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Saxe-Lauenburg

The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. Its territorial center was in the modern district of Herzogtum Lauenburg and originally its eponymous capital was Lauenburg upon Elbe, though in 1619 the capital moved to Ratzeburg.

Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg
Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg
  • 1296–1803
  • 1814–1876
Flag
Coat of arms (1507–1671)
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1848 (map in Dutch)
Status
CapitalLauenburg/Elbe
Ratzeburg (from 1619)
GovernmentPrincipality
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Partitioned from Duchy of Saxony
1296
• Partitioned into Saxe-Mölln-Bergedorf and Saxe-Ratzeburg
1303–1401
1689–1705
• Personal union with Hanover
1705–1803
• Dissolved during Napoleonic Wars
1803–1814
• Personal union with Denmark
1814–1864
• Personal union with Prussia
1865–1876
• Merged into Prussia
1876
Saxe-Lauenburg c. 1400 (green), including the tracts south of the Elbe and the Amt Neuhaus, but without Hadeln out of the map downstream the Elbe

Contents

In addition to the core territories in the modern district of Lauenburg, at times other territories, mostly south of the river Elbe, belonged to the duchy:

  • The tract of land along the southern Elbe bank (German: Marschvogtei), reaching from Marschacht to the Amt Neuhaus, territorially connecting the core of the duchy with these more southeastern Lauenburgian areas. This land was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814. It is now part of the Lower Saxon Harburg (district).
  • The Amt Neuhaus proper, then including areas on both sides of the Elbe, which was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814. Today, this is all part of Lower Saxon Lüneburg (district).
  • The exclave Land of Hadeln in the area of the Elbe estuary was disentangled from Saxe-Lauenburg in 1689 and administered as a separate territory under imperial custody, before it was ceded to Bremen-Verden in 1731. Now it is part of today's Lower Saxon Cuxhaven (district).
  • Some North Elbian municipalities of the former core duchy are not part of today's district of Lauenburg, since they had been ceded to the then Soviet occupation zone by the Barber Lyashchenko Agreement in November 1945.
The coat of arms of Saxe-Lauenburg as fixed by Duke Julius Francis and confirmed by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1671. First quarter: the Ascanian barry of ten sable and Or, covered by a crancelin of rue bendwise in vert. Second quarter: azure, an eagle crowned Or. Third quarter: argent, three water lily leaves gules. Fourth quarter: party per fess sable and argent, the electoral swords (German: Kurschwerter) gules, representing the Saxon office as Imperial Arch-Marshal (German: Erzmarschall, Latin: Archimarescallus), pertaining to Saxon privilege as Prince-elector, besides the right to elect the new emperor after the decease of the former. Saxe-Lauenburg always claimed the privilege, but could not prevail after 1356.

Early history

In 1203, King Valdemar II of Denmark conquered the area later comprising Saxe-Lauenburg, but it reverted to Albert I, Duke of Saxony in 1227. In 1260, Albert I's sons Albert II and John I succeeded their father. In 1269, 1272 and 1282, the brothers gradually divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas along the Elbe river (one called Land of Hadeln, another around Lauenburg upon Elbe and the third around Wittenberg upon Elbe), thus preparing a partition.

After John I's resignation, Albert II ruled with his minor nephews Albert III, Eric I and John II, who by 1296 definitely partitioned Saxony providing Saxe-Lauenburg for the brothers, and Saxe-Wittenberg for their uncle Albert II. The last document, mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295. A deed of 20 September 1296, mentions the Vierlande, Sadelbande (Land of Lauenburg), the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing (later Amt Neuhaus), and the Land of Hadeln as the separate territory of the brothers.

Bergedorf Castle in Bergedorf, former seat of the Lauenburg Elder Line

By 1303, the three jointly ruling brothers had partitioned Saxe-Lauenburg into three shares, however, Albert III died already in 1308, so that the surviving brothers established, after a territorial realignment in 1321, the Lauenburg Elder Line, with John II ruling Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln, seated in Bergedorf and the Lauenburg Younger Line, with Eric I ruling Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg, seated in Lauenburg upon Elbe. John II, the eldest brother, wielded the electoral privilege for the Lauenburg Ascanians, however, rivalled by their cousin Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg.

In 1314, the dispute escalated into the election of two hostile German kings, the Habsburg Frederick III, the Fair, and his Wittelsbach cousin Louis IV, the Bavarian. Louis received five of the seven votes, to wit Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, the legitimate King-Elector John of Bohemia, Duke John II of Saxe-Lauenburg using his claim as the Saxon prince-elector, Archbishop-Elector Peter of Mainz, and Prince-Elector Waldemar of Brandenburg.

Frederick the Fair received in the same election four of the seven votes, with the deposed King-Elector Henry of Bohemia, illegitimately assuming electoral power, Archbishop-Elector Henry II of Cologne, Louis's brother Prince-Elector Rudolph I of the Electorate of the Palatinate, and Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power. However, only Louis the Bavarian finally asserted himself as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Golden Bull of 1356, however, conclusively named the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg as electors.

In 1370, John II's fourth successor Eric III of Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln pawned the Herrschaft of Bergedorf, the Vierlande, half the Saxon Wood and Geesthacht to Lübeck in return for a credit of 16,262.5 Lübeck marks. This acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lübeck, thus providing a safe passage for freight between the cities. Eric III only retained a life tenancy.

The city of Lübeck and Eric III had stipulated that, upon his death, Lübeck would be entitled to take possession of the pawned areas until his successors repaid the credit and simultaneously exercised the repurchase of Mölln (contracted in 1359), altogether amounting to the then enormous sum of 26,000 Lübeck Marks.

In 1401, Eric III died without issue. The Lauenburg Elder Line was thus extinct in the male line and Eric III was succeeded by his second cousin Eric IV of Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg of the Younger Line. In the same year, Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric (later ruling as Eric V) and John, forcefully captured the pawned areas without making any repayment, before Lübeck could take possession of them. Lübeck acquiesced for the time being.

In 1420, Eric V attacked Prince-Elector Frederick I of Brandenburg and Lübeck allied with Hamburg in support of Brandenburg. Armies of both cities opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station (today's Zollenspieker Ferry). This forced Eric V to agree with Hamburg's burgomaster Hein Hoyer and Burgomaster Jordan Pleskow of Lübeck to the Treaty of Perleberg on 23 August 1420, which stipulated that all the pawned areas, which Eric IV, Eric V and John IV had violently taken in 1401, were to be irrevocably ceded to the cities of Hamburg and Lübeck, becoming their bi-urban condominium of Bergedorf (Beiderstädtischer Besitz).

From the 14th century, Saxe-Lauenburg termed itself as Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen). However, Saxony as a naming for the area comprising the older Duchy of Saxony in its borders before 1180 still prevailed. So, when in 1500 the Holy Roman Empire established the Imperial Circles as tax levying and army recruitment districts, the circle comprising Saxe-Lauenburg and all its neighbours became designated as Saxon Circle, while the Wettin-ruled Saxon electorate and duchies at that time formed the Upper Saxon Circle. The naming of Lower Saxony became more colloquial and the Saxon Circle was later renamed into Lower Saxon Circle. In 1659, Duke Julius Henry decreed in his general disposition (guidelines for his government) "to also esteem the woodlands as heart and dwell [of revenues] of the Principality of Lower Saxony."

After the Reformation

The people of Hadeln, represented by their estates of the realm, adopted the Lutheran Reformation in 1525 and Duke Magnus I confirmed Hadeln's Lutheran Church Order in 1526, establishing Hadeln's separate ecclesiastical body existing until 1885. Magnus did not promote the spreading of Lutheranism in the rest of his duchy. Lutheran preachers, most likely from the southerly adjacent Principality of Lunenburg, Lutheran since 1529, held the first Lutheran preaches; at the northern entrance of St. Mary Magdalene Church in Lauenburg upon Elbe one is recalled for Saint John's Eve in 1531. Tacitly, the congregations appointed Lutheran preachers so that the visitations of 1564 and 1566, ordered by Duke Francis I, Magnus I's son, on the instigation of the Ritter- und Landschaft, saw already Lutheran preachers in many parishes. In 1566, Francis I appointed the Superintendent Franciscus Baringius as the first spiritual leader of the church in the duchy, not including Hadeln.

Francis I conducted a thrifty reign and resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II once having exploited all his means in 1571. Magnus II promised to redeem the pawned ducal demesnes with funds he gained as a Swedish military commander and by his marriage to Princess Sophia of Sweden. However, Magnus did not redeem pawns but further alienated ducal possessions, which ignited a conflict between Magnus and his father and brothers Francis (II) and Maurice as well as the estates of the duchy, further escalating due to Magnus' violent temperament.

In 1573, Francis I deposed Magnus and reascended to the throne while Magnus fled to Sweden. The following year Magnus hired troops in order to take Saxe-Lauenburg with violence. Francis II, an experienced military commander in imperial service, and Duke Adolphus of Schleswig and Holstein at Gottorp, then Lower Saxon Circle Colonel (Kreisobrist), helped Francis I to defeat Magnus. In return Saxe-Lauenburg had to cede the bailiwick of Steinhorst to Gottorp in 1575. Francis II again helped his father to inhibit Magnus' second military attempt to overthrow his father in 1578. Francis I then made Francis II his vicegerent actually governing the duchy.

Lauenburg Castle in Lauenburg upon Elbe, seat of the Lauenburg Younger Line by the end of the 16th century, until its destruction in 1616

In 1581 - shortly before he died and after consultations with his son Prince-Archbishop Henry of Bremen and Emperor Rudolph II, but unconcerted with his other sons Magnus and Maurice - Francis I made his third son Francis II, whom he considered the ablest, his sole successor, violating the rules of primogeniture. This severed the anyway difficult relations with the estates of the duchy, which fought the ducal practice of growing indebtedness.

The general church visitation of 1581, prompted by Francis II, showed poor results as to the knowledge, practice and behaviour of many pastors. Baringius was held responsible for these grievances and replaced by Gerhard Sagittarius in 1582. Finally in 1585, after consultations with his brother Prince-Archbishop Henry, Francis II decreed a constitution (Niedersächsische Kirchenordnung; Lower Saxon Church Order), authored by Lübeck's Superintendent Andreas Pouchenius the Elder, for the Lutheran church of Saxe-Lauenburg. It constituted the Lutheran state church of Saxe-Lauenburg, with general superintendent (as of 1592) and consistory seated in the city of Lauenburg, which merged into that of Schleswig Holstein in 1877. Francis II's attempt to merge Hadeln's Lutheran church body with that in the rest of the duchy was unanimously rejected by Hadeln's clergy and estates in 1585 and 1586.

The violation of the primogeniture, however, gave grounds for the estates to perceive the upcoming duke Francis II as illegitimate. This forced him into negotiations, which ended on 16 December 1585 with the constitutional act of the "Eternal Union" (German: Ewige Union) of the representatives of Saxe-Lauenburg's nobility (Ritterschaft, i.e. knighthood) and other subjects (Landschaft), mostly from the cities, Lauenburg upon Elbe and Ratzeburg, then altogether constituted as the estates of the duchy (Ritter- und Landschaft), led by the Land Marshall, a hereditary office held by the family von Bülow. Francis II accepted their establishment as a permanent institution with a crucial say in government matters. In return Ritter- und Landschaft accepted Francis II as legitimate and rendered him homage as duke in 1586.

The relations between Ritter- und Landschaft and duke improved since Francis II redeemed ducal pawns with money he had earned as imperial commander. After the residential castle in Lauenburg upon Elbe (started in 1180–1182 by Duke Bernard I) had burnt down in 1616, Francis II moved the capital to Neuhaus upon Elbe.

View of Ratzeburg, 1590, with the castle in the foreground

In 1619 Duke Augustus moved Saxe-Lauenburg's capital from Neuhaus upon Elbe to Ratzeburg, where it remained since. During the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) Augustus always remained neutral, however, billeting and alimenting foreign troops marching through posed a heavy burden onto the ducal subjects. Augustus was succeeded by his elder half-brother Julius Henry in 1656. He had converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism in expectation of becoming appointed Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück in 1615, but guaranteed to leave the Lutheran state church and the Lower Saxon Church Order untouched.

He confirmed the existing privileges of the nobility and the Ritter- und Landschaft. In 1658 he forbade his vassals to pledge or else alienate fiefs, thus fighting the integration of manor estates in Saxe-Lauenburg into the monetary economies of the neighbouring economically powerful Hanseatic cities of Hamburg and Lübeck. He entered with both city-states into frontier disputes on manor estates which were in the process of evading Saxe-Lauenburgian overlordship into the competence of the city-states.

Disputed succession

With the death of Duke Julius Francis, a son of Julius Henry, the Lauenburg line of the House of Ascania became extinct in the male line. However, female succession was possible by the Saxe-Lauenburgian laws. So the two surviving out of the three daughters of Julius Francis, Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe-Lauenburg fought for the succession of the former, the elder sister. Their weakness was abused by Duke George William of the neighbouring Brunswick and Lunenburgian Principality of Lunenburg, seated in Celle, who invaded Saxe-Lauenburg with his troops, thus inhibiting the ascension of the legal heiress to the throne Duchess Anna Maria.

There were at least eight monarchies claiming the succession, resulting in a conflict involving further the neighbouring duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and of Danish Holstein, as well as the five Ascanian-ruled Principalities of Anhalt, the Electorate of Saxony, which had succeeded the Saxe-Wittenbergian Ascanians in 1422, Sweden and Brandenburg. Militarily engaged were Celle and Danish Holstein, which agreed on 9 October 1693 (Hamburger Vergleich), that Celle anyway de facto holding most of Saxe-Lauenburg would retain the duchy, while the fortress in Ratzeburg, fortified under Celle rule and directed against Holstein, would be razed. In return Danish Holstein, which had invaded Ratzeburg and ruined the fortress, would withdraw its troops.

George William compensated John George III, Elector of Saxony, for his claim by a substantial sum of money, since the ancestors of both these princes had made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg. The Ritter- und Landschaft then rendered homage to George William as their duke. On 15 September 1702 George William confirmed the existing constitution, laws and legislative bodies of Saxe-Lauenburg. On 17 May 1705 the Lutheran superintendency was moved from Lauenburg to Ratzeburg and combined with the pastorate of St. Peter's Church. When he died on 28 August the same year Saxe-Lauenburg passed to his nephew, George I Louis, elector of Hanover, afterwards king of Great Britain as George I. The Lower Saxon Lutheran Church maintained its Church Order with the consistory and General Superintendent Severin Walter Slüter (1646–1697) in Lauenburg, succeeded by incumbents titled again superintendent only.

So Saxe-Lauenburg, except for Hadeln, passed to the House of Welf and its cadet branch House of Hanover, while the legal heirs, Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe-Lauenburg, never waiving their claim, were dispossessed and the former exiled in Bohemian Ploskovice. Emperor Leopold I rejected Celle's succession and thus retained Hadeln, which was out of Celle's reach, in his custody. Only in 1728 his son Emperor Charles VI enfeoffed George II Augustus with Saxe-Lauenburg, finally legitimising the de facto takeover by his grandfather in 1689 and 1693. On 27 August 1729 he confirmed Saxe-Lauenburg's existing constitution, laws and the Ritter- und Landschaft. On 5 April 1757 the Niedersächsische Landschulordnung decreed the compulsory school attendance for all children in Saxe-Lauenburg. George III ascended in 1760 and endorsed all the laws, the constitution and the Ritter- und Landschaft of Saxe-Lauenburg by a writ issued in St. James' Palace on 21 January 1765. In 1794 George III donated annual rewards for the best teachers in Saxe-Lauenburg.

Napoleonic era

Coat of arms of Saxe-Lauenburg after 1866. These arms alter the Danish version, then featuring a golden horse head on red. Prussia added a bordure gyronny in black and white, its official colours, and showed the horse head in silver.

The duchy was occupied by French troops in 1803–05, after which the French occupational troops left in a campaign against Austria. Then British, Swedish and Russian Coalition forces captured Saxe-Lauenburg in autumn 1805 at the beginning of the War of the Third Coalition against France (1805–06). In December the Empire of the French, since 1804 France's new form of government, ceded Saxe-Lauenburg, which it no longer held, to Brandenburg-Prussia, which captured it early in 1806.

But when the Kingdom of Prussia (the name element Electorate of Brandenburg had turned void at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire on 6 August 1806), after it had turned – as part of the Fourth Coalition – against France, was defeated in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (November 11, 1806), France recaptured Saxe-Lauenburg. In remained first under French occupation, before on 1 March 1810 most of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, a French client state. A small area with 15,000 inhabitants remained reserved for Napoléon's purposes. On 1 January 1811, most of the former duchy – except for the Amt Neuhaus and the Marschvogtei, which remained with Westphalia – was annexed to the First French Empire.

Post-Napoleon

After the Napoleonic Wars, Saxe-Lauenburg was restored as a Hanoverian dominium in 1813. The Congress of Vienna established Saxe-Lauenburg as a member state of the German Confederation. In 1814 the Kingdom of Hanover bartered Saxe-Lauenburg against Prussian East Frisia. On 7 June 1815, after 14 months under its rule, the Prussia granted Saxe-Lauenburg to Sweden, receiving in return the former Swedish Pomerania, however, additionally paying 2.6 million Taler to Denmark, in order to compensate Denmark for the loss of Norway. Denmark gained that ducal territory north of the Elbe, now ruled in personal union by the Danish House of Oldenburg, from Sweden, which thus again compensated Danish claims to Swedish Pomerania. On 6 December 1815 Frederick VI of Denmark issued his Asseveration Act (Versicherungsacte) affirming the given laws, the constitution and the Ritter- und Landschaft of Saxe-Lauenburg. In 1816 his administration took possession of the duchy.

During the First Schleswig War (1848–1851), the Ritter- und Landschaft prevented a Prussian conquest by requesting Hanoverian troops as peace-keeping occupational forces on behalf of the German Confederation. In 1851 King Frederick VII of Denmark was restored as Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg. Prussian and Austrian forces invaded the duchy during the Second Schleswig War. By the Treaty of Vienna (1864), King Christian IX of Denmark resigned as duke and ceded the duchy to Prussia and Austria. After receiving a £300,000 financial compensation, Austria waived its claim to Saxe-Lauenburg by the Gastein Convention in August 1865. The Ritter- und Landschaft then offered the ducal throne to William I of Prussia. In September the same year, he accepted and ruled the duchy in personal union since. William appointed the then Minister President of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck, as minister for Saxe-Lauenburg. In 1866, Saxe-Lauenburg joined the North German Confederation. However, its vote in the Bundesrat was counted along with those of Prussia.

In 1871, Saxe-Lauenburg was one of the component constituent states founding united Germany. However, in 1876, the ducal government and the Ritter- und Landschaft decided to dissolve the Duchy with effect on 1 July 1876. Its territory was then integrated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein as the district Herzogtum Lauenburg, meaning the Duchy of Lauenburg.

For the further history see Herzogtum Lauenburg.

For the Duchesses consort see List of Saxon consorts, partially also presenting portraits. For portraits of the dukes, starting with Julius Henry, see List of Saxon rulers.

House of Ascania (1296–1689)

Main article: House of Ascania

The counting of the dukes includes the preceding Ascanian dukes Bernard I, his son Albert I, and the latter's jointly ruling sons John I and Albert II, all of which ruled the Saxon dukedom before its partition into Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg.

  • Eric I 1296–1303 joint rule, then ruling until 1360 in Saxe-Bergedorf, partitioned from Saxe-Lauenburg (see #Ratzeburg-Lauenburg line below)
  • John II 1296–1303 joint rule, then ruling until 1321 in Saxe-Ratzeburg, partitioned from Saxe-Lauenburg (see section #Bergedorf-Mölln line below)
  • Albert III 1296–1303 joint rule, then ruling until 1308 in Saxe-Ratzeburg, partitioned from Saxe-Lauenburg, dying without issue Eric I inherited his share

In 1303 the brothers split their inheritance between them, however, only two brothers had heirs creating the Bergedorf-Mölln and the Ratzeburg-Lauenburg lines.

Bergedorf-Mölln line

First named Saxe-Mölln, however, renamed following a territorial redeployment including parts of Albert III's share in 1321.

  • 1303–22: John II (*ca. 1275–1322*), ruled alone in Bergedorf-Mölln, rivalled as Saxon Prince-Elector by his cousin Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg in 1314
  • 1322–43: Albrecht (Albert) IV (*?–1343*), son of the preceding.
  • 1343–56: John III (*?–1356*), son of the preceding.
  • 1356–70: Albrecht (Albert) V (*?–1370*), brother of the preceding.
  • 1370–1401: Eric III (*?–1401*), brother of the preceding.

In 1401, the elder branch became extinct and Lauenburg rejoined the Ratzeburg-Lauenburg line.

Ratzeburg-Lauenburg line

First named Saxe-Bergedorf-Lauenburg, however, renamed following a territorial redeployment after inheriting Albert III's share.

  • 1303–38: Eric I (*?–1360*), resigned in 1338.
  • 1338–68: Eric II (*1318/1320–1368*), son of the preceding.
  • 1368–1412: Eric IV (*1354–1411/1412*), son of the preceding, ruled jointly with his sons Eric V and Bernard II since 1401.

In 1401, the younger branch inherited Lauenburg and other possessions of the extinct elder Bergedorf-Mölln line.

  • 1401–36: Eric V (*?-1436*), son of the preceding, ruled jointly with his father until 1412, his brother John IV until 1414 and his younger brother Bernard II as of 1426.
  • 1401–14: John IV (*?-1414*), brother of the preceding, ruled jointly with his father until 1412 and his brother Eric V.
  • 1426–63: Bernard II (*1385/1392–1463*), brother of the preceding, ruled jointly with his brother Eric V as of 1426.
  • 1463–1507: John V (*1439–1507*), son of the preceding.
  • 1507–43: Magnus I (*1488–1543*), son of the preceding.
  • 1543–71: Francis I (*1510–1581*), son of the preceding, resigned in favour of his son Magnus II.
  • 1571-74: Magnus II (*1543–1603*), son of the preceding.
  • 1574–81: Francis I (*1510–1581*), reascended the throne, replacing his son Magnus II.
  • 1581-88: Magnus II (*1543–1603*), son of the preceding, ruled jointly with his brothers Maurice and Francis II, Magnus resigned in 1588.
  • 1581-1612: Maurice (*1551–1612*), ruled jointly with his brothers Magnus II (till 1588) and Francis II.
  • 1581–1619: Francis II (*1547–1619*), ruled jointly with his brothers Magnus II (till 1588) and Maurice (till 1612).
  • 1619–56: Augustus (*1577–1656*), son of the preceding.
  • 1656–65: Julius Henry (*1586–1665*), brother of the preceding.
  • 1665–66: Francis Erdmann (*1629–1666*), son of the preceding.
  • 1666–89: Julius Francis (*1641–1689*), brother of the preceding.

House of Welf (1689–1803)

Main article: House of Welf

For 113 years the duchy was ruled by members of the Welf dynasty. However, since its violent takeover only in 1728 Emperor Charles VI enfeoffed George II Augustus with Saxe-Lauenburg, finally legitimising the Welfs as dukes.

House of Brunswick and Lunenburg–Celle (1689–1705)

House of Hanover (1705–1803)

Napoleonic Wars (1803–14)

See also: Napoleonic Wars

House of Oldenburg (1815–64)

For almost fifty years, from 1815, Saxe-Lauenburg was within the German Confederation, and in personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark:

Main line (1815–63)

  • 1815–39: Frederick I; also King of Denmark (1808–39, as Frederick VI) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein; previously King of (1808–14) Norway and Regent of Denmark-Norway from 1784.
  • 1839–48: Christian I; also King of Denmark (as Christian VIII) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein; previously King of Norway (1814, as Christian Frederick).
  • 1848–63: Frederick II; also King of Denmark (as Frederick VII) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein.

Glücksburg line (1863–64)

  • 1863–64: Christian II; also King of Denmark (1863–1906, as Christian IX) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein.

House of Hohenzollern (1865–76)

For twelve years Saxe-Lauenburg was ruled in personal union with Prussia, within the North German Confederation (1867–71). In 1871 Saxe-Lauenburg became a component state of united Germany (German Empire).

Dependent rule (1876–present)

Wikimedia Commons has media related toSaxe-Lauenburg.
  1. The House of Wettin also adopted this coat-of-arms when it gained Saxe-Wittenberg, which is why they reappear in the arms of many (formerly) Wettin-ruled states.
  2. "LAUENBURG", in: Encyclopædia Britannica: 29 vols., 111910–1911, vol. 16 'L to Lord Advocate', p. 280.
  3. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 375. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  4. Elisabeth Raiser, Städtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter: eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lübecks und Zürichs, Lübeck and Hamburg: Matthiesen, 1969, (=Historische Studien; vol. 406), p. 90, simultaneously: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1969.
  5. Elisabeth Raiser, Städtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter: eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lübecks und Zürichs, Lübeck and Hamburg: Matthiesen, 1969, (=Historische Studien; vol. 406), pp. 90seq., simultaneously: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1969.
  6. Elisabeth Raiser, Städtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter: eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lübecks und Zürichs, Lübeck and Hamburg: Matthiesen, 1969, (=Historische Studien; vol. 406), p. 137, simultaneously: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1969.
  7. However, today's State of Germany named Lower Saxony comprises only small fringes of Lauenburgian Lower Saxon territory, to wit: its areas south of the river Elbe, such as:
    i) the Land of Hadeln
    ii) a tract of land along the southern Elbe bank, the Marschvogtei, connecting from Marschacht to the Amt Neuhaus
    iii) the Amt Neuhaus.
  8. The addition in edged brackets not in the original. In the German original: "... auch die Höltzung für des Fürstenthumbs Niedersachsen Kern und Brunquell zu achten." Generaldisposition of Julius Francis, 1659.
  9. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 14.
  10. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 16.
  11. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 18.
  12. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 21.
  13. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 381. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  14. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 380. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  15. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 25.
  16. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 27.
  17. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373–389, here p. 379. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  18. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 15.
  19. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373–389, here p. 382. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  20. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 383. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  21. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 41.
  22. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 66.
  23. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 96.
  24. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 47.
  25. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 49.
  26. Johann Friedrich Burmester, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg, Ratzeburg: author's edition, 1832, p. 51.
  27. Pommern, Werner Buchholz (ed.), Werner Conze, Hartmut Boockmann (contrib.), Berlin: Siedler, 1999, pp. 363 seq. ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  28. His wife was Sophia of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel) and they had Catharina of Saxe-Lauenburg (mar. Henry IV, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin) as daughter.
  29. His wife was Adelheid of Pomerania and they had Sophie of Saxe-Lauenburg (*before 1428-1473*) as daughter, married to Gerhard VII, Duke of Juliers.
  30. His wife was Dorothea of Brandenburg (c. 1446 – March 1519, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg). Their children were Eric of Saxe-Lauenburg (1472 - 20 October 1522, as Eric I Prince-Bishop of Münster, as II Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim) and Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg (mar. in ca. 1420, d. 1462, mother of Eric II, Duke of Pomerania).
  31. He married on 8 February 1540 Sybille of Saxe-Freiberg (Freiberg, 2 May 1515 - 18 July 1592, Buxtehude), daughter of Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg. Their children were Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg (as Henry II Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, as III Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and as IV Prince-Bishop of Paderborn), Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg (mar. with Wenceslaus III Adam, Duke of Cieszyn) and Ursula of Saxe-Lauenburg-Ratzeburg (mar. with Henry, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Dannenberg)).
  32. His wife was Sophia of Sweden.
  33. Francis' wife was Mary of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel) (1566-1626, daughter of Julius, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel)) and they had daughters Juliane of Saxe-Lauenburg (26 December 1589 - 1 December 1630, mar. 1 August 1627), married to Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg, and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg (24 May 1601 - 1 February 1660, mar. 23 May 1624) with Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.
  34. His wife was Elisabeth Sophie of Holstein-Gottorp, daughter of John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Their daughter was Anna-Elisabetha of Saxe-Lauenburg (23 August 1624 - 1688, mar. 2 April 1665), wife of William Christoph, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
  35. He married three times: 1) Anne of Ostfriesland, 2) on 27 February 1628 Elisabeth Sophia of Brandenburg (13 July 1589–24 December 1629), daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and mother of Duke Francis Erdmann, and 3) on 18 August 1632 Anna Magdalene, Baroness Popel von Lobkowitz (d. 7 September 1668), the only to ascend with him to the throne on 18 January 1656. She was mother of Duke Julius Francis.
  36. His wife was Hedwig of Palatine Sulzbach (15 April 1660 - 23 November 1681; daughter of Christian Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach) and they had Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe-Lauenburg as daughters.

Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe Lauenburg Language Watch Edit The Duchy of Saxe Lauenburg German Herzogtum Sachsen Lauenburg called Niedersachsen Lower Saxony between the 14th and 17th centuries was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296 1803 and 1814 1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig Holstein Its territorial center was in the modern district of Herzogtum Lauenburg and originally its eponymous capital was Lauenburg upon Elbe though in 1619 the capital moved to Ratzeburg Duchy of Saxe LauenburgHerzogtum Sachsen Lauenburg1296 1803 1814 1876Flag Coat of arms 1507 1671 The Duchy of Saxe Lauenburg in 1848 map in Dutch StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire State of the German Confederation State of the North German Confederation State of the German EmpireCapitalLauenburg Elbe Ratzeburg from 1619 GovernmentPrincipalityHistorical eraMiddle Ages Partitioned from Duchy of Saxony1296 Partitioned into Saxe Molln Bergedorf and Saxe Ratzeburg1303 1401 Personal union with Luneburg Celle1689 1705 Personal union with Hanover1705 1803 Dissolved during Napoleonic Wars1803 1814 Personal union with Denmark1814 1864 Personal union with Prussia1865 1876 Merged into Prussia1876Preceded by Succeeded byDuchy of Saxony Province of Schleswig HolsteinSaxe Lauenburg c 1400 green including the tracts south of the Elbe and the Amt Neuhaus but without Hadeln out of the map downstream the Elbe Contents 1 Former territories not part of today s district of Lauenburg 2 History 2 1 Early history 2 2 After the Reformation 2 3 Disputed succession 2 4 Napoleonic era 2 5 Post Napoleon 3 Dukes of Saxe Lauenburg 3 1 House of Ascania 1296 1689 3 1 1 Bergedorf Molln line 3 1 2 Ratzeburg Lauenburg line 3 2 House of Welf 1689 1803 3 2 1 House of Brunswick and Lunenburg Celle 1689 1705 3 2 2 House of Hanover 1705 1803 3 3 Napoleonic Wars 1803 14 3 4 House of Oldenburg 1815 64 3 4 1 Main line 1815 63 3 4 2 Glucksburg line 1863 64 3 5 House of Hohenzollern 1865 76 3 6 Dependent rule 1876 present 4 External links 5 NotesFormer territories not part of today s district of Lauenburg EditIn addition to the core territories in the modern district of Lauenburg at times other territories mostly south of the river Elbe belonged to the duchy The tract of land along the southern Elbe bank German Marschvogtei reaching from Marschacht to the Amt Neuhaus territorially connecting the core of the duchy with these more southeastern Lauenburgian areas This land was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 It is now part of the Lower Saxon Harburg district The Amt Neuhaus proper then including areas on both sides of the Elbe which was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 Today this is all part of Lower Saxon Luneburg district The exclave Land of Hadeln in the area of the Elbe estuary was disentangled from Saxe Lauenburg in 1689 and administered as a separate territory under imperial custody before it was ceded to Bremen Verden in 1731 Now it is part of today s Lower Saxon Cuxhaven district Some North Elbian municipalities of the former core duchy are not part of today s district of Lauenburg since they had been ceded to the then Soviet occupation zone by the Barber Lyashchenko Agreement in November 1945 History Edit The coat of arms of Saxe Lauenburg as fixed by Duke Julius Francis and confirmed by Leopold I Holy Roman Emperor in 1671 First quarter the Ascanian barry of ten sable and Or covered by a crancelin of rue bendwise in vert 1 Second quarter azure an eagle crowned Or Third quarter argent three water lily leaves gules Fourth quarter party per fess sable and argent the electoral swords German Kurschwerter gules representing the Saxon office as Imperial Arch Marshal German Erzmarschall Latin Archimarescallus pertaining to Saxon privilege as Prince elector besides the right to elect the new emperor after the decease of the former Saxe Lauenburg always claimed the privilege but could not prevail after 1356 Early history Edit In 1203 King Valdemar II of Denmark conquered the area later comprising Saxe Lauenburg but it reverted to Albert I Duke of Saxony in 1227 2 In 1260 Albert I s sons Albert II and John I succeeded their father 2 In 1269 1272 and 1282 the brothers gradually divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas along the Elbe river one called Land of Hadeln another around Lauenburg upon Elbe and the third around Wittenberg upon Elbe thus preparing a partition After John I s resignation Albert II ruled with his minor nephews Albert III Eric I and John II who by 1296 definitely partitioned Saxony providing Saxe Lauenburg for the brothers and Saxe Wittenberg for their uncle Albert II The last document mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295 3 A deed of 20 September 1296 mentions the Vierlande Sadelbande Land of Lauenburg the Land of Ratzeburg the Land of Darzing later Amt Neuhaus and the Land of Hadeln as the separate territory of the brothers 3 Bergedorf Castle in Bergedorf former seat of the Lauenburg Elder Line By 1303 the three jointly ruling brothers had partitioned Saxe Lauenburg into three shares however Albert III died already in 1308 so that the surviving brothers established after a territorial realignment in 1321 the Lauenburg Elder Line with John II ruling Saxe Bergedorf Molln seated in Bergedorf and the Lauenburg Younger Line with Eric I ruling Saxe Ratzeburg Lauenburg seated in Lauenburg upon Elbe John II the eldest brother wielded the electoral privilege for the Lauenburg Ascanians however rivalled by their cousin Rudolph I of Saxe Wittenberg In 1314 the dispute escalated into the election of two hostile German kings the Habsburg Frederick III the Fair and his Wittelsbach cousin Louis IV the Bavarian Louis received five of the seven votes to wit Archbishop Elector Baldwin of Trier the legitimate King Elector John of Bohemia Duke John II of Saxe Lauenburg using his claim as the Saxon prince elector Archbishop Elector Peter of Mainz and Prince Elector Waldemar of Brandenburg Frederick the Fair received in the same election four of the seven votes with the deposed King Elector Henry of Bohemia illegitimately assuming electoral power Archbishop Elector Henry II of Cologne Louis s brother Prince Elector Rudolph I of the Electorate of the Palatinate and Duke Rudolph I of Saxe Wittenberg rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince electoral power However only Louis the Bavarian finally asserted himself as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire The Golden Bull of 1356 however conclusively named the dukes of Saxe Wittenberg as electors In 1370 John II s fourth successor Eric III of Saxe Bergedorf Molln pawned the Herrschaft of Bergedorf the Vierlande half the Saxon Wood and Geesthacht to Lubeck in return for a credit of 16 262 5 Lubeck marks 4 This acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lubeck thus providing a safe passage for freight between the cities Eric III only retained a life tenancy The city of Lubeck and Eric III had stipulated that upon his death Lubeck would be entitled to take possession of the pawned areas until his successors repaid the credit and simultaneously exercised the repurchase of Molln contracted in 1359 altogether amounting to the then enormous sum of 26 000 Lubeck Marks 5 In 1401 Eric III died without issue The Lauenburg Elder Line was thus extinct in the male line and Eric III was succeeded by his second cousin Eric IV of Saxe Ratzeburg Lauenburg of the Younger Line In the same year Eric IV supported by his sons Eric later ruling as Eric V and John forcefully captured the pawned areas without making any repayment before Lubeck could take possession of them Lubeck acquiesced for the time being 6 The Treaty of Perleberg 1420 In 1420 Eric V attacked Prince Elector Frederick I of Brandenburg and Lubeck allied with Hamburg in support of Brandenburg Armies of both cities opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station today s Zollenspieker Ferry This forced Eric V to agree with Hamburg s burgomaster Hein Hoyer and Burgomaster Jordan Pleskow of Lubeck to the Treaty of Perleberg on 23 August 1420 which stipulated that all the pawned areas which Eric IV Eric V and John IV had violently taken in 1401 were to be irrevocably ceded to the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck becoming their bi urban condominium of Bergedorf Beiderstadtischer Besitz From the 14th century Saxe Lauenburg termed itself as Lower Saxony German Niedersachsen 7 However Saxony as a naming for the area comprising the older Duchy of Saxony in its borders before 1180 still prevailed So when in 1500 the Holy Roman Empire established the Imperial Circles as tax levying and army recruitment districts the circle comprising Saxe Lauenburg and all its neighbours became designated as Saxon Circle while the Wettin ruled Saxon electorate and duchies at that time formed the Upper Saxon Circle The naming of Lower Saxony became more colloquial and the Saxon Circle was later renamed into Lower Saxon Circle In 1659 Duke Julius Henry decreed in his general disposition guidelines for his government to also esteem the woodlands as heart and dwell of revenues of the Principality of Lower Saxony 8 After the Reformation Edit The people of Hadeln represented by their estates of the realm adopted the Lutheran Reformation in 1525 and Duke Magnus I confirmed Hadeln s Lutheran Church Order in 1526 establishing Hadeln s separate ecclesiastical body existing until 1885 9 Magnus did not promote the spreading of Lutheranism in the rest of his duchy 10 Lutheran preachers most likely from the southerly adjacent Principality of Lunenburg Lutheran since 1529 held the first Lutheran preaches at the northern entrance of St Mary Magdalene Church in Lauenburg upon Elbe one is recalled for Saint John s Eve in 1531 10 Tacitly the congregations appointed Lutheran preachers so that the visitations of 1564 and 1566 ordered by Duke Francis I Magnus I s son on the instigation of the Ritter und Landschaft saw already Lutheran preachers in many parishes 11 In 1566 Francis I appointed the Superintendent Franciscus Baringius as the first spiritual leader of the church in the duchy not including Hadeln 12 Francis I conducted a thrifty reign and resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II once having exploited all his means in 1571 Magnus II promised to redeem the pawned ducal demesnes with funds he gained as a Swedish military commander and by his marriage to Princess Sophia of Sweden However Magnus did not redeem pawns but further alienated ducal possessions which ignited a conflict between Magnus and his father and brothers Francis II and Maurice as well as the estates of the duchy further escalating due to Magnus violent temperament In 1573 Francis I deposed Magnus and reascended to the throne while Magnus fled to Sweden The following year Magnus hired troops in order to take Saxe Lauenburg with violence Francis II an experienced military commander in imperial service and Duke Adolphus of Schleswig and Holstein at Gottorp then Lower Saxon Circle Colonel Kreisobrist helped Francis I to defeat Magnus In return Saxe Lauenburg had to cede the bailiwick of Steinhorst to Gottorp in 1575 Francis II again helped his father to inhibit Magnus second military attempt to overthrow his father in 1578 13 Francis I then made Francis II his vicegerent actually governing the duchy Lauenburg Castle in Lauenburg upon Elbe seat of the Lauenburg Younger Line by the end of the 16th century until its destruction in 1616 In 1581 shortly before he died and after consultations with his son Prince Archbishop Henry of Bremen and Emperor Rudolph II but unconcerted with his other sons Magnus and Maurice Francis I made his third son Francis II whom he considered the ablest his sole successor violating the rules of primogeniture 14 This severed the anyway difficult relations with the estates of the duchy which fought the ducal practice of growing indebtedness 14 The general church visitation of 1581 prompted by Francis II showed poor results as to the knowledge practice and behaviour of many pastors 15 Baringius was held responsible for these grievances and replaced by Gerhard Sagittarius in 1582 16 Finally in 1585 after consultations with his brother Prince Archbishop Henry Francis II decreed a constitution Niedersachsische Kirchenordnung Lower Saxon Church Order authored by Lubeck s Superintendent Andreas Pouchenius the Elder for the Lutheran church of Saxe Lauenburg 17 It constituted the Lutheran state church of Saxe Lauenburg with general superintendent as of 1592 and consistory seated in the city of Lauenburg which merged into that of Schleswig Holstein in 1877 Francis II s attempt to merge Hadeln s Lutheran church body with that in the rest of the duchy was unanimously rejected by Hadeln s clergy and estates in 1585 and 1586 18 The violation of the primogeniture however gave grounds for the estates to perceive the upcoming duke Francis II as illegitimate This forced him into negotiations which ended on 16 December 1585 with the constitutional act of the Eternal Union German Ewige Union of the representatives of Saxe Lauenburg s nobility Ritterschaft i e knighthood and other subjects Landschaft mostly from the cities Lauenburg upon Elbe and Ratzeburg then altogether constituted as the estates of the duchy Ritter und Landschaft led by the Land Marshall a hereditary office held by the family von Bulow Francis II accepted their establishment as a permanent institution with a crucial say in government matters In return Ritter und Landschaft accepted Francis II as legitimate and rendered him homage as duke in 1586 The relations between Ritter und Landschaft and duke improved since Francis II redeemed ducal pawns with money he had earned as imperial commander 19 After the residential castle in Lauenburg upon Elbe started in 1180 1182 by Duke Bernard I had burnt down in 1616 Francis II moved the capital to Neuhaus upon Elbe 20 View of Ratzeburg 1590 with the castle in the foreground In 1619 Duke Augustus moved Saxe Lauenburg s capital from Neuhaus upon Elbe to Ratzeburg where it remained since 20 During the Thirty Years War 1618 1648 Augustus always remained neutral however billeting and alimenting foreign troops marching through posed a heavy burden onto the ducal subjects 19 Augustus was succeeded by his elder half brother Julius Henry in 1656 He had converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism in expectation of becoming appointed Prince Bishop of Osnabruck in 1615 but guaranteed to leave the Lutheran state church and the Lower Saxon Church Order untouched 21 He confirmed the existing privileges of the nobility and the Ritter und Landschaft In 1658 he forbade his vassals to pledge or else alienate fiefs thus fighting the integration of manor estates in Saxe Lauenburg into the monetary economies of the neighbouring economically powerful Hanseatic cities of Hamburg and Lubeck He entered with both city states into frontier disputes on manor estates which were in the process of evading Saxe Lauenburgian overlordship into the competence of the city states Disputed succession Edit With the death of Duke Julius Francis a son of Julius Henry the Lauenburg line of the House of Ascania became extinct in the male line 2 However female succession was possible by the Saxe Lauenburgian laws So the two surviving out of the three daughters of Julius Francis Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe Lauenburg fought for the succession of the former the elder sister Their weakness was abused by Duke George William of the neighbouring Brunswick and Lunenburgian Principality of Lunenburg seated in Celle who invaded Saxe Lauenburg with his troops 2 thus inhibiting the ascension of the legal heiress to the throne Duchess Anna Maria There were at least eight monarchies claiming the succession 2 resulting in a conflict involving further the neighbouring duchies of Mecklenburg Schwerin and of Danish Holstein as well as the five Ascanian ruled Principalities of Anhalt the Electorate of Saxony which had succeeded the Saxe Wittenbergian Ascanians in 1422 Sweden and Brandenburg Militarily engaged were Celle and Danish Holstein which agreed on 9 October 1693 Hamburger Vergleich that Celle anyway de facto holding most of Saxe Lauenburg would retain the duchy while the fortress in Ratzeburg fortified under Celle rule and directed against Holstein would be razed In return Danish Holstein which had invaded Ratzeburg and ruined the fortress would withdraw its troops George William compensated John George III Elector of Saxony for his claim by a substantial sum of money since the ancestors of both these princes had made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe Lauenburg 2 The Ritter und Landschaft then rendered homage to George William as their duke 2 On 15 September 1702 George William confirmed the existing constitution laws and legislative bodies of Saxe Lauenburg 22 On 17 May 1705 the Lutheran superintendency was moved from Lauenburg to Ratzeburg and combined with the pastorate of St Peter s Church 23 When he died on 28 August the same year Saxe Lauenburg passed to his nephew George I Louis elector of Hanover afterwards king of Great Britain as George I 2 The Lower Saxon Lutheran Church maintained its Church Order with the consistory and General Superintendent Severin Walter Sluter 1646 1697 in Lauenburg succeeded by incumbents titled again superintendent only 24 So Saxe Lauenburg except for Hadeln passed to the House of Welf and its cadet branch House of Hanover while the legal heirs Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe Lauenburg never waiving their claim were dispossessed and the former exiled in Bohemian Ploskovice Emperor Leopold I rejected Celle s succession and thus retained Hadeln which was out of Celle s reach in his custody Only in 1728 his son Emperor Charles VI enfeoffed George II Augustus with Saxe Lauenburg finally legitimising the de facto takeover by his grandfather in 1689 and 1693 2 On 27 August 1729 he confirmed Saxe Lauenburg s existing constitution laws and the Ritter und Landschaft 22 On 5 April 1757 the Niedersachsische Landschulordnung decreed the compulsory school attendance for all children in Saxe Lauenburg 25 George III ascended in 1760 and endorsed all the laws the constitution and the Ritter und Landschaft of Saxe Lauenburg by a writ issued in St James Palace on 21 January 1765 22 In 1794 George III donated annual rewards for the best teachers in Saxe Lauenburg 26 Napoleonic era Edit Coat of arms of Saxe Lauenburg after 1866 These arms alter the Danish version then featuring a golden horse head on red Prussia added a bordure gyronny in black and white its official colours and showed the horse head in silver The duchy was occupied by French troops in 1803 05 2 after which the French occupational troops left in a campaign against Austria Then British Swedish and Russian Coalition forces captured Saxe Lauenburg in autumn 1805 at the beginning of the War of the Third Coalition against France 1805 06 In December the Empire of the French since 1804 France s new form of government ceded Saxe Lauenburg which it no longer held to Brandenburg Prussia which captured it early in 1806 But when the Kingdom of Prussia the name element Electorate of Brandenburg had turned void at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire on 6 August 1806 after it had turned as part of the Fourth Coalition against France was defeated in the Battle of Jena Auerstedt November 11 1806 France recaptured Saxe Lauenburg In remained first under French occupation before on 1 March 1810 most of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia a French client state A small area with 15 000 inhabitants remained reserved for Napoleon s purposes On 1 January 1811 most of the former duchy except for the Amt Neuhaus and the Marschvogtei which remained with Westphalia was annexed to the First French Empire 2 Post Napoleon Edit After the Napoleonic Wars Saxe Lauenburg was restored as a Hanoverian dominium in 1813 2 The Congress of Vienna established Saxe Lauenburg as a member state of the German Confederation In 1814 the Kingdom of Hanover bartered Saxe Lauenburg against Prussian East Frisia On 7 June 1815 after 14 months under its rule the Prussia granted Saxe Lauenburg to Sweden receiving in return the former Swedish Pomerania however additionally paying 2 6 million Taler to Denmark in order to compensate Denmark for the loss of Norway 27 Denmark gained that ducal territory north of the Elbe now ruled in personal union by the Danish House of Oldenburg 2 from Sweden which thus again compensated Danish claims to Swedish Pomerania On 6 December 1815 Frederick VI of Denmark issued his Asseveration Act Versicherungsacte affirming the given laws the constitution and the Ritter und Landschaft of Saxe Lauenburg 22 In 1816 his administration took possession of the duchy 2 During the First Schleswig War 1848 1851 the Ritter und Landschaft prevented a Prussian conquest by requesting Hanoverian troops as peace keeping occupational forces on behalf of the German Confederation 2 In 1851 King Frederick VII of Denmark was restored as Duke of Saxe Lauenburg 2 Prussian and Austrian forces invaded the duchy during the Second Schleswig War By the Treaty of Vienna 1864 King Christian IX of Denmark resigned as duke and ceded the duchy to Prussia and Austria 2 After receiving a 300 000 financial compensation Austria waived its claim to Saxe Lauenburg by the Gastein Convention in August 1865 2 The Ritter und Landschaft then offered the ducal throne to William I of Prussia In September the same year he accepted and ruled the duchy in personal union since 2 William appointed the then Minister President of Prussia Otto von Bismarck as minister for Saxe Lauenburg In 1866 Saxe Lauenburg joined the North German Confederation 2 However its vote in the Bundesrat was counted along with those of Prussia In 1871 Saxe Lauenburg was one of the component constituent states founding united Germany 2 However in 1876 the ducal government and the Ritter und Landschaft decided to dissolve the Duchy with effect on 1 July 1876 2 Its territory was then integrated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig Holstein as the district Herzogtum Lauenburg meaning the Duchy of Lauenburg For the further history see Herzogtum Lauenburg Dukes of Saxe Lauenburg EditSee also Duke of Lauenburg For the Duchesses consort see List of Saxon consorts partially also presenting portraits For portraits of the dukes starting with Julius Henry see List of Saxon rulers House of Ascania 1296 1689 Edit Main article House of Ascania The counting of the dukes includes the preceding Ascanian dukes Bernard I his son Albert I and the latter s jointly ruling sons John I and Albert II all of which ruled the Saxon dukedom before its partition into Saxe Lauenburg and Saxe Wittenberg Eric I 1296 1303 joint rule then ruling until 1360 in Saxe Bergedorf partitioned from Saxe Lauenburg see Ratzeburg Lauenburg line below John II 1296 1303 joint rule then ruling until 1321 in Saxe Ratzeburg partitioned from Saxe Lauenburg see section Bergedorf Molln line below Albert III 1296 1303 joint rule then ruling until 1308 in Saxe Ratzeburg partitioned from Saxe Lauenburg dying without issue Eric I inherited his share In 1303 the brothers split their inheritance between them however only two brothers had heirs creating the Bergedorf Molln and the Ratzeburg Lauenburg lines Bergedorf Molln line Edit First named Saxe Molln however renamed following a territorial redeployment including parts of Albert III s share in 1321 1303 22 John II ca 1275 1322 ruled alone in Bergedorf Molln rivalled as Saxon Prince Elector by his cousin Rudolph I of Saxe Wittenberg in 1314 1322 43 Albrecht Albert IV 1343 son of the preceding 1343 56 John III 1356 son of the preceding 1356 70 Albrecht Albert V 1370 brother of the preceding 1370 1401 Eric III 1401 brother of the preceding In 1401 the elder branch became extinct and Lauenburg rejoined the Ratzeburg Lauenburg line Ratzeburg Lauenburg line Edit First named Saxe Bergedorf Lauenburg however renamed following a territorial redeployment after inheriting Albert III s share 1303 38 Eric I 1360 resigned in 1338 1338 68 Eric II 1318 1320 1368 son of the preceding 1368 1412 Eric IV 1354 1411 1412 son of the preceding ruled jointly with his sons Eric V and Bernard II since 1401 28 In 1401 the younger branch inherited Lauenburg and other possessions of the extinct elder Bergedorf Molln line 1401 36 Eric V 1436 son of the preceding ruled jointly with his father until 1412 his brother John IV until 1414 and his younger brother Bernard II as of 1426 1401 14 John IV 1414 brother of the preceding ruled jointly with his father until 1412 and his brother Eric V 1426 63 Bernard II 1385 1392 1463 brother of the preceding ruled jointly with his brother Eric V as of 1426 29 1463 1507 John V 1439 1507 son of the preceding 30 1507 43 Magnus I 1488 1543 son of the preceding 1543 71 Francis I 1510 1581 son of the preceding resigned in favour of his son Magnus II 31 1571 74 Magnus II 1543 1603 son of the preceding 32 1574 81 Francis I 1510 1581 reascended the throne replacing his son Magnus II 1581 88 Magnus II 1543 1603 son of the preceding ruled jointly with his brothers Maurice and Francis II Magnus resigned in 1588 1581 1612 Maurice 1551 1612 ruled jointly with his brothers Magnus II till 1588 and Francis II 1581 1619 Francis II 1547 1619 ruled jointly with his brothers Magnus II till 1588 and Maurice till 1612 33 1619 56 Augustus 1577 1656 son of the preceding 34 1656 65 Julius Henry 1586 1665 brother of the preceding 35 1665 66 Francis Erdmann 1629 1666 son of the preceding 1666 89 Julius Francis 1641 1689 brother of the preceding 36 House of Welf 1689 1803 Edit Main article House of Welf For 113 years the duchy was ruled by members of the Welf dynasty However since its violent takeover only in 1728 Emperor Charles VI enfeoffed George II Augustus with Saxe Lauenburg finally legitimising the Welfs as dukes House of Brunswick and Lunenburg Celle 1689 1705 Edit 1689 1705 George William also Prince of Brunswick and Lunenburg Celle by title also Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg House of Hanover 1705 1803 Edit See also House of Hanover 1705 27 George I Louis also Prince Elector of Brunswick and Lunenburg Calenberg commonly called Electorate of Hanover after its capital by title also Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg also King of Great Britain from 1714 1727 60 George II Augustus also King of Great Britain Elector of Hanover by title also Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg 1760 1814 George III de facto dispossessed in 1803 05 and 1805 14 however he held up the title of duke rejecting any unilateral act and annexation by Napoleon Only at the Congress of Vienna where all sides agreed the title of duke passed to his nephew Also King of Great Britain becoming King of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801 Elector of Hanover becoming King of Hanover in 1814 by title also Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg Napoleonic Wars 1803 14 Edit See also Napoleonic Wars Occupied by the First French Republic 1803 04 Occupied by the First French Empire 1804 05 Recaptured by British Swedish and Russian forces of the Third Coalition against France 1805 Occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia 1805 07 Occupied by the First French Empire 1807 Annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia 1807 10 citation needed Annexed to the First French Empire 1810 14 House of Oldenburg 1815 64 Edit See also House of Oldenburg For almost fifty years from 1815 Saxe Lauenburg was within the German Confederation and in personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark Main line 1815 63 Edit 1815 39 Frederick I also King of Denmark 1808 39 as Frederick VI and Duke of Schleswig Holstein previously King of 1808 14 Norway and Regent of Denmark Norway from 1784 1839 48 Christian I also King of Denmark as Christian VIII and Duke of Schleswig Holstein previously King of Norway 1814 as Christian Frederick 1848 63 Frederick II also King of Denmark as Frederick VII and Duke of Schleswig Holstein Glucksburg line 1863 64 Edit See also House of Glucksburg 1863 64 Christian II also King of Denmark 1863 1906 as Christian IX and Duke of Schleswig Holstein House of Hohenzollern 1865 76 Edit See also House of Hohenzollern For twelve years Saxe Lauenburg was ruled in personal union with Prussia within the North German Confederation 1867 71 In 1871 Saxe Lauenburg became a component state of united Germany German Empire 1865 76 William also King of Prussia 1861 88 President of the North German Confederation 1867 71 and German Emperor 1871 88 Dependent rule 1876 present Edit In 1876 the Duchy gave up statehood and was transformed into the District of the Duchy of Lauenburg within Schleswig Holstein a province of the Kingdom of Prussia 1866 1918 and then of the Free State of Prussia 1918 33 1947 a component state of the respective government forms of Germany In 1946 the province assumed the rank of statehood as State Land of Schleswig Holstein and joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 In 1890 Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was awarded the honorific title of Duke of Lauenburg including estates in the Sachsenwald in the former duchy but he was never sovereign ruler of the territory which had been incorporated into Prussia in 1876 He moved to these estates in Friedrichsruh and lived there until his death External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Saxe Lauenburg Historical map of Schleswig Holstein in 1730 Historical map of Lower Saxony in 1789 Historical atlas of Saxe LauenburgNotes Edit The House of Wettin also adopted this coat of arms when it gained Saxe Wittenberg which is why they reappear in the arms of many formerly Wettin ruled states a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v LAUENBURG in Encyclopaedia Britannica 29 vols 111910 1911 vol 16 L to Lord Advocate p 280 a b Cordula Bornefeld Die Herzoge von Sachsen Lauenburg in Die Fursten des Landes Herzoge und Grafen von Schleswig Holstein und Lauenburg De slevigske hertuger German Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen ed on behalf of the Gesellschaft fur Schleswig Holsteinische Geschichte Neumunster Wachholtz 2008 pp 373 389 here p 375 ISBN 978 3 529 02606 5 Elisabeth Raiser Stadtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lubecks und Zurichs Lubeck and Hamburg Matthiesen 1969 Historische Studien vol 406 p 90 simultaneously Hamburg Univ Diss 1969 Elisabeth Raiser Stadtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lubecks und Zurichs Lubeck and Hamburg Matthiesen 1969 Historische Studien vol 406 pp 90seq simultaneously Hamburg Univ Diss 1969 Elisabeth Raiser Stadtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lubecks und Zurichs Lubeck and Hamburg Matthiesen 1969 Historische Studien vol 406 p 137 simultaneously Hamburg Univ Diss 1969 However today s State of Germany named Lower Saxony comprises only small fringes of Lauenburgian Lower Saxon territory to wit its areas south of the river Elbe such as i the Land of Hadeln ii a tract of land along the southern Elbe bank the Marschvogtei connecting from Marschacht to the Amt Neuhaus iii the Amt Neuhaus The addition in edged brackets not in the original In the German original auch die Holtzung fur des Furstenthumbs Niedersachsen Kern und Brunquell zu achten Generaldisposition of Julius Francis 1659 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 14 a b Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 16 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 18 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 21 Cordula Bornefeld Die Herzoge von Sachsen Lauenburg in Die Fursten des Landes Herzoge und Grafen von Schleswig Holstein und Lauenburg De slevigske hertuger German Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen ed on behalf of the Gesellschaft fur Schleswig Holsteinische Geschichte Neumunster Wachholtz 2008 pp 373 389 here p 381 ISBN 978 3 529 02606 5 a b Cordula Bornefeld Die Herzoge von Sachsen Lauenburg in Die Fursten des Landes Herzoge und Grafen von Schleswig Holstein und Lauenburg De slevigske hertuger German Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen ed on behalf of the Gesellschaft fur Schleswig Holsteinische Geschichte Neumunster Wachholtz 2008 pp 373 389 here p 380 ISBN 978 3 529 02606 5 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 25 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 27 Cordula Bornefeld Die Herzoge von Sachsen Lauenburg in Die Fursten des Landes Herzoge und Grafen von Schleswig Holstein und Lauenburg De slevigske hertuger German Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen ed on behalf of the Gesellschaft fur Schleswig Holsteinische Geschichte Neumunster Wachholtz 2008 pp 373 389 here p 379 ISBN 978 3 529 02606 5 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 15 a b Cordula Bornefeld Die Herzoge von Sachsen Lauenburg in Die Fursten des Landes Herzoge und Grafen von Schleswig Holstein und Lauenburg De slevigske hertuger German Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen ed on behalf of the Gesellschaft fur Schleswig Holsteinische Geschichte Neumunster Wachholtz 2008 pp 373 389 here p 382 ISBN 978 3 529 02606 5 a b Cordula Bornefeld Die Herzoge von Sachsen Lauenburg in Die Fursten des Landes Herzoge und Grafen von Schleswig Holstein und Lauenburg De slevigske hertuger German Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen ed on behalf of the Gesellschaft fur Schleswig Holsteinische Geschichte Neumunster Wachholtz 2008 pp 373 389 here p 383 ISBN 978 3 529 02606 5 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 41 a b c d Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 66 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 96 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 47 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 49 Johann Friedrich Burmester Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte der Herzogthums Lauenburg Ratzeburg author s edition 1832 p 51 Pommern Werner Buchholz ed Werner Conze Hartmut Boockmann contrib Berlin Siedler 1999 pp 363 seq ISBN 3 88680 272 8 His wife was Sophia of Brunswick and Lunenburg Wolfenbuttel and they had Catharina of Saxe Lauenburg mar Henry IV Duke of Mecklenburg Schwerin as daughter His wife was Adelheid of Pomerania and they had Sophie of Saxe Lauenburg before 1428 1473 as daughter married to Gerhard VII Duke of Juliers His wife was Dorothea of Brandenburg c 1446 March 1519 daughter of Frederick II Elector of Brandenburg Their children were Eric of Saxe Lauenburg 1472 20 October 1522 as Eric I Prince Bishop of Munster as II Prince Bishop of Hildesheim and Sophia of Saxe Lauenburg mar in ca 1420 d 1462 mother of Eric II Duke of Pomerania He married on 8 February 1540 Sybille of Saxe Freiberg Freiberg 2 May 1515 18 July 1592 Buxtehude daughter of Henry IV of Saxe Wittenberg Their children were Henry of Saxe Lauenburg as Henry II Prince Bishop of Osnabruck as III Prince Archbishop of Bremen and as IV Prince Bishop of Paderborn Sidonia Katharina of Saxe Lauenburg mar with Wenceslaus III Adam Duke of Cieszyn and Ursula of Saxe Lauenburg Ratzeburg mar with Henry Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg Dannenberg His wife was Sophia of Sweden Francis wife was Mary of Brunswick and Lunenburg Wolfenbuttel 1566 1626 daughter of Julius Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg Wolfenbuttel and they had daughters Juliane of Saxe Lauenburg 26 December 1589 1 December 1630 mar 1 August 1627 married to Friedrich Duke of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Norburg and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe Lauenburg 24 May 1601 1 February 1660 mar 23 May 1624 with Philipp Duke of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glucksburg His wife was Elisabeth Sophie of Holstein Gottorp daughter of John Adolf Duke of Holstein Gottorp Their daughter was Anna Elisabetha of Saxe Lauenburg 23 August 1624 1688 mar 2 April 1665 wife of William Christoph Landgrave of Hesse Homburg He married three times 1 Anne of Ostfriesland 2 on 27 February 1628 Elisabeth Sophia of Brandenburg 13 July 1589 24 December 1629 daughter of John George Elector of Brandenburg and mother of Duke Francis Erdmann and 3 on 18 August 1632 Anna Magdalene Baroness Popel von Lobkowitz d 7 September 1668 the only to ascend with him to the throne on 18 January 1656 She was mother of Duke Julius Francis His wife was Hedwig of Palatine Sulzbach 15 April 1660 23 November 1681 daughter of Christian Augustus Count Palatine of Sulzbach and they had Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe Lauenburg as daughters Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Saxe Lauenburg amp oldid 1030066491, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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