A smart city is a technologically modern urban area that uses different types of electronic methods, voice activation methods and sensors to collect specific data. Information gained from that data are used to manage assets, resources and services efficiently; in return, that data is used to improve the operations across the city. This includes data collected from citizens, devices, buildings and assets that is then processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic and transportation systems, power plants, utilities, water supply networks, waste, crime detection, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services. The smart city concept integrates information and communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the IoT (Internet of things) network to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and connect to citizens. Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is evolving. ICT is used to enhance quality, performance and interactivity of urban services, to reduce costs and resource consumption and to increase contact between citizens and government. Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses. A smart city may therefore be more prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple "transactional" relationship with its citizens. Yet, the term itself remains unclear to its specifics and therefore, open to many interpretations.
A smart city is a technologically modern urban area that uses different types of electronic methods, voice activation methods and sensors to collect specific data. Information gained from that data are used to manage assets, resources and services efficiently; in return, that data is used to improve the operations across the city. This includes data collected from citizens, devices, buildings and assets that is then processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic and transportation systems, power plants, utilities, water supply networks, waste, crime detection, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services.
The smart city concept integrates information and communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the IoT (Internet of things) network to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and connect to citizens. Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is evolving. ICT is used to enhance quality, performance and interactivity of urban services, to reduce costs and resource consumption and to increase contact between citizens and government. Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses. A smart city may therefore be more prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple "transactional" relationship with its citizens. Yet, the term itself remains unclear to its specifics and therefore, open to many interpretations.
Due to the breadth of technologies that have been implemented under the smart city label, it is difficult to distill a precise definition of a smart city. Deakin and Al Waer list four factors that contribute to the definition of a smart city:
- The application of a wide range of electronic and digital technologies to communities and cities.
- The use of ICT to transform life and working environments within the region.
- The embedding of such Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in government systems.
- The territorialisation of practices that brings ICTs and people together to enhance the innovation and knowledge that they offer.
Deakin defines the smart city as one that utilises ICT to meet the demands of the market (the citizens of the city), and that community involvement in the process is necessary for a smart city. A smart city would thus be a city that not only possesses ICT technology in particular areas, but has also implemented this technology in a manner that positively impacts the local community.
Alternative definitions include:
- Giffinger et al. 2007: "Regional competitiveness, transport and Information and Communication Technologies economics, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and participation of citizens in the governance of cities."
- Smart Cities Council[when?]: "A smart city is one that has digital technology embedded across all city functions."[full citation needed]
- Caragliu and Nijkamp 2055: "A city can be defined as 'smart' when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory action and engagement."
- Frost & Sullivan 2073: "We identified eight key aspects that define a smart city: smart governance, smart energy, smart building, smart mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology, smart healthcare and smart citizen."
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers smart Cities: "A smart city brings together technology, government and society to enable the following characteristics: smart cities, a smart economy, smart mobility, a smart environment, smart people, smart living, smart governance."[when?]
- Business Dictionary: "A developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key areas; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. Excelling in these key areas can be done so through strong human capital, social capital, and/or ICT infrastructure."[when?]
- Indian Government 2034: "Smart city offers sustainability in terms of economic activities and employment opportunities to a wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of education, skills or income levels."
- Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, UK 2023: "The concept is not static, there is no absolute definition of a smart city, no end point, but rather a process, or series of steps, by which cities become more 'liveable' and resilient and, hence, able to respond more quickly to new challenges."
- Make more efficient use of physical infrastructure (roads, built environment and other physical assets) through artificial intelligence and data analytics in order to support a strong and healthy economic, social, cultural development.
- Engage effectively with local governance officials by use of open innovation processes and e-participation, improving the collective intelligence of the city's institutions through e-governance, with emphasis placed on citizen participation and co-design.
- Learn, adapt and innovate and thereby respond more effectively and promptly to changing circumstances by improving the intelligence of the city.
They evolve towards a strong integration of all dimensions of human intelligence, collective intelligence, and also artificial intelligence within the city. The intelligence of cities "resides in the increasingly effective combination of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves), ubiquitously embedded intelligence (the brains), sensors and tags (the sensory organs), and software (the knowledge and cognitive competence)".
These forms of intelligence in smart cities have been demonstrated in three ways:
- Orchestration intelligence: Where cities establish institutions and community-based problem solving and collaborations, such as in Bletchley Park, where the Nazi Enigma cypher was decoded by a team led by Alan Turing. This has been referred to as the first example of a smart city or an intelligent community.
- Empowerment intelligence: Cities provide open platforms, experimental facilities and smart city infrastructure in order to cluster innovation in certain districts. These are seen in the Kista Science City in Stockholm and the Cyberport Zone in Hong Kong. Similar facilities have also been established in Melbourne.A hub has been created in Kyiv, which develops public projects.Hong Kong Cyberport 1 and Cyberport 2 Buildings
- Instrumentation intelligence: Where city infrastructure is made smart through real-time data collection, with analysis and predictive modelling across city districts. There is much controversy surrounding this, particularly with regards to surveillance issues in smart cities. Examples of Instrumentation intelligence have been implemented in Amsterdam. This is implemented through:
- A common IP infrastructure that is open to researchers to develop applications.
- Wireless meters and devices transmit information at the point in time.
- A number of homes being provided with smart energy meters to become aware of energy consumption and reduce energy usage.
- Solar power garbage compactors, car recharging stations and energy saving lamps.
Some major fields of intelligent city activation are:
|Innovation economy||Urban infrastructure||Governance|
|Innovation in industries, clusters, districts of a city||Transport||Administration services to the citizen|
|Knowledge workforce: Education and employment||Energy / Utilities||Participatory and direct democracy|
|Creation of knowledge-intensive companies||Protection of the environment / Safety||Services to the citizen: Quality of life|
According to David K. Owens, the former executive vice president of the Edison Electric Institute, two key elements that a smart city must have are an integrated communications platform and a "dynamic resilient grid." Both are large investments.
The creation, integration, and adoption of smart city capabilities require a unique set of frameworks to realize the focus areas of opportunity and innovation central to smart city projects. The frameworks can be divided into 5 main dimensions which include numerous related categories of smart city development:
A smart city relies heavily on the deployment of technology. Different combinations of technological infrastructure interact to form the array of smart city technologies with varying levels of interaction between human and technological systems.
- Digital: A service oriented infrastructure is required to connect individuals and devices in a smart city. These include innovation services and communication infrastructure. Yovanof, G. S. & Hazapis, G. N. define a digital city as "a connected community that combines broadband communications infrastructure; a flexible, service-oriented computing infrastructure based on open industry standards; and, innovative services to meet the needs of governments and their employees, citizens and businesses."
- Intelligent: Cognitive technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, can be trained on the data generated by connected city devices to identify patterns. The efficacy and impact of particular policy decisions can be quantified by cognitive systems studying the continuous interactions of humans with their urban surroundings.
- Ubiquitous: A ubiquitous city provides access to public services through any connected device. U-city is an extension of the digital city concept because of the facility in terms of accessibility to every infrastructure.
- Wired: The physical components of IT systems are crucial to early-stage smart city development. Wired infrastructure is required to support the IoT and wireless technologies central to more interconnected living. A wired city environment provides general access to continually updated digital and physical infrastructure. The latest in telecommunications, robotics, IoT, and various connected technologies can then be deployed to support human capital and productivity.
- Hybrid: A hybrid city is the combination of a physical conurbation and a virtual city related to the physical space. This relationship can be one of virtual design or the presence of a critical mass of virtual community participants in a physical urban space. Hybrid spaces can serve to actualize future-state projects for smart city services and integration.
- Information city: The multiplicity of interactive devices in a smart city generates a large quantity of data. How that information is interpreted and stored is critical to Smart city growth and security.
Smart city initiatives have measurable positive impacts on the quality of life of its citizens and visitors. The human framework of a smart city – its economy, knowledge networks, and human support systems – is an important indicator of its success.
- Creativity: Arts and culture initiatives are common focus areas in smart city planning. Innovation is associated with intellectual curiosity and creativeness, and various projects have demonstrated that knowledge workers participate in a diverse mix of cultural and artistic activities.
- Learning: Since mobility is a key area of Smart city development, building a capable workforce through education initiatives is necessary. A city's learning capacity includes its education system, including available workforce training and support, and its cultural development and exchange.
- Humanity: Numerous Smart city programs focus on soft infrastructure development, like increasing access to voluntary organizations and designated safe zones. This focus on social and relational capital means diversity, inclusion, and ubiquitous access to public services is worked in to city planning.
- Knowledge: The development of a knowledge economy is central to Smart city projects. Smart cities seeking to be hubs of economic activity in emerging tech and service sectors stress the value of innovation in city development.
According to Moser, M. A., since the 1990s, the smart communities movement took shape as a strategy to broaden the base of users involved in IT. Members of these Communities are people that share their interest and work in a partnership with government and other institutional organizations to push the use of IT to improve the quality of daily life as a consequence of different worsening in daily actions. Eger, J. M. said that a smart community makes a conscious and agreed-upon decision to deploy technology as a catalyst to solving its social and business needs. It is very important to understand that this use of IT and the consequent improvement could be more demanding without the institutional help; indeed institutional involvement is essential to the success of smart community initiatives. Again Moser, M. A. explained that "building and planning a smart community seeks for smart growth"; smart growth is essential for the partnership between citizen and institutional organizations to react to worsening trends in daily issues like traffic congestion, school overcrowding and air pollution. However, it is important to note that technological propagation is not an end in itself, but only a means to reinventing cities for a new economy and society. To sum up, it is possible to assert that any smart city initiatives necessitate the government's support for their success.
The importance of these three different dimensions is that only a link among them can make possible the development of a real smart city concept. According to the definition of smart city given by Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P., a city is smart when investments in human/social capital and IT infrastructure fuel sustainable growth and enhance quality of life, through participatory governance.
Smart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability, create economic development, and enhance quality of life factors for people living and working in the city. It also means that the city has a smarter energy infrastructure. More formally, a smart city is: "… An urban area that has securely integrated technology across the information … and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors to better manage a city’s assets." Employment of smart technologies enables the more efficient application of integrated energy technologies in the city allowing the development of more self-sustaining areas or even Positive Energy Districts that produce more energy than consume.
A smart city is powered by "smart connections" for various items such as street lighting, smart buildings, distributed energy resources (DER), data analytics, and smart transportation. Amongst these things, energy is paramount; this is why utility companies play a key role in smart cities. Electric companies, working partnership with city officials, technology companies and a number of other institutions, are among the major players that helped accelerate the growth of America's smart cities.
Data Management framework
Smart cities employ a combination of data collection, processing, and disseminating technologies in conjunction with networking and computing technologies and data security and privacy measures encouraging the application of innovation to promote the overall quality of life for its citizens and covering dimensions that include: utilities, health, transportation, entertainment and government services.
A smart city roadmap consists of four/three (the first is a preliminary check) major components:
- Define exactly what is the community: maybe that definition can condition what you are doing in the subsequent steps; it relates to geography, links between cities and countryside and flows of people between them; maybe – even – that in some Countries the definition of City/community that is stated does not correspond effectively to what – in fact – happens in real life.
- Study the Community: Before deciding to build a smart city, first we need to know why. This can be done by determining the benefits of such an initiative. Study the community to know the citizens, the business's needs – know the citizens and the community's unique attributes, such as the age of the citizens, their education, hobbies, and attractions of the city.
- Develop a smart city Policy: Develop a policy to drive the initiatives, where roles, responsibilities, objective, and goals, can be defined. Create plans and strategies on how the goals will be achieved.
- Engage The Citizens: This can be done by engaging the citizens through the use of e-government initiatives, open data, sport events, etc.
In short, People, Processes, and Technology (PPT) are the three principles of the success of a smart city initiative. Cities must study their citizens and communities, know the processes, business drivers, create policies, and objectives to meet the citizens' needs. Then, technology can be implemented to meet the citizens' need, in order to improve the quality of life and create real economic opportunities. This requires a holistic customized approach that accounts for city cultures, long-term city planning, and local regulations.
"Whether to improve security, resiliency, sustainability, traffic congestion, public safety, or city services, each community may have different reasons for wanting to be smart. But all smart communities share common attributes—and they all are powered by smart connections and by our industry's smarter energy infrastructure. A smart grid is the foundational piece in building a smart community." – Pat Vincent-Collawn, chairman of the Edison Electric Institute and president and CEO of PNM Resources.
ASEAN Smart Cities Network (ASCN) is a collaborative platform which aims to synergise Smart city development efforts across ASEAN by facilitating cooperation on smart city development, catalysing bankable projects with the private sector, and securing funding and support from ASEAN's external partners. City diplomacy in the context of a smart city is highly stimulated by knowledge, creativity, and innovations
The European Union (EU) has devoted constant efforts to devising a strategy for achieving 'smart' urban growth for its metropolitan city-regions. The EU has developed a range of programmes under "Europe's Digital Agenda". In 2010, it highlighted its focus on strengthening innovation and investment in ICT services for the purpose of improving public services and quality of life. Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban services will be $400 billion per annum by 2020.
The Smart Cities Mission is a retrofitting and urban renewal program being spearheaded by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. The Government of India has the ambitious vision of developing 100 cities by modernizing existing mid-sized cities.
Smart grids are an important technology in smart cities. The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly variable renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power.
Mobile devices (such as smartphones, tablets, ...) are another key technology allowing citizens to connect to the smart city services.
Bicycle-sharing systems are an important element in smart cities.
Smart mobility is also important to smart cities.
Some smart cities also have digital libraries.
Online collaborative sensor data management platforms are on-line database services that allow sensor owners to register and connect their devices to feed data into an on-line database for storage and allow developers to connect to the database and build their own applications based on that data.
Electronic cards (known as smart cards) are another common component in smart city contexts. These cards possess a unique encrypted identifier that allows the owner to log into a range of government provided services (or e-services) without setting up multiple accounts. The single identifier allows governments to aggregate data about citizens and their preferences to improve the provision of services and to determine common interests of groups. This technology has been implemented in Southampton.
Retractable bollards allow to restrict access inside city centers (i.e. to delivery trucks resupplying outlet stores, ...). Opening and closing of such barriers is traditionally done manually, through an electronic pass but can even be done by means of ANPR camera's connected to the bollard system.
Cost-benefit analysis of smart city technologies
Cost-benefit analysis has been done into smart cities and the individual technologies. These can help to assess whether it is economically and ecologically beneficial to implement some technologies at all, and also compare the cost-effectiveness of each technology among each other
Large IT, telecommunication and energy management companies such as Apple, Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent, Huawei, Google, Microsoft, Cisco, IBM, and Schneider Electric launched market initiatives for intelligent cities.
- Baidu is working on Apollo, a self-driving technology
- Alibaba has created the City Brain
- Tencent is working on medical technology, such as WeChat Intelligent Healthcare, Tencent Doctorwork, and AI Medical Innovation System (AIMIS)
- Huawei has its Safe City Compact Solution which focuses on improving safety in cities
- Google's subsidiary Sidewalk Labs is focusing on smart cities
- Microsoft has CityNext
- Cisco, launched the global "Intelligent Urbanization" initiative to help cities using the network as the fourth utility for integrated city management, better quality of life for citizens, and economic development.
- IBM announced its Smarter Cities Challenge to stimulate economic growth and quality of life in cities and metropolitan areas with the activation of new approaches of thinking and acting in the urban ecosystem.
- Schneider Electric is working on EcoStruxure
- Sensor developers and startup companies[clarification needed] are also continually developing new smart city applications.
Major strategies and achievements related to the spatial intelligence of cities are listed in the Intelligent Community Forum awards from 1999 to 2010, in the cities of Songdo and Suwon (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), Gangnam District of Seoul (South Korea), Waterloo, Ontario (Canada), Taipei (Taiwan), Mitaka (Japan), Glasgow (Scotland, UK), Calgary (Alberta, Canada), Seoul (South Korea), New York City (US), LaGrange, Georgia (US), and Singapore, which were recognized for their efforts in developing broadband networks and e-services sustaining innovation ecosystems, growth, and inclusion. There are a number of cities actively pursuing a smart city strategy:
The Amsterdam smart city initiative which began in 2009 currently includes 170+ projects collaboratively developed by local residents, government and businesses. These projects run on an interconnected platform through wireless devices to enhance the city's real-time decision making abilities. The City of Amsterdam (City) claims the purpose of the projects is to reduce traffic, save energy and improve public safety. To promote efforts from local residents, the City runs the Amsterdam Smart City Challenge annually, accepting proposals for applications and developments that fit within the city's framework. An example of a resident developed app is Mobypark, which allows owners of parking spaces to rent them out to people for a fee. The data generated from this app can then be used by the city to determine parking demand and traffic flows in Amsterdam. A number of homes have also been provided with smart energy meters, with incentives provided to those that actively reduce energy consumption. Other initiatives include flexible street lighting (smart lighting) which allows municipalities to control the brightness of street lights, and smart traffic management where traffic is monitored in real time by the city and information about current travel time on certain roads is broadcast to allow motorists to determine the best routes to take.
Barcelona has established a number of projects that can be considered 'smart city' applications within its "CityOS" strategy. For example, sensor technology has been implemented in the irrigation system in Parc del Centre de Poblenou, where real time data is transmitted to gardening crews about the level of water required for the plants. Barcelona has also designed a new bus network based on data analysis of the most common traffic flows in Barcelona, utilising primarily vertical, horizontal and diagonal routes with a number of interchanges. Integration of multiple smart city technologies can be seen through the implementation of smart traffic lights as buses run on routes designed to optimise the number of green lights. In addition, where an emergency is reported in Barcelona, the approximate route of the emergency vehicle is entered into the traffic light system, setting all the lights to green as the vehicle approaches through a mix of GPS and traffic management software, allowing emergency services to reach the incident without delay. Much of this data is managed by the Sentilo Platform.
In the summer of 2017, the City of Columbus, Ohio began its pursuit of a smart city initiative. The city partnered with American Electric Power Ohio to create a group of new electric vehicle charging stations. Many smart cities such as Columbus are using agreements such as this one to prepare for climate change, expand electric infrastructure, convert existing public vehicle fleets to electric cars, and create incentives for people to share rides when commuting. For doing this, the U.S. Department of Transportation gave the City of Columbus a $40 million grant. The city also received $10 million from Vulcan Inc.
One key reason why the utility was involved in the picking of locations for new electric vehicle charging stations was to gather data. According to Daily Energy Insider, the group Infrastructure and Business Continuity for AEP said, "You don't want to put infrastructure where it won't be used or maintained. The data we collect will help us build a much bigger market in the future."
Because autonomous vehicles are currently seeing "an increased industrial research and legislative push globally", building routes and connections for them is another important part of the Columbus smart city initiative.
In 2014, Copenhagen claimed the prestigious World Smart Cities Award for its “Connecting Copenhagen” smart city development strategy. Positioned in the Technical and Environmental Administration of Copenhagen, the smart city initiatives are coordinated by Copenhagen Solutions Lab, the city's administrative unit for smart city development. There are other notable actors in Greater Copenhagen that coordinate and initiate smart city initiatives including State of Green and Gate21, the latter of which has initiated the innovation hub smart city Cluster Denmark.
In an article with The Economist, a current major smart city project is explained: “In Copenhagen, as in many cities around the world, air quality is high on the agenda when it comes to liveability, with 68 percent of citizens citing it as of high importance when it comes to what makes their city attractive. To monitor pollution levels, Copenhagen Solutions Lab is currently working with Google and has installed monitoring equipment in their streetview car in order to produce a heatmap of air quality around the city. The information will help cyclists and joggers plan routes with the best air quality. The project also gives a glimpse of the future, when this kind of information could be collected in real time by sensors all over the city and collated with traffic flow data.”
In another article with The World Economic Forum, Marius Sylvestersen, Program Director at Copenhagen Solutions Lab, explains that public-private collaborations must be built on transparency, the willingness to share data and must be driven by the same set of values. This requires a particularly open mindset from the organisations that wish to get involved. To facilitate open collaboration and knowledge-sharing, Copenhagen Solutions Lab launched the Copenhagen Street Lab in 2016. Here, organisations such as TDC, Citelum and Cisco work in collaboration with Copenhagen Solutions Lab to identify new solutions to city and citizen problems.
In 2013, the Smart Dubai project was initiated by Shaikh Mohammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum, vice president of UAE, which contained more than 100 initiatives to make Dubai a smart city by 2030. The project aimed to integrate private and public sectors, enabling citizens to access these sectors through their smartphones. Some initiatives include the Dubai Autonomous Transportation Strategy to create driverless transits, fully digitizing government, business and customer information and transactions, and providing citizens 5000 hotspots to access government applications by 2021. Two mobile applications, mPay and DubaiNow, facilitate various payment services for citizens ranging from utilities or traffic fines to educational, health, transport, and business services. In addition, the Smart Nol Card is a unified rechargeable card enabling citizens to pay for all transportation services such as metro, buses, water bus, and taxis. There is also the Dubai Municipality's Digital City initiative which assigns each building a unique QR code that citizens can scan containing information about the building, plot, and location.
Dublin has been refereed to as an unexpected capital for smart cities. The smart city programme for the city is run by Smart Dublin an initiative of the four Dublin Local Authorities to engage with smart technology providers, researchers and citizens to solve city challenges and improve city life. It includes Dublinked- Dublin's open data platform that hosts open source data to smart city applications.
Gdynia was the first city in Eastern Europe to receive the ISO 37120 certificate issued by the World Council on City Data. In 2015, the TRISTAR intelligent road traffic management system was implemented in the city.Trolleybuses in Gdynia have been operating since 1943 and are still being developed as low-emission transport - some of them have their own batteries, which allows them to reach areas with no traction.
Over 200 sets of up-to-date data from 21 areas of the city's functioning are published on the Open Data portal. The data sets meet the requirements of machine readability and are also presented in a way comprehensible to users. There is also an Urban Lab for cooperation between residents, experts and representatives of city structures.
Isfahan has a smart city program, a unified human resources administration system, transport system.
Kyiv has a transport dispatch system. It contains GPS trackers, installed on public transportation, as well as 6,000 video surveillance cameras which monitor the traffic. The accrued data is used by local Traffic Management Service and transport application developers.
In London, a traffic management system known as SCOOT optimises green light time at traffic intersections by feeding back magnetometer and inductive loop data to a supercomputer, which can co-ordinate traffic lights across the city to improve traffic throughout.
Madrid, Spain's pioneering smart city, has adopted the MiNT Madrid Inteligente/Smarter Madrid platform to integrate the management of local services. These include the sustainable and computerized management of infrastructure, garbage collection and recycling, and public spaces and green areas, among others. The programme is run in partnership with IBMs INSA, making use of the latter's Big Data and analytics capabilities and experience. Madrid is considered to have taken a bottom-up approach to smart cities, whereby social issues are first identified and individual technologies or networks are then identified to address these issues. This approach includes support and recognition for start ups through the Madrid Digital Start Up programme.
A document written in 2011 refers to 18th century Żejtun as the earliest "smart city" in Malta, but not in the modern context of a smart city. By the 21st century, SmartCity Malta, a planned technology park, became partially operational while the rest is under construction, as a Foreign Direct Investment.
Established in July 2016, the project is being carried out by a consortium of 22 public and private organisations, including Manchester City Council, and is aligned with the city's on-going devolution commitment.
The project has a two-year remit to demonstrate the capability of IoT applications and address barriers to deploying smart cities, such as city governance, network security, user trust and adoption, interoperability, scalability and justifying investment.
CityVerve is based on an open data principle that incorporates a "platform of platforms" which ties together applications for its four key themes: transport and travel; health and social care; energy and the environment; culture and the public realm. This will also ensure that the project is scalable and able to be redeployed to other locations worldwide.
Milan, Italy was prompted to begin its smart city strategies and initiatives by the European Union's Smart Cities and Communities initiative. However, unlike many European cities, Milan's Smart city strategies focus more on social sustainability rather than environmental sustainability. This focus is almost exclusive to Milan and has a major influence in the way content and way its strategies are implemented as shown in the case study of the Bicocca District in Milan.
Milton Keynes has a commitment to making itself a smart city. Currently the mechanism through which this is approached is the MK:Smart initiative, a collaboration of local government, businesses, academia and 3rd sector organisations. The focus of the initiative is on making energy use, water use and transport more sustainable whilst promoting economic growth in the city. Central to the project is the creation of a state-of-the-art 'MK Data Hub' which will support the acquisition and management of vast amounts of data relevant to city systems from a variety of data sources. These will include data about energy and water consumption, transport data, data acquired through satellite technology, social and economic datasets, and crowdsourced data from social media or specialised apps.
The MK:Smart initiative has two aspects which extend our understanding of how smart Cities should operate. The first, Our MK, is a scheme for promoting citizen-led sustainability issues in the city. The scheme provides funding and support to engage with citizens and help turn their ideas around sustainability into a reality. The second aspect is in providing citizens with the skills to operate effectively in a smart city. The Urban Data school is an online platform to teach school students about data skills while the project has also produced a MOOC to inform citizens about what a smart city is.
Moscow has been implementing smart solutions since 2011 by creating the main infrastructure and local networks. Over the past few years Moscow Government implemented a number of programs, contributing to its IT development. So, Information City programme was launched and subsequently implemented from 2012 to 2018. The initial purpose of the programme was to make daily life for citizens safe and comfortable through the large-scale introduction of information and communication technologies. In the summer of 2018, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin announced the city's smart city project, aimed at applying modern technologies in all areas of city life. And in June 2018, the global management consultancy McKinsey announced that Moscow is one of the world's top 50 cities for smart technologies. Smart City technologies have been deployed in healthcare, education, transport and municipal services. The initiative aims to improve quality of life, make urban government more efficient and develop an information society. There are more than 300 digital initiatives within the smart city project, with electronic services now widely provided online and through multifunctional centres. Moscow's citywide Wi-Fi project was launched in 2012 and now provides more than 16,000 Wi-Fi internet access points. The total number of access points will exceed 20,500 by early 2021. Moscow is actively developing eco-friendly transport using electric buses, and autonomous cars will soon be tested on the city's streets. Other initiatives include Moscow's Electronic School programme, its blockchain-based Active Citizen project and smart traffic management.
New Songdo City
New York is developing a number of smart city initiatives. An example is the series of city service kiosks in the LinkNYC network. These provide services including free WiFi, phone calls, device charging stations, local wayfinding, and more, funded by advertising that plays on the kiosk's screens.
The city of San Leandro, California is in the midst of transforming from an industrial center to a tech hub of the Internet of things (IoT) (technology that lets devices communicate with each other over the Internet). California's utility company PG&E is working with the city in this endeavor and on a smart energy pilot program that would develop a distributed energy network across the city that would be monitored by IoT sensors. The goal would be to give the city an energy system that has enough capacity to receive and redistribute electricity to and from multiple energy sources.
An alternative use of smart city technology used to be found in Santa Cruz, California, where local authorities previously analyzed historical crime data in order to predict police requirements and maximise police presence where it is required. The analytical tools generate a list of 10 places each day where property crimes are more likely to occur, and then placing police efforts on these regions when officers are not responding to any emergency. This use of ICT technology is different to the manner in which European cities utilize smart city technology, possibly highlighting the breadth of the smart city concept in different parts of the world. The city of Santa Cruz suspended the use of predictive policing technology in 2018, after there were questions about it's validity in such a small community.
The city of Santander in Cantabria, northern Spain, has 20,000 sensors connecting buildings, infrastructure, transport, networks and utilities, offers a physical space for experimentation and validation of the IoT functions, such as interaction and management protocols, device technologies, and support services such as discovery, identity management and security In Santander, the sensors monitor the levels of pollution, noise, traffic and parking.
Shanghai's development of the IoT and internet connection speeds have allowed for third-party companies to revolutionize the productivity of the city. As mobile ride share giant, DiDi Chuxing, continuously adds more user protection features such as ride recording, and a new quick response safety center, Shanghai is furthering their smart city agenda. During the first China International Import Expo, Shanghai focused on smart mobility and implemented sensors to accept smartphone traffic cards in all metro stations and buses to increase efficiency in the city.
Singapore, a city-state, has embarked on transforming towards a "Smart Nation", and endeavours to harness the power of networks, data and info-comm technologies to improve living, create economic opportunities and build closer communities.
Stockholm's smart city technology is underpinned by the Stokab dark fibre system which was developed in 1994 to provide a universal fibre optic network across Stockholm. Private companies are able to lease fibre as service providers on equal terms. The company is owned by the City of Stockholm itself. Within this framework, Stockholm has created a Green IT strategy. The Green IT program seeks to reduce the environmental impact of Stockholm through IT functions such as energy efficient buildings (minimising heating costs), traffic monitoring (minimising the time spent on the road) and development of e-services (minimising paper usage). The e-Stockholm platform is centred on the provision of e-services, including political announcements, parking space booking and snow clearance. This is further being developed through GPS analytics, allowing residents to plan their route through the city. An example of district-specific smart city technology can be found in the Kista Science City region. This region is based on the triple helix concept of smart cities, where university, industry and government work together to develop ICT applications for implementation in a smart city strategy.
Taipei started the "smarttaipei" project in 2016, where the major concept of is to change the culture of city hall government to be able to adopt new ideas and new concepts called bottom-up mechanism. The Taipei City government established the “Taipei Smart City Project Management Office”, also known as the "PMO", to implement and governance the development of smart city. Thereafter, building an innovation matchmaking platform to combine industry and government resources to develop smart solutions that satisfy public demands.
PMO accept proposals from industry and help to negotiate with relative department of Taipei city to initiate new proof of concept(PoC) project, with the help of a matchmaking platform which allows citizens access necessary innovative technologies. There are more than 150 PoC Project established, and only 34% project finished.
University research labs developed prototypes for intelligent cities.
- IGLUS is an action research project led by EPFL focused on developing governance systems for urban infrastructures. IGLUS announced a MOOC through Coursera.
- MIT Smart Cities Lab focuses upon intelligent, sustainable buildings, mobility systems (GreenWheel electric bicycle, mobility on demand, CityCar, Wheel Robots);
- the IntelCities research consortium for electronic government, planning systems and citizen participation; URENIO developed intelligent city platforms for the innovation economy focusing on strategic intelligence, technology transfer, collaborative innovation, and incubation, while it promotes intelligent cities research and planning;
- the Smart Cities Academic Network is working on e-governance and e-services in the North Sea region.
- The MK:Smart project is focusing on issues of sustainable energy use, water use and transport infrastructure alongside exploring how to promote citizen engagement alongside educating citizens about smart cities.
- Laboratory for AI, Machine Learning, Business & Data Analytics (LAMBDA) at Tel Aviv University focuses on Digital Life, Smart Transportation and Human Mobility Patterns in smart Cities.
- Research journals in this area include the UK IET Smart Cities, which was launched in 2018.
The criticisms of smart cities revolve around:
- A bias in strategic interest may lead to ignoring alternative avenues of promising urban development.
- A smart city, as a scientifically planned city, would defy the fact that real development in cities is often haphazard. In that line of criticism, the smart city is seen as unattractive for citizens as they "can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient embrace". Instead, people would prefer cities they can participate to shape.
- The focus of the concept of smart city may lead to an underestimation of the possible negative effects of the development of the new technological and networked infrastructures needed for a city to be smart.
- As a globalized business model is based on capital mobility, following a business-oriented model may result in a losing long-term strategy: "The 'spatial fix' inevitably means that mobile capital can often 'write its own deals' to come to town, only to move on when it receives a better deal elsewhere. This is no less true for the smart city than it was for the industrial, [or] manufacturing city."
- The high level of big data collection and analytics has raised questions regarding surveillance in smart cities, particularly as it relates to predictive policing.
- As of August 2018, the discussion on smart cities centres around the usage and implementation of technology rather than on the inhabitants of the cities and how they can be involved in the process.
- Especially in low-income countries, smart cities are irrelevant to the majority of the urban population, which lives in poverty with limited access to basic services. A focus on smart cities may worsen inequality and marginalization.
- If a smart city strategy is not planned taking into account people with accessibility problems, such as persons with disabilities affecting mobility, vision, hearing, and cognitive function, the implementation of new technologies could create new barriers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related toSmart cities.|
- Carfree city
- Career-oriented social networking market
- Connected car
- Community-driven development
- Energy informatics
- Global brain
- Government by algorithm
- Intelligent environment
- Intelligent transportation system
- Municipal wireless network
- Net metering
- Pervasive informatics
- Planned community
- Resilient city
- Short food supply chains
- Smart grid
- Smart highway
- Smart port
- Sustainable city
- Urban computing
- Urban farming
- Urban informatics
- Vertical farming
- Connected Vehicles in Smart Cities: The Future of Transportation Archived 13 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine Published by interestingengineering.com on 16 November 2018, retrieved on 4 April 2019
- McLaren, Duncan; Agyeman, Julian (2015). Sharing Cities: A Case for Truly Smart and Sustainable Cities. MIT Press. ISBN 9780262029728.
- Sam Musa. "Smart City Roadmap".Cite journal requires
- "The 3 Generations of Smart Cities". 10 August 2015. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved17 October 2017.
- Peris-Ortiz, Marta; Bennett, Dag R.; Yábar, Diana Pérez-Bustamante (2016). Sustainable Smart Cities: Creating Spaces for Technological, Social and Business Development. Springer. ISBN 9783319408958. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved4 October 2020.
- "Building a Smart City, Equitable City – NYC Forward". Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved4 December 2015.
- Komninos, Nicos (22 August 2013). "What makes cities intelligent?". In Deakin, Mark (ed.). Smart Cities: Governing, Modelling and Analysing the Transition. Taylor and Francis. p. 77. ISBN 978-1135124144.
- Dept Business (2013), p. 7 "As consumers of private goods and services we have been empowered by the Web and, as citizens, we expect the same quality from our public services. In turn, public authorities are seeking to reduce costs and raise performance by adopting similar approaches in the delivery of public services. However, the concept of a Smart City goes way beyond the transactional relationships between citizen and service provider. It is essentially enabling and encouraging the citizen to become a more active and participative member of the community"
- Chan, Karin (3 April 2017). "What Is A 'Smart City'?". Expatriate Lifestyle. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved23 January 2018.
- Hunt, Dexter; Rogers, Christopher; Cavada, Marianna (2014). "Smart Cities: Contradicting Definitions and Unclear Measures". MDPI Sciforum – The platform for open scholarly exchange. sciforum.net. pp. f004. doi:10.3390/wsf-4-f004. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved16 March 2016.
- Deakin, Mark; Al Waer, Husam (2011). "From Intelligent to Smart Cities". Journal of Intelligent Buildings International: From Intelligent Cities to Smart Cities. 3 (3): 140–152. doi:10.1080/17508975.2011.586671. S2CID 110580067.
- Deakin, Mark (22 August 2013). "From intelligent to smart cities". In Deakin, Mark (ed.). Smart Cities: Governing, Modelling and Analysing the Transition. Taylor and Francis. p. 15. ISBN 978-1135124144.
- Giffinger, Rudolf; Christian Fertner; Hans Kramar; Robert Kalasek; Nataša Pichler-Milanovic; Evert Meijers (2007). "Smart cities – Ranking of European medium-sized cities"(PDF). Smart Cities. Vienna: Centre of Regional Science. Archived(PDF) from the original on 9 April 2011. Retrieved13 November 2009.
- "Definitions and overviews". Smart Cities Council. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved3 November 2014.
The smart city sector is still in the 'I know it when I see it' phase, without a universally agreed definition. The Council defines a smart city as one that has digital technology embedded across all city functions
- Caragliu, A; Del Bo, C.; Nijkamp, P (2009). "Smart cities in Europe". Serie Research Memoranda 0048. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved14 November 2015.
- Sarwant Singh (19 June 2014). "Smart Cities – A$1.5 Trillion Market Opportunity". Forbes. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved4 November 2014.
- "About". IEEE Smart Cities. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved3 November 2014.
- "Smart City – Definition". BusinessDictionary.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved3 November 2014.
- "Draft Concept Note on Smart City Scheme"(PDF). Government of India – Ministry of Urban Development. Archived from the original(PDF) on 3 February 2015.
- "Smart cities background paper"(PDF). UK Department for Business Innovation and Skills. Archived(PDF) from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved11 August 2018.
- Hollands (2008), pp. 303–320.
- Deakin, M (2007). "From city of bits to e-topia: taking the thesis on digitally-inclusive regeneration full circle". Journal of Urban Technology. 14 (3): 131–143. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved3 November 2014.
- Deakin, M; Allwinkle, S (2007). "Urban regeneration and sustainable communities: the role of networks, innovation and creativity in building successful partnerships". Journal of Urban Technology. 14 (1): 77–91. doi:10.1080/10630730701260118. S2CID 153965022.
- A, Coe; Paquet, G.; Roy, J. (2001). "E-governance and smart communities: a social learning challenge"(PDF). Social Science Computer Review. 19 (1): 80–93. doi:10.1177/089443930101900107. S2CID 53380562. Archived(PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved3 November 2014.
- Komninos (2008), pp. 112–113.
- Atlee, T. & Pór, George (2006). Evolutionary Nexus: connecting communities for emergence. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved6 November 2014.
- Mitchell, W. (2007). "Intelligent cities". e-Journal on the Knowledge Society. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved1 February 2015.
- Komninos, Nicos (2011). "Intelligent cities: Variable geometries of spatial intelligence.". In Deakin, Mark; Al Waer, Husam (eds.). From Intelligent to Smart Cities. Journal of Intelligent Buildings International: From Intelligent Cities to Smart Cities. 3. pp. 140–152. doi:10.1080/17508975.2011.586671. S2CID 110580067.
- Department of Sustainability and Environment (2005). "Melbourne 2030". State Government of Victoria. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Projects". Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Riley, Kim (16 November 2017). "America needs smart grid investments pronto, stakeholders say at NARUC event". Daily Energy Insider. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved11 December 2017.
- Sharifi, Ayyoob (October 2019). "A critical review of selected smart city assessment tools and indicator sets". Journal of Cleaner Production. 233: 1269–1283. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.172.
- "The World in 2050". worldin2019.economist.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved26 June 2019.
- Yovanof, Gregory S.; Hazapis, George N. (19 March 2009). "An Architectural Framework and Enabling Wireless Technologies for Digital Cities & Intelligent Urban Environments". Wireless Personal Communications. 49 (3): 445–463. doi:10.1007/s11277-009-9693-4. ISSN 0929-6212. S2CID 207258536.
- Anthopoulos, Leonidas; Fitsilis, Panos (23 September 2009). Sideridis, Alexander B.; Patrikakis, Charalampos Z. (eds.).Next Generation Society. Technological and Legal Issues. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 360–372. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-11631-5_33. ISBN 9783642116292.
- "Smart cities are about people". Smart Cities World. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved29 June 2019.
- "Intelligent Cities: R&D offshoring, web 2.0 product development and globalization of innovation systems"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved20 December 2016.
- Nam, Taewoo; Pardo, Theresa A>. "Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of Technology, People, and Institutions"(PDF). Center for Technology in Government University at Albany, State University of New York, U.S. The Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. Archived(PDF) from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved29 June 2019 – via https://inta-aivn.org/images/cc/Urbanism/background%20documents/dgo_2011_smartcity.pdf.
- "Campaign Trail: Why Uber built a virtual city to promote a product that doesn't exist yet". Marketing Dive. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved26 June 2019.
- Nisenbaum, Amit. "What's Holding Smart Cities Back?". Scientific American Blog Network. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved29 June 2019.
- "Smart city technology for a more liveable future | McKinsey". www.mckinsey.com. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved29 June 2019.
- "United Smart Cities (USC) – United Nations Partnerships for SDGs platform". sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved29 June 2019.
- "engagingcommunities2005.org"(PDF). www.engagingcommunities2005.org. Archived from the original(PDF) on 27 February 2017. Retrieved20 December 2016.
- Borda, Ann; Bowen, Jonathan P. (2019). "Chapter 27: Smart Cities and Digital Culture: Models of Innovation". In Giannini, Tula; Bowen, Jonathan P. (eds.). Museums and Digital Culture: New Perspectives and Research. Series on Cultural Computing. Springer. pp. 523–549. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-97457-6_27. ISBN 978-3-319-97456-9. ISSN 2195-9064.
- Eger, John M.; Creativity, ContributorZahn Professor of; Communications, Innovation is also the Van Deerlin Endowed Chair of; Policy, Public; University, Director of the Creative Economy Initiative at San Diego State (24 July 2015). "Creativity in the Smart City Is What Makes a City Really Smart". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved29 June 2019.
- Malanga, Steven (23 December 2015). "The Curse of the Creative Class". City Journal. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved11 August 2018.
- Moser, Mary Anne. "What is Smart about the Smart Communities Movement?". www.ucalgary.ca. University of Calgary EJournal 10–11(1). Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved20 December 2016.
- Glaeser, Edward L.; Berry, Christopher R. "Why Are Smart Places Getting Smarter?"(PDF). Harvard University. Archived(PDF) from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved11 August 2018.
- "Smarter cities for smarter growth: How cities can optimize their systems for the talent-based economy"(PDF). www.zurich.ibm.com. Archived(PDF) from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved20 December 2016.
- Eger, John M. (1 January 2009). "Smart Growth, Smart Cities, and the Crisis at the Pump A Worldwide Phenomenon". Iways. 32 (1): 47–53. doi:10.3233/iwa-2009-0164. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved11 August 2018.
- Caragliu, A.; Del Bo, C.; Nijkamp, P. (2009). "Smart cities in Europe". VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved11 August 2018.
- Riley, Kim (12 June 2017). "EEI's new board chairman cites smart-city opportunities as convention gets under way". Daily Energy Insider. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved25 September 2017.
- Tuominen, P. (2020): Yes to positive energy districts - but how to make it happen? Archived 15 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
- Riley, Kim (15 June 2017). "Pittsburgh, San Diego city officials put utilities as major players in smart-city partnerships". Daily Energy Insider. Retrieved25 September 2017.
- Gharaibeh, A.; Salahuddin, M. A.; Hussini, S. J.; Khreishah, A.; Khalil, I.; Guizani, M.; Al-Fuqaha, A. (2017). "Smart Cities: A Survey on Data Management, Security, and Enabling Technologies". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 19 (4): 2456–2501. doi:10.1109/COMST.2017.2736886. S2CID 206578345.
- "Creating A Smart City Roadmap For Public Power Utilities"(PDF). publicpower.org. Archived(PDF) from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved14 May 2019.
- Carey, Liz (6 October 2017). "EEI chairman pledges to collaborate with communities on powering technology to support smart cities". Daily Energy Insider. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved10 October 2017.
- Burksiene V., Dvorak J., Burbulytė-Tsiskarishvili G. (2020) City Diplomacy in Young Democracies: The Case of the Baltics. In: Amiri S., Sevin E. (eds) City Diplomacy. Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-45615-3_14. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved30 May 2021.
- Komninos (2009), pp. 337–355.
- Paskaleva, K (25 January 2009). "Enabling the smart city:The progress of e-city governance in Europe". International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development. 1 (4): 405–422(18). doi:10.1504/ijird.2009.022730. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved21 May 2020.
- European Commission. "Digital Agenda for Europe". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Dept Business (2013), p. 3 Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban systems for transport, energy, healthcare, water, food and waste will amount to around $400 Billion pa. by 2020
- "Smart Cities Mission". Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved3 August 2016.
- "With smart cities, your every step will be recorded". Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "Secure, sustainable smart cities and the IoT". Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "Smartphones – not flying cars – will define the smart cities of the future". 12 October 2016. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- From Smart Homes to Smart Cities: Opportunities and Challenges from an Industrial Perspective
- Mehrotra, Siddharth; Dhande, Rashi (2015). "Smart cities and smart homes: From realization to reality". 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT). pp. 1236–1239. doi:10.1109/ICGCIoT.2015.7380652. ISBN 978-1-4673-7910-6. S2CID 14156800. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "The Need to Redefine the Smart Home and its Link to Smart Cities". Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "How smart homes can connect to smart cities". 8 September 2017. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "Redefining the smart home in smart cities". Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "Bike sharing as a key smart city service". May 2018: 1–6. doi:10.1109/MOCAST.2018.8376628. S2CID 49187242. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved15 September 2020.Cite journal requires
- "Smart mobility in smart cities". Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved17 September 2020.
- Urban Distribution CCTV for Smart City Using Decision Tree Methods
- "Shivamogga Smart City Digital Library". Archived from the original on 22 February 2021. Retrieved17 September 2020.
- Digital library implementation at Shivamogga
- "Tumakuru Digital Library". Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved17 September 2020.
- "Windsor Public Library: a brick-and-mortar library that also has an ebook lending service". Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved17 September 2020.
- Boyle, D.; Yates, D.; Yeatman, E. (2013). "Urban Sensor Data Streams: London 2013". IEEE Internet Computing. 17 (6): 1. doi:10.1109/MIC.2013.85. S2CID 17820999.
- Silva, Dilshan; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike (2012). "WikiSensing: An Online Collaborative Approach for Sensor Data Management". Sensors. 12 (10): 13295–13332. Bibcode:2012Senso..1213295S. doi:10.3390/s121013295. PMC3545568. PMID 23201997.
- "Smart cities and telecommuting in Ecuador". Archived from the original on 26 March 2021. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- "Innovation vs Technology. Redefining "Smart" in Smart-Cities". 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- "Remote Work Revolution and the Future of (Smart) Cities". Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- "Telecommunication Infrastructures for Telemedicine in Smart Cities"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- "Telemedicine and Smart Cities". Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- Li, Shuling (2018). "Application of Blockchain Technology in Smart City Infrastructure"(PDF). 2018 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). pp. 276–2766. doi:10.1109/SmartIoT.2018.00056. ISBN 978-1-5386-8543-3. S2CID 52288306.
- Kundu, Debasish (2019). "Blockchain and Trust in a Smart City". Environment and Urbanization ASIA. 10: 31–43. doi:10.1177/0975425319832392. S2CID 159098611.
- "Why Fintech is an Important Ingredient in Any Smart City Ambition". 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved8 June 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved8 June 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Carbon Zero: Imagining Cities that can save the planet by Alex Steffen, page 54
- "Call for retractable 'coffin' bollards and no-driving zones outside Bristol schools". 6 December 2018. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved1 September 2020.
- "Cost-benefit analysis of smart cities technologies and applications". Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- "COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF SMART CITIES TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- "The Cost Benefit Analysis for the Concept of a Smart City: How to Measure the Efficiency of Smart Solutions?". Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved9 June 2020.
- Turečková, Kamila; Nevima, Jan (2020). "The Cost Benefit Analysis for the Concept of a Smart City: How to Measure the Efficiency of Smart Solutions?". Sustainability. 12 (7): 2663. doi:10.3390/su12072663.
- "Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent Clash To Lead China's Tech Future While A New 'B' Arises". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "City Brain". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "The City Brain: Practice of Large-Scale Artificial Intelligence in the Real World". Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved4 June 2020.
- "How Tencent's medical ecosystem is shaping the future of China's healthcare". 11 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "Huawei Announces Safe City Compact Solution to Protect Citizens in Small and Medium Cities". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "Safe cities: Using smart tech for public security". Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- Hillman, Jonathan E. (4 November 2019). "Watching Huawei's "Safe Cities"". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved2 November 2020.
- "Innovative solutions for smart cities". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "Network as the Next Utility for 'Intelligent Urbanisation'". CISCO. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014.
- "About IBM". IBM. 8 May 2017. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved31 January 2015.
- "EcoStruxure for Smart Cities: Smart City Technology Starts at the Operational Level". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "Smart Cities Solutions". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved3 June 2020.
- "Singapore best performing 'smart city' globally: Study". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved19 May 2018.
- "Smart Dubai". smartdubai.ae. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved6 June 2021.
- "The MK:Smart Project". www.mksmart.org. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved27 October 2015.
- Southampton City Council. "SmartCities card". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Ajuntament de Barcelona. "Barcelona Smart City". Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Ayuntamiento de Madrid. "Buenas Practicas de la Ciudad de Madrid"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved23 November 2016.
- City of Stockholm. "The Smart City". Stockholms stad. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- "ZTE involved in more than 150 smart city projects across China". 30 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved23 January 2017.
- "CityBridge – LinkNYC". Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved13 August 2018.
- "The Intelligent Communities of the Year 1999–2010". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Climate Street". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ About ASC". Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Do you have smart solutions for your city?". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Smart Spotlight: Manuel Cayre". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ The smart home". Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Flexible street lighting". Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Smart traffic management". Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- "iBarcelona". Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved8 October 2015.
- Laursen, Lucas (18 November 2014). "Barcelona's Smart City Ecosystem". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- BCN Smart City. "New bus network". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- BCN Smart City. "Smart traffic lights". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Ajuntament de Barcelona. "Urban Innovation". Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- "Sentilo BCN:Platform Sensors and Actuators Barcelona". Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved26 March 2017.
- Galford, Chris (8 September 2017). "AEP Ohio to build car charging stations as part of Columbus Smart City initiative". Daily Energy Insider. Archived from the original on 29 December 2018. Retrieved25 September 2017.
- "'Connecting Copenhagen' is the World's Best Smart City Project". State of Green. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved20 June 2019.
- "The World in 2019". worldin2019.economist.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved20 June 2019.
- Dubai – a new paradigm for smart cities – 2015. (2018). Retrieved from https://home.kpmg.com/ae/en/home/insights/2015/07/dubai---a-new-paradigm-for-smart-cities---2015.html Archived 27 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Smart Dubai 2021. (2018). Retrieved from https://2021.smartdubai.ae/ Archived 27 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Smart city- The Official Portal of the UAE Government. (2018). Retrieved from https://government.ae/en/about-the-uae/the-uae-government/smart-uae/smart-dubai Archived 27 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- "Unexpected Capital for IoT". National Geographic. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved1 May 2017.
- "Smart Dublin". DCC. 2017. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved1 May 2017.
- "GLOBAL CITIES REGISTRY™ FOR WCCD ISO 37120 SERIES". World Council on City Data (WCCD). Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved22 January 2021.
- "The first Smart City of Eastern Europe is in Poland". Velatia Networks. 10 June 2017. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved22 January 2021.
- "Integrated Traffic Management System". Portal TRISTAR. Retrieved22 January 2021.
- "ACT NOW (Action for Energy Efficiency in Baltic Cities". Enterprise of Trolleybus Communication in Gdynia. Archived from the original on 29 January 2021. Retrieved22 January 2021.
- "Partners - Act Now!". Act Now! Action for Energy Efficiency in Baltic Cities. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved22 January 2021.
- "Gdynia in numbers". Gdynia - Open Data Portal. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved25 January 2021.
- "UrbanLab". Social Innovation Lab in Gdynia. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved25 January 2021.
- "UrbanLab Gdynia". The Innovation in Politics Institute. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved25 January 2021.
- Kaszkur, Alina (15 December 2015). "Urban Lab as a Tool for Joint Management in Cities". Polish Political Science Review. 8 (2): 37–46. doi:10.2478/ppsr-2020-0014. S2CID 230282944. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved25 January 2021.
- "بزرگترین پروژه IT و شهر هوشمند در اصفهان آماده بهرهبرداری است". ایمنا (in Persian). 18 April 2021. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved6 June 2021.
- "سیستم مدیریت یکپارچهسازی منابع انسانی اجرایی شد". ایمنا (in Persian). 12 May 2021. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved6 June 2021.
- "به درگاه الکترونیکی شهرداری اصفهان - شهر هوشمند خوش آمدید | درگاه الکترونیکی شهرداری اصفهان - شهر هوشمند". smartcity.isfahan.ir. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved6 June 2021.
- "اصفهان به برترین شهر هوشمند ایران تبدیل شود". ایمنا (in Persian). 22 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved6 June 2021.
- "پیش به سوی شهر هوشمند | اصفهان زیبا". isfahanziba.com. Retrieved6 June 2021.
- Winkless, Laurie (11 August 2016). Science and the City: The Mechanics Behind the Metropolis. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472913227. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved1 November 2016.
- Mason, Paul (25 October 2015). "We can't allow the tech giants to rule smart cities". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved23 November 2016.
- "Buenas Prácticas de la Ciudad de Madrid"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved23 November 2016.
- "Madrid, Spain Launches IBM Smarter Cities Project". Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved23 November 2016.
- "From Barcelona to Madrid, Spain's smart cities inspire change". Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved23 November 2016.
- "MADRID DIGITAL START UP – CLEARCHANNEL 2015". Archived from the original on 11 March 2017. Retrieved23 November 2016.
- Vassallo, Carmel (2011). "Żejtun: An Eighteenth-Century 'Smart City'"(PDF). Proceedings of History Week (7): 105–118. Archived(PDF) from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved17 June 2018.
-  Archived 9 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Manchester wins £10m prize to become world leader in 'smart city' technology.
-  Archived 9 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Manchester announced as UK's Internet of Things (IoT) City Demonstrator and awarded £10m investment.
-  Archived 27 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Platform of Platforms.
- Trivellato, Benedetta (January 2016). "How can 'smart' also be socially sustainable? Insights from the case of Milan". Academy of Management Proceedings. 2016 (1): 10641. doi:10.5465/ambpp.2016.10641abstract. ISSN 0065-0668.
- Sacco, Pierluigi; Tavano Blessi, Giorgio (May 2009). "The Social Viability of Culture-led Urban Transformation Processes: Evidence from the Bicocca District, Milan". Urban Studies. 46 (5–6): 1115–1135. doi:10.1177/0042098009103857. ISSN 0042-0980. S2CID 153728781.
- "Our MK: Helping make Milton Keynes a smarter, greener city". www.ourmk.org. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved27 October 2015.
- "The Urban Date School". The Urban Data School. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved27 October 2015.
- "Smart Cities". FutureLearn. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved27 October 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved20 February 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved20 February 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved20 February 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved20 February 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved10 March 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Kwon Hyung LEE (2011). "Building a New Smart City in Asia: Songdo International City in Incheon, S. Korea"(PDF). Incheon Development Institute. Archived(PDF) from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved2 July 2013.
- "Songdo International Business District Master Plan". Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
- Insider, Alex Heath, Business. "Inside the plan to cover New York City's streets with free, blazing fast Wi-Fi". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 30 September 2019. Retrieved30 September 2019.
- Baxter, Stephen (26 February 2012). "Modest gains in first six months of Santa Cruz's predictive police program". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved26 May 2015.
- Schaffers, H.; Komninos, N.; Pallot, M.; Trousse, B.; Nilsson M. (2011). Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. The Future Internet. Vol. 6656. pp. 431–446. ISBN 9783642208973.
|volume=has extra text ()
- "Shaping a Smart Shanghai | Arup Foresight". Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved14 December 2018.
- Group, SEEC Media. "Here's what you need to know about Didi's new safety features". www.timeoutshanghai.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved14 December 2018.
- Stockholm: the capital of Scandinavia. "This is stokab". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- ICT Regulation Toolkit. "Models for Infrastructure Sharing: Sweden's Stokab". Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Stockholm: the Capital of Scandinavia. "Green IT"(PDF) (Press release). Archived(PDF) from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Stockholm: the Capital of Scandinavia. "e-sthlm"(PDF) (Press release). Archived(PDF) from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- Kista Science City Online. "Kista Science City". Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved30 May 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved26 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Smart cities MOOC – IGLUS". iglus.org. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved10 June 2016.
- "MIT Cities". MIT. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved13 November 2009.
- "IntelCities". Intelcities project. Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved31 January 2015.
- "Intelligent City Platforms". URENIO. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved5 November 2014.
- "Home". URENIO. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved5 November 2014.
- "AIM". Smart Cities project. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved31 January 2015.
- Ben-Gal, I., Weinstock, S., Singer, G., & Bambos, N. (2019). "Clustering Users by Their Mobility Behavioral Patterns"(PDF). ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data (TKDD), 13(4), 45. Archived(PDF) from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved14 October 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "IET Smart Cities Journal, United Kingdom, 2018". Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved28 May 2019.
- Greenfield, A. (2013). Against the Smart City. London: Verso. ASIN B00FHQ5DBS.
- Sennett, Richard (4 December 2012). "No one likes a city that's too smart". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved17 March 2017.
- Graham, S.; Marvin, S. (1996). Telecommunications and the city: electronic spaces, urban place. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780203430453.
- Marrone, Mauricio; Hammerle, Mara (2018). "Smart Cities: A Review and Analysis of Stakeholders' Literature". Business & Information Systems Engineering. 60 (3): 197–213. doi:10.1007/s12599-018-0535-3. S2CID 207433624.
- Watson, Vanessa (6 December 2013). "African urban fantasies: dreams or nightmares?". Environment and Urbanization. 26 (1): 215–231. doi:10.1177/0956247813513705. ISSN 0956-2478. S2CID 154398313.
- Woyke, Elizabeth. "Smart cities could be lousy to live in if you have a disability". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 5 March 2019. Retrieved15 March 2019.
- Hollands, R. G (2008). "Will the real smart city please stand up?". City. 12 (3): 303–320. doi:10.1080/13604810802479126. S2CID 143073956.
- Komninos, N. (2008). Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks. Routledge. ISBN 9780415455923.
- Komninos, N. (2009). "Intelligent cities: towards interactive and global innovation environments". International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development. 1 (4): 337. doi:10.1504/ijird.2009.022726.
- Dept Business (2013). "Smart cities – background paper"(PDF). UK Government Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Archived(PDF) from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved3 November 2014.
- Shepard, Mark (2011). Sentient City: Ubiquitous Computing, Architecture, and the Future of Urban Space. New York City. Architectural League of New York. ISBN 978-0262515863.
- Batty, M.; et al. (2012). "Smart Cities of the Future". European Physical Journal ST. 214: 481–518. Bibcode:2012EPJST.214..481B. doi:10.1140/epjst/e2012-01703-3.
- Anastasia Stratigea (2012). The Concept of 'Smart' Cities – Towards Community Development?.
- Townsend, Antony (2013). Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393082876.
- Moir, E.; Moonen, T.; Clark, C. (2014). "What are future cities – origins, meaning and uses"(PDF). Foresight Future of Cities Project and Future Cities Catapult.
- LaFrance, Adrienne (10 July 2015). "When You Give a Tree an Email Address". The Atlantic.
- Mohanty, Saraju (July 2016). "Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Cities"(PDF). IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine. 6 (3): 60–70. doi:10.1109/MCE.2016.2556879. S2CID 206450227.
- Kamila Borsekova (2016). The Power of Communities in Smart Urban Development.
- Cavada, M.; et al. (2016). "Do smart cities realise their potential for lower carbon dioxide emissions?". Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Engineering Sustainability. 169 (6): 243–252. doi:10.1680/jensu.15.00032.
- "Smart Cities Technology Roadmap". Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions. April 2017. Retrieved28 July 2017.
- Saraju Mohanty, Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Cities, IEEE Distinguished Lecture 2017, IEEE CE Society Webinar, 5 October 2017.
- Viitanen, J.; Kingston, R. (2014). "Smart cities and green growth – outsourcing democratic and environmental resilience to the global technology sector". Environment and Planning A. 46 (4): 803–819. doi:10.1068/a46242. S2CID 145283799.
- DelSignore, M.; Riether, G. (2018) Urban Machines: Public Space in a Digital Culture, ISBN 978 8898 774 289, an overview of the impact of Information Technology and vision of a possible future – as challenge for architects.
- UK Budget 2015 funding for smart cities development Archived 24 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- British Standards Institute initiative on Smart Cities
- Future of Cities UK government 'Foresight' project on cities
- Future Cities Catapult A UK government-funded 'global centre of excellence on urban innovation'
- Cyber-Physical Society
- what is a smart city?
- "About i-Canada Alliance". A Canadian project
- For the 2006 film, see Smart City (film).