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Smithsonian Institution

"Smithsonian" redirects here. For other uses, see Smithsonian (disambiguation).

The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded on August 10, 1846, it operates as a trust instrumentality and is not formally a part of any of the three branches of the federal government. The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. It was originally organized as the United States National Museum, but that name ceased to exist administratively in 1967.

Smithsonian Institution
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Flag of the Smithsonian Institution
Location within Central Washington, D.C.
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Smithsonian Institution (the United States)
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EstablishedAugust 10, 1846; 175 years ago (1846-08-10)
LocationWashington, D.C.; Chantilly, Virginia; New York City
Coordinates38°53′20″N77°01′34″W /38.889°N 77.026°W /38.889; -77.026Coordinates: 38°53′20″N77°01′34″W /38.889°N 77.026°W /38.889; -77.026
DirectorLonnie Bunch, Secretary of the Smithsonian
Employees6,375 (as of 28 March 2020[update])
Websitewww.si.edu

Called "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's 19 museums, 21 libraries, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Maryland, New York, and Virginia. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.

The Institution's 30 million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.25 billion, with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, concession, and licensing revenue. As of 2021, the Institution's endowment had a total value of about $5.4 billion.

Contents

"The Castle" (built, 1847) on the National Mall: the Institution's earliest building remains its headquarters

In many ways, the origin of the Smithsonian Institution can be traced to a group of Washington citizens who, being "impressed with the importance of forming an association for promoting useful knowledge," met on June 28, 1816, to establish the Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences. Officers were elected in October 1816, and the organization was granted a charter by Congress on April 20, 1818 (this charter expired in 1838). Benjamin Latrobe, who was architect for the US Capitol after the War of 1812, and William Thornton, the architect who designed the Octagon House and Tudor Place, would serve as officers. Other prominent members, who numbered from 30 to 70 during the Institute's existence, included John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, Judge William Cranch, and James Hoban. Honorary members included James Madison, James Monroe, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and the Marquis de Lafayette. Operating expenses were covered from the $5 yearly dues collected from each member.

The Institute proposed a number of undertakings. These included the study of plant life and the creation of a botanical garden on the Capitol Mall, an examination of the country's mineral production, improvement in the management and care of livestock, and the writing of a topographical and statistical history of the United States. Reports were to be published periodically to share this knowledge with the greater public, but due to a lack of funds, this initially did not occur. The Institute first met in Blodget's Hotel, later in the Treasury Department and City Hall, before being assigned a permanent home in 1824 in the Capitol building.

Beginning in 1825, weekly sittings were arranged during sessions of Congress for the reading of scientific and literary productions, but this was continued for only a short time, as the number attending declined rapidly. Eighty-five communications by 26 people were made to Congress during the entire life of the society, with more than a half relating to astronomy or mathematics. Among all the activities planned by the Institute, only a few were actually implemented. Two were the establishment of a botanical garden, and a museum that was designed to have a national and permanent status. The former occupied space where the present Botanic Garden sits.

The museum contained specimens of zoology, botany, archeology, fossils, etc., some of which were passed on to the Smithsonian Institution after its formation. The Institute's charter expired in 1838, but its spirit lived on in the National Institution, founded in 1840. With the mission to "promote science and the useful arts, and to establish a national museum of natural history," this organization continued to press Congress to establish a museum that would be structured in terms that were very similar to those finally incorporated into the founding of the Smithsonian Institution. Its work helped to develop an underlying philosophy that pushed for the pursuit and development of scientific knowledge that would benefit the nation, and edify its citizens at the same time.

The British scientist James Smithson (1765–1829) left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford. When Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836. The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. This is approximately $500,000 at the time, which is equivalent to $12,152,000 in 2020 or equivalent to £9,520,034 in 2019. However, when considering the GDP at the time it may be more comparable to $220 million in the year 2007.

Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Unfortunately, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted. After heated debate, Massachusetts representative (and former president) John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. Finally, on August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a secretary of the Smithsonian.

Though the Smithsonian's first secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the institution to be a center for scientific research, it also became the depository for various Washington and U.S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U.S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842. The voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, and diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, and ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean. These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens.

In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U.S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba.

Museums and buildings

Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building ("the Castle") in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr., its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855.

The Smithsonian's first expansion came with the construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It opened in 1881.

The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals. The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.

The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to similarly accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, which had previously been housed in the Castle and then the Arts and Industries Building. This structure was designed by the D.C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall.

When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it (which was named the Freer Gallery), it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual. The gallery opened in 1923.

More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology (renamed the National Museum of American History in 1980), opened in 1964. It was designed by the world-renowned firm of McKim, Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in 1967. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration (now the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum). The National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building (built in 1867) on October 7, 1968. The reuse of an older building continued with the opening of the Renwick Gallery in 1972 in the 1874 Renwick-designed art gallery originally built by local philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran to house the Corcoran Gallery of Art.

The first new museum building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1974. The National Air and Space Museum, the Smithsonian's largest in terms of floor space, opened in June 1976.

Eleven years later, the National Museum of African Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery opened in a new, joint, underground museum between the Freer Gallery and the Smithsonian Castle. Reuse of another old building came in 1993 with the opening of the National Postal Museum in the 1904 former City Post Office building, a few city blocks from the Mall.

In 2004, the Smithsonian opened the National Museum of the American Indian in a new building near the United States Capitol. Twelve years later almost to the day, in 2016, the latest museum opened: the National Museum of African American History and Culture, in a new building near the Washington Monument.

Two more museums have been established and are being planned for eventual construction on the mall: the National Museum of the American Latino and the National Women's History Museum.

Capital campaigns

In 2011, the Smithsonian undertook its first-ever capital fundraising campaign. The $1.5 billion effort raised $1 billion at the three-year mark. Smithsonian officials made the campaign public in October 2014 in an effort to raise the remaining $500 million. More than 60,000 individuals and organizations donated money to the campaign by the time it went public. This included 192 gifts of at least $1 million. Members of the boards of directors of various Smithsonian museums donated $372 million. The Smithsonian said that funds raised would go toward completion of the National Museum of African American History and Culture building, and renovations of the National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of American History, and the Renwick Gallery. A smaller amount of funds would go to educational initiatives and digitization of collections. As of September 2017, the Smithsonian claimed to have raised $1.79 billion, with three months left in the formal campaign calendar.

Separately from the major capital campaign, the Smithsonian has begun fundraising through Kickstarter. An example is a campaign to fund the preservation and maintenance of the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland for her role as Dorothy Gale in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.

Aircraft on display at the National Air and Space Museum, including a Ford Trimotor and Douglas DC-3 (top and second from top)

Nineteen museums and galleries, as well as the National Zoological Park, comprise the Smithsonian museums. Eleven are on the National Mall, the park that runs between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Other museums are located elsewhere in Washington, D.C., with two more in New York City and one in Chantilly, Virginia.

Institution Type of collection Location Opened Ref.
Anacostia Community Museum African American culture Washington, D.C.
Anacostia
1967
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (affiliated with the Freer Gallery) Asian art Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1987
Arts and Industries Building Special event venue Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1881
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Design history New York City
Museum Mile
1897
Freer Gallery of Art (affiliated with the Sackler Gallery) Asian art Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1923
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Contemporary and modern art Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1974
National Air and Space Museum Aviation and spaceflight history Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1946,
1976
National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center Aviation and spaceflight history Chantilly, Virginia 2003
National Museum of African American History and Culture African-American history and culture Washington, D.C.
National Mall
2003,
2016
National Museum of African Art African art Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1964,
1987
National Museum of American History American history Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1964
National Museum of the American Indian Native American history and art Washington, D.C.
National Mall
2004
National Museum of the American Indian's George Gustav Heye Center Native American history and art New York City
Bowling Green
1994
National Museum of Natural History Natural history Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1858,
1911
National Portrait Gallery Portraiture Washington, D.C.
Penn Quarter
1968
National Postal Museum United States Postal Service; postal history; philately Washington, D.C.
NoMa
1993
Renwick Gallery American craft and decorative arts Washington, D.C.
Lafayette Square
1972
Smithsonian American Art Museum American art Washington, D.C.
Penn Quarter
1968
Smithsonian Institution Building (The Castle) Visitor center and offices Washington, D.C.
National Mall
1855
National Zoological Park (National Zoo) Zoo Washington, D.C.
Rock Creek Park
1889

The Smithsonian has close ties with 168 other museums in 39 states, Panama, and Puerto Rico. These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliated museums. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans. The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions, operated through the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES). In 2008, 58 of these traveling exhibitions went to 510 venues across the country.

The Smithsonian Institution announced in January 2015 that it is in talks to build its first permanent overseas exhibition space within London's Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.

Collections

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Smithsonian collections include 156 million artworks, artifacts, and specimens. The National Museum of Natural History houses 145 million of these specimens and artifacts, which are mostly animals preserved in Formaldehyde. The Collections Search Center has 9.9 million digital records available online. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries hold 2 million library volumes. Smithsonian Archives hold 156,830 cubic feet (4,441 m3) of archival material.

The Smithsonian Institution has many categories of displays that can be visited at the museums. In 1912, First Lady Helen Herron Taft donated her inauguration gown to the museum to begin the First Ladies' Gown display at the National Museum of American History, one of the Smithsonian's most popular exhibits. The museum displays treasures such as the Star-Spangled Banner, the stove pipe hat that was worn by President Abraham Lincoln, the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in The Wizard Of Oz, and the original Teddy Bear that was named after President Theodore Roosevelt. In 2016, the Smithsonian's Air & Space museum curators restored the large model Enterprise from the original Star Trek TV series.

Open access

In February 2020, the Smithsonian made 2.8 million digital items available to the public under a Creative Commons Zero Public Domain Dedication, with a commitment to release further items in the future.

The following is a list of Smithsonian research centers, with their affiliated museum in parentheses:

Also of note is the Smithsonian Museum Support Center (MSC), located in Silver Hill, Maryland (Suitland), which is the principal off-site conservation and collections facility for multiple Smithsonian museums, primarily the National Museum of Natural History. The MSC was dedicated in May 1983. The MSC covers 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) of land, with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of space, making it one of the largest set of structures in the Smithsonian. It has over 12 miles (19 km) of cabinets, and more than 31 million objects.

Smithsonian Latino Center

In 1997, the Smithsonian Latino Center was created as a way to recognize Latinos across the Smithsonian Institution. The primary purpose of the center is to place Latino contributions to the arts, history, science, and national culture across the Smithsonian's museums and research centers.

The center is a division of the Smithsonian Institution. As of May 2016, the center is run by an executive director, Eduardo Díaz.

History

At the time of its creation, the Smithsonian Institution had other entities dedicated to other minority groups: National Museum of the American Indian, Freer-Sackler Gallery for Asian Arts and Culture, African Art Museum, and the National Museum of African-American Heritage and Culture.

The opening of the center was prompted, in part, by the publishing of a report called "Willful Neglect: The Smithsonian and U.S. Latinos".

According to documents obtained by The Washington Post, when former Latino Center executive director Pilar O'Leary first took the job, the center faced employees who had "serious performance issues". No performance plans existed for the staff and unfulfilled financial obligations to sponsors existed. The website's quality was poor, and the center did not have a public affairs manager, a programs director, adequate human resources support, or cohesive mission statement.

After difficult times in the first few years, the center improved. According to the Smithsonian, the center "support[s] scholarly research, exhibitions, public and educational programs, web-based content and virtual platforms, and collections and archives. [It] also manage[s] leadership and professional development programs for Latino youth, emerging scholars and museum professionals." Today, the website features a high-tech virtual museum.

Young Ambassadors Program

The Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Program (YAP) is a program within the Latino Center that reaches out to Latino high school students with the goal of encouraging them to become leaders in arts, sciences, and the humanities.

Students selected for the program travel to Washington, D.C. for an "enrichment seminar" that lasts approximately five days. Afterwards, students return to their communities to serve in a paid, one-month internship.

Pilar O'Leary launched the program when she served as executive director of the Smithsonian Latino Center. According to the Latino Center, O'Leary told the press in 2007: "Our goal is to help our Young Ambassadors become the next generation of leaders in the arts and culture fields. This program encourages students to be proud of their roots and learn more about their cultural heritage to inspire them to educate the public in their own communities about how Latinos are enriching America's cultural fabric."

The Institution publishes Smithsonian magazine monthly and Air & Space magazine bimonthly. Smithsonian was the result of Secretary of the Smithsonian S. Dillon Ripley asking the retired editor of Life magazine Edward K. Thompson to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian Institution is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested". Another Secretary of the Smithsonian, Walter Boyne, founded Air & Space.

The organization publishes under the imprints Smithsonian Institution Press, Smithsonian Books, and Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.

The Smithsonian makes a number of awards to acknowledge and support meritorious work.

  • The James Smithson Medal, the Smithsonian Institution's highest award, was established in 1965 and is given in recognition of exceptional contributions to art, science, history, education, and technology.
  • The James Smithson Bicentennial Medal, established in 1965, is given to persons who have made distinguished contributions to the advancement of areas of interest to the Smithsonian.
  • The Hodgkins Medal, established in 1893, is awarded for important contributions to the understanding of the physical environment.
  • The Henry Medal, established in 1878, is presented to individuals in recognition of their distinguished service, achievements or contributions to the prestige and growth of the Smithsonian Institution.
  • The Langley Gold Medal is awarded for meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation.
The Smithsonian Castle doorway

The Smithsonian Institution was established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress. More than two-thirds of the Smithsonian's workforce of some 6,300 persons are employees of the federal government. The Smithsonian Office of Protection Services oversees security at the Smithsonian facilities and enforces laws and regulations for National Capital Parks together with the United States Park Police.

The president's 2011 budget proposed just under $800 million in support for the Smithsonian, slightly increased from previous years. Institution exhibits are free of charge, though in 2010 the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees.

As approved by Congress on August 10, 1846, the legislation that created the Smithsonian Institution called for the creation of a Board of Regents to govern and administer the organization. This 17-member board meets at least four times a year and includes as ex officio members the chief justice of the United States and the vice president of the United States. The nominal head of the Institution is the chancellor, an office which has traditionally been held by the chief justice. In September 2007, the board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents, a position currently held by Steve Case.

Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U.S. House of Representatives appointed by the speaker of the House; three members of the Senate, appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate; and nine citizen members, nominated by the board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the president of the United States. Regents who are senators or representatives serve for the duration of their elected terms, while citizen Regents serve a maximum of two six-year terms. Regents are compensated on a part-time basis.

The chief executive officer (CEO) of the Smithsonian is the secretary, who is appointed by the Board of Regents. The secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents but is not a voting member of that body. The secretary of the Smithsonian has the privilege of the floor at the United States Senate. On September 18, 2013, Secretary G. Wayne Clough announced he would retire in October 2014. The Smithsonian Board of Regents said it asked regent John McCarter, Jr., to lead a search committee. On March 10, 2014, the Smithsonian Board selected David Skorton, a physician and president of Cornell University, as the 13th secretary of the Smithsonian. Skorton took the reins of the institution on July 1, 2015. Upon Skorton's announced resignation in 2019, the Board selected Lonnie Bunch III, the founding director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, as the 14th secretary.

Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution

Enola Gay display

In 1995, controversy arose over the exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum with the display of the Enola Gay, the Superfortress used by the United States to drop the first atomic bomb used in World War II. The American Legion and Air Force Association believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and that it emphasized the effect on victims without discussing its use within the overall context of the war. The Smithsonian changed the exhibit, displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war.[citation needed]

Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land"

In 2003, a National Museum of Natural History exhibit, Subhankar Banerjee's Seasons of Life and Land, featuring photographs of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial.

In November 2007, The Washington Post reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution's handling of the exhibit on the Arctic. According to documents and e-mails, the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add "scientific uncertainty" regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic. Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Cristián Samper was interviewed by the Post, and claimed the exhibit was edited because it contained conclusions that went beyond what could be proven by contemporary climatology. The Smithsonian is now a participant in the U.S. Global Change Research Program.

Copyright restrictions

The Smithsonian Institution provides access to its image collections for educational, scholarly, and nonprofit uses. Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained. Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories; some are protected by copyright, many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions, and some fall into the public domain, such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties. The Smithsonian's terms of use for its digital content, including images, are set forth on the Smithsonian Web site.

In April 2006, the institution entered into an agreement of "first refusal" rights for its vast silent and public domain film archives with Showtime Networks, mainly for use on the Smithsonian Channel, a network created from this deal. Critics contend this agreement effectively gives Showtime control over the film archives, as it requires filmmakers to obtain permission from the network to use extensive amounts of film footage from the Smithsonian archives.

  1. States without Smithsonian Affiliates: Idaho, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Utah.
  2. Year museum moved to current building
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Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution Article Talk Language Watch Edit Smithsonian redirects here For other uses see Smithsonian disambiguation The Smithsonian Institution s m ɪ 8 ˈ s oʊ n i e n smith SOH nee en or simply the Smithsonian is a group of museums and education and research centers the largest such complex in the world created by the U S government for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 2 3 Founded on August 10 1846 it operates as a trust instrumentality and is not formally a part of any of the three branches of the federal government 4 The institution is named after its founding donor British scientist James Smithson 5 It was originally organized as the United States National Museum but that name ceased to exist administratively in 1967 6 Smithsonian InstitutionLogoFlag of the Smithsonian InstitutionLocation within Central Washington D C Show map of Central Washington D C Smithsonian Institution the United States Show map of the United StatesEstablishedAugust 10 1846 175 years ago 1846 08 10 LocationWashington D C Chantilly Virginia New York CityCoordinates38 53 20 N 77 01 34 W 38 889 N 77 026 W 38 889 77 026 Coordinates 38 53 20 N 77 01 34 W 38 889 N 77 026 W 38 889 77 026DirectorLonnie Bunch Secretary of the SmithsonianEmployees6 375 as of 28 March 2020 update 1 Websitewww wbr si wbr edu Called the nation s attic 7 for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items 5 the Institution s 19 museums 21 libraries nine research centers and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks mostly located in the District of Columbia 8 Additional facilities are located in Maryland New York and Virginia More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states note 1 Puerto Rico and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates 9 10 Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air amp Space magazines The Institution s 30 million annual visitors 11 are admitted without charge Its annual budget is around 1 25 billion with two thirds coming from annual federal appropriations 12 Other funding comes from the Institution s endowment private and corporate contributions membership dues and earned retail concession and licensing revenue 5 As of 2021 the Institution s endowment had a total value of about 5 4 billion 13 Contents 1 Founding 2 Development 2 1 Museums and buildings 2 2 Capital campaigns 3 Museums 3 1 Collections 3 2 Open access 4 Research centers and programs 4 1 Smithsonian Latino Center 4 1 1 History 4 1 2 Young Ambassadors Program 5 Publications 6 Awards 7 Administration 7 1 Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution 8 Controversies 8 1 Enola Gay display 8 2 Censorship of Seasons of Life and Land 8 3 Copyright restrictions 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksFounding Edit The Castle built 1847 on the National Mall the Institution s earliest building remains its headquarters In many ways the origin of the Smithsonian Institution can be traced to a group of Washington citizens who being impressed with the importance of forming an association for promoting useful knowledge met on June 28 1816 to establish the Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences Officers were elected in October 1816 and the organization was granted a charter by Congress on April 20 1818 this charter expired in 1838 Benjamin Latrobe who was architect for the US Capitol after the War of 1812 and William Thornton the architect who designed the Octagon House and Tudor Place would serve as officers Other prominent members who numbered from 30 to 70 during the Institute s existence included John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Henry Clay Judge William Cranch and James Hoban Honorary members included James Madison James Monroe John Adams Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette Operating expenses were covered from the 5 yearly dues collected from each member The Institute proposed a number of undertakings These included the study of plant life and the creation of a botanical garden on the Capitol Mall an examination of the country s mineral production improvement in the management and care of livestock and the writing of a topographical and statistical history of the United States Reports were to be published periodically to share this knowledge with the greater public but due to a lack of funds this initially did not occur The Institute first met in Blodget s Hotel later in the Treasury Department and City Hall before being assigned a permanent home in 1824 in the Capitol building Beginning in 1825 weekly sittings were arranged during sessions of Congress for the reading of scientific and literary productions but this was continued for only a short time as the number attending declined rapidly Eighty five communications by 26 people were made to Congress during the entire life of the society with more than a half relating to astronomy or mathematics Among all the activities planned by the Institute only a few were actually implemented Two were the establishment of a botanical garden and a museum that was designed to have a national and permanent status The former occupied space where the present Botanic Garden sits The museum contained specimens of zoology botany archeology fossils etc some of which were passed on to the Smithsonian Institution after its formation The Institute s charter expired in 1838 but its spirit lived on in the National Institution founded in 1840 With the mission to promote science and the useful arts and to establish a national museum of natural history this organization continued to press Congress to establish a museum that would be structured in terms that were very similar to those finally incorporated into the founding of the Smithsonian Institution Its work helped to develop an underlying philosophy that pushed for the pursuit and development of scientific knowledge that would benefit the nation and edify its citizens at the same time 14 The British scientist James Smithson 1765 1829 left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford When Hungerford died childless in 1835 15 the estate passed to the United States of America to found at Washington under the name of the Smithsonian Institution an Establishment for the increase amp diffusion of knowledge among men in accordance with Smithson s will 16 Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1 1836 17 The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104 960 gold sovereigns This is approximately 500 000 at the time which is equivalent to 12 152 000 in 2020 or equivalent to 9 520 034 in 2019 However when considering the GDP at the time it may be more comparable to 220 million in the year 2007 18 19 Once the money was in hand eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson s rather vague mandate for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 17 19 Unfortunately the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted After heated debate Massachusetts representative and former president John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest 20 and despite designs on the money for other purposes convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning 21 Finally on August 10 1846 President James K Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States to be administered by a Board of Regents and a secretary of the Smithsonian 17 22 Development EditThough the Smithsonian s first secretary Joseph Henry wanted the institution to be a center for scientific research 23 it also became the depository for various Washington and U S government collections 24 The United States Exploring Expedition by the U S Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842 25 The voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens an herbarium of 50 000 plant specimens and diverse shells and minerals tropical birds jars of seawater and ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean 25 These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections 26 as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens 27 In 1846 the regents developed a plan for weather observation in 1847 money was appropriated for meteorological research 28 The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866 who formed a group called the Megatherium Club 29 The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U S partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba 30 Museums and buildings Edit Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building the Castle in 1849 Designed by architect James Renwick Jr its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron The building opened in 1855 31 The Smithsonian s first expansion came with the construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881 Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income It did and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers It opened in 1881 32 The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian s Department of Living Animals 33 The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted 33 The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to similarly accommodate the Smithsonian s United States National Museum which had previously been housed in the Castle and then the Arts and Industries Building 34 This structure was designed by the D C architectural firm of Hornblower amp Marshall 35 When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it which was named the Freer Gallery it was among the Smithsonian s first major donations from a private individual 36 The gallery opened in 1923 37 More than 40 years would pass before the next museum the Museum of History and Technology renamed the National Museum of American History in 1980 opened in 1964 It was designed by the world renowned firm of McKim Mead amp White 38 The Anacostia Community Museum an experimental store front museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S Dillon Ripley opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of Washington D C in 1967 39 40 41 That same year the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration now the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum 42 The National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building built in 1867 on October 7 1968 43 The reuse of an older building continued with the opening of the Renwick Gallery in 1972 in the 1874 Renwick designed art gallery originally built by local philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran to house the Corcoran Gallery of Art 44 The first new museum building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden which opened in 1974 45 The National Air and Space Museum the Smithsonian s largest in terms of floor space opened in June 1976 46 Eleven years later the National Museum of African Art and the Arthur M Sackler Gallery opened in a new joint underground museum between the Freer Gallery and the Smithsonian Castle 47 48 49 Reuse of another old building came in 1993 with the opening of the National Postal Museum in the 1904 former City Post Office building a few city blocks from the Mall 50 In 2004 the Smithsonian opened the National Museum of the American Indian in a new building near the United States Capitol 51 Twelve years later almost to the day in 2016 the latest museum opened the National Museum of African American History and Culture in a new building near the Washington Monument 52 Two more museums have been established and are being planned for eventual construction on the mall the National Museum of the American Latino and the National Women s History Museum Capital campaigns Edit In 2011 the Smithsonian undertook its first ever capital fundraising campaign 53 The 1 5 billion effort raised 1 billion at the three year mark Smithsonian officials made the campaign public in October 2014 in an effort to raise the remaining 500 million More than 60 000 individuals and organizations donated money to the campaign by the time it went public 54 This included 192 gifts of at least 1 million 54 Members of the boards of directors of various Smithsonian museums donated 372 million 54 The Smithsonian said that funds raised would go toward completion of the National Museum of African American History and Culture building and renovations of the National Air and Space Museum National Museum of American History and the Renwick Gallery 54 A smaller amount of funds would go to educational initiatives and digitization of collections 54 As of September 2017 the Smithsonian claimed to have raised 1 79 billion with three months left in the formal campaign calendar 55 Separately from the major capital campaign the Smithsonian has begun fundraising through Kickstarter 56 An example is a campaign to fund the preservation and maintenance of the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland for her role as Dorothy Gale in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz 57 Museums EditMain article List of Smithsonian museums Aircraft on display at the National Air and Space Museum including a Ford Trimotor and Douglas DC 3 top and second from top Nineteen museums and galleries as well as the National Zoological Park comprise the Smithsonian museums 58 Eleven are on the National Mall the park that runs between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol Other museums are located elsewhere in Washington D C with two more in New York City and one in Chantilly Virginia Institution 58 Type of collection Location 59 Opened Ref Anacostia Community Museum African American culture Washington D C Anacostia 1967 60 Arthur M Sackler Gallery affiliated with the Freer Gallery Asian art Washington D C National Mall 1987 61 Arts and Industries Building Special event venue Washington D C National Mall 1881 62 Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum Design history New York City Museum Mile 1897 63 Freer Gallery of Art affiliated with the Sackler Gallery Asian art Washington D C National Mall 1923 61 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Contemporary and modern art Washington D C National Mall 1974 64 National Air and Space Museum Aviation and spaceflight history Washington D C National Mall 1946 1976 note 2 65 National Air and Space Museum s Steven F Udvar Hazy Center Aviation and spaceflight history Chantilly Virginia 2003 66 National Museum of African American History and Culture African American history and culture Washington D C National Mall 2003 2016 note 2 67 68 National Museum of African Art African art Washington D C National Mall 1964 1987 note 2 69 National Museum of American History American history Washington D C National Mall 1964 70 National Museum of the American Indian Native American history and art Washington D C National Mall 2004 71 72 National Museum of the American Indian s George Gustav Heye Center Native American history and art New York City Bowling Green 1994 71 73 National Museum of Natural History Natural history Washington D C National Mall 1858 1911 note 2 74 National Portrait Gallery Portraiture Washington D C Penn Quarter 1968 75 76 National Postal Museum United States Postal Service postal history philately Washington D C NoMa 1993 77 Renwick Gallery American craft and decorative arts Washington D C Lafayette Square 1972 78 Smithsonian American Art Museum American art Washington D C Penn Quarter 1968 78 Smithsonian Institution Building The Castle Visitor center and offices Washington D C National Mall 1855 79 National Zoological Park National Zoo Zoo Washington D C Rock Creek Park 1889 80 The Smithsonian has close ties with 168 other museums in 39 states Panama and Puerto Rico 58 These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliated museums Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long term loans The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions operated through the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service SITES 81 In 2008 58 of these traveling exhibitions went to 510 venues across the country 58 The Smithsonian Institution announced in January 2015 that it is in talks to build its first permanent overseas exhibition space within London s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park 82 Collections Edit This section needs expansion You can help by adding to it September 2012 Smithsonian collections include 156 million artworks artifacts and specimens The National Museum of Natural History houses 145 million of these specimens and artifacts which are mostly animals preserved in Formaldehyde The Collections Search Center has 9 9 million digital records available online The Smithsonian Institution Libraries hold 2 million library volumes Smithsonian Archives hold 156 830 cubic feet 4 441 m3 of archival material 83 84 The Smithsonian Institution has many categories of displays that can be visited at the museums In 1912 First Lady Helen Herron Taft donated her inauguration gown to the museum to begin the First Ladies Gown display at the National Museum of American History 85 one of the Smithsonian s most popular exhibits 86 The museum displays treasures such as the Star Spangled Banner the stove pipe hat that was worn by President Abraham Lincoln the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in The Wizard Of Oz and the original Teddy Bear that was named after President Theodore Roosevelt 87 In 2016 the Smithsonian s Air amp Space museum curators restored the large model Enterprise from the original Star Trek TV series 88 Open access Edit In February 2020 the Smithsonian made 2 8 million digital items available to the public under a Creative Commons Zero Public Domain Dedication with a commitment to release further items in the future 89 Research centers and programs EditThe following is a list of Smithsonian research centers with their affiliated museum in parentheses Archives of American Art California State Railroad Museum 90 Carrie Bow Marine Field Station Natural History Museum Center for Earth and Planetary Studies Air and Space Museum Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Marine Station at Fort Pierce Natural History Museum Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center National Zoo Museum Conservation Institute Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the associated Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute National Zoo Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Smithsonian Institution Archives 91 Smithsonian Libraries Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press Smithsonian Latino Center 92 Smithsonian Provenance Research Initiative SPRI 93 Smithsonian Science Education Center 94 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Panama Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Also of note is the Smithsonian Museum Support Center MSC located in Silver Hill Maryland Suitland which is the principal off site conservation and collections facility for multiple Smithsonian museums primarily the National Museum of Natural History The MSC was dedicated in May 1983 95 The MSC covers 4 5 acres 1 8 ha of land with over 500 000 square feet 46 000 m2 of space making it one of the largest set of structures in the Smithsonian It has over 12 miles 19 km of cabinets and more than 31 million objects Smithsonian Latino Center Edit In 1997 the Smithsonian Latino Center was created as a way to recognize Latinos across the Smithsonian Institution The primary purpose of the center is to place Latino contributions to the arts history science and national culture across the Smithsonian s museums and research centers 96 The center is a division of the Smithsonian Institution 97 As of May 2016 the center is run by an executive director Eduardo Diaz 98 History Edit At the time of its creation the Smithsonian Institution had other entities dedicated to other minority groups National Museum of the American Indian Freer Sackler Gallery for Asian Arts and Culture African Art Museum and the National Museum of African American Heritage and Culture 99 The opening of the center was prompted in part by the publishing of a report called Willful Neglect The Smithsonian and U S Latinos 99 According to documents obtained by The Washington Post when former Latino Center executive director Pilar O Leary first took the job the center faced employees who had serious performance issues No performance plans existed for the staff and unfulfilled financial obligations to sponsors existed The website s quality was poor and the center did not have a public affairs manager a programs director adequate human resources support or cohesive mission statement 99 After difficult times in the first few years the center improved According to the Smithsonian the center support s scholarly research exhibitions public and educational programs web based content and virtual platforms and collections and archives It also manage s leadership and professional development programs for Latino youth emerging scholars and museum professionals 96 Today the website features a high tech virtual museum 100 Young Ambassadors Program Edit The Smithsonian Latino Center s Young Ambassadors Program YAP is a program within the Latino Center that reaches out to Latino high school students with the goal of encouraging them to become leaders in arts sciences and the humanities 101 Students selected for the program travel to Washington D C for an enrichment seminar that lasts approximately five days Afterwards students return to their communities to serve in a paid one month internship 97 Pilar O Leary launched the program when she served as executive director of the Smithsonian Latino Center 102 According to the Latino Center O Leary told the press in 2007 Our goal is to help our Young Ambassadors become the next generation of leaders in the arts and culture fields This program encourages students to be proud of their roots and learn more about their cultural heritage to inspire them to educate the public in their own communities about how Latinos are enriching America s cultural fabric 97 Publications EditThe Institution publishes Smithsonian magazine monthly and Air amp Space magazine bimonthly Smithsonian was the result of Secretary of the Smithsonian S Dillon Ripley asking the retired editor of Life magazine Edward K Thompson to produce a magazine about things in which the Smithsonian Institution is interested might be interested or ought to be interested 103 Another Secretary of the Smithsonian Walter Boyne founded Air amp Space 104 105 The organization publishes under the imprints Smithsonian Institution Press 106 Smithsonian Books 107 and Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press 108 Awards EditThe Smithsonian makes a number of awards to acknowledge and support meritorious work The James Smithson Medal the Smithsonian Institution s highest award was established in 1965 and is given in recognition of exceptional contributions to art science history education and technology The James Smithson Bicentennial Medal established in 1965 is given to persons who have made distinguished contributions to the advancement of areas of interest to the Smithsonian The Hodgkins Medal established in 1893 is awarded for important contributions to the understanding of the physical environment The Henry Medal established in 1878 is presented to individuals in recognition of their distinguished service achievements or contributions to the prestige and growth of the Smithsonian Institution The Langley Gold Medal is awarded for meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation 109 Administration Edit The Smithsonian Castle doorway The Smithsonian Institution was established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress 110 More than two thirds of the Smithsonian s workforce of some 6 300 persons are employees of the federal government The Smithsonian Office of Protection Services oversees security at the Smithsonian facilities and enforces laws and regulations for National Capital Parks together with the United States Park Police The president s 2011 budget proposed just under 800 million in support for the Smithsonian slightly increased from previous years Institution exhibits are free of charge though in 2010 the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees 111 112 As approved by Congress on August 10 1846 the legislation that created the Smithsonian Institution called for the creation of a Board of Regents to govern and administer the organization 110 This 17 member board meets at least four times a year and includes as ex officio members the chief justice of the United States and the vice president of the United States The nominal head of the Institution is the chancellor an office which has traditionally been held by the chief justice In September 2007 the board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents a position currently held by Steve Case 113 Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U S House of Representatives appointed by the speaker of the House three members of the Senate appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate and nine citizen members nominated by the board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the president of the United States 114 Regents who are senators or representatives serve for the duration of their elected terms while citizen Regents serve a maximum of two six year terms Regents are compensated on a part time basis The chief executive officer CEO of the Smithsonian is the secretary who is appointed by the Board of Regents The secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents but is not a voting member of that body The secretary of the Smithsonian has the privilege of the floor at the United States Senate On September 18 2013 Secretary G Wayne Clough announced he would retire in October 2014 The Smithsonian Board of Regents said it asked regent John McCarter Jr to lead a search committee 115 On March 10 2014 the Smithsonian Board selected David Skorton a physician and president of Cornell University as the 13th secretary of the Smithsonian Skorton took the reins of the institution on July 1 2015 116 Upon Skorton s announced resignation in 2019 the Board selected Lonnie Bunch III the founding director of the Smithsonian s National Museum of African American History and Culture as the 14th secretary 117 Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution Edit Joseph Henry 1846 1878 Spencer Fullerton Baird 1878 1887 Samuel Pierpont Langley 1887 1906 Charles Doolittle Walcott 1907 1927 Charles Greeley Abbot 1928 1944 Alexander Wetmore 1944 1952 Leonard Carmichael 1953 1964 Sidney Dillon Ripley 1964 1984 Robert McCormick Adams Jr 1984 1994 Ira Michael Heyman 1994 1999 Lawrence M Small 2000 2007 G Wayne Clough 2008 2015 116 David J Skorton 2015 2019 Lonnie Bunch 2019 presentControversies EditEnola Gay display Edit See also Enola Gay exhibition controversy In 1995 controversy arose over the exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum with the display of the Enola Gay the Superfortress used by the United States to drop the first atomic bomb used in World War II The American Legion and Air Force Association believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and that it emphasized the effect on victims without discussing its use within the overall context of the war 118 The Smithsonian changed the exhibit displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war citation needed Censorship of Seasons of Life and Land Edit In 2003 a National Museum of Natural History exhibit Subhankar Banerjee s Seasons of Life and Land featuring photographs of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial 119 In November 2007 The Washington Post reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution s handling of the exhibit on the Arctic According to documents and e mails the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add scientific uncertainty regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Cristian Samper was interviewed by the Post and claimed the exhibit was edited because it contained conclusions that went beyond what could be proven by contemporary climatology 120 The Smithsonian is now a participant in the U S Global Change Research Program 121 Copyright restrictions Edit The Smithsonian Institution provides access to its image collections for educational scholarly and nonprofit uses Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories some are protected by copyright many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions and some fall into the public domain such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties The Smithsonian s terms of use for its digital content including images are set forth on the Smithsonian Web site 122 123 In April 2006 the institution entered into an agreement of first refusal rights for its vast silent and public domain film archives with Showtime Networks mainly for use on the Smithsonian Channel a network created from this deal Critics contend this agreement effectively gives Showtime control over the film archives as it requires filmmakers to obtain permission from the network to use extensive amounts of film footage from the Smithsonian archives 124 See also Edit United States portal History portal Science portal 3773 Smithsonian List of aircraft in the Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Ocean Portal Smithsonian TheatersNotes Edit States without Smithsonian Affiliates Idaho New Hampshire New Jersey North Dakota Utah a b c d Year museum moved to current buildingReferences Edit People amp Operations The Smithsonian Institution Retrieved July 5 2020 Watson Robert March 25 2012 Smithsonian wasn t always beloved Sun Sentinel Tribune Publishing Archived from the original on July 2 2021 Retrieved October 14 2021 Barlow William 1847 The Smithsonian Institution for the Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge Among Men An Address on the Duties of Government in Reference Chiefly to Public Instruction with the Outlines of a Plan for the Application of the Smithsonian Fund to that Object B R Barlow Legal History Smithsonian Institution a b c About Us Smithsonian Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on March 7 2017 Retrieved March 8 2017 Smithsonian History gt National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on June 23 2013 Retrieved June 21 2013 Kernan Michael November 1997 A Real Nation s Attic Smithsonian Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on September 23 2009 Leaf Jesse March 13 2007 The Everything Family Guide to Washington D C All the Best Hotels Restaurants Sites and Attractions Everything Books ISBN 978 1 4405 2411 0 57 Kurin Richard October 29 2013 The Smithsonian s History of America in 101 Objects Deluxe Penguin ISBN 978 0 698 15520 6 Smithsonian Affiliations Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on March 16 2017 Retrieved March 8 2017 Visitor Statistics Newsdesk Newsroom of the Smithsonian Smithsonian Institution May 31 2013 Archived from the original on February 8 2014 Retrieved July 26 2014 Budget Federal Appropriations Smithsonian Dashboard Smithsonian Institution 2015 Archived from the original on February 17 2017 Retrieved August 13 2021 Smithsonian Institute Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute Retrieved July 1 2021 A Guide to the Columbian Institute in the Special Collections Research Center PDF Special Collections Research Center Gelman Library Retrieved July 30 2021 Goode George Brown 1897 The Smithsonian Institution 1846 1896 The History of Its First Half Century Washington D C De Vinne Press p 25 Archived from the original on December 12 2012 James Smithson Founder of the Smithsonian Last Will and Testament Smithsonian Scrapbook Letters Diaries and Photographs from the Smithsonian Archives Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on August 24 2011 Retrieved October 4 2012 a b c Founding of the Smithsonian Institution Fact Sheets Smithsonian Newsdesk Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on September 1 2012 Retrieved October 4 2012 Heather Ewing The Lost World of James Smithson Science Revolution and the Birth of the Smithsonian pp 323 24 330 409 Ewing notes that it would be the equivalent of over 10 million today using one index but using a per capita share of GDP it would be the equivalent of over 220 million It was close to the total of Harvard University s endowment at that point which had accumulated for nearly 200 years by the 1830s and was not the result of a single gift as Smithson s was a b Ottesen Carole 2011 A Guide to Smithsonian Gardens Smithsonian Books p 13 ISBN 978 1 58834 300 0 Smithsonian Information Brochure Smithsonian Visitor Information and Associates Reception Center May 2009 Nagel Paul 1999 John Quincy Adams A Public Life a Private Life Harvard University Press p 348 9 Stat 102 Orosz Joel J June 28 2002 Curators and Culture The Museum Movement in America 1740 1870 University of Alabama Press ISBN 978 0 8173 1204 6 155 Orosz Joel J June 28 2002 Curators and Culture The Museum Movement in America 1740 1870 University of Alabama Press ISBN 978 0 8173 1204 6 157 a b Benson Keith Rodney Rehbock Philip F 2002 Oceanographic History The Pacific and Beyond University of Washington Press ISBN 978 0 295 98239 7 532 Adler Antony May 1 2011 From the Pacific to the Patent Office The US Exploring Expedition and the origins of America s first national museum Journal of the History of Collections 23 1 49 74 doi 10 1093 jhc fhq002 ISSN 0954 6650 Baird S F Emory W H 1857 Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey Ripol Klassik ISBN 978 5 88160 802 6 13 Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Smithsonian Institution Encyclopaedia Britannica 25 11th ed Cambridge University Press Merrill Marlene Deahl 1999 Yellowstone and the Great West Journals Letters and Images from the 1871 Hayden Expedition Lincoln University of Nebraska Press p 220 ISBN 0803231482 Archived from the original on July 16 2017 Retrieved September 4 2016 Pastrana Sergio Jorge Building a Lasting Cuba U S Bridge through Science Science amp Diplomacy Science amp Diplomacy Archived from the original on April 2 2015 Morton W Brown III February 8 1971 National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Smithsonian Institution Building National Park Service Retrieved May 11 2009 Norton W Brown III April 6 1971 National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Arts and Industries Building of the Smithsonian Institution National Park Service Retrieved May 11 2009 a b National Zoological Park Smithsonian Institution Archives Archived from the original on November 11 2014 Museum History National Museum of Natural History 2008 Archived from the original on July 26 2009 Retrieved November 15 2009 New Museum Plans Washington Post April 13 1903 Gunter Ann Clyburn 2002 A Collector s Journey Charles Lang Freer and Egypt Freer Gallery of Art Smithsonian Institution Arthur M Sackler Gallery ISBN 978 1 85759 297 9 96 Fortier Alison May 6 2014 A History Lover s Guide to Washington D C Designed for Democracy The History Press ISBN 978 1 62585 064 5 110 Moeller Gerard Martin Feldblyum Boris 2012 AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington D C Baltimore Md Johns Hopkins University Press p 78 ISBN 9781421402697 Bass Holly March April 2006 Camille Akeju New Director Seeks to Rejuvenate Anacostia Museum Crisis 37 39 Archived from the original on January 8 2014 Retrieved April 22 2012 Anacostia Community Museum Smithsonian Museums Smithsonian Institution Archives Archived from the original on April 18 2012 Retrieved April 22 2012 Oehser Paul H 1970 The Smithsonian Institution New York Praeger Publishers p 10 ISBN 8989456584 Archived from the original on January 3 2013 Retrieved April 22 2012 Knox Sanka October 10 1967 Smithsonian Takes Over Cooper Union Museum The new York Times p 41 Richard Paul A National Family Album Washington Post October 6 1968 Martin Judith Semi Demi Heroes Open New Gallery Washington Post October 7 1968 Yardley William Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum Washington Post Archived from the original on February 12 2011 Retrieved July 18 2013 Raynor Vivian July 14 1974 A Preview of the New Hirshhorn Museum The New York Times Archived from the original on July 15 2017 Retrieved December 13 2016 Mianecki Julie June 29 2011 The List Six Things You Didn t Know About the Air and Space Museum on its 35th Anniversary Smithsonian com Retrieved December 13 2016 National Museum of African Art Smithsonian History Smithsonian Institution Archives Archived from the original on May 28 2012 Retrieved May 16 2012 Quadrangle Complex Opens Smithsonian Institution Archives Record Unit 371 Box 5 The Torch January 1987 p 1 Smithsonian Institution Archives Archived from the original on January 4 2013 Retrieved May 16 2012 Arthur M Sackler Gallery Smithsonian History Smithsonian Institution Archives Archived from the original on May 28 2012 Retrieved May 10 2012 McAllister Bill July 2 1993 The Museum On the Mail The Washington Post p N58 Rothstein Edward September 21 2004 Museum With an American Indian Voice The New York Times Archived from the original on June 15 2016 Retrieved December 13 2016 Cotter Holland September 15 2016 Review The Smithsonian African American Museum Is Here at Last And It Uplifts and Upsets The New York Times Archived from the original on December 16 2016 Retrieved December 13 2016 Kelly Kathleen S December 6 2012 Effective Fund Raising Management Routledge ISBN 978 1 135 69399 2 79 a b c d e McGlone Peggy October 20 2014 Smithsonian Announces 1 5 Billion Fundraising Effort The Washington Post Archived from the original on October 21 2014 Retrieved October 21 2014 Progress smithsoniancampaign org Archived from the original on February 10 2018 McGlone Peggy July 6 2017 Saving America s treasures The Smithsonian used Kickstarter to raise money for Neil Armstrong s spacesuit and Dorothy s ruby slippers Was it worth it The Washington Post Archived from the original on November 7 2017 Retrieved January 20 2018 Bowley Graham October 19 2016 Smithsonian Seeks 300 000 to Save Dorothy s Ruby Slippers The New York Times Archived from the original on December 26 2016 Retrieved October 14 2017 a b c d Facts about the Smithsonian Institution Archived November 1 2010 at the Wayback Machine newsdesk si edu Pressroom of the Smithsonian Institution Retrieved February 19 2011 Maps and Directions The Smithsonian Institution Retrieved February 21 2011 Mission and History Anacostia Community Museum Retrieved December 6 2009 a b History of the Galleries Archived March 20 2009 at the Wayback Machine Freer and Sackler Galleries Retrieved December 6 2009 Arts and Industries Building The Smithsonian Institution Retrieved December 26 2015 About The Museum Archived March 10 2009 at the Wayback Machine Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum Retrieved December 6 2009 History of the Hirshhorn Archived September 28 2008 at the Wayback Machine Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Retrieved December 6 2009 National Air and Space Museum Chronology Archived July 26 2012 at WebCite National Air and Space Museum Retrieved December 6 2009 Steven F Udvar Hazy Center National Air and Space Museum Retrieved February 25 2010 About Us Archived March 26 2009 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of African American History and Culture Retrieved February 25 2010 Building The Museum Overview National Museum of African American History and Culture Retrieved January 10 2010 Brenson Michael September 8 1987 Beneath Smithsonian Debut for 2 Museums The New York Times Retrieved December 29 2009 Mission and History National Museum of American History Retrieved February 14 2018 a b About the National Museum of the American Indian Archived February 6 2010 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the American Indian Retrieved February 25 2010 20 000 American Indians March at National Museum Opening National Geographic News September 21 2004 Retrieved December 29 2009 Visitor Information New York NY Archived April 13 2009 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the American Indian Retrieved December 29 2009 A Brief History National Museum of Natural History Museum History Retrieved February 21 2011 Visiting the Museum A Brief Overview History with Personality National Portrait Gallery Retrieved February 25 2010 Visiting the Museum Building Chronology National Portrait Gallery Retrieved December 29 2009 History of the Smithsonian National Postal Museum Archived April 22 2012 at WebCite National Postal Museum Retrieved December 29 2009 a b About the American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery History of the Museum Collection Archived August 20 2014 at the Wayback Machine Smithsonian American Art Museum Retrieved December 29 2009 Smithsonian Institution Building The Castle Smithsonian Institution Retrieved February 21 2011 History of the National Zoo National Zoological Park Retrieved December 29 2009 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service SITES Archived November 10 2017 at the Wayback Machine Smithsonian considers London outpost in Olympic Park BBC News January 27 2015 Archived from the original on January 28 2015 Smithsonian Collections Smithsonian Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on December 4 2015 Retrieved June 28 2019 Smithsonian Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original on June 14 2017 Retrieved June 28 2019 The First Ladies at the Smithsonian The Tradition of the Gowns page 1 of 3 The National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution April 4 2012 Archived from the original on March 8 2017 Retrieved March 8 2017 The First Ladies at the Smithsonian The First Ladies Introduction The National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution April 4 2012 Archived from the original on March 1 2017 Retrieved March 8 2017 Clay Marianne 2002 The History of the Teddy Bear Teddy Bear amp Friends Madavor Media LLC Archived from the original on July 23 2011 Retrieved December 10 2007 Smithsonian Sets Phasers To Restore On Original Starship Enterprise Morning Edition NPR National Public Radio June 28 2016 Archived from the original on July 1 2016 Retrieved July 1 2016 Open Access FAQ Smithsonian Institution Retrieved November 14 2020 It is Official the Railroad Museum is Now Recognized as a Smithsonian Affiliate June 5 2017 Retrieved November 21 2018 Roby Marguerite Smithsonian Institution Archives Siarchives si edu Archived from the original on May 14 2012 Retrieved May 16 2012 Smithsonian Latino Center Latino si edu March 16 2009 Archived from the original on May 5 2012 Retrieved May 16 2012 Smithsonian Provenance in the World War II Era 1933 1945 provenance si edu Archived from the original on August 25 2017 Retrieved August 25 2017 Smithsonian Science Education Center ssec si edu July 19 2015 Archived from the original on July 21 2015 Retrieved July 19 2015 Smithsonian reveals its hidden treasures The Washington Times August 16 2007 Archived from the original on October 2 2009 Retrieved September 14 2009 a b About the Center latino si edu Archived from the original on June 2 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 a b c Lara Isabel June 26 2007 Smithsonian Latino Center s Young Ambassadors Arrive for Week of Cultural Programs in Washington D C PDF Smithsonian Institution Archived from the original PDF on February 16 2017 Retrieved May 18 2016 Smithsonian Latino Center Staff latino si edu Archived from the original on June 11 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 a b c Declaration PDF The Washington Post Archived PDF from the original on February 16 2017 Retrieved September 12 2017 Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum latino si edu Archived from the original on May 10 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Young Ambassadors Program latino si edu Archived from the original on May 10 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Con Sabor Washington Life Magazine Substance and Style Issue 2006 Archived from the original on June 16 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Winfrey Carey October 2005 Noxious Bogs amp Amorous Elephants Smithsonian s birth 35 years ago only hinted at the splendors to follow Smithsonian Archived from the original on February 2 2013 D Walker Paul September 23 2010 Truman s Dilemma Invasion Or the Bomb Pelican Publishing ISBN 978 1 4556 1335 9 269 Boyne Walter March 4 2011 How the Helicopter Changed Modern Warfare Pelican Publishing Company Inc ISBN 978 1 4556 1568 1 353 Smithsonian Institution Press Open Library Retrieved November 23 2020 About Smithsonian Books Smithsonian Books Retrieved November 23 2020 About Us Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press Retrieved November 23 2020 Awards and Medals Smithsonian Archived from the original on June 17 2017 Retrieved June 19 2017 a b Stam David H 2001 International Dictionary of Library Histories Volume 1 amp 2 London Routledge p 702 ISBN 978 1 136 77785 1 Archived from the original on April 16 2017 Retrieved September 9 2016 200 billion in Illustrative Savings PDF FiscalCommission gov Archived from the original PDF on November 19 2010 Retrieved July 1 2013 Smithsonian Responds to Deficit Commission s Recommendation on Admission Fees Newsdesk Newsdesk si edu November 12 2010 Archived from the original on November 16 2010 Retrieved November 18 2010 The Smithsonian Board of Regents Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Press Kit Archived from the original on April 7 2010 Cooper Rebecca Smithsonian Chief Will Retire in 2014 Washington Business Journal September 18 2013 Archived September 20 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed September 18 2013 a b Parker Lonnae O Neal Parker and Boyle Katherine Smithsonian Institution Names Cornell President As Its 13th Secretary Washington Post March 10 2014 Archived December 27 2014 at the Wayback Machine Accessed March 10 2014 Dwyer Colin May 28 2019 Lonnie Bunch III Set To Become Smithsonian Institution s 1st Black Secretary NPR Kohn R H 1995 History and the culture wars The case of the Smithsonian Institution s Enola Gay Exhibition The Journal of American History 82 3 1036 1063 doi 10 2307 2945111 JSTOR 2945111 Trescott Jacqueline May 21 2003 Smithsonian s Arctic Refuge Exhibit Draws Senate Scrutiny The Washington Post Archived from the original on April 29 2011 Retrieved May 23 2010 Grimaldi James V Trescott Jacqueline November 16 2007 Scientists Fault Climate Exhibit Changes Washington Post p 4 Archived from the original on April 29 2011 Retrieved November 18 2007 Integrating federal research and solutions for climate and global change Participating Departments and Agencies U S Global Change Research Program Archived from the original on March 10 2010 Retrieved March 30 2010 Terms of use of this website Si edu Archived from the original on July 16 2009 Retrieved July 26 2014 Smithsonian Images Copyright Smithsonianimages si edu January 13 2012 Archived from the original on October 2 2011 Retrieved July 26 2014 Wyatt Edward April 1 2006 Smithsonian Agreement Angers Filmmakers New York Times Archived from the original on May 1 2011 Retrieved May 23 2010 Further reading EditNina Burleigh Stranger and the Statesman James Smithson John Quincy Adams and the Making of America s Greatest Museum The Smithsonian New York HarperCollins 2003 Heather Ewing The Lost World of James Smithson Science Revolution and the Birth of the Smithsonian Bloomsbury 2007 United States Congress House of Representatives Collections Stewardship at the Smithsonian Hearing before the Committee on House Administration House of Representatives One Hundred Thirteenth Congress First Session Washington D C U S Government Printing Office 2013 William S Walker A Living Exhibition The Smithsonian and the Transformation of the Universal Museum Amherst MA University of Massachusetts Press 2013 External links EditSmithsonian Institutionat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Official website A brief history of the U S National Museum National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Open Access nearly 3 million Free images now available video 1 40 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Smithsonian Institution amp oldid 1055116196, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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