest technologies, and by giving them a chance to interact with U.S. law enforcement agencies to gain efficient knowledge and power needed to handle terrorist cases and to enforce anti-terrorist laws.

American politicians and media have accused the Saudi government of supporting terrorism and tolerating a jihadist culture, noting that Osama bin Laden and fifteen out of the nineteen (or 78 percent of) 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia.

15 out of 19 September 11 terrorists were Saudi Arabia nationals

Although some analysts have speculated that Osama bin Laden, who in 1994 had his Saudi nationality revoked and expelled from Saudi Arabia, had chosen 15 Saudi hijackers on purpose to break up the U.S.–Saudi relations, as the U.S. was still suspicious of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi's decided to cooperate with the U.S. on the war on terror. "Terrorism does not belong to any culture, or religion, or political system", said King Abdullah as the opening address of the Counter-terrorism International Conference (CTIC) held in Riyadh in 2005. The cooperation grew broader covering financial, educational, technological aspects both in Saudi Arabia and Muslim-like countries to prevent pro-Al-Qaeda terrorists' activities and ideologies. "It is a high time for the Ulma (Muslim Scholars), and all thinkers, intellectuals, and academics, to shoulder their responsibilities towards the enlightenment of the people, especially the young people, and protect them from deviant ideas" said Sheikh Saleh bin Abdulaziz Alsheikh, Minister of Islamic Affairs, in the CTIC.[citation needed]

Almost all members of the CTIC agreed that Al-Qaeda target less educated Muslims by convincing them that they are warriors of God, but they really convince them to only accomplish their political goals. Three years after the Saudi Serious and active role on anti-terrorist, Al-Qaeda began launching multiple attacks targeting Saudi government buildings and U.S. compounds in Saudi grounds. Their attacks exhibit their revenge against Saudi Arabia's cooperation with the U.S. trying to stop further U.S.–Saudi anti-terrorist movements and trying to corrode the U.S.–Saudi relationship and to annihilate it.[citation needed]

After these changes, the Saudi government was more equipped in preventing terrorist activities. They caught a large number of Saudi terrorists and terrorists from other countries (some of them American) that had connections with al-Qaeda in one way or another. Some of these criminals held high rank in terrorist society, which helped diffuse many terrorist cells.[citation needed] In a matter of months, Saudi law enforcement officials were successfully able to stop and prevent terrorist activities. Also, they were successful in finding the source of terrorist financing.[citation needed]

In March 2018, a U.S. judge formally allowed a suit to move forward against Saudi Arabia government brought by 9/11 survivors and victim's families.

In May 2021, 22 federal lawmakers from New York and New Jersey pressured US President Joe Biden to release the classified FBI documents that cite the role of Saudi Arabia in the 9/11 terror attacks. The lawmakers Ione Republican Nicole Malliotakis and NY Sens. Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand, in their letter to the US Attorney General Merrick Garland challenged the “state secrets privilege” that was invoked by former US Presidents to restrict the classified FBI report from releasing. The evidence of Saudi Arabian involvement in the September 11 attacks first surfaced in a 2012 FBI memo during Operation Encore investigation.

Child abduction

The international abduction of American children to Saudi Arabia provoked sustained criticism and resulted in a Congressional hearing in 2002 where parents of children held in Saudi Arabia gave impassioned testimony related to the abduction of their children. Washington-based Insight ran a series of articles on international abduction during the same period highlighting Saudi Arabia a number of times.

Allegations of funding terrorism

According to a 2009 U.S. State Department communication by Hillary Clinton, United States Secretary of State, (disclosed as part of the Wikileaks U.S. 'cables leaks' controversy in 2010) "donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide". Part of this funding arises through the zakat (an act of charity dictated by Islam) paid by all Saudis to charities, and amounting to at least 2.5% of their income. Although many charities are genuine, others allegedly serve as fronts for money laundering and terrorist financing operations. While many Saudis contribute to those charities in good faith believing their money goes toward good causes, it has been alleged that others know full well the terrorist purposes to which their money will be applied.

In September 2016, the Congress passed the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act that would allow relatives of victims of the September 11 attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for its government's alleged role in the attacks.

Saudi Arabia was involved in the CIA-led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels. Some American officials worried that Syrian rebels being supported had ties to al-Qaeda. In October 2015, Saudi Arabia delivered 500 U.S.-made TOW anti-tank missiles to anti-Assad rebels. Reports indicate that some TOW missiles have ended up in the hands of al-Qaeda in Syria and the Islamic State.

2017 arms deal and war in Yemen

Protest against U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, March 2018

Significant numbers of Americans have criticized the conduct of Saudi Arabia in its ongoing intervention in the Yemeni Civil War, including alleged war crimes such as bombing of hospitals, gas stations, water infrastructure, marketplaces and other groups of civilians, and archaeological monuments; declaring the entire Saada Governorate a military target; use of cluster bombs; and enforcing a blockade of food and medical supplies that has triggered a famine. Critics oppose U.S. support of Saudi Arabia for this operation, which they say does not benefit the national security interests of the United States, and they object to the United States selling arms to Saudi Arabia for use in Yemen.

The approval of the 2017 arms deal was opposed by various lawmakers, including GOP Senators Mike Lee, Rand Paul, Todd Young and Dean Heller along with most Democrat Senators who voted to advance the measure in order to block the sale, citing the human rights violations by Saudi Arabia in the Yemeni Civil War. Among the senators who voted against moving the measure to block the sale were Democratic Senators Joe Donnelly, Claire McCaskill, Bill Nelson, Joe Manchin and Mark Warner along with top Republicans, including Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, Bob Corker and John McCain.

Tulsi Gabbard, a Democratic Representative from Hawaii, criticized the move, saying that Saudi Arabia is "a country with a devastating record of human rights violations at home and abroad, and a long history of providing support to terrorist organizations that threaten the American people". Rand Paul introduced a bill to try to block the plan calling it a "travesty".

U.S. Senator Chris Murphy accused the United States of complicity in Yemen's humanitarian crisis, saying: "Thousands and thousands inside Yemen today are dying. ... This horror is caused in part by our decision to facilitate a bombing campaign that is murdering children and to endorse a Saudi strategy inside Yemen that is deliberately using disease and starvation and the withdrawal of humanitarian support as a tactic."

Khashoggi killing

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(January 2020)
Jamal Khashoggi (left) at a 2018 Project on Middle East Democracy forum in Washington, D.C.

In October 2018, serious allegations were put on Saudi for murdering a Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul. U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo urged Saudi Arabia to "support a thorough investigation" regarding the disappearance and "to be transparent about the results." Trump said, "We cannot let this happen to reporters, to anybody. We're demanding everything. We want to see what's going on there."

Lindsey Graham, a senior Republican senator's reaction was stern, as he said "there would be hell to pay" if Saudi is involved in the murder of Khashoggi. He further added, "If they're this brazen it shows contempt. Contempt for everything we stand for, contempt for the relationship."

Four of the alleged perpetrators accused of the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi reportedly received their paramilitary training from the United States in 2017. The training provided and approved under a State Department contract with an Arkansas-based security firm, Tier 1 Group, was publicly revealed in 2021. The State Department formally issued a license of training to the Saudi Royal Guard in 2014. The training started during the Obama administration and continued till the first year of President Donald Trump. Louis Bremer, a senior executive from Tier 1 Group’s parent firm confirmed the role of his company in the training of the Saudis.

Freedom of religion

Ambassador at Large Sam Brownback condemned the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for its religious freedom abuses, on the release of 2018 Report on International Religious Freedom by the State Department. Brownback called Saudi as "one of the worst actors in the world on religious persecution" and hoped to see “actions take place in a positive direction”. The report details discrimination against and maltreatment of Shiite Muslims in Saudi Arabia that includes the mass execution of 34 individuals in April 2019, out of which a majority were Shiite Muslims.

2019 arms legislation

In the wake of a declining human rights record, on 17 July 2019, lawmakers in Washington backed a resolution to block the sale of precision-guided munitions to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The measure would have denied billions of dollars of weapon sale to the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen where thousands have been killed in the 4-year long war. President Trump vetoed three such resolutions, and there was not a two-thirds majority in the Senate to override.

On 3 August 2020, Democrats in Congress issued subpoenas in probe of the U.S. Arms Sales to Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Democrats demanded the State Department officials to testify as part of investigation of 2019 arms sale and the dismissal of the State Department's inspector general, Steve Linick, by President Donald Trump in May on Pompeo's advice.

On 11 August 2020, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was cleared of charges of wrongdoing in a disputed arms sale to Saudi Arabia and UAE. He had been accused of abuse of power after he used an obscure emergency procedure to bypass congressional refusal to approve an $8 billion arms sale to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Jordan in May 2019.

2016 U.S. presidential election

In August 2016, Donald Trump Jr. had a meeting with an envoy representing Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince and de facto ruler Mohammad bin Salman, and Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. The envoy offered help to the Trump presidential campaign, which would be illegal under U.S. law. The meeting included Lebanese-American lobbyist George Nader, Joel Zamel, an Israeli specialist in social media manipulation, and Blackwater founder Erik Prince.

Special Counsel Robert Mueller investigated the Trump campaign's possible ties to Saudi Arabia. Lebanese-American businessman Ahmad Khawaja claimed that Saudi Arabia and UAE illegally funnelled millions of dollars into the Trump's campaign.

In April 2017, U.S. President Donald J. Trump attempted to repair the United States' relationship with Saudi Arabia by having the U.S. Defense Secretary visit Saudi Arabia. Trump has stated that he aims to help and assist Saudi Arabia in terms of military protection in order to receive beneficial economic compensation for the United States in return.

Pensacola shooting

On December 6, 2019, an aviation student from Saudi Arabia Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani shot three people dead and injured eight others at U.S. Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida. This attack is concluded as a terrorist attack by FBI following the investigation. Alshamrani himself is a second lieutenant in the Royal Saudi Air Force who was participating in a training program sponsored by the Pentagon as part of a security cooperation agreement with Saudi Arabia. Later, the Navy suspended flight training for all Saudi military aviation students pending the results of the FBI investigation.

Coronavirus outbreak

On 3 July, 2020, it was reported that dozens of American diplomats will be leaving Saudi Arabia, along with their families due to the kingdom's failure at containing the coronavirus outbreak, even as its economy reopens. Some of the diplomats believe that the government of Saudi Arabia may be underreporting the number of coronavirus cases by thousands.

Main article: September 11 attacks
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry with King Salman of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh, 25 August 2016

Saudi Arabia engaged the Washington, D.C., lobbying firm of Patton Boggs as registered foreign agents in the wake of the public relations disaster when knowledge of the identities of suspected hijackers became known. They also hired the PR and lobbying firm Qorvis for $14 million a year. Qorvis engaged in a PR frenzy that publicized the "9/11 Commission finding that there was 'no evidence that the Saudi government as an institution or senior Saudi officials individually funded [Al Qaeda]'—while omitting the report's conclusion that 'Saudi Arabia has been a problematic ally in combating Islamic extremism.'"

According to at least one journalist (John R. Bradley), the ruling Saudi family was caught between depending for military defense on the United States, while also depending for domestic support on the Wahhabi religious establishment, which as a matter of religious doctrine "ultimately seeks the West's destruction", including that of its ruler's purported ally—the U.S. During the Iraq War, Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud Al-Faisal, criticized the U.S.-led invasion as a "colonial adventure" aimed only at gaining control of Iraq's natural resources. But at the same time, Bradley writes, the Saudi government secretly allowed the U.S. military to "essentially" manage its air campaign and launch special operations against Iraq from inside Saudi borders, using "at least three" Saudi air bases.

The two nations cooperate and share information about al-Qaeda[citation needed] and leaders from both countries continue to meet to discuss their mutual interests and bilateral relations.

Saudi Arabia and the U.S. are strategic allies, and since President Obama took office in 2009, the U.S. has sold $110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia. The National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 began cooperating with the Saudi Ministry of Interior in an effort to help ensure "regime continuity". An April 2013 top secret memo shows the agency's program of providing "direct analytic and technical support" to the Saudis on "internal security" matters. The CIA had already been gathering intelligence for the regime long before.

In January 2015, after the death of King Abdullah, the White House and President Obama praised him as a leader and mentioned "the importance of the U.S.–Saudi relationship as a force for stability and security in the Middle East and beyond."

U.S. Navy has actively participated in the Saudi-led naval blockade of Yemen.

In March 2015, President Barack Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia. U.S. government lawyers have considered whether the United States is legally a "co-belligerent" in the conflict. Such a finding would oblige the U.S. to investigate allegations of war crimes by the Saudi coalition, and U.S. military personnel could be subject to prosecution.

American journalist Glenn Greenwald wrote in October 2016: "From the start of the hideous Saudi bombing campaign against Yemen 18 months ago, two countries have played active, vital roles in enabling the carnage: the U.S. and U.K. The atrocities committed by the Saudis would have been impossible without their steadfast, aggressive support."

In September 2016, Senators Rand Paul and Chris Murphy worked to prevent the proposed sale of $1.15 billion in arms from the U.S. to Saudi Arabia. The U.S. Senate voted 71 to 27 against the Murphy–Paul resolution to block the U.S.–Saudi arms deal.

While the trade based relationship between the United States of America and Saudi Arabia is one that is vastly affected by political disagreements and positions, the trade has yet to cease since its conception. Relations between the two nations have never come to a complete halt throughout history due to the economic advantages both nations gain from one another. Statistically, the trade balance, using 2016 as a benchmark year, has declined to a deficit of 2.5 billion dollars over the 2017 year, popular opinion is that this exemplifies strong future relations between the two nations through the political and militaristic common grounds the United States has been developing with Saudi Arabia. Many experts believe the United States of America and Saudi Arabia are almost 'perfect' for trade due to oil being an essential commodity to the American people and the overall economy of the United States.

In January 2017, U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis "reaffirmed the importance of the U.S.–Saudi Arabia strategic relationship". Mattis has voiced support for a Saudi Arabian-led military campaign against Yemen's Shiite rebels. He asked the President to remove restrictions on U.S. military support for Saudi Arabia. On 10 February 2017, CIA director Mike Pompeo awarded the Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad bin Nayef with the CIA's "George Tenet" Medal.

On February 19, 2021, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin spoke to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, saying that they "discussed the continued commitment to the 70-year US-Saudi security partnership". Austin expressed support for Saudi Arabia in the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict.

Energy and oil

Saudi Arabia has been an enticing trade partner with the United States from the early 20th century. The biggest commodity traded between the two nations is oil. The strength of the relationship is notoriously attributed to the United States' demand on oil throughout the post modern era, approximately 10,000 barrels of petroleum are imported daily to United States since 2012 ("U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"). Saudi Arabia has consistently been in need of weapons, reinforcement, and arms due to the consistent rising tensions throughout the Middle East during the late 20th century and early 21st century. Post 2016, the United States of America has continued to trade with Saudi Arabia mainly for their oil related goods. The top exports of Saudi Arabia are Crude Petroleum ($96.1B), Refined Petroleum ($13B), Ethylene Polymers($10.1B), Propylene Polymers ($4.93B) and Ethers ($3.6B), using the 1992 revision of the HS (Harmonized System) classification. Its top imports are Cars ($11.8B), Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft ($3.48B), Packaged Medicaments ($3.34B), Broadcasting Equipment ($3.27B) and Aircraft Parts ($2.18B)".

On 9 August 2020, Saudi Arabia announced that it would cut down on oil supply to the U.S. for the third time in one year, in an attempt to suppress stockpiles in the global oil market to rebalance the demand and supply. However, experts claim that the strategy worked in 2017 when the demand for oil was high and may bear challenges and risks at the present time, due to the impact of the ongoing coronavirus crisis on oil demand.

Recent years

In the year 2017, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the United States of America's 20th ranked export market across the globe and ranked 21st in import markets. The most prominent goods set forth as exports to Saudi Arabia in the designated year (2017) were "aircraft ($3.6 billion), vehicles ($2.6 billion), machinery ($2.2 billion), electrical machinery ($1.6 billion), and arms and ammunition ($1.4 billion). In terms of statistics, the United States - Saudi Arabian trade declined approximately nine percent in U.S. exports in 2017 compared to the year prior; however, 2017 exemplified great reparation of the relationship through a 57% increase of exports from 2007. Imports between the two nations increased approximately 11 percent from 2017 to 2018, which is an overall decline of 47% since the year fiscal 2007. The entities that the United States of America seeks to import from Saudi Arabia has hardly changed over the years: "The top import categories (2-digit HS) in 2017 were: mineral fuels ($18 billion), organic chemicals ($303 million), special other (returns) ($247 million), aluminum ($164 million), and fertilizers ($148 million)".

Controversies

This section duplicates the scope of other sections, specifically #Controversies. Please discuss this issue on the talk page and edit it to conform with Wikipedia's Manual of Style by replacing the section with a link and a summary of the repeated material or by spinning off the repeated text into an article in its own right.(January 2020)

Saudi Arabia and the United States of America have never fully eliminated their trading agreements however the relationship has experience consistent disagreements through its history from its conception. In the height of the Syrian Civil War, which started in March 2011, Saudi Arabia expressed disapproval of the United States lack of action in eradicating Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. The United States' has consistently expressed disapproval of the treatment of Saudi Arabian women within the confines of the Kingdom. The famous criticisms of the early 21st century behind the relationship between the two countries is due to the mix of the disregard of the aforementioned issues and the public knowledge that trade between Saudi Arabia and the United States has trended upwards in the post 9/11 world. In recent years, the imports and exports of U.S- Saudi trades have not shown a percentage increase each year, where it topped out around 2012 and has been in slight fluctuation since, but the overall trend of trade has shown a positive slope. In 2001: U.S. exports were at $5,957.60 and imports were at $13,272.20 (in millions of U.S. dollars) whereas, controversially as it is believed, in 2012 the United States witnessed $17,961.20 in exports and $55,667.00 in imports.

The most damaging occurrence to ever affect the trade relationship between Saudi Arabia and the U.S. occurred on September 11, 2001 due to Saudi Arabia's believed involvement in the 9/11 attacks that occurred in multiple cities throughout the United States. Tensions also rose between the two nations throughout Barack Obama's presidency due to the United States agreement in the Iran, when the U.S. removed oil sanctions on Iran and allowed them to sell their oil to the U.S. The relationship was also hindered by the oil market crash of 2014, propelled by increased shale oil production in the United States, which in turn caused Saudi Arabian exports of oil to decrease by nearly fifty percent. Oil went from around $110 a barrel prior to the 2014 crash, to about $27 a barrel by the beginning of 2016. This relationship worsened after the U.S. legislation passed a bill of a that allowed victims of the 9/11 attacks to sue the Saudi Arabian government for their losses in 2016.

Saudi Arabia does not have an extradition treaty with the United States. The Saudi government has on numerous occasions been actively involved with helping Saudi citizens flee the United States after they have committed serious crimes. In 2019, U.S. federal law enforcement officials launched an investigation into cases involving the disappearance of Saudi Arabian students from Oregon and other parts of the country, while they faced charges in the U.S. Amidst the investigation, it has been speculated that the Saudi government helped the students in escaping from the U.S. In October 2019, the U.S. Senate passed a bill by Sen. Ron Wyden of Oregon, requiring the FBI to declassify any information regarding Saudi Arabia's possible role. Oregon officials demand extradition of these suspects by Saudi Arabia since they were involved in violent crimes causing bodily harm and death.

On 25 September 2020, the government of Saudi Arabia offered a bond worth $500,000 as cashier's check to the Tulsa County Sheriff Office from the Saudi Arabian consulate in Houston, Texas to bail out Omar Ba-Abbad, an Uber driver charged with the first-degree murder of a passenger in June 2020. Ba-Abbad was driving for a cab service provider, Uber, in June when he got into a fight with a passenger, Jeremy Shadrick. Ba-Abbad ran over Shadrick in the fight, killing him as a result. Ba-Abbad has claimed in his defense that his act was out of self-defense. However, the District Attorney contradicted his claim with video evidence proving otherwise.

U.S. President Barack Obama shakes hands with King Salman, Riyadh, 27 January 2015
U.S. President Donald Trump, King Salman, and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, 21 May 2017

After President George W. Bush's two visits to Saudi Arabia in 2008—which was the first time a U.S. president visited a foreign country twice in less than four months—and King Abdullah's three visits to the U.S.—2002, 2005 and 2008—the relations have surely reached their peak.[citation needed] The two nations have expanded their relationship beyond oil and counter terrorism efforts. For example, King Abdullah has allocated funds for young Saudis to study in the United States. One of the most important reasons that King Abdullah has given full scholarships to young Saudis is to give them western perspective and to impart a positive impression of Saudi Arabia on the American people.[citation needed] On the other hand, President Bush discussed the world economic crisis and what the U.S.–Saudi relationship can do about it. During meetings with the Saudis, the Bush Administration took the Saudi policies very seriously because of their prevalent economic and defensive presence in the region and its great media influence on the Islamic world. By and large, the two leaders have made many decisions that deal with security, economics, and business aspects of the relationship, making it in the top of its fame.[citation needed]

In early 2018, the Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman visited the United States where he met with many top politicians, business people and Hollywood stars, including President Donald Trump, Bill and Hillary Clinton, Henry Kissinger, Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos and George W. Bush.

2017 U.S.–Saudi arms deal

U.S. President Donald Trump authorized a nearly $110B arms deal with Saudi Arabia, worth $300B over a ten-year period, signed on the 20 May 2017, this includes training and close co-operation with the Saudi Arabian military. Signed documents included letters of interest and letters of intent and no actual contracts.

U.S. defense stocks reached all-time highs after Donald J. Trump announced a $110 billion arms deal to Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia signed billions of dollars of deals with U.S. companies in the arms industry and petroleum industry, including Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Raytheon, General Dynamics, Northrop Grumman, General Electric, Exxon Mobil, Halliburton, Honeywell, McDermott International, Jacobs Engineering Group, National Oilwell Varco, Nabors Industries, Weatherford International, Schlumberger and Dow Chemical.

In August, 2018, a laser-guided Mark 82 bomb sold by the U.S. and built by Lockheed Martin was used in the Saudi-led coalition airstrike on a school bus in Yemen, which killed 51 people, including 40 children.

On May 27, 2020, Bob Menendez, a Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee claimed during a CNN op-ed that the Trump administration had been covertly working on plans of initiating a new sale of weapons contract worth $1.8 billion to Saudi Arabia. According to the U.S.-based Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) analysis, American weapons in Yemen have killed at least 100,000 civilians, and over 10,000 people have died as a result of preventable diseases and epidemics like cholera and dengue fever, most of them children.

According to a draft version of the legislation reviewed by the CNN, the Democratic legislatures Senator Robert Menendez, Patrick Leahy and Tim Kaine were planning to introduce a legislation that put strict human rights constraints on the United States foreign arms sales, in the wake of the arms sold in the past by U.S. to countries with poor human rights records like, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. President Donald Trump has also received wide criticism for declaring emergency to bypass the opposition, in order to sell weapons worth billions of dollars to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, accused for conducting war crimes.

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  61. Rodenbeck, Max (21 October 2004)."Unloved in Arabia". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved8 July 2020. Judging by the tenor of much that has been said about Saudi Arabia since September 11, quite a few people seem to think something similar should be done with the present-day Saudis. In Congress, on American television, and in print, their country has been portrayed as a sort of oily heart of darkness, the wellspring of a bleak, hostile value system that is the very antithesis of our own. America's seventy-year alliance with the kingdom has been reappraised as a ghastly mistake, a selling of the soul, a gas-addicted dalliance with death.
  62. Lacey, Robert (2009).Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking Press. pp. 288–289. ISBN 978-0-670-02118-5 – via Internet Archive. In July that year [2002] Laurent Murawiec, a French analyst with the RAND Corporation, had given a 24-slide presentation to the prestigious Defense Policy Board, an arm of the Pentagon, suggesting that the United States should consider 'taking [the] Saudi out of Arabia' by forcibly seizing control of the oil fields, giving the Hijaz back to the Hashemites, and delegating control of the holy cities to a multinational committee of moderate, non-Wahhabi Muslims: the House of Saud should be sent home to Riyadh. 'Saudi Arabia supports our enemies and attacks our allies,' argued Murawiec, a protégé of Richard Perle's, the neocon advocate of war with Iraq who chaired the Policy Board. 'The Saudis are active at every level of the terror chain, from planners to financiers, from cadre to foot soldier, from ideologist to cheerleaders.' They were 'the kernel of evil, the prime mover, the most dangerous opponent' in the Middle East.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related toRelations of Saudi Arabia and the United States.

Saudi Arabia–United States relations
Saudi Arabia United States relations Language Watch Edit Bilateral relations between the Saudi Arabia and the United States began in 1933 when full diplomatic relations were established and became formalized in the 1951 Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement Despite the differences between the two countries an Islamic absolute monarchy and a secular constitutional republic the two countries have been allies Former Presidents George W Bush and Barack Obama have close and strong relations with senior members of the Saudi Royal Family 1 Saudi American relationsSaudi Arabia United StatesDiplomatic missionEmbassy of Saudi Arabia Washington D C Embassy of the United States RiyadhEnvoySaudi Ambassador to the United States Princess Reema bint Bandar Al SaudAmerican Ambassador to Saudi ArabiaU S President Donald Trump with the Saudi Arabia Prince Mohammed bin Salman in the White House March 2017 Ever since the modern U S Saudi relationship began in 1945 the United States has been willing to overlook many of the kingdom s more controversial aspects such as Wahhabism its human rights and alleged state sponsored terrorism as long as it maintained oil production and supported U S national security policies 2 Since World War II the two countries have been allied in opposition to Communism in support of stable oil prices stability in the oil fields and oil shipping of the Persian Gulf and stability in the economies of Western countries where Saudis have invested In particular the two countries were allies against the Soviets in Afghanistan and in the expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait in 1991 The two countries have been in disagreement with regard to the State of Israel as well as the embargo of the U S and its allies by Saudi Arabia and other Middle East oil exporters during the 1973 oil crisis which raised oil prices considerably the 2003 U S led invasion of Iraq which Saudi Arabia opposed aspects of the War on Terror and what many in the U S see as the pernicious influence of Saudi Arabia after the September 11 attacks In recent years particularly the Barack Obama administration the relationship between the two countries became strained and witnessed major decline 3 4 5 However the relationship was strengthened by President Donald Trump s trip to Saudi Arabia in May 2017 6 7 8 The October 2018 assassination of Saudi dissident and Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi in a Saudi consulate in Turkey caused a serious rift between the countries The United States sanctioned some Saudi nationals and Congress unsuccessfully attempted to cut off U S weapons sales to Saudi related to the war in Yemen due to opposition from the Trump administration Turkish authorities and U S intelligence agencies concluded the killing was done on the order of Mohammed bin Salman the crown prince of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia subsidized its oil exports to the U S until President George W Bush proposed the overthrow of the Iraqi government in 2002 9 The shale oil boom enabled the United States to become a net exporter of petroleum products in 2019 making the U S economy significantly less dependent on Saudi oil Arms sales to Saudi Arabia remain an important U S export The U S Department of Defense acts as an intermediary charging 7 of such sales allowing it to fund training activities in other countries such as Bolivia 9 Despite the strong relationship between the two countries opinion polls between the two nations show negative feelings between the American people and Saudi people in recent years Most American criticism pertains to lack of human rights in Saudi Arabia and the alleged role Saudi Arabia played in the September 11 attacks A poll of Saudis by Zogby International 2002 and BBC between October 2005 and January 2006 found 51 of Saudis had hostile feelings towards the American people in 2002 10 in 2005 2006 Saudi public opinion was sharply divided with 38 viewing U S influence positively and 38 viewing U S influence negatively 11 As of 2019 Saudi Arabian students form the 4th largest group of international students studying in the United States representing 3 4 of all foreigners pursuing higher education in the U S 12 A December 2013 poll found 57 of Americans polled had an unfavorable view of Saudi Arabia and 27 favorable 8 Contents 1 History 1 1 Early history recognition 1 2 World War II 1 3 After World War II 1 4 Foundation of Aramco 1 5 King Saud comes to power 1953 1 6 Cold War and Soviet containment 1 7 Oil embargo and energy crises 1 8 Government purchases 1 9 The Gulf War 1 10 September 11 2001 attacks on U S 1 11 2010 U S arms sale to Saudi Arabia 1 12 Foreign policy 1 13 2013 rift 1 14 Khashoggi assassination 1 15 Armenian genocide recognition 2 Controversies 2 1 First conflict 2 2 Petrodollar power 2 3 September 11 attacks 2 4 Child abduction 2 5 Allegations of funding terrorism 2 6 2017 arms deal and war in Yemen 2 7 Khashoggi killing 2 8 Freedom of religion 2 9 2019 arms legislation 2 10 2016 U S presidential election 2 11 Pensacola shooting 2 12 Coronavirus outbreak 3 Post 9 11 relationship 4 Trade relations 4 1 Energy and oil 4 2 Recent years 4 3 Controversies 5 Notable diplomatic visits 5 1 2017 U S Saudi arms deal 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory EditEarly history recognition Edit King Abdulaziz Al Saud Ibn Saud as an appellation the founder of Saudi Arabia developed close ties with the United States After unifying his country in 1928 he set about gaining international recognition Great Britain was the first country to recognize Saudi Arabia as an independent state as the British had provided protection of Saudi territories from the Turks for many years 13 In May 1931 the U S officially recognized Saudi Arabia by extending full diplomatic recognition 14 15 At the same time Ibn Saud granted a concession to the U S company Standard Oil of California allowing them to explore for oil in the country s Eastern Province al Hasa 15 The company gave the Saudi government 35 000 and also paid assorted rental fees and royalty payments In November 1931 a treaty was signed by both nations which included favored nation status The relationship was still weak however as America did not have an interest in establishing missions in Saudi Arabia at the time Saudi affairs were handled by the U S delegation in Cairo Egypt The U S finally sent a resident ambassador in 1943 14 The relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States of America was economically strengthened in 1933 when Standard Oil of California was given a concession to explore the Saudi Arabian lands for oil The subsidiary of this company regarded as California Arabian Standard Oil Company later dubbed Saudi Aramco carried out a fruitful exploration in 1938 finding oil for the first time The relationship between the two nations strengthened throughout the next decade establishing a full diplomatic relationship through a symbolic acceptance of an American envoy in Saudi Arabia World War II Edit King Ibn Saud converses with President Franklin D Roosevelt on board the USS Quincy after the Yalta Conference in 1945 As the U S Saudi relationship was growing slowly World War II was beginning its first phase with Saudi Arabia remaining neutral The U S was deeply involved in World War II and as a result U S Saudi relations were put on the back burner This negligence left Saudi Arabia vulnerable to attack Italy an Axis power bombed a CASOC oil installation in Dhahran crippling Saudi Arabia s oil production 14 This attack left Bin Saud scrambling for to find an external power that would protect the country fearing further attacks that would most likely cease the country s oil production and the flow of pilgrims coming into Mecca to perform Hajj the base of the Saudi power and economy at that time 13 CASOC Struck oil near Dhahran but production over the next several years remained low only about 42 5 million barrels between 1941 and 1945 less than 1 of the output in the United States over the same time period CASOC was later renamed the Arabian American Oil Company Aramco However as World War II progressed the United States began to believe that Saudi oil was of strategic importance As a result in the interest of national security the U S began to push for greater control over the CASOC concession On 16 February 1943 President Franklin D Roosevelt declared that the defense of Saudi Arabia is vital to the defense of the United States thereby making possible the extension of the Lend Lease program to the kingdom Later that year the president approved the creation of the state owned Petroleum Reserves Corporation with the intent that it purchase all the stock of CASOC and thus gain control of Saudi oil reserves in the region However the plan was met with opposition and ultimately failed Roosevelt continued to court the government however on 14 February 1945 he met with King Ibn Saud aboard the USS Quincy discussing topics such as the countries security relationship and the creation of a Jewish country in the Mandate of Palestine Bin Saud approved the U S s request to allow the U S air force to fly over and construct airfields in Saudi Arabia The oil installations were rebuilt and protected by the U S 14 the pilgrims routes were protected 13 and the U S gained a much needed direct route for military aircraft heading to Iran and the Soviet Union 14 The first American consulate was opened in Dhahran in 1944 16 After World War II Edit In 1945 after World War II Saudi citizens began to feel uncomfortable with U S forces still operating in Dhahran In contrast Saudi government and officials saw the U S forces as a major component of the Saudi military defense strategy 17 As a result Ibn Saud balanced the two conflicts by increasing the demands on U S forces in Dhahran when the region was highly threatened and lowering it when the danger declined citation needed At this time due to the start of the Cold War the U S was greatly concerned about Soviet communism and devised a strategy of containing the spread of communism within Arabian Peninsula putting Saudi security at the top of Washington s list of priorities 18 Harry S Truman s administration also promised Bin Saud that he would protect Saudi Arabia from Soviet influence Therefore the U S increased its presence in the region to protect its interest and its allies 17 The security relationship between Saudi Arabia and the U S was therefore greatly strengthened at the start of the cold war 18 President Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon with their host King Saud of Saudi Arabia at the Mayflower Hotel in 1957 Foundation of Aramco Edit The United States of America and Saudi Arabian trade relationship has long revolved around two central concepts security and oil Throughout the next two decades the 50s and 60s relations between the two nations grew significantly stronger In 1950 Aramco and Saudi Arabia agreed on a 50 50 profit distribution of the oil discovered in Saudi Arabia In 1951 the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement was put into action which allowed for the U S arms trade to Saudi Arabia along with a United States military training mission to be centered in the Saudi Land 19 King Saud comes to power 1953 Edit King Saud and John Kennedy meet at the king s mansion in Palm Beach Florida in 1962 In the late 1950s King Saud the eldest son of Ibn Saud came to power after his father s death During King Saud s time U S Saudi relations faced many obstacles concerning the anti communism strategy President Dwight D Eisenhower s new anti Soviet alliance combined most of the kingdom s regional rivals and foes which heightened Saudi suspicions 14 For this reason in October 1955 Saud had joined the pro Soviet strategy with Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser 17 Furthermore Saud dismissed the U S forces and replaced them by Egyptian forces Thus this act had sparked and innovated a new and a large conflict in the relationship But in 1956 during the Suez crisis Saud began to cooperate with the U S again after Eisenhower forced the reversal of the Israeli British and French invasion to seize the canal King Saud had admired the act and decided to start cooperating with the U S 17 As a result Egyptian power greatly declined while U S Saudi relations were simultaneously improving Cold War and Soviet containment Edit In 1957 Saud decided to renew the U S base in Dhahran In less than a year after the Egyptian Syrian unification in 1958 Egypt s pro Soviet strategy had returned to power Saud had once again joined their alliance which declined the U S Saudi relationship to a fairly low point especially after he announced in 1961 that he changed his mind on renewing the U S base 20 In 1962 however Egypt attacked Saudi Arabia from bases in Yemen during the 1962 Yemeni revolution because of Saudi Arabia s Anti revolution propaganda which made Saud seek the U S support President John F Kennedy immediately responded to Saud s request by sending U S warplanes in July 1963 to the war zone to stop the attack which was putting U S interests at risk 17 At the end of the war shortly before Prince Faisal became king the relationship rebuilt itself to become healthy again 20 As the United Kingdom withdrew from the Persian Gulf region in the late 1960s and early 1970s the U S was reluctant to take on new security commitments Instead the Nixon administration sought to rely on local allies to police American interests see Nixon Doctrine In the Persian Gulf region this meant relying on Saudi Arabia and Iran as twin pillars of regional security Whereas in 1970 the U S provided less than 16 million to Saudi Arabia in military aid that number increased to 312 million by 1972 21 22 As part of the twin pillars strategy the U S also attempted to improve relations between the Saudis and the Iranians such as by persuading Iran to remove its territorial claim to Bahrain 21 21 Oil embargo and energy crises Edit See also 1973 oil crisis In November 1964 Faisal became the new king after the conflicts he had with his brother Saud the erstwhile king The U S on the other hand was not sure about the outcome of such unplanned change in the Saudi monarchy Faisal however continued the cooperation with the U S until October 20 1973 Then came the low point of the relationship before 9 11 as Faisal decided to contribute in an oil embargo against the U S and Europe in favor of the Arab position during the Yom Kippur War That caused an energy crisis in the U S America s complete Israel support against the Arabs makes it extremely difficult for us to continue to supply the United States with oil or even remain friends with the United States said Faisal in an interview with international media 17 Despite the tensions caused by the oil embargo the U S wished to resume relations with the Saudis Indeed the great oil wealth accumulated as a result of price increases allowed the Saudis to purchase large sums of American military technology The embargo was lifted in March 1974 after the U S pressured Israel into negotiating with Syria over the Golan Heights Three months later Washington and Riyadh signed a wide ranging agreement on expanded economic and military cooperation In the 1975 fiscal year the two countries signed 2 billion worth of military contracts including an agreement to send Saudi Arabia 60 fighter jets 21 31 The Saudis also argued partially on behalf of American desires to keep OPEC price increases in the mid 1970s lower than Iraq and Iran initially wanted 21 22 The Saudis increase of oil production to stabilize the oil price and the support of anti communism have all contributed to closer relations with the U S 20 In January 1979 the U S sent F 15 fighters to Saudi Arabia for further protection from communism 20 Furthermore the U S and Saudi Arabia were both supporting anti communist groups in Afghanistan and struggling countries one of those groups later became known as the Al Qaida terrorist organization 22 King Fahd with U S President Ronald Reagan and Ivana and Donald Trump in 1985 The U S and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti Soviet fighters in Afghanistan Government purchases Edit After the Cold War U S Saudi relations were improving The U S and U S companies were actively engaged and paid handsomely for preparing and administrating the rebuilding of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia transferred 100 billion to the United States for administration construction weapons and in the 1970s and 1980s higher education scholarships to the U S 23 During that era the U S built and administrated numerous military academies navy ports and Air Force military airbases Many of these military facilities were influenced by the U S with the needs of cold war aircraft and deployment strategies in mind Also the Saudis purchased a great deal of weapons that varied from F 15 war planes to M1 Abrams main battle tanks that later proved useful during the Gulf War 23 The U S pursued a policy of building up and training the Saudi military as a counterweight to Shiite extremism and revolution following the revolution in Iran The U S provided top of the line equipment and training and consulted the Saudi government frequently acknowledging them as the most important Islamic leader in that part of the world and a key player in the U S security strategy The Gulf War Edit Relations between the two nations solidified even further past the point of the oil embargo whereas the United States of America sent nearly 500 000 soldiers to Saudi Arabia in attempt to aid in protection against Iraq 24 Following Operation Desert Shield which was a response by President George H W Bush to Iraq s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 America kept 5 000 troops in Saudi Arabia in order to maintain their protection and trade relations 25 Iraq s invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 led to the Gulf War during which the security relationship between the U S and Saudi Arabia was greatly strengthened Concurrently with the U S invasion King Fahd declared war against Iraq The U S was concerned about the safety of Saudi Arabia against Saddam s intention to invade and control the oil reserves in the region As a result after King Fahd s approval President Bush deployed a significant amount of American military forces up to 543 000 ground troops by the end of the operation to protect Saudi Arabia from a possible Iraqi invasion this operation was called Desert Shield Furthermore the U S sent additional troops in operation Desert Storm with nearly 100 000 Saudi troops sent by Fahd to form a U S Saudi army alliance along with troops from other allied countries to attack Iraqi troops in Kuwait and to stop further invasion 26 During the ground campaign of Operation Desert Storm Iraqi troops were defeated within four days causing the Iraqis to retreat back to Iraq U S President George W Bush and Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia in Crawford Texas 25 April 2002 Since the Gulf War the U S had a continued presence of 5 000 troops stationed in Saudi Arabia a figure that rose to 10 000 during the 2003 conflict in Iraq 27 Operation Southern Watchenforced the no fly zones over southern Iraq set up after 1991 and the country s oil exports through the shipping lanes of the Persian Gulf are protected by the U S Fifth Fleet based in Bahrain September 11 2001 attacks on U S Edit Main article September 11 attacks After the attacks of September 11 2001 the US and Saudi Arabia began working together against a common enemy that the Saudis had already been fighting for years Violent Islamist extremists Saudi intelligence services had agents throughout the Muslim world sniffing out jihadist threats to the Kingdom the US was under resourced in these countries and badly needed help which the Saudis were happy to provide The global war on terror as George W Bush termed it in many ways repeated the grand US Saudi strategic alliance against the Soviet Union 28 The continued presence of U S troops in Saudi Arabia was one of the stated motivations behind the September 11 attacks 27 as well as for the Khobar Towers bombing in 1996 29 In 2003 the U S withdrew most of its troops from Saudi Arabia though one unit still remains 2010 U S arms sale to Saudi Arabia Edit Former Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the White House On 20 October 2010 U S State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history an estimated 60 5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces 30 The U S was keen to point out that the arms transfer would increase interoperability with U S forces In the 1990 1991 Gulf War having U S trained Saudi forces along with military installations built to U S specifications allowed the American armed forces to deploy in a comfortable and familiar battle environment This new deal would increase these capabilities as an advanced American military infrastructure is about to be built 31 Foreign policy Edit Upon becoming regent in 2005 King Abdullah s first foreign trip was to China In 2012 a Saudi Chinese agreement to cooperate in the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes was signed Abdullah also welcomed Russian president Vladimir Putin to Riyadh in 2007 awarding him the kingdom s highest honor the King Abdulaziz Medal Russia and Saudi Arabia concluded a joint venture between Saudi Aramco and LUKOIL to develop new Saudi gas fields 32 2013 rift Edit Prince Mohammad bin Salman with U S Secretary of State John Kerry in Washington D C 13 June 2016 The United States after 2000 developed techniques to recover oil and gas much more cheaply and soon became an exporter 33 Instead of depending on purchases of Middle Eastern oil and gas it became a rival Alwaleed bin Talal warned Saudi ministers in May 2013 that shale gas production in the U S would eventually pose a threat to the kingdom s oil dependent economy Despite this the two countries still maintained a positive relationship 34 In October 2013 Saudi intelligence chief Prince Bandar bin Sultan suggested a distancing of Saudi Arabia United States relations as a result of differences between the two countries over the Syrian civil war and diplomatic overtures between Iran and the Obama administration 35 The Saudis rejected a rotating seat on the UN Security Council that month despite previously campaigning for such a seat in protest of American policy over those issues 36 Saudi Arabia was cautiously supportive of a Western negotiated interim agreement with Iran over its nuclear program President Obama called King Abdullah to brief him about the agreement and the White House said the leaders agreed to consult regularly about the U S s negotiations with Iran 37 Khashoggi assassination Edit In October 2018 the Jamal Khashoggi case 38 put the U S into a difficult situation as Trump and his son in law Jared Kushner share a strong personal and official bond with Mohammad bin Salman During an interview Trump vowed to get to the bottom of the case and that there would be severe punishment if the Saudi kingdom is found to be involved in the disappearance or assassination of the journalist 39 A vexed reply came from the Saudi Foreign Ministry saying if Saudi Arabia receives any action it will respond with greater action citing the oil rich kingdom s influential and vital role in the global economy 40 Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his advisor Ahmad Asiri blamed for Khashoggi s death meeting U S Secretary of Defense Ash Carter July 2016 After weeks of denial Saudi Arabia accepted that Khashoggi died at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul during a fistfight Adel al Jubeir described the journalist s death as a murder and a tremendous mistake But he denied the knowledge of whereabouts of the body 41 Following the case the U S promised to revoke the visas of Saudi nationals responsible for Khashoggi s death 42 In November 2018 Trump defended Saudi Arabia despite the country s involvement in the killing of Khashoggi Experts said it is impossible for Mohammad bin Salman to visit Washington or have a direct relationship with the Trump administration 43 However in November 2018 relations between the United States and Saudi Arabia re strengthened when Trump nominated John Abizaid a retired U S army general who spoke Arabic as U S ambassador to the country 44 Saudi Arabia also brought a fresh face on board appointing their first female ambassador Princess Reema bint Bandar Al Saud to help calm relations in the wake of Khashoggi s death 45 On 12 December 2018 United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations approved a resolution to suspend Yemen conflict related sales of weapons to Saudi Arabia and impose sanctions on people obstructing humanitarian access in Yemen Senator Lindsey Graham said This sends a global message that just because you re an ally of the United States you can t kill with impunity The relationship with Saudi Arabia is not working for America It is more of a burden than an asset 46 On 8 April 2019 U S Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that 16 Saudi nationals involved in Khashoggi s murder including Mohammed bin Salman s close aid Saud al Qahtani have been barred from entering the U S 47 48 Armenian genocide recognition Edit Main article Armenian genocide recognition In 2019 the United States Congress issued official recognition of the Armenian genocide which was the first time the United States has officially acknowledged the genocide having previously only unofficially or partially recognized the genocide 49 50 Turkey which has traditionally denied such genocide to exist accused the United States of inflaming tensions Donald Trump has rejected the resolution by the Congress citing that his administration s stance on the issue had not changed 51 Despite Trump s denial the resolution was sponsored by Trump s ally Saudi Arabia highlighting increasing disdains and distrust toward Turkey from both Saudi Arabia and the United States 52 Controversies Edit Protesters against the U S backed Saudi led war on Yemen were led away handcuffed by New York police outside the U S mission to the UN on 11 December 2017 First conflict Edit While the U S Saudi relationship was growing their first conflict began when the disorder broke between the Jews and Arabs in April 1936 in the British administrated Palestine mandate The U S favored the establishment of an independent Israeli state but Saudi Arabia on the other hand the leading nation in the Islamic and Arab world were supporting the Arab position which sparked up their first conflict In other words the U S oil interest in Saudi Arabia could be held hostage depending on the circumstances of the conflict 14 U S president Franklin D Roosevelt sent the king a letter indicating that it is true that the U S supports the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine but it is not in any way responsible for the establishment citation needed Ibn Saud was convinced by the message that the U S Saudi relations had begun to run smooth again Moreover in March 1938 CASCO made a big oil discovery in Saudi Arabia booming the oil industry in the country and coincidentally the U S became more interested in Saudi oil As a result on 4 February 1940 as the World War II was approaching the U S had established a diplomatic presence in Saudi Arabia to have closer relations with the Saudis and to protect it from enemy hand Bert Fish former ambassador in Egypt was elected as the U S ambassador in Jeddah 18 Petrodollar power Edit See also Petrodollar recycling Petrodollar warfare and Petrocurrency U S Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin and Saudi Prince Khalid bin Salman July 2021 The United States dollar is the de facto world currency 53 The petrodollar system originated in the early 1970s in the wake of the Bretton Woods collapse President Richard Nixon and his Secretary of State Henry Kissinger feared that the abandonment of the international gold standard under the Bretton Woods arrangement combined with a growing U S trade deficit and massive debt associated with the ongoing Vietnam War would cause a decline in the relative global demand of the U S dollar In a series of meetings the United States and the Saudi royal family made an agreement The United States would offer military protection for Saudi Arabia s oil fields and in return the Saudi s would price their oil sales exclusively in United States dollars in other words the Saudis were to refuse all other currencies except the U S dollar as payment for their oil exports 54 55 September 11 attacks Edit Further information September 11 attacks See also Alleged Saudi role in September 11 attacks and Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act On 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington D C and in a field near Shanksville Pennsylvania by four hijacked airplanes killed 2 977 victims and cost an estimated 150 billion in property and infrastructure damage and economic impact exceeding the death toll and damage caused by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 60 years earlier 56 15 of the 19 hijackers in the attacks came from Saudi Arabia as did the leader of the hijackers organization Osama bin Laden In the U S there followed considerable negative publicity for and scrutiny of Saudi Arabia and its teaching of Islam 57 and a reassessing of the oil for security alliance with the Al Saud 58 59 A 2002 Council on Foreign Relations Terrorist Financing Task Force report found that for years individuals and charities based in Saudi Arabia have been the most important source of funds for al Qaeda And for years Saudi officials have turned a blind eye to this problem 60 In the backlash against Saudi Arabia and Wahhabism the Saudi government was portrayed in the media Senate hearings and elsewhere as a sort of oily heart of darkness the wellspring of a bleak hostile value system that is the very antithesis of our own America s seventy year alliance with the kingdom has been reappraised as a ghastly mistake a selling of the soul a gas addicted alliance with death 61 There was even a proposal at the Defense Policy Board an arm of Department of Defense to consider taking Saudi out of Arabia by forcibly seizing control of the oil fields giving the Hijaz back to the Hashemites and delegating control of Medina and Mecca to a multinational committee of moderate non Wahhabi Muslims 62 In Saudi Arabia itself anti American sentiment was described as intense 63 and at an all time high 64 A survey taken by the Saudi intelligence service of educated Saudis between the ages of 25 and 41 taken shortly after the 9 11 attacks concluded that 95 percent of those surveyed supported Bin Laden s cause 65 Support for Bin Laden reportedly waned by 2006 and by then the Saudi population become considerably more pro American after Al Qaeda linked groups staged attacks inside Saudi Arabia 66 The proposal at the Defense Policy Board to take Saudi out of Arabia was spread as the secret U S plan for the kingdom 67 In October 2001 The Wall Street Journal reported that Crown Prince Abdullah sent a critical letter to U S President George W Bush on 29 August A time comes when peoples and nations part We are at a crossroads It is time for the United States and Saudi Arabia to look at their separate interests Those governments that don t feel the pulse of their people and respond to it will suffer the fate of the Shah of Iran 15 Visa page from Saeed al Ghamdi s Kingdom of Saudi Arabia passport recovered from the United Airlines Flight 93 crash site For over a year after 9 11 Saudi Minister of the Interior a powerful post whose jurisdiction included domestic intelligence gathering Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud insisted that the Saudi hijackers were dupes in a Zionist plot In December 2002 a Saudi government spokesman declared that his country was the victim of unwarranted American intolerance bordering on hate 68 In 2003 several terror attacks targeted U S compounds the Saudi ministry of interior and several other places occurred inside Saudi Arabia As a result of these attacks the U S decided to redevelop Saudi law enforcement agencies by providing them with anti terrorism education the latest technologies and by giving them a chance to interact with U S law enforcement agencies to gain efficient knowledge and power needed to handle terrorist cases and to enforce anti terrorist laws 17 American politicians and media have accused the Saudi government of supporting terrorism and tolerating a jihadist culture 69 noting that Osama bin Laden and fifteen out of the nineteen or 78 percent of 9 11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia 70 15 out of 19 September 11 terrorists were Saudi Arabia nationals Although some analysts have speculated that Osama bin Laden who in 1994 had his Saudi nationality revoked and expelled from Saudi Arabia had chosen 15 Saudi hijackers on purpose to break up the U S Saudi relations as the U S was still suspicious of Saudi Arabia 71 The Saudi s decided to cooperate with the U S on the war on terror Terrorism does not belong to any culture or religion or political system said King Abdullah as the opening address of the Counter terrorism International Conference CTIC held in Riyadh in 2005 The cooperation grew broader covering financial educational technological aspects both in Saudi Arabia and Muslim like countries to prevent pro Al Qaeda terrorists activities and ideologies It is a high time for the Ulma Muslim Scholars and all thinkers intellectuals and academics to shoulder their responsibilities towards the enlightenment of the people especially the young people and protect them from deviant ideas said Sheikh Saleh bin Abdulaziz Alsheikh Minister of Islamic Affairs in the CTIC citation needed Almost all members of the CTIC agreed that Al Qaeda target less educated Muslims by convincing them that they are warriors of God but they really convince them to only accomplish their political goals Three years after the Saudi Serious and active role on anti terrorist Al Qaeda began launching multiple attacks targeting Saudi government buildings and U S compounds in Saudi grounds 72 Their attacks exhibit their revenge against Saudi Arabia s cooperation with the U S trying to stop further U S Saudi anti terrorist movements and trying to corrode the U S Saudi relationship and to annihilate it citation needed After these changes the Saudi government was more equipped in preventing terrorist activities They caught a large number of Saudi terrorists and terrorists from other countries some of them American that had connections with al Qaeda in one way or another 73 Some of these criminals held high rank in terrorist society which helped diffuse many terrorist cells citation needed In a matter of months Saudi law enforcement officials were successfully able to stop and prevent terrorist activities Also they were successful in finding the source of terrorist financing citation needed In March 2018 a U S judge formally allowed a suit to move forward against Saudi Arabia government brought by 9 11 survivors and victim s families 74 In May 2021 22 federal lawmakers from New York and New Jersey pressured US President Joe Biden to release the classified FBI documents that cite the role of Saudi Arabia in the 9 11 terror attacks 75 The lawmakers Ione Republican Nicole Malliotakis and NY Sens Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand in their letter to the US Attorney General Merrick Garland challenged the state secrets privilege that was invoked by former US Presidents to restrict the classified FBI report from releasing 76 The evidence of Saudi Arabian involvement in the September 11 attacks first surfaced in a 2012 FBI memo during Operation Encore investigation 77 78 Child abduction Edit Further information International child abduction in the United States The international abduction of American children to Saudi Arabia provoked sustained criticism and resulted in a Congressional hearing in 2002 where parents of children held in Saudi Arabia gave impassioned testimony related to the abduction of their children Washington based Insight ran a series of articles on international abduction during the same period highlighting Saudi Arabia a number of times 79 80 81 82 Allegations of funding terrorism Edit See also Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11 2001 and State sponsored terrorism Saudi Arabia According to a 2009 U S State Department communication by Hillary Clinton United States Secretary of State disclosed as part of the Wikileaks U S cables leaks controversy in 2010 donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide 83 Part of this funding arises through the zakat an act of charity dictated by Islam paid by all Saudis to charities and amounting to at least 2 5 of their income Although many charities are genuine others allegedly serve as fronts for money laundering and terrorist financing operations While many Saudis contribute to those charities in good faith believing their money goes toward good causes it has been alleged that others know full well the terrorist purposes to which their money will be applied 84 In September 2016 the Congress passed the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act that would allow relatives of victims of the September 11 attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for its government s alleged role in the attacks 85 86 87 74 Saudi Arabia was involved in the CIA led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels Some American officials worried that Syrian rebels being supported had ties to al Qaeda 88 89 In October 2015 Saudi Arabia delivered 500 U S made TOW anti tank missiles to anti Assad rebels 90 Reports indicate that some TOW missiles have ended up in the hands of al Qaeda in Syria and the Islamic State 91 92 2017 arms deal and war in Yemen Edit Main article Saudi Arabian led intervention in Yemen Protest against U S involvement in the Saudi Arabian led intervention in Yemen March 2018 Significant numbers of Americans have criticized the conduct of Saudi Arabia in its ongoing intervention in the Yemeni Civil War including alleged war crimes such as bombing of hospitals gas stations water infrastructure marketplaces and other groups of civilians and archaeological monuments declaring the entire Saada Governorate a military target use of cluster bombs and enforcing a blockade of food and medical supplies that has triggered a famine Critics oppose U S support of Saudi Arabia for this operation which they say does not benefit the national security interests of the United States and they object to the United States selling arms to Saudi Arabia for use in Yemen 9 The approval of the 2017 arms deal was opposed by various lawmakers including GOP Senators Mike Lee Rand Paul Todd Young and Dean Heller along with most Democrat Senators who voted to advance the measure in order to block the sale citing the human rights violations by Saudi Arabia in the Yemeni Civil War 93 94 Among the senators who voted against moving the measure to block the sale were Democratic Senators Joe Donnelly Claire McCaskill Bill Nelson Joe Manchin and Mark Warner along with top Republicans including Majority Leader Mitch McConnell Bob Corker and John McCain 95 Tulsi Gabbard a Democratic Representative from Hawaii criticized the move saying that Saudi Arabia is a country with a devastating record of human rights violations at home and abroad and a long history of providing support to terrorist organizations that threaten the American people 96 97 Rand Paul introduced a bill to try to block the plan calling it a travesty 98 99 100 U S Senator Chris Murphy accused the United States of complicity in Yemen s humanitarian crisis saying Thousands and thousands inside Yemen today are dying This horror is caused in part by our decision to facilitate a bombing campaign that is murdering children and to endorse a Saudi strategy inside Yemen that is deliberately using disease and starvation and the withdrawal of humanitarian support as a tactic 101 See also Famine in Yemen 2016 present Khashoggi killing Edit Main article Assassination of Jamal Khashoggi This section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information January 2020 Jamal Khashoggi left at a 2018 Project on Middle East Democracy forum in Washington D C In October 2018 serious allegations were put on Saudi for murdering a Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul U S Secretary of State Mike Pompeo urged Saudi Arabia to support a thorough investigation regarding the disappearance and to be transparent about the results 102 Trump said We cannot let this happen to reporters to anybody We re demanding everything We want to see what s going on there 103 Lindsey Graham a senior Republican senator s reaction was stern as he said there would be hell to pay if Saudi is involved in the murder of Khashoggi He further added If they re this brazen it shows contempt Contempt for everything we stand for contempt for the relationship 104 Four of the alleged perpetrators accused of the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi reportedly received their paramilitary training from the United States in 2017 The training provided and approved under a State Department contract with an Arkansas based security firm Tier 1 Group was publicly revealed in 2021 The State Department formally issued a license of training to the Saudi Royal Guard in 2014 The training started during the Obama administration and continued till the first year of President Donald Trump Louis Bremer a senior executive from Tier 1 Group s parent firm confirmed the role of his company in the training of the Saudis 105 Freedom of religion Edit Ambassador at Large Sam Brownback condemned the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for its religious freedom abuses on the release of 2018 Report on International Religious Freedom by the State Department Brownback called Saudi as one of the worst actors in the world on religious persecution and hoped to see actions take place in a positive direction The report details discrimination against and maltreatment of Shiite Muslims in Saudi Arabia that includes the mass execution of 34 individuals in April 2019 out of which a majority were Shiite Muslims 106 2019 arms legislation Edit In the wake of a declining human rights record on 17 July 2019 lawmakers in Washington backed a resolution to block the sale of precision guided munitions to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates 107 The measure would have denied billions of dollars of weapon sale to the Saudi led intervention in Yemen where thousands have been killed in the 4 year long war 108 109 President Trump vetoed three such resolutions and there was not a two thirds majority in the Senate to override 110 On 3 August 2020 Democrats in Congress issued subpoenas in probe of the U S Arms Sales to Saudi Arabia and the UAE Democrats demanded the State Department officials to testify as part of investigation of 2019 arms sale and the dismissal of the State Department s inspector general Steve Linick by President Donald Trump in May on Pompeo s advice 111 On 11 August 2020 U S Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was cleared of charges of wrongdoing in a disputed arms sale to Saudi Arabia and UAE He had been accused of abuse of power after he used an obscure emergency procedure to bypass congressional refusal to approve an 8 billion arms sale to Saudi Arabia the United Arab Emirates and Jordan in May 2019 112 2016 U S presidential election Edit In August 2016 Donald Trump Jr had a meeting with an envoy representing Saudi Arabia s Crown Prince and de facto ruler Mohammad bin Salman and Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi The envoy offered help to the Trump presidential campaign 113 which would be illegal under U S law The meeting included Lebanese American lobbyist George Nader Joel Zamel an Israeli specialist in social media manipulation and Blackwater founder Erik Prince 113 114 Special Counsel Robert Mueller investigated the Trump campaign s possible ties to Saudi Arabia 115 Lebanese American businessman Ahmad Khawaja claimed that Saudi Arabia and UAE illegally funnelled millions of dollars into the Trump s campaign 116 In April 2017 U S President Donald J Trump attempted to repair the United States relationship with Saudi Arabia by having the U S Defense Secretary visit Saudi Arabia Trump has stated that he aims to help and assist Saudi Arabia in terms of military protection in order to receive beneficial economic compensation for the United States in return 19 Pensacola shooting Edit Main article Naval Air Station Pensacola shooting On December 6 2019 an aviation student from Saudi Arabia Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani shot three people dead and injured eight others at U S Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida 117 This attack is concluded as a terrorist attack by FBI following the investigation Alshamrani himself is a second lieutenant in the Royal Saudi Air Force who was participating in a training program sponsored by the Pentagon as part of a security cooperation agreement with Saudi Arabia Later the Navy suspended flight training for all Saudi military aviation students pending the results of the FBI investigation 118 Coronavirus outbreak Edit On 3 July 2020 it was reported that dozens of American diplomats will be leaving Saudi Arabia along with their families due to the kingdom s failure at containing the coronavirus outbreak even as its economy reopens Some of the diplomats believe that the government of Saudi Arabia may be underreporting the number of coronavirus cases by thousands 119 Post 9 11 relationship EditMain article September 11 attacks U S Secretary of State John Kerry with King Salman of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh 25 August 2016 Saudi Arabia engaged the Washington D C lobbying firm of Patton Boggs as registered foreign agents in the wake of the public relations disaster when knowledge of the identities of suspected hijackers became known They also hired the PR and lobbying firm Qorvis for 14 million a year Qorvis engaged in a PR frenzy that publicized the 9 11 Commission finding that there was no evidence that the Saudi government as an institution or senior Saudi officials individually funded Al Qaeda while omitting the report s conclusion that Saudi Arabia has been a problematic ally in combating Islamic extremism 120 121 According to at least one journalist John R Bradley the ruling Saudi family was caught between depending for military defense on the United States while also depending for domestic support on the Wahhabi religious establishment which as a matter of religious doctrine ultimately seeks the West s destruction including that of its ruler s purported ally the U S 122 During the Iraq War Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud Al Faisal criticized the U S led invasion as a colonial adventure aimed only at gaining control of Iraq s natural resources 123 But at the same time Bradley writes the Saudi government secretly allowed the U S military to essentially manage its air campaign and launch special operations against Iraq from inside Saudi borders using at least three Saudi air bases 124 The two nations cooperate and share information about al Qaeda citation needed and leaders from both countries continue to meet to discuss their mutual interests and bilateral relations 125 Saudi Arabia and the U S are strategic allies 3 126 and since President Obama took office in 2009 the U S has sold 110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia 127 128 The National Security Agency NSA in 2013 began cooperating with the Saudi Ministry of Interior in an effort to help ensure regime continuity An April 2013 top secret memo shows the agency s program of providing direct analytic and technical support to the Saudis on internal security matters The CIA had already been gathering intelligence for the regime long before 129 In January 2015 after the death of King Abdullah the White House and President Obama praised him as a leader and mentioned the importance of the U S Saudi relationship as a force for stability and security in the Middle East and beyond 130 U S Navy has actively participated in the Saudi led naval blockade of Yemen 131 In March 2015 President Barack Obama declared that he had authorized U S forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen establishing a Joint Planning Cell with Saudi Arabia 132 U S government lawyers have considered whether the United States is legally a co belligerent in the conflict Such a finding would oblige the U S to investigate allegations of war crimes by the Saudi coalition and U S military personnel could be subject to prosecution 133 134 American journalist Glenn Greenwald wrote in October 2016 From the start of the hideous Saudi bombing campaign against Yemen 18 months ago two countries have played active vital roles in enabling the carnage the U S and U K The atrocities committed by the Saudis would have been impossible without their steadfast aggressive support 135 In September 2016 Senators Rand Paul and Chris Murphy worked to prevent the proposed sale of 1 15 billion in arms from the U S to Saudi Arabia 136 The U S Senate voted 71 to 27 against the Murphy Paul resolution to block the U S Saudi arms deal 137 While the trade based relationship between the United States of America and Saudi Arabia is one that is vastly affected by political disagreements and positions the trade has yet to cease since its conception Relations between the two nations have never come to a complete halt throughout history due to the economic advantages both nations gain from one another Statistically the trade balance using 2016 as a benchmark year has declined to a deficit of 2 5 billion dollars over the 2017 year popular opinion is that this exemplifies strong future relations between the two nations through the political and militaristic common grounds the United States has been developing with Saudi Arabia 138 Many experts believe the United States of America and Saudi Arabia are almost perfect for trade due to oil being an essential commodity to the American people and the overall economy of the United States In January 2017 U S Secretary of Defense James Mattis reaffirmed the importance of the U S Saudi Arabia strategic relationship 139 Mattis has voiced support for a Saudi Arabian led military campaign against Yemen s Shiite rebels 140 141 He asked the President to remove restrictions on U S military support for Saudi Arabia 142 On 10 February 2017 CIA director Mike Pompeo awarded the Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad bin Nayef with the CIA s George Tenet Medal 143 On February 19 2021 U S Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin spoke to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman saying that they discussed the continued commitment to the 70 year US Saudi security partnership Austin expressed support for Saudi Arabia in the Iran Saudi Arabia proxy conflict 144 Trade relations EditEnergy and oil Edit Saudi Arabia has been an enticing trade partner with the United States from the early 20th century The biggest commodity traded between the two nations is oil The strength of the relationship is notoriously attributed to the United States demand on oil throughout the post modern era approximately 10 000 barrels of petroleum are imported daily to United States since 2012 U S Total Crude Oil and Products Imports 145 Saudi Arabia has consistently been in need of weapons reinforcement and arms due to the consistent rising tensions throughout the Middle East during the late 20th century and early 21st century Post 2016 the United States of America has continued to trade with Saudi Arabia mainly for their oil related goods The top exports of Saudi Arabia are Crude Petroleum 96 1B Refined Petroleum 13B Ethylene Polymers 10 1B Propylene Polymers 4 93B and Ethers 3 6B using the 1992 revision of the HS Harmonized System classification 138 Its top imports are Cars 11 8B Planes Helicopters and or Spacecraft 3 48B Packaged Medicaments 3 34B Broadcasting Equipment 3 27B and Aircraft Parts 2 18B 146 On 9 August 2020 Saudi Arabia announced that it would cut down on oil supply to the U S for the third time in one year in an attempt to suppress stockpiles in the global oil market to rebalance the demand and supply However experts claim that the strategy worked in 2017 when the demand for oil was high and may bear challenges and risks at the present time due to the impact of the ongoing coronavirus crisis on oil demand 147 Recent years Edit In the year 2017 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the United States of America s 20th ranked export market across the globe and ranked 21st in import markets 138 The most prominent goods set forth as exports to Saudi Arabia in the designated year 2017 were aircraft 3 6 billion vehicles 2 6 billion machinery 2 2 billion electrical machinery 1 6 billion and arms and ammunition 1 4 billion 148 In terms of statistics the United States Saudi Arabian trade declined approximately nine percent in U S exports in 2017 compared to the year prior however 2017 exemplified great reparation of the relationship through a 57 increase of exports from 2007 148 Imports between the two nations increased approximately 11 percent from 2017 to 2018 which is an overall decline of 47 since the year fiscal 2007 148 The entities that the United States of America seeks to import from Saudi Arabia has hardly changed over the years The top import categories 2 digit HS in 2017 were mineral fuels 18 billion organic chemicals 303 million special other returns 247 million aluminum 164 million and fertilizers 148 million 148 Controversies Edit This section duplicates the scope of other sections specifically Controversies Please discuss this issue on the talk page and edit it to conform with Wikipedia s Manual of Style by replacing the section with a link and a summary of the repeated material or by spinning off the repeated text into an article in its own right January 2020 Saudi Arabia and the United States of America have never fully eliminated their trading agreements however the relationship has experience consistent disagreements through its history from its conception In the height of the Syrian Civil War which started in March 2011 Saudi Arabia expressed disapproval of the United States lack of action in eradicating Syrian President Bashar al Assad 149 The United States has consistently expressed disapproval of the treatment of Saudi Arabian women within the confines of the Kingdom The famous criticisms of the early 21st century behind the relationship between the two countries is due to the mix of the disregard of the aforementioned issues and the public knowledge that trade between Saudi Arabia and the United States has trended upwards in the post 9 11 world In recent years the imports and exports of U S Saudi trades have not shown a percentage increase each year where it topped out around 2012 and has been in slight fluctuation since but the overall trend of trade has shown a positive slope 138 In 2001 U S exports were at 5 957 60 and imports were at 13 272 20 in millions of U S dollars whereas controversially as it is believed in 2012 the United States witnessed 17 961 20 in exports and 55 667 00 in imports 138 The most damaging occurrence to ever affect the trade relationship between Saudi Arabia and the U S occurred on September 11 2001 due to Saudi Arabia s believed involvement in the 9 11 attacks that occurred in multiple cities throughout the United States Tensions also rose between the two nations throughout Barack Obama s presidency due to the United States agreement in the Iran when the U S removed oil sanctions on Iran and allowed them to sell their oil to the U S The relationship was also hindered by the oil market crash of 2014 propelled by increased shale oil production in the United States which in turn caused Saudi Arabian exports of oil to decrease by nearly fifty percent 19 Oil went from around 110 a barrel prior to the 2014 crash to about 27 a barrel by the beginning of 2016 19 This relationship worsened after the U S legislation passed a bill of a that allowed victims of the 9 11 attacks to sue the Saudi Arabian government for their losses in 2016 150 Saudi Arabia does not have an extradition treaty with the United States 151 The Saudi government has on numerous occasions been actively involved with helping Saudi citizens flee the United States after they have committed serious crimes 151 In 2019 U S federal law enforcement officials launched an investigation into cases involving the disappearance of Saudi Arabian students from Oregon and other parts of the country while they faced charges in the U S Amidst the investigation it has been speculated that the Saudi government helped the students in escaping from the U S 152 153 In October 2019 the U S Senate passed a bill by Sen Ron Wyden of Oregon requiring the FBI to declassify any information regarding Saudi Arabia s possible role Oregon officials demand extradition of these suspects by Saudi Arabia since they were involved in violent crimes causing bodily harm and death 154 On 25 September 2020 the government of Saudi Arabia offered a bond worth 500 000 as cashier s check to the Tulsa County Sheriff Office from the Saudi Arabian consulate in Houston Texas to bail out Omar Ba Abbad an Uber driver charged with the first degree murder of a passenger in June 2020 Ba Abbad was driving for a cab service provider Uber in June when he got into a fight with a passenger Jeremy Shadrick Ba Abbad ran over Shadrick in the fight killing him as a result Ba Abbad has claimed in his defense that his act was out of self defense However the District Attorney contradicted his claim with video evidence proving otherwise 155 156 Notable diplomatic visits EditSee also 2017 Riyadh summit U S President Barack Obama shakes hands with King Salman Riyadh 27 January 2015 U S President Donald Trump King Salman and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el Sisi 21 May 2017 After President George W Bush s two visits to Saudi Arabia in 2008 which was the first time a U S president visited a foreign country twice in less than four months and King Abdullah s three visits to the U S 2002 2005 and 2008 the relations have surely reached their peak citation needed The two nations have expanded their relationship beyond oil and counter terrorism efforts For example King Abdullah has allocated funds for young Saudis to study in the United States 157 One of the most important reasons that King Abdullah has given full scholarships to young Saudis is to give them western perspective and to impart a positive impression of Saudi Arabia on the American people citation needed On the other hand President Bush discussed the world economic crisis and what the U S Saudi relationship can do about it 158 During meetings with the Saudis the Bush Administration took the Saudi policies very seriously because of their prevalent economic and defensive presence in the region and its great media influence on the Islamic world 159 By and large the two leaders have made many decisions that deal with security economics and business aspects of the relationship making it in the top of its fame citation needed In early 2018 the Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman visited the United States where he met with many top politicians business people and Hollywood stars including President Donald Trump Bill and Hillary Clinton Henry Kissinger Bill Gates Jeff Bezos and George W Bush 160 161 2017 U S Saudi arms deal Edit Main article 2017 United States Saudi Arabia arms deal U S President Donald Trump authorized a nearly 110B arms deal with Saudi Arabia worth 300B over a ten year period signed on the 20 May 2017 this includes training and close co operation with the Saudi Arabian military 162 Signed documents included letters of interest and letters of intent and no actual contracts 163 U S defense stocks reached all time highs after Donald J Trump announced a 110 billion arms deal to Saudi Arabia 164 165 166 Saudi Arabia signed billions of dollars of deals with U S companies in the arms industry and petroleum industry including Lockheed Martin Boeing Raytheon General Dynamics Northrop Grumman General Electric Exxon Mobil Halliburton Honeywell McDermott International Jacobs Engineering Group National Oilwell Varco Nabors Industries Weatherford International Schlumberger and Dow Chemical 167 168 169 170 171 172 In August 2018 a laser guided Mark 82 bomb sold by the U S and built by Lockheed Martin was used in the Saudi led coalition airstrike on a school bus in Yemen which killed 51 people including 40 children 173 On May 27 2020 Bob Menendez a Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee claimed during a CNN op ed that the Trump administration had been covertly working on plans of initiating a new sale of weapons contract worth 1 8 billion to Saudi Arabia 174 According to the U S based Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project ACLED analysis American weapons in Yemen have killed at least 100 000 civilians and over 10 000 people have died as a result of preventable diseases and epidemics like cholera and dengue fever most of them children 175 According to a draft version of the legislation reviewed by the CNN the Democratic legislatures Senator Robert Menendez Patrick Leahy and Tim Kaine were planning to introduce a legislation that put strict human rights constraints on the United States foreign arms sales in the wake of the arms sold in the past by U S to countries with poor human rights records like Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates President Donald Trump has also received wide criticism for declaring emergency to bypass the opposition in order to sell weapons worth billions of dollars to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates accused for conducting war crimes 176 See also Edit Saudi Arabia portal United States portal Politics portal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D C Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia Foreign relations of the United States Saudi Arabia lobby in the United States United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia United States withdrawal from Saudi Arabia Saudi Americans Walid FitaihiReferences Edit Henderson Simon 19 April 2016 The Long Divorce Foreign Policy Retrieved 25 April 2016 Keating Joshua 6 November 2017 The Fight for Survival Behind Saudi Arabia s Purge Slate Retrieved 1 February 2018 a b Gardner Frank 20 April 2016 How strained are US Saudi relations BBC News Retrieved 7 July 2020 Hasan Mehdi 26 November 2017 The bizarre alliance between the US and Saudi Arabia is finally fraying New Statesman Retrieved 7 July 2020 Ashford Emma 22 April 2016 The U S Might Be Better Off Cutting Ties With Saudi Arabia Time Retrieved 7 July 2020 Cammack Perry Sokolsky Richard 13 April 2016 The New Normal in U S Saudi Relations The National Interest Retrieved 7 July 2020 Freeman Chas W n d Shifting Sands in the U S Saudi Arabian Relationship Middle East Policy Council Interview Retrieved 7 July 2020 a b Stokes Bruce 30 December 2013 Which countries Americans like and don t Pew Research Center Retrieved 16 April 2014 a b c Cockburn Andrew September 2016 Acceptable Losses Harper s Magazine Retrieved 9 July 2020 Cordesman Anthony H 31 December 2002 Saudi Arabia Enters The 21st Century IV Opposition and Islamic Extremism PDF Center for Strategic and International Studies pp 11 12 Retrieved 26 November 2015 Global Poll Iran Seen Playing Negative Role GlobeScan n d Archived from the original on 18 January 2007 Places of Origin IIE n d Retrieved 7 July 2020 a b c Wafa Talaat 8 September 2005 العلاقات السعودية الأميركية تاريخ حافل بالتفاهم الصادق والتعاون المثمر Saudi American Relations A History Full of Sincere Understanding and Fruitful Cooperation Al Riyadh in Arabic Retrieved 14 November 2008 a b c d e f g Grayson Benson Lee 1982 Saudi American Relations University Press of America ISBN 978 0 8191 2528 6 a b c Smith Martin Bergman Lowell n d Saudi Arabia A chronology of the country s history and key events in the U S Saudi relationship Frontline PBS Retrieved 11 August 2013 Killgore Andrew I January February 1998 In Memoriam Ambassador Parker T Hart 1910 1997 Washington Report on Middle East Affairs a b c d e f g Pollack Josh 2002 Saudi Arabia and the United States 1931 2002 PDF Middle East Review of International Affairs 6 3 77 102 a b c Metz Helen Chapin ed 1993 Saudi Arabia A Country Study Federal Research Division doi 10 21236 ada273008 ISBN 0 8444 0791 7 via Internet Archive a b c d Chughtai Alia 18 May 2017 US Saudi relations A timeline Al Jazeera Retrieved 4 December 2018 a b c d Hart Parker T 1998 Saudi Arabia and the United States Birth of a Security Partnership Indiana University Press ISBN 0 253 33460 8 via Internet Archive a b c d Gause F Gregory III 2010 The International Relations of the Persian Gulf Cambridge University Press doi 10 1017 CBO9780511818264 ISBN 978 0 521 19023 7 Coll Steve 2004 Ghost Wars The Secret History of the CIA Afghanistan and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10 2001 Penguin Press ISBN 1 59420 007 6 a b Ottaway David B Kaiser Robert G 13 February 2002 Marriage of Convenience The U S Saudi Alliance The Washington Post Retrieved 8 July 2020 Gordon Michael R 8 August 1990 Bush Sends U S Force to Saudi Arabia as Kingdom Agrees to Confront Iraq Bush s Aims Deter Attack Send a Signal The New York Times Retrieved 19 November 2018 Bush orders Operation Desert Shield History A amp E Television Networks 16 November 2009 Retrieved 19 November 2018 Rashid Nasser Ibrahim Shaheen Esber Ibrahim 1992 Saudi Arabia and the Gulf War International Institute of Technology ISBN 0 940485 01 X a b US pulls out of Saudi Arabia BBC News 29 April 2003 Retrieved 29 November 2009 Fisher Max 26 January 2015 9 questions about Saudi Arabia you were too embarrassed to ask Vox Retrieved 14 March 2021 Plotz David 14 September 2001 What Does Osama Bin Laden Want Slate Retrieved 8 July 2020 Teitelbaum Joshua 4 November 2010 Arms for the King and His Family The U S Arms Sale to Saudi Arabia Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs Retrieved 24 April 2016 Cordesman Anthony H 17 September 2010 US Saudi Security Cooperation Impact of Arms Sales SUSRIS Archived from the original on 31 October 2018 House Karen Elliott 2012 On Saudi Arabia Its People Past Religion Fault Lines and Future Alfred A Knopf p 238 ISBN 978 0 307 27216 4 Mamdouh G Salameh Impact of US Shale Oil Revolution on the Global Oil Market the Price of Oil amp Peak Oil International Association for Energy Economics 1 2013 27 31 Said Summer Faucon Benoit 29 July 2013 Shale Threatens Saudi Economy Warns Prince Alwaleed The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 5 November 2013 Saudi to reassess relations with US report Al Jazeera 23 October 2013 Retrieved 24 April 2016 Worth Robert F 18 October 2013 Saudi Arabia Rejects U N Security Council Seat in Protest Move The New York Times Retrieved 5 November 2013 Balluck Kyle 28 November 2013 Obama Saudi king to consult regularly on Iran The Hill Retrieved 2 December 2013 Jamal Khashoggi Who is murdered Saudi Journalist BBC News 22 October 2018 Retrieved 9 October 2018 Smith Spark Laura 14 October 2018 Trump vows severe punishment if journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed by Saudis CNN Retrieved 14 October 2018 Kirkpatrick David D 14 October 2018 Saudi Arabia and U S Clash Over Khashoggi Case The New York Times Retrieved 14 October 2018 Tuysuz Gul Abdelaziz Salma Balkiz Ghazi Formanek Ingrid Ward Clarissa 23 October 2018 Surveillance footage shows Saudi body double in Khashoggi s clothes after he was killed Turkish source says CNN Retrieved 23 October 2018 Khashoggi murder Crown prince vows to punish culprits BBC News 24 October 2018 Retrieved 24 October 2018 Bonn Tess 21 November 2018 Middle East expert says there s unprecedented disruption in U S Saudi relationship The Hill Retrieved 22 November 2018 Gehrke Joel 15 November 2018 Trump rebuilds relations with Saudi Arabia by nominating top general as envoy Washington Examiner Genin Aaron 1 April 2019 The Global Saudi Soft Power Offensive A Saudi Princess and Dollar Diplomacy The California Review Retrieved 8 April 2019 O Reilly Andrew 12 December 2018 Menendez and Graham announce resolution on Saudi Arabia in wake of Khashoggi killing Fox News Retrieved 13 December 2018 Williams Abagail 9 April 2019 U S bans 16 Saudi individuals from U S for role in Khashoggi s murder NBC News Retrieved 9 April 2019 Sanger David E 8 April 2019 Pompeo Bars 16 Saudis From U S in Response to Khashoggi Killing The New York Times Retrieved 8 April 2019 Saudi Arabia will financially sponsor Armenian genocide resolution in U S Aravot 29 April 2019 Retrieved 24 November 2020 S Res 150 A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that it is the policy of the United States to commemorate the Armenian genocide through official recognition and remembrance Congress gov Library of Congress Retrieved 24 November 2020 Kelly Laura 17 December 2019 Trump administration rejects Senate resolution recognizing Armenian genocide The Hill Retrieved 24 June 2020 Reports Saudi Arabia to sponsor Congress resolution recognizing Armenian Genocide NEWS am 29 April 2019 Retrieved 24 November 2020 Schulmeister Stephan 2000 Globalization without global money the double role of the dollar as national currency and world currency Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22 3 365 395 doi 10 1080 01603477 2000 11490246 S2CID 59022899 Clark William R 2005 Petrodollar Warfare Oil Iraq and the Future of the Dollar New Society Publishers ISBN 0 86571 514 9 Petrodollar power The Economist 7 December 2006 Retrieved 8 July 2020 Carter Shan Cox Amanda 8 September 2011 One 9 11 Tally 3 3 Trillion The New York Times Retrieved 27 October 2014 Friedman Thomas L 2 June 2002 War Of Ideas The New York Times Retrieved 30 April 2014 The idea people who inspired the hijackers are religious leaders pseudo intellectuals pundits and educators primarily in Egypt and Saudi Arabia which continues to use its vast oil wealth to spread its austere and intolerant brand of Islam Wahhabism Bradley John R 2005 Saudi Arabia Exposed Inside a Kingdom in Crisis Palgrave Macmillan p 6 ISBN 1 4039 6433 5 via Internet Archive Dillon Michael R September 2009 Wahhabism Is it a Factor in the Spread of Global Terrorism PDF Calhoun Naval Postgraduate School Retrieved 8 July 2020 The events that transpired on 11 September 2001 shook the foundation of the U S Saudi relationship by raising serious concerns and questions regarding the role of the Saudi government and their Wahhabi ideology played in terrorism associated with Al Qaeda The attacks shined a light on Saudi Arabia since 15 out of 19 hijackers as well as Osama bin Laden and many of the global jihadists that participated in the conflicts fought in Bosnia Chechnya Afghanistan and Iraq were Saudi nationals This naturally led the U S government and its people to ask serious questions as to what is wrong with Saudi Arabia and to draw conclusions about its religious ideology and institutions Terrorist Financing Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations PDF Council on Foreign Relations Press 2002 p 1 ISBN 0 87609 324 1 Rodenbeck Max 21 October 2004 Unloved in Arabia The New York Review of Books Retrieved 8 July 2020 Judging by the tenor of much that has been said about Saudi Arabia since September 11 quite a few people seem to think something similar should be done with the present day Saudis In Congress on American television and in print their country has been portrayed as a sort of oily heart of darkness the wellspring of a bleak hostile value system that is the very antithesis of our own America s seventy year alliance with the kingdom has been reappraised as a ghastly mistake a selling of the soul a gas addicted dalliance with death Lacey Robert 2009 Inside the Kingdom Kings Clerics Modernists Terrorists and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia Viking Press pp 288 289 ISBN 978 0 670 02118 5 via Internet Archive In July that year 2002 Laurent Murawiec a French analyst with the RAND Corporation had given a 24 slide presentation to the prestigious Defense Policy Board an arm of the Pentagon suggesting that the United States should consider taking the Saudi out of Arabia by forcibly seizing control of the oil fields giving the Hijaz back to the Hashemites and delegating control of the holy cities to a multinational committee of moderate non Wahhabi Muslims the House of Saud should be sent home to Riyadh Saudi Arabia supports our enemies and attacks our allies argued Murawiec a protege of Richard Perle s the neocon advocate of war with Iraq who chaired the Policy Board The Saudis are active at every level of the terror chain from planners to financiers from cadre to foot soldier from ideologist to cheerleaders They were the kernel of evil the prime mover the most dangerous opponent in the Middle East Bradley 2005 p 169 In the climate of intense anti American sentiment in Saudi Arabia after September 11 it is certainly true that any association with U S inspired reform is fast becoming a hindrance rather than a help Bradley 2005 p 211 Anti U S sentiment inside Saudi Arabia is now at an all time high following the outrages at the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad and Washington s continued support for Israel s often brutal suppression of the Palestinians Sciolino Elaine 27 January 2002 Don t Weaken Arafat Saudi Warns Bush The New York Times Retrieved 20 October 2014 A classified American intelligence report taken from a Saudi intelligence survey in mid October 2001 of educated Saudis between the ages of 25 and 41 concluded that 95 percent of them supported Mr bin Laden s cause according to a senior administration official with access to intelligence reports Saudi Arabians Overwhelmingly Reject Bin Laden Al Qaeda Saudi Fighters in Iraq and Terrorism Also among most pro American in Muslim world Results of a New Nationwide Public Opinion Survey of Saudi Arabia PDF KA December 2007 Retrieved 20 October 2014 Bradley 2005 p 85 In a region obsessed with conspiracy theories many Saudis both Sunni and Shiite think that Washington has plans to split off the Eastern Province into a separate entity and seize control of its oil reserves after Iraq has stabilized Rich Frank 7 December 2002 Pearl Harbor Day 2002 The New York Times Retrieved 17 May 2014 In Washington there s an unintentionally comic spokesman for our ally Saudi Arabia who on Tuesday declared that his country was the victim of unwarranted American intolerance bordering on hate the Saudi minister of the interior Prince Nayef maintained as recently as last week that the 15 Saudi hijackers of 9 11 were dupes in a Zionist plot Kaim Markus ed 2008 Great Powers and Regional Orders The United States and the Persian Gulf Ashgate Publishing p 68 doi 10 4324 9781315585833 ISBN 978 0 7546 7197 8 Al Rasheed Madawi 2010 A History of Saudi Arabia 2nd ed Cambridge University Press pp 178 222 doi 10 1017 CBO9780511993510 ISBN 978 0 521 74754 7 Transcript Frontline PBS n d Retrieved 12 July 2020 When it became clear that 15 of the 19 were Saudis that was a disaster a total disaster because bin Laden at that moment had made in the minds of Americans Saudi Arabia into an enemy الأمير عبدالله الإرهابيون مجرمون سفاحون تجردوا من القيم الإسلامية والإنسانية Prince Abdullah Terrorists are Murderous Criminals Stripped of Islamic and Human Values Al Riyadh in Arabic 14 May 2003 Archived from the original on 19 January 2010 Country Reports Middle East and North Africa Overview U S Department of State 30 April 2007 Retrieved 25 November 2008 a b Stempel Jonathan 28 March 2018 Saudi Arabia must face U S lawsuits over Sept 11 attacks Reuters Retrieved 22 November 2018 Federal Lawmakers Letter to US President Joe Biden PDF Official Website of U S Representative Jerry Nadler Retrieved 11 May 2021 Lawmakers demand release of secret probe docs on Saudi involvement in 9 11 New York Post Retrieved 15 May 2021 Updated work plans and detailed list of associates FBI 9 11 PDF US Government Archives Retrieved 6 June 2003 Lawmakers demand release of secret probe docs on Saudi involvement in 9 11 New York Post Retrieved 15 May 2021 Maier Timothy W 24 June 2002 Kids Held Captive in Saudi Arabia PDF Committee for Missing Children Retrieved 31 August 2010 Maier Timothy W 27 November 2001 Stolen Kids Become Pawns in Terror War PDF Committee for Missing Children Retrieved 31 August 2010 Maier Timothy W n d All Talk No Action on Stolen Children PDF Committee for Missing Children Retrieved 31 August 2010 Maier Timothy W 1 May 2000 A Double Standard for Our Children PDF Committee for Missing Children Retrieved 31 August 2010 Spillius Alex 5 December 2010 Wikileaks Saudis chief funders of al Qaeda The Telegraph Retrieved 28 April 2011 Fueling Terror Institute for the Analysis of Global Security Retrieved 8 July 2020 Korte Gregory 23 September 2016 Why Obama doesn t want 9 11 families suing Saudi Arabia USA Today Retrieved 8 July 2020 McShane Larry 16 April 2016 Saudi Arabia threatens to pull 750B from U S economy if Congress allows them to be sued for 9 11 terror attacks Daily News Retrieved 8 July 2020 Blau Reuven 19 April 2016 Mayor de Blasio joins Democrats in calling on President Obama to go after Saudi Arabia on 9 11 ties Daily News Retrieved 8 July 2020 Norton Ben 28 June 2016 CIA and Saudi weapons for Syrian rebels fueled black market arms trafficking report says Salon Retrieved 8 July 2020 Porter Gareth 28 May 3 June 2015 Gulf allies and Army of Conquest Al Ahram Weekly Archived from the original on 17 April 2019 Bender Jeremy 10 October 2015 Saudi Arabia just replenished Syrian rebels with one of the most effective weapons against the Assad regime Business Insider Retrieved 8 July 2020 Crowcroft Orlando 30 October 2015 Syrian sniper US TOW missiles transform CIA backed Syria rebels into ace marksmen in the fight against Assad International Business Times Retrieved 8 July 2020 Weiss Caleb 10 June 2015 ISIS used US made anti tank missiles near Palmyra Business Insider Retrieved 8 July 2020 Liautaud Alexa 13 June 2017 The Senate approved Saudi Arms deal is a disaster for Yemen Vice News Retrieved 14 June 2017 Cooper Helene 13 June 2017 Senate Narrowly Backs Trump Weapons Sale to Saudi Arabia The New York Times Retrieved 14 June 2017 Carney Jordain 13 June 2017 Senate rejects effort to block Saudi arms sale The Hill Retrieved 14 June 2017 Gabbard condemns arms sale to Saudi Arabia Asian American Press 20 May 2017 Retrieved 21 May 2017 Beavers Olivia 20 May 2017 Dem senator Trump s arms deal with Saudis a terrible idea The Hill Retrieved 21 May 2017 Hensch Mark 23 May 2017 Paul plans to force vote on 110B Saudi defense deal The Hill Retrieved 26 May 2017 Nelson Steven 25 May 2017 Senators Target Trump s Proposed 110B Weapons Deal With Saudi Arabia U S News amp World Report Retrieved 9 July 2020 Hensch Mark 24 May 2017 Paul 110B Saudi arms deal a travesty The Hill Retrieved 27 May 2017 Jilani Zaid 14 November 2017 Congress Votes to Say It Hasn t Authorized War in Yemen Yet War in Yemen Goes On The Intercept Retrieved 9 July 2020 Jamal Khashoggi Britain challenges Saudi Arabia BBC News 10 October 2018 Retrieved 10 October 2018 Jamal Khashoggi Trump demands answers on missing Saudi BBC News 10 October 2018 Retrieved 10 October 2018 Riotta Chris 10 October 2018 Jamal Khashoggi disappearance Hell to pay for Saudi Arabia if journalist was murdered Lindsey Graham says The Independent Retrieved 10 October 2018 Saudi Operatives Who Killed Khashoggi Received Paramilitary Training in U S The New York Times Retrieved 22 June 2021 Hansler Jennifer 21 June 2019 US condemns Saudi Arabia over religious freedom abuses CNN Retrieved 21 June 2019 Zengerle Patricia 17 July 2019 House rejects Saudi weapons sales Trump to veto Reuters Retrieved 17 July 2019 Demirjian Karoun 17 July 2019 House votes to block Trump s arms sales to Saudi Arabia setting up a likely veto The Washington Post Retrieved 17 July 2019 Sulz Matthias 18 June 2019 Yemen Snapshots 2015 2019 ACLED Retrieved 9 July 2020 Gould Joe 29 July 2019 US Senate allows arms sales to Saudi Arabia sustaining Trump vetoes Defense News Retrieved 24 November 2020 McBride Courtney 3 August 2020 House Chairmen Issue Subpoenas in Probe of U S Arms Sales to Saudi Arabia The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 3 August 2020 DeYoung Karen 11 August 2020 State Department says Pompeo cleared in emergency Saudi arms sale The Washington Post Retrieved 11 August 2020 a b Mazzetti Mark Bergman Ronen Kirkpatrick David D 19 May 2018 Trump Jr and Other Aides Met With Gulf Emissary Offering Help to Win Election The New York Times Retrieved 9 July 2020 Trump Jr met Gulf princes emissary in 2016 who offered campaign help Reuters 19 May 2018 Retrieved 9 July 2020 Keating Joshua 8 March 2018 It s Not Just a Russia Investigation Anymore Slate Retrieved 9 July 2020 Report Saudis UAE funnelled millions to Trump 2016 campaign Al Jazeera 25 February 2020 Retrieved 9 July 2020 Kesslen Ben 9 December 2019 Pensacola naval base shooting that left 3 dead presumed to be terrorism FBI says NBC News Retrieved 9 December 2019 Pentagon suspends military training of Saudi students after Pensacola shooting The Guardian 10 December 2019 Retrieved 11 December 2019 https www foxnews com us saudis arrested questioning pensacola shooting amp Kalin Stephen Malsin Jared 3 July 2020 Dozens of U S Diplomats to Leave Saudi Arabia as Coronavirus Outbreak Worsens The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 9 July 2020 Kurlantzick Joshua 7 May 2007 Putting Lipstick On A Dictator Mother Jones Retrieved 22 August 2007 Lichtblau Eric 2 March 2011 Arab Unrest Puts Their Lobbyists in Uneasy Spot The New York Times Retrieved 9 July 2020 Bradley 2005 p 213 The ruling Al Saud family has long sought to be the ally of the West especially of the United States while both influencing it and keeping its corrupting influences at bay and simultaneously backing a Wahhabi establishment it relies on to remain in power but which also ultimately seeks the West s destruction Bradley John 3 9 June 2004 Waiting in the shadows Al Ahram Weekly Archived from the original on 13 September 2009 Bradley 2005 p 210 211 During the Iraq war Saudi Arabia secretly helped the United States by allowing operations from at least three air bases permitting special forces to stage attacks from Saudi soil and providing cheap fuel The American air campaign against Iraq was essentially managed from inside Saudi borders where military officers operated a command center and launched refueling tankers F 16 fighter jets and sophisticated intelligence gathering flights Saudi US Economic Relations 3 Riyadh Saudi Press Agency 16 May 2017 Retrieved 19 May 2017 Rafi Salman 2 May 2016 Old friends US and Saudi Arabia feel the rift growing seek new partners Asia Times Retrieved 9 July 2020 America Is Complicit in the Carnage in Yemen The New York Times 17 August 2016 Retrieved 9 July 2020 Norton Ben 30 August 2016 Rights group blasts U S hypocrisy in vast flood of weapons to Saudi Arabia despite war crimes Salon Retrieved 9 July 2020 Greenwald Glenn Hussain Murtaza 25 July 2014 The NSA s New Partner in Spying Saudi Arabia s Brutal State Police The Intercept Retrieved 9 July 2020 Stack Megan K 22 January 2015 King Abdullah 90 of Saudi Arabia dies Obama praises candid leader Los Angeles Times Retrieved 24 April 2016 Brook Tom Vanden 20 April 2015 U S carrier moving off coast of Yemen to block Iranian arms shipments USA Today Retrieved 9 July 2020 Al Mujahed Ali DeYoung Karen 25 March 2015 Saudi Arabia launches air attacks in Yemen The Washington Post Retrieved 9 July 2020 Strobel Warren Landay Jonathan 10 October 2016 Exclusive As Saudis bombed Yemen U S worried about legal blowback Reuters Retrieved 9 July 2020 Weizmann Nathalie 27 March 2015 International Law on the Saudi Led Military Operations in Yemen Just Security Retrieved 9 July 2020 Greenwald Glenn 10 October 2016 U S and U K Continue to Actively Participate in Saudi War Crimes Targeting of Yemeni Civilians The Intercept Retrieved 9 July 2020 Kutsch Tom 14 August 2016 Senators consider vote to block US arms deal to Saudi Arabia report The Guardian Retrieved 9 July 2020 Norton Ben 22 September 2016 Senate rejects bill blocking U S Saudi arms deal rights groups applaud growing dissent on Yemen war crimes Salon Retrieved 9 July 2020 a b c d e Trade in Goods with Saudi Arabia United States Census Bureau n d Retrieved 19 November 2018 Readout of Secretary Mattis Call with Kingdom of Saudi Arabia s Deputy Crown Prince and Minister of Defense Mohammed bin Salman Press release U S Department of Defense 31 January 2017 Retrieved 9 July 2020 De Luce Dan McLeary Paul 26 March 2017 Pentagon Weighs More Support for Saudi led War in Yemen Foreign Policy Retrieved 9 July 2020 Carden James 5 April 2017 America s Support for Saudi Arabia s War on Yemen Must End The Nation Retrieved 5 April 2017 DeYoung Karen Ryan Missy 26 March 2017 Trump administration weighs deeper involvement in Yemen war The Washington Post Retrieved 9 July 2020 McKernan Bethan 13 February 2017 CIA awards Saudi crown prince with medal for counter terrorism work The Independent Retrieved 9 July 2020 U S defense secretary calls Saudi crown prince reaffirms strategic ties Reuters February 19 2021 Archived from the original on February 19 2021 Petroleum amp Other Liquids U S Imports by Country of Origin U S Energy Information Administration n d Retrieved 19 November 2018 Saudi Arabia OEC Datawheel n d Retrieved 19 November 2018 Lee Julian 9 August 2020 Saudi Arabia Turns Off America s Oil Taps Again Bloomberg Retrieved 9 August 2020 a b c d Saudi Arabia Office of the United States Trade Representative n d Retrieved 19 November 2018 Copp Tara 27 October 2018 If US Saudi Arabia split over journalist s murder will troops ever be able to leave Syria Military Times Retrieved 19 November 2018 Baynes Chris 29 March 2018 US court allows 9 11 victims lawsuits claiming Saudi Arabia helped plan terror attack The Independent Retrieved 19 November 2018 a b Saudi Embassy has helped its citizens facing criminal charges flee the United States Washington Post ISSN 0190 8286 Retrieved 2021 06 18 Kavanaugh Shane Dixon 13 February 2019 Feds launch investigation into disappearance of Saudi students facing U S charges OregonLive Retrieved 14 February 2019 Tapper Jake Kavanaugh Shane Dixon Marquardt Alex 14 February 2019 Feds investigate if Saudi government helped students evade justice Video CNN Retrieved 14 February 2019 Senate Passes Wyden Bill to Provide Answers About Saudi Fugitives Press release Office of the Secretary of the Senate 17 October 2019 Retrieved 12 January 2020 Blanchette William 25 September 2020 Saudi Arabia Paid 500 000 Bond For Tulsa Murder Suspect News On 6 Retrieved 25 September 2020 OK prosecutors argue Uber driver accused of murder may flee AP 25 September 2020 Retrieved 25 September 2020 KASP Scholarship Program Saudi Arabian Cultural Bureau in Canada n d Retrieved 19 May 2017 Zakaria Tabassum 12 May 2008 Saudi smile likely for Bush on oil plea not more Reuters Retrieved 26 November 2008 Obaid Nawaf 14 November 2007 Assessing Saudi Power SUSRIS National Council on U S Arab Relations Archived from the original on 5 December 2007 Arango Tim 7 April 2018 Saudi Arabia s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman toured Hollywood Harvard and Silicon Valley on US visit The Independent Retrieved 9 July 2020 MBS meets AIPAC anti BDS leaders during US visit Al Jazeera 29 March 2018 Retrieved 9 July 2020 David Javier E 20 May 2017 US Saudi Arabia seal weapons deal worth nearly 110 billion immediately 350 billion over 10 years CNBC Retrieved 1 February 2018 Riedel Bruce 5 June 2017 The 110 billion arms deal to Saudi Arabia is fake news Brookings Retrieved 1 February 2018 Berr Jonathan 22 May 2017 U S defense stocks jump on Saudi arms deal CBS News Retrieved 27 May 2017 Thomas Lauren 22 May 2017 Defense stocks soar to all time highs on 110 billion US Saudi Arabia weapons deal CNBC Retrieved 27 May 2017 After Saudi arms deal defense shares fly AP 22 May 2017 Retrieved 27 May 2017 Factbox Deals signed by U S companies in Saudi Arabia Reuters 20 May 2017 Retrieved 9 July 2020 Martin Matthew Nereim Vivian Fattah Zainab 20 May 2017 Saudi Arabia Welcomes Trump With Billions of Dollars of Deals Bloomberg Retrieved 9 July 2020 Fattah Zainab 22 May 2017 Guide to 400 Billion in Saudi U S Deals Black Hawks to Oil Bloomberg Retrieved 9 July 2020 Aramco signs 50 billion in deals with US companies Oil amp Gas Journal 22 May 2017 Retrieved 31 May 2018 Rich Gillian 19 May 2017 4 Defense Giants In Buy Zone As Saudis Near 100 Billion Arms Package Investor s Business Daily Retrieved 9 July 2020 Peters Bill 9 June 2017 5 Top Deals Lockheed Boeing Raytheon May Get From Saudis If They Pay Up Investor s Business Daily Retrieved 9 July 2020 Elbagir Nima Abdelaziz Salma Browne Ryan Arvanitidis Barbara Smith Spark Laura 17 August 2018 Bomb that killed 40 children in Yemen was supplied by the US CNN Retrieved 9 July 2020 Cohen Zachary 27 May 2020 Trump administration considering new weapons sale to Saudi Arabia top Democrat says CNN Retrieved 1 June 2020 Beauchamp Zack 1 November 2016 10 000 Yemeni children have died of preventable diseases since the Saudi war began Vox Retrieved 1 November 2016 Atwood Kylie 24 September 2020 Democrats propose legislation to put more human rights controls on foreign arms sales CNN Retrieved 24 September 2020 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https www state gov countries areas U S Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets Further reading EditAnderson Irvine H Aramco the United States and Saudi Arabia Princeton University Press 2014 Beling Willard A ed King Faisal And The Modernisation Of Saudi Arabia 2019 Blanchard Christopher M Saudi Arabia background and U S relations Congressional Research Service CRS Reports and Issue Briefs U S Congressional Research Service 2020 online U S government document not copyright 22 700 words Bronson Rachel Thicker than Oil America s Uneasy Partnership with Saudi Arabia Oxford University Press 2006 excerpt Cordesman Anthony H Saudi Arabia Guarding the desert kingdom 1997 Ghattas Kim Black Wave Saudi Arabia Iran and the Forty Year Rivalry That Unraveled Culture Religion and Collective Memory in the Middle East 2020 excerpt Hart Parker T Saudi Arabia and the United States Indiana UP 1998 onlineHiro Dilip Cold War In The Islamic World Saudi Arabia Iran And The Struggle For Supremacy 2019 excerpt Koelbl Susanne Behind the Kingdom s Veil Inside the New Saudi Arabia Under Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman 2020 excerptLacey Robert The Kingdom Arabia and the House of Saud 1981 onlineILippman Thomas W Inside the Mirage America s Fragile Partnership with Saudi Arabia 2005 Long David E The United States and Saudi Arabia Ambivalent Allies Routledge 2019 excerptMackintosh Smith Tim Arabs A 3 000 Year History of Peoples Tribes and Empires Yale UP 2019 Parker Chad Making the Desert Modern Americans Arabs and Oil on the Saudi Frontier 1933 1973 U of Massachusetts Press 2015 Riedel Bruce Kings and presidents Saudi Arabia and the United States since FDR Brookings Institution Press 2019 Vitalis Robert America s Kingdom Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier Stanford University Press 2006 excerptExternal links EditHistory of Saudi Arabia U S relationsWikimedia Commons has media related to Relations of Saudi Arabia and the United States Embassy of Saudi Arabia Washington DC Embassy of U S A Riyadh Consulate General of U S A Dhahran Consulate General of U S A Jeddah Odah Sultan Odah Saudi American Relations 1968 1972 Saudi Arabia Background and U S Relations Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saudi Arabia United States relations amp oldid 1053245225, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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