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Small hydro

Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale suitable for local community and industry, or to contribute to distributed generation in a regional electricity grid. Precise definitions vary, but a "small hydro" project is less than 50 megawatts (MW), and can be further subdivide by scale into "mini" (<1MW), "micro" (<100 kW), "pico" (<10 kW). In contrast many hydroelectric projects are of enormous size, such as the generating plant at the Three Gorges Dam at 22,500 megawatts or the vast multiple projects of the Tennessee Valley Authority.

Small power plant of Licq-Athérey (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France).
An 1895 hydroelectric plant near Telluride, Colorado.

Small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a national electricity grid, or in areas where a national grid does not exist.

Contents

The use of the term "small hydro" varies considerably around the world, the maximum limit is usually somewhere between 10 and 30 MW. While a minimum limit is not usually set, the US National Hydropower Association specifies a minimum limit of 5 MW. In California, hydroelectric generating stations with a maximum capacity of less than 30 MW are classified as small, and are eligible for inclusion in the state's renewable portfolio standard, while hydroelectric generating stations with a higher capacity are classified as large and are not considered renewable. The "small hydro" description may be stretched up to50 MW in the United States, Canada and China. In India, hydro projects up to 25 MW station capacities have been categorized as Small Hydro Power (SHP) projects.

Small hydro can be further subdivided into mini hydro, usually defined as 100 to 1,000 kilowatts (kW), and micro hydro which is 5 to 100 kW. Micro hydro is usually the application of hydroelectric power sized for smaller communities, single families or small enterprise. The smallest installations are pico hydro, below 5 kW.

Since small hydro projects usually have correspondingly small civil construction work and little or no reservoir, they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro.

According to a report by REN21, during 2008 small hydro installations grew by 28% over year 2005 to raise the total world small hydro capacity to 85 gigawatts (GW). Over 70% of this was in China (with 65 GW), followed by Japan (3.5 GW), the United States (3 GW) and India (2 GW). Global growth is expected to be 2.8% annually until the mid-2020s when capacity will be about 150 gigawatts.

China planned to electrify a further 10,000 villages between 2005 and 2010 under their China Village Electrification Program, including further investments in small hydro and photovoltaics. By 2010, China had 45,000 small hydro installations, especially in rural areas, producing 160 Twh annually. Over 50% of the world's potential small hydro power was found in Asia; however, the report noted, "It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents".

In the mountains and rain forests of British Columbia, Canada there are a great many sites suitable for hydro development. However environmental concerns towards large reservoirs after the 1980s halted new dam construction. The solution to coping with increased demand was to offer contracts to independent power producers, who have built 100 run of the river projects under 50 MW. Power production without reservoirs varies dramatically, but older conventional dams retain or release water to average out production though the year. In 2014 these independent producers generated 18,000 GWh from 4,500 MW of capacity.

Main article: hydroelectricity
Historic Ottenbach Small Hydro with original equipment of 1920 in Ottenbach, Switzerland, still running for guided visits
Hongping Power station, in Hongping Town, Shennongjia, has a design typical for small hydro stations in the western part of China's Hubei Province. Water comes from the mountain behind the station, through the black pipe seen in the photo

Hydroelectric power is the generation of electric power from the movement of water. A hydroelectric facility requires a dependable flow of water and a reasonable height for the water to fall, called the head. In a typical installation, water is fed from a reservoir through a pipe into a turbine. The water flowing through the turbine causes an electrical generator to rotate, converting the motion into electrical energy.

Small hydro may developed by constructing new facilities or through re-development of existing dams whose primary purpose is flood control, or irrigation. Old hydro sites may be re-developed, sometimes salvaging substantial investment in the installation such as penstock pipe and turbines, or just re-using the water rights associated with an abandoned site. Either of these cost saving advantages can make the return on investment for a small hydro site well worth the use of existing sites.

Many companies offer standardized turbine generator packages in the approximate size range of 200 kW to 10 MW. These "water to wire" packages simplify the planning and development of the site since one vendor looks after most of the equipment supply. Because non-recurring engineering costs are minimized and development cost is spread over multiple units, the cost of such package systems is reduced. While synchronous generators capable of isolated plant operation are often used, small hydro plants connected to an electrical grid system can use economical induction generators to further reduce installation cost and simplify control and operation.

Small "run of the river" projects do not have a conventional dam with a reservoir, only a weir to form a headpond for diversion of inlet water to the turbine. Unused water simply flows over the weir and the headpond may only be capable of a single day's storage, not enough for dry summers or frozen winters when generation may come to a halt. A preferred scenario is to have the inlet in an existing lake.

Modular “micro hydrokinetic” systems have been developed for irrigation canals. "Irrigation districts across the U.S. have installed power plants at diversion points and in-canal drops, which are traditionally used for flow measurement, to stabilize upstream heads and to dissipate energy where there is significant elevation change throughout the canal system."

Countries like India and China have policies in favor of small hydro, and the regulatory process allows for building dams and reservoirs. In North America and Europe the regulatory process is too long and expensive to consider having a dam and a reservoir for a small project.

Small hydro projects usually have faster environmental and licensing procedures, and since the equipment is usually in serial production, standardized and simplified, and the civil works construction is also reduced, the projects may be developed very rapidly. The physically smaller size of equipment makes it easier to transport to remote areas without good road or rail access.

One measure of decreased environmental impact with lakes and reservoirs depends on the balance between stream flow and power production. Reducing water diversions helps the river's ecosystem, but reduces the hydro system's return on Investment (ROI). The hydro system design must strike a balance to maintain both the health of the stream and the economics.

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

  1. Crettenand, N. (2012). "The facilitation of mini and small hydropower in Switzerland: shaping the institutional framework. With a particular focus on storage and pumped-storage schemes". Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). PHD Thesis N° 5356. Infoscience.epfl.ch: 266. doi:10.5075/epfl-thesis-5356. S2CID 36519663.
  2. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/2012_Hydropower_Roadmap.pdf pg17
  3. "Hydroelectric Power in California". www.energy.ca.gov. Retrieved2019-04-07.
  4. "Power Sector"(PDF). International Renewable Energy Agency. June 2012. Retrieved2018-12-16.
  5. https://mnre.gov.in/small-hydro
  6. Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update Archived 2007-06-14 at the Wayback Machine, REN21, published 2006, accessed 2007-05-16
  7. "Press Releases Archive".
  8. https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis-HYDROPOWER.pdf pg12
  9. "World Small Hydro Power Development Report 2016". ICSHP. Retrieved29 April 2015.
  10. "UNIDO, ICSHP Launch Small Hydropower Knowledge Sharing Portal". Sustainable Energy Policy and Practice. Retrieved29 April 2015.
  11. "Small Hydropower, a promising technology for rural electrification". www.energias-renovables.com. Retrieved29 April 2015.
  12. "About Independent Power Projects". Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved9 March 2017.
  13. Noon, Chris (2019-09-05). "Canal Plus: These Tiny Turbines Can Turn Man-Made Waterways Into Power Plants". GE Reports. Retrieved2019-09-28.
  14. "Capturing Untapped Potential: Small Hydro in Irrigation Canals". Hydro Review. 2017-10-01. Retrieved2019-09-28.
  15. A Satish (1 September 2015). "Meenvallam Power Project's Revenue Touches Rs 3.24-cr". The New Indian Express. Retrieved25 August 2021.
  16. "IRTC - Meenvallom Small Hydro Project". Retrieved9 March 2017.
  17. "Bario Asal Micro Hydro.. 4 years on and still going strong". 15 October 2012. Retrieved9 March 2017.
  18. "Ifugao Ambangal Minihydro Power Plant". What We Do. Global Sustainable Electricity Partnership. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  19. Colina, Antonio (October 6, 2019). "Japanese firm to build biomass power project in Butuan". MindaNews. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  20. "Balongbong Mini Hydro Power Plant". Small Power Utilities Group, National Power Corporation. August 7, 2018. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  21. "2013 Accomplishment Report"(PDF). Small Power Utilities Group, National Power Corporation. Archived from the original(PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved15 September 2015.
  22. "JICA, DOE inaugurate mini hydropower plant to support electricity in Ifugao, rice terraces conservation efforts". Japan International Cooperation Agency. July 14, 2015. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  23. "The Inaugural Commission of the 2.4 MW Euro Hydro Power Plant". Euro Hydro Power (Asia) Holdings, Inc. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  24. Lectura, Lenie (February 3, 2016). "Epower to rehab mini hydro plant in Aurora". BusinessMirror. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  25. Ulgado, Andresito. "Hydropower Roadmap"(PDF). Renewable Energy Management Bureau, Department of Energy. RetrievedJuly 22, 2020.
  26. "The Green Valleys". Thegreenvalleys.org. 2013-04-07. Retrieved2013-10-16.
  27. "UK | Wales | Mid Wales | Beacons green project scoops £20k". BBC News. 2008-10-17. Retrieved2013-10-16.
  28. "biggreenchallenge.org.uk". biggreenchallenge.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-10-03. Retrieved2013-10-16.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSmall hydroelectric power plants.

Small hydro
Small hydro Language Watch Edit Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale suitable for local community and industry or to contribute to distributed generation in a regional electricity grid 1 Precise definitions vary but a small hydro project is less than 50 megawatts MW and can be further subdivide by scale into mini lt 1MW micro lt 100 kW pico lt 10 kW In contrast many hydroelectric projects are of enormous size such as the generating plant at the Three Gorges Dam at 22 500 megawatts or the vast multiple projects of the Tennessee Valley Authority Small power plant of Licq Atherey Pyrenees Atlantiques France An 1895 hydroelectric plant near Telluride Colorado Small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a national electricity grid or in areas where a national grid does not exist Contents 1 Description 2 Growth 3 Generation 4 Project design 5 Sample list of small installations worldwide 6 See also 7 ReferencesDescription EditThe use of the term small hydro varies considerably around the world the maximum limit is usually somewhere between 10 and 30 MW While a minimum limit is not usually set the US National Hydropower Association specifies a minimum limit of 5 MW 2 In California hydroelectric generating stations with a maximum capacity of less than 30 MW are classified as small and are eligible for inclusion in the state s renewable portfolio standard while hydroelectric generating stations with a higher capacity are classified as large and are not considered renewable 3 The small hydro description may be stretched up to 50 MW in the United States Canada and China 4 In India hydro projects up to 25 MW station capacities have been categorized as Small Hydro Power SHP projects 5 Small hydro can be further subdivided into mini hydro usually defined as 100 to 1 000 kilowatts kW and micro hydro which is 5 to 100 kW Micro hydro is usually the application of hydroelectric power sized for smaller communities single families or small enterprise The smallest installations are pico hydro below 5 kW Since small hydro projects usually have correspondingly small civil construction work and little or no reservoir they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro Growth EditAccording to a report by REN21 during 2008 small hydro installations grew by 28 over year 2005 to raise the total world small hydro capacity to 85 gigawatts GW Over 70 of this was in China with 65 GW followed by Japan 3 5 GW the United States 3 GW and India 2 GW 6 Global growth is expected to be 2 8 annually until the mid 2020s when capacity will be about 150 gigawatts 7 China planned to electrify a further 10 000 villages between 2005 and 2010 under their China Village Electrification Program including further investments in small hydro and photovoltaics 6 By 2010 China had 45 000 small hydro installations especially in rural areas producing 160 Twh annually 8 Over 50 of the world s potential small hydro power was found in Asia however the report noted It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents 9 10 11 In the mountains and rain forests of British Columbia Canada there are a great many sites suitable for hydro development However environmental concerns towards large reservoirs after the 1980s halted new dam construction The solution to coping with increased demand was to offer contracts to independent power producers who have built 100 run of the river projects under 50 MW Power production without reservoirs varies dramatically but older conventional dams retain or release water to average out production though the year In 2014 these independent producers generated 18 000 GWh from 4 500 MW of capacity 12 Generation EditMain article hydroelectricity Historic Ottenbach Small Hydro with original equipment of 1920 in Ottenbach Switzerland still running for guided visits Hongping Power station in Hongping Town Shennongjia has a design typical for small hydro stations in the western part of China s Hubei Province Water comes from the mountain behind the station through the black pipe seen in the photo Hydroelectric power is the generation of electric power from the movement of water A hydroelectric facility requires a dependable flow of water and a reasonable height for the water to fall called the head In a typical installation water is fed from a reservoir through a pipe into a turbine The water flowing through the turbine causes an electrical generator to rotate converting the motion into electrical energy Small hydro may developed by constructing new facilities or through re development of existing dams whose primary purpose is flood control or irrigation Old hydro sites may be re developed sometimes salvaging substantial investment in the installation such as penstock pipe and turbines or just re using the water rights associated with an abandoned site Either of these cost saving advantages can make the return on investment for a small hydro site well worth the use of existing sites Project design EditMany companies offer standardized turbine generator packages in the approximate size range of 200 kW to 10 MW These water to wire packages simplify the planning and development of the site since one vendor looks after most of the equipment supply Because non recurring engineering costs are minimized and development cost is spread over multiple units the cost of such package systems is reduced While synchronous generators capable of isolated plant operation are often used small hydro plants connected to an electrical grid system can use economical induction generators to further reduce installation cost and simplify control and operation Small run of the river projects do not have a conventional dam with a reservoir only a weir to form a headpond for diversion of inlet water to the turbine Unused water simply flows over the weir and the headpond may only be capable of a single day s storage not enough for dry summers or frozen winters when generation may come to a halt A preferred scenario is to have the inlet in an existing lake Modular micro hydrokinetic systems have been developed for irrigation canals 13 Irrigation districts across the U S have installed power plants at diversion points and in canal drops which are traditionally used for flow measurement to stabilize upstream heads and to dissipate energy where there is significant elevation change throughout the canal system 14 Countries like India and China have policies in favor of small hydro and the regulatory process allows for building dams and reservoirs In North America and Europe the regulatory process is too long and expensive to consider having a dam and a reservoir for a small project Small hydro projects usually have faster environmental and licensing procedures and since the equipment is usually in serial production standardized and simplified and the civil works construction is also reduced the projects may be developed very rapidly The physically smaller size of equipment makes it easier to transport to remote areas without good road or rail access One measure of decreased environmental impact with lakes and reservoirs depends on the balance between stream flow and power production Reducing water diversions helps the river s ecosystem but reduces the hydro system s return on Investment ROI The hydro system design must strike a balance to maintain both the health of the stream and the economics Sample list of small installations worldwide EditAfrica Zengamina a 700 kW plant in Kalene Hill Mwinilunga District in northwestern Zambia 2008 Asia Meenvallam Small Hydroelectric Project 15 Palakkad district Kerala India 16 Bario Asal amp Arur Layun Micro Hydro Community Project 17 Kelabit Highlands Sarawak Malaysia 2009 Ambangal Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant Kiangan Ifugao Philippines 2010 18 Asiga River Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant Santiago Agusan del Norte Philippines 2019 19 Balongbong Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant Bato Catanduanes Philippines 1983 20 Cantingas Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant San Fernando Romblon Philippines 2009 21 Likud Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant Asipulo and Kiangan Ifugao Philippines 2015 22 New Bataan Hydro Electric Power Plant New Bataan Davao de Oro Philippines 2018 23 San Luis Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant San Luis Aurora Philippines 2011 24 Villasiga Mini Hydro Electric Power Plant Bugasong Antique Philippines 2016 25 Pakpattan Hydro Power Project a 2 82 MW plant on Pakpattan Canal in Pakpattan District Pakistan 2015 Europe Green Valleys Project 26 Brecon Beacons National Park Wales Joint winner of 300K 27 in Big Green Challenge 2009 28 St Catherine s a National Trust site near Windermere Westmorland United Kingdom North America Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant Colorado United States On the List of IEEE Milestones Childs Irving Hydroelectric Facilities Arizona United States 1916 Now decommissioned Snoqualmie Falls Washington United States 1957 Malibu Hydro British Columbia Canada 2005 Cloudworks Energy is one of many Independent power producers that have built projects in British Columbia CanadaSee also Edit Energy portal Renewable energy portal Electricity generation Hydro power Low head hydro power Micro hydro up to 100 kW Pico hydro up to 5 kW Conduit hydroelectricity International Center on Small Hydro PowerReferences Edit Crettenand N 2012 The facilitation of mini and small hydropower in Switzerland shaping the institutional framework With a particular focus on storage and pumped storage schemes Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL PHD Thesis N 5356 Infoscience epfl ch 266 doi 10 5075 epfl thesis 5356 S2CID 36519663 http www iea org publications freepublications publication 2012 Hydropower Roadmap pdf pg17 Hydroelectric Power in California www energy ca gov Retrieved 2019 04 07 Power Sector PDF International Renewable Energy Agency June 2012 Retrieved 2018 12 16 https mnre gov in small hydro a b Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update Archived 2007 06 14 at the Wayback Machine REN21 published 2006 accessed 2007 05 16 Press Releases Archive https www irena org DocumentDownloads Publications RE Technologies Cost Analysis HYDROPOWER pdf pg12 World Small Hydro Power Development Report 2016 ICSHP Retrieved 29 April 2015 UNIDO ICSHP Launch Small Hydropower Knowledge Sharing Portal Sustainable Energy Policy and Practice Retrieved 29 April 2015 Small Hydropower a promising technology for rural electrification www energias renovables com Retrieved 29 April 2015 About Independent Power Projects Archived from the original on 6 February 2016 Retrieved 9 March 2017 Noon Chris 2019 09 05 Canal Plus These Tiny Turbines Can Turn Man Made Waterways Into Power Plants GE Reports Retrieved 2019 09 28 Capturing Untapped Potential Small Hydro in Irrigation Canals Hydro Review 2017 10 01 Retrieved 2019 09 28 A Satish 1 September 2015 Meenvallam Power Project s Revenue Touches Rs 3 24 cr The New Indian Express Retrieved 25 August 2021 IRTC Meenvallom Small Hydro Project Retrieved 9 March 2017 Bario Asal Micro Hydro 4 years on and still going strong 15 October 2012 Retrieved 9 March 2017 Ifugao Ambangal Minihydro Power Plant What We Do Global Sustainable Electricity Partnership Retrieved July 22 2020 Colina Antonio October 6 2019 Japanese firm to build biomass power project in Butuan MindaNews Retrieved July 22 2020 Balongbong Mini Hydro Power Plant Small Power Utilities Group National Power Corporation August 7 2018 Retrieved July 22 2020 2013 Accomplishment Report PDF Small Power Utilities Group National Power Corporation Archived from the original PDF on 4 March 2016 Retrieved 15 September 2015 JICA DOE inaugurate mini hydropower plant to support electricity in Ifugao rice terraces conservation efforts Japan International Cooperation Agency July 14 2015 Retrieved July 22 2020 The Inaugural Commission of the 2 4 MW Euro Hydro Power Plant Euro Hydro Power Asia Holdings Inc Retrieved July 22 2020 Lectura Lenie February 3 2016 Epower to rehab mini hydro plant in Aurora BusinessMirror Retrieved July 22 2020 Ulgado Andresito Hydropower Roadmap PDF Renewable Energy Management Bureau Department of Energy Retrieved July 22 2020 The Green Valleys Thegreenvalleys org 2013 04 07 Retrieved 2013 10 16 UK Wales Mid Wales Beacons green project scoops 20k BBC News 2008 10 17 Retrieved 2013 10 16 biggreenchallenge org uk biggreenchallenge org uk Archived from the original on 2013 10 03 Retrieved 2013 10 16 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Small hydroelectric power plants Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Small hydro amp oldid 1049030640, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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